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Sample records for australian saltern crystallizer

  1. Environmental genomics of "Haloquadratum walsbyi" in a saltern crystallizer indicates a large pool of accessory genes in an otherwise coherent species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legault, Boris A.; Lopez-Lopez, Arantxa; Alba-Casado, Jose Carlos; Doolittle, W. Ford; Bolhuis, Henk; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Papke, R. Thane

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mature saturated brine (crystallizers) communities are largely dominated (> 80% of cells) by the square halophilic archaeon "Haloquadratum walsbyi". The recent cultivation of the strain HBSQ001 and thesequencing of its genome allows comparison with the metagenome of this taxonomically

  2. Halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes from a marine saltern of Goa, India producing anti-bacterial metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballav, Shuvankar; Kerkar, Savita; Thomas, Sabu; Augustine, Nimmy

    2015-03-01

    Marine salterns are estuarine ecosystems in Goa, receiving inputs from riverine and marine waters. The Salinity fluctuates between 0 and 300 psu which makes it a conducive niche for salt tolerant and salt loving Actinomycetales. Halotolerant and halophilic Actinomycetales producing anti-bacterial metabolites were studied from crystallizer pond sediments of Ribandar saltern, Goa. Three media viz. Starch casein, R2A and Inorganic salt starch agar at four different salinities (35, 50, 75 and 100 psu) were used for isolation. R2A agar at 35 psu was the most preferred by hypersaline actinomycetes. The dominant group was halotolerant Streptomyces spp. others being rare actinomycetes viz. Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora and Kocuria spp. More than 50% of the isolates showed anti-bacterial activity against one or more of the fifteen human pathogens tested. Eight strains from 4 genera showed consistent anti-bacterial activity and studied in detail. Most halotolerant isolates grew from 0 to 75 psu, with optimum antibiotic production at 35 psu whereas halophiles grew at 20 to 100 psu with optimum antibiotic production at 35 psu. Four Streptomyces strains showed multiple inhibition against test organisms while four rare actinomycetes were specific in their inhibitory activity. This is the first report of a halophilic Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and halotolerant Micromonospora sp. producing anti-bacterial compound(s) against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus citreus, and Vibrio cholerae, respectively. Sequential extraction with varying polarity of organic solvents showed that the extracts inhibited different test pathogens. These results suggest that halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes from marine salterns are a potential source of anti-bacterial compounds. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Virioplankton Community Structure in Tunisian Solar Salterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujelben, Ines; Yarza, Pablo; Almansa, Cristina; Villamor, Judith; Maalej, Sami; Santos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The microbial community inhabiting Sfax solar salterns on the east coast of Tunisia has been studied by means of different molecular and culture-dependent tools that have unveiled the presence of novel microbial groups as well as a community structure different from that of other coastal hypersaline environments. We have focused on the study of the viral assemblages of these salterns and their changes along the salinity gradient and over time. Viruses from three ponds (C4, M1, and TS) encompassing salinities from moderately hypersaline to saturated (around 14, 19, and 35%, respectively) were sampled in May and October 2009 and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, for all three October samples and the May TS sample, viral metagenomic DNA was cloned in fosmids, end sequenced, and analyzed. Viral concentration, as well as virus-to-cell ratios, increased along the salinity gradient, with around 1010 virus-like particles (VLPs)/ml in close-to-saturation ponds, which represents the highest viral concentration reported so far for aquatic systems. Four distinct morphologies could be observed with TEM (spherical, tailed, spindled, and filamentous) but with various proportions in the different samples. Metagenomic analyses indicated that every pond harbored a distinct viral assemblage whose G+C content could be roughly correlated with that of the active part of the microbial community that may have constituted the putative hosts. As previously reported for hypersaline metaviromes, most sequences did not have matches in the databases, although some were conserved among the Sfax metaviromes. BLASTx, BLASTp, and dinucleotide frequency analyses indicated that (i) factors additional to salinity could be structuring viral communities and (ii) every metavirome had unique gene contents and dinucleotide frequencies. Comparison with hypersaline metaviromes available in the databases indicated that the viral

  4. Monitoring of uncultured Dunaliella sp. in an Egyptian solar saltern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FJ-USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... salinity, pH, light intensity and temperature. The characterization of economically important algae in solar salterns has become a key focus for many research groups all over the world (Chen and Jiang, 2009). Dunaliella species that are living in these fields, have an economic importance due to its highly ...

  5. Diversity of cultivable halophilic archaea and bacteria from superficial hypersaline sediments of Tunisian solar salterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujelben, Ines; Martínez-García, Manuel; van Pelt, Jos; Maalej, Sami

    2014-10-01

    Prokaryotes in the superficial sediments are ecologically important microorganisms that are responsible for the decomposition, mineralization and subsequent recycling of organic matter. The aim of this study was to explore the phylogenetic and functional diversity of halophilic archaea and bacteria isolated from the superficial sediments of solar salterns at Sfax, Tunisia. Sixty four strains were isolated from crystallizer (TS18) and non-crystallizer (M1) ponds and submitted to genotypic characterization and evaluation by amplified ribosomal RNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) techniques. Our findings revealed that the archaeal diversity observed for 29 isolates generated five distinct patterns from the non-crystallizer M1 pond, with Halorubrum chaoviator as the most prevalent cultivable species. However, in the TS18 crystallizer pond, ten restriction patterns were observed, with the prevalence of haloarchaea EB27K, a not yet identified genotype. The construction of a neighbour-joining tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in the division of the potential new species into two major groups, with four strains closely related to the sequence of the unculturable haloarchaeon EB27K and one strain to the recently described Halovenus aranensis strain. The 35 bacterial strains observed in this work were present only in the non-crystallizer pond (M1) and presented two distinct ARDRA patterns. These strains belonged to the γ-proteobacteria subdivision, with members of Salicola marasensis (83%) being the most predominant species among the isolates. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that Salicola strains displayed different degrees of homogeneity. The results from pulsed field gel electrophoresis assays showed that the Salicola isolates could be clustered in two distinct groups with different genome sizes.

  6. Spatial and seasonal prokaryotic community dynamics in ponds of increasing salinity of Sfax solar saltern in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujelben, Ines; Gomariz, María; Martínez-García, Manuel; Santos, Fernando; Peña, Arantxa; López, Cristina; Antón, Josefa; Maalej, Sami

    2012-05-01

    The spatial and seasonal dynamics of the halophilic prokaryotic community was investigated in five ponds from Sfax solar saltern (Tunisia), covering a salinity gradient ranging from 20 to 36%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that, above 24% salinity, the prokaryotic community shifted from bacterial to archaeal dominance with a remarkable increase in the proportion of detected cells. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were rather similar in all the samples analyzed, except in the lowest salinity pond (around 20% salt) where several specific archaeal and bacterial phylotypes were detected. In spite of previous studies on these salterns, DGGE analysis unveiled the presence of microorganisms not previously described in these ponds, such as Archaea related to Natronomonas or bacteria related to Alkalimnicola, as well as many new sequences of Bacteroidetes. Some phylotypes, such as those related to Haloquadratum or to some Bacteroidetes, displayed a strong dependence of salinity and/or magnesium concentrations, which in the case of Haloquadratum could be related to the presence of ecotypes. Seasonal variability in the prokaryotic community composition was focused on two ponds with the lowest (20%) and the highest salinity (36%). In contrast to the crystallized pond, where comparable profiles between autumn 2007 and summer 2008 were obtained, the non-crystallized pond showed pronounced seasonal changes and a sharp succession of "species" during the year. Canonical correspondence analysis of biological and physicochemical parameters indicated that temperature was a strong factor structuring the prokaryotic community in the non-crystallizer pond, that had salinities ranging from 20 to 23.8% during the year.

  7. Marinilabilia nitratireducens sp. nov., a lipolytic bacterium of the family Marinilabiliaceae isolated from marine solar saltern

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shalley, S.; PradipKumar; Srinivas, T.N.R.; Suresh, K.; AnilKumar, P.

    17679T) was isolated from a marine solar saltern sample collected from Kakinada, India. 8 Acknowledgements We thank Dr. J. Euzeby for his expert suggestion for the correct species epithet and Latin etymology. We also thank Council of Scientific...

  8. The occurrence of an exotic bisexual Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, in two coastal salterns of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Sun, Shichun; Ma, Lin

    2004-10-01

    The alien halophilous Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, was found in Chengkou Saltern and Yangkou Saltern of Shandong Province, P.R. China. Although the indigenous parthenogenetic Artemia is detectable, the exotic species is dominant in both salterns. The cross-breeding tests between the exotic A. franciscana and 5 bisexual Artemia species were conducted. The results of hybridization and morphological observations on the exotic A. franciscana are briefly presented in this short communication.

  9. Metagenomic Sequence of Prokaryotic Microbiota from an Intermediate-Salinity Pond of a Saltern in Isla Cristina, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Ana B.; León, María José; Vera, Blanca; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Marine salterns are artificial multipond systems designed for the commercial production of salt by evaporation of seawater. We report here the metagenomic sequence of the prokaryotic microbiota of a pond with intermediate salinity (21% total salts) of a saltern located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, southwest Spain.

  10. Metagenomic sequence of prokaryotic microbiota from an intermediate-salinity pond of a saltern in isla cristina, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana B; León, María José; Vera, Blanca; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-02-13

    Marine salterns are artificial multipond systems designed for the commercial production of salt by evaporation of seawater. We report here the metagenomic sequence of the prokaryotic microbiota of a pond with intermediate salinity (21% total salts) of a saltern located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, southwest Spain.

  11. Antagonistic interactions and production of halocin antimicrobial peptides among extremely halophilic prokaryotes isolated from the solar saltern of Sfax, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanmi, Fadoua; Carré-Mlouka, Alyssa; Vandervennet, Manon; Boujelben, Ines; Frikha, Doniez; Ayadi, Habib; Peduzzi, Jean; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Maalej, Sami

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five extremely halophilic microbial strains isolated from crystallizer (TS18) and non-crystallizer (M1) ponds in the Sfax solar saltern in Tunisia were examined for their ability to exert antimicrobial activity. Antagonistic assays resulted in the selection of eleven strains that displayed such antimicrobial activity and they were further characterized. Three cases of cross-domain inhibition (archaea/bacteria or bacteria/archaea) were observed. Four archaeal strains exerted antimicrobial activity against several other strains. Three strains, for which several lines of evidence suggested the antimicrobial activity was, at least in part, due to peptide/protein agents (Halobacterium salinarum ETD5, Hbt. salinarum ETD8, and Haloterrigena thermotolerans SS1R12), were studied further. Optimal culture conditions for growth and antimicrobial production were determined. Using DNA amplification with specific primers, sequencing and RT-PCR analysis, Hbt. salinarum ETD5 and Hbt. salinarum ETD8 were shown to encode and express halocin S8, a hydrophobic antimicrobial peptide targeting halophilic archaea. Although the gene encoding halocin H4 was amplified from the genome of Htg. thermotolerans SS1R12, no transcript could be detected and the antimicrobial activity was most likely due to multiple antimicrobial compounds. This is also the first report that points to four different strains isolated from different geographical locations with the capacity to produce identical halocin S8 proteins.

  12. Characterization of heterotrophic prokaryote subgroups in the Sfax coastal solar salterns by combining flow cytometry cell sorting and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigui, Hana; Masmoudi, Salma; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Barani, Aude; Grégori, Gérald; Denis, Michel; Dukan, Sam; Maalej, Sami

    2011-05-01

    Here, we combined flow cytometry (FCM) and phylogenetic analyses after cell sorting to characterize the dominant groups of the prokaryotic assemblages inhabiting two ponds of increasing salinity: a crystallizer pond (TS) with a salinity of 390 g/L, and the non-crystallizer pond (M1) with a salinity of 200 g/L retrieved from the solar saltern of Sfax in Tunisia. As expected, FCM analysis enabled the resolution of high nucleic acid content (HNA) and low nucleic acid content (LNA) prokaryotes. Next, we performed a taxonomic analysis of the bacterial and archaeal communities comprising the two most populated clusters by phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone library. We show for the first time that the presence of HNA and LNA content cells could also be extended to the archaeal populations. Archaea were detected in all M1 and TS samples, whereas representatives of Bacteria were detected only in LNA for M1 and HNA for TS. Although most of the archaeal sequences remained undetermined, other clones were most frequently affiliated to Haloquadratum and Halorubrum. In contrast, most bacterial clones belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria class (Phyllobacterium genus) in M1 samples and to the Bacteroidetes phylum (Sphingobacteria and Salinibacter genus) in TS samples.

  13. Diversity of cyanobacteria in man-made solar saltern, Petchaburi Province, Thailand - a pilot study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatchawan, T.; Peerapornpisal, Y.; Komárek, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), 203-214 ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biodiversity of cyanobacteria * solar salterns * Thailand Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.327, year: 2011

  14. Comparison of prokaryotic community structure from Mediterranean and Atlantic saltern concentrator ponds by a metagenomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz eFernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the prokaryotic community structure of a saltern pond with 21 % total salts located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, Southwest Spain, close to the Atlantic ocean coast. For this purpose, we constructed a metagenome (designated as IC21 obtained by pyrosequencing consisting of 486 Mb with an average read length of 397 bp and compared it with other metagenomic datasets obtained from ponds with 19, 33 and 37 % total salts acquired from Santa Pola marine saltern, located in Alicante, East Spain, on the Mediterranean coast. Although the salinity in IC21 is closer to the pond with 19 % total salts from Santa Pola saltern (designated as SS19, IC21 is more similar at higher taxonomic levels to the pond with 33 % total salts from Santa Pola saltern (designated as SS33, since both are predominated by the phylum Euryarchaeota. However, there are significant differences at lower taxonomic levels where most sequences were related to the genus Halorubrum in IC21 and to Haloquadratum in SS33. Within the Bacteroidetes, the genus Psychroflexus is the most abundant in IC21 while Salinibacter dominates in SS33. Sequences related to bacteriorhodopsins and halorhodopsins correlate with the abundance of Haloquadratum in Santa Pola SS19 to SS33 and of Halorubrum in Isla Cristina IC21 dataset, respectively. Differences in composition might be attributed to local ecological conditions since IC21 showed a decrease in the number of sequences related to the synthesis of compatible solutes and in the utilization of phosphonate.

  15. Single-crystal neutron diffraction at the Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klooster, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to: identify the future needs and opportunities for single-crystal neutron diffraction, and specify instrument requirements. important number of experiments. The conclusion of the workshop deliberation was that Australia has a diverse community of users of single-crystal neutron diffraction. A (quasi)-Laue image-plate diffractometer allows the fastest throughput by far, but would exclude an important number of experiments. Most of these could be covered by the additional possibility to locate the image-plate detector on a monochromatic beam. Therefore it was recommend both a white thermal beam and a monochromatic beam (λ= 1 to 2.4 Angstroms) for an image-plate detector. At little additional cost the existing 2TanA instrument could be located semi-permanently on the same monochromatic beam, thus offering three quite different types of single-crystal instruments. Small improvements could be made to the 2TanA instrument to cater for the remaining experiments not suited to an image-plate diffractometer: exchange of the Eulerian cradle for an automated tilt goniometer for extremely bulky sample environment (cryomagnets, large pressure cells), optional larger area detector, analyser crystal. It was recommended that an Instrument Advisory Team will be assembled, and will help in specifying, designing and commissioning the instrument

  16. Extremely Halotolerant and Halophilic Fungi Inhabit Brine in Solar Salterns Around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Zalar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time halotolerant and halophilic fungi have been known exclusively as contaminants of food preserved with high concentrations of either salt or sugar. They were first reported in 2000 to be active inhabitants of hypersaline environments, when they were found in man-made solar salterns in Slovenia. Since then, they have been described in different salterns and salt lakes on three continents. The mycobiota that inhabit these natural hypersaline environments are composed of phylogenetically unrelated halotolerant, extremely halotolerant, and halophilic fungi, which are represented not only by species previously known only as food contaminants, but also by new and rare species. The dominant representatives are different species of black yeast-like and related melanized fungi of the genus Cladosporium, different species within the anamorphic Aspergillus and Penicillium, and the teleomorphic Emericella and Eurotium, certain species of non-melanized yeasts, and Wallemia spp. Until the discovery and description of indigenous saltern mycobiota, the physiological and molecular mechanisms related to salt tolerance in eukaryotic microorganisms were studied using salt-sensitive model organisms. The most studied eukaryotic microorganism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which cannot adapt to hypersaline conditions. Species like Debaryomyces hansenii, Aureobasidum pullulans, Hortaea werneckii and Wallemia ichthyophaga, which have now been isolated globally from natural hypersaline environments, represent more suitable model organisms for the study of halotolerance in eukaryotes. Such studies in these species, and particularly with the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii and obligately halophilic W. ichthyophaga have continued to unravel the different strategies that these microorganisms can use to cope with the problems of ion toxicity and low water activity. The focus of this review is to present the main species of fungi inhabiting solar salterns

  17. Interaction of Extreme Halophilic Archaea With the Evaporites of the Solar Salterns Guerrero Negro Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, P.; Lopez-Cortés, A.

    2008-12-01

    Hypersaline environments have been significant reservoirs for the long-term evolution of specifically adapted microorganisms. Characterized to have higher salt concentrations (up to 35 g/L), they are worldwide distributed and have a commercial significance. Exportadora de Sal, Guerrero Negro, Mexico has a multipond salterns system designed to harvest common salt (NaCl) from sea water. To achieve this purpose, sea water is pumped through a set of shallow ponds where water evaporates and salts concentrate. Sequential precipitation of CaCO3, CaSO4 2H2O and NaCl occurs in a mineral formations call it evaporites. In the interior of those gypsum-encrusted and halite-encrusted minerals, communities of extremely salt-loving archaea prosper. Previous studies have showed the influence of Haloarchaeal cells in the formation of larger fluid inclusions than crystals formed in sterile salt solutions. S-layer envelopes and cells of Haloarcula strain SP8807 contributed to the nucleation of new crystals of NaCl. Given the significance of the scope in phylogenetic archaeal diversity research, this study had a polyphasic approach. SEM micrographs from a 21- 31% (w/v) gradient salt multipond system evaporites, gave an insight profile of the extreme halophilic archaeal communities thriving in the surface of the gypsum and halite evaporites. Halite crystals were form after 21 days of incubation in solid medium with archaeal cells. Both culture and non-culture dependent methods, Nested-PCR-DGGE analysis and sequencing of 16S rDNA amplified fragment genes from environmental samples and isolated strains were used for this purpose. We isolate three strains from Pond 9 (21.07% total salt concentration) and one strain from Cristallizer 20 (25.15% total salt concentration). 16S rDNA signaling gave 99% of similarity with Halogeometricum borinquense, sequence AF002984, two other strains were 99% of similarity with Halobacterium salinarum, sequence AJ496185 these strains shown different colony

  18. The genus Eurotium - members of indigenous fungal community in hypersaline waters of salterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butinar, Lorena; Zalar, Polona; Frisvad, Jens C; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2005-01-01

    Six different species of the known teleomorphic food-borne xerophilic genus Eurotium were repeatedly isolated in a mycodiversity study of hypersaline waters. At salinities above 17% NaCl, E. amstelodami was detected most consistently, followed by E. repens and E. herbariorum, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and a potentially new species, "Eurotium halotolerans", were detected only occasionally at lower salinities. The qualitative secondary metabolite profiles produced by Eurotium spp. from salterns were not different from those of Eurotium spp. from foods and other habitats. Spatiotemporal frequency of occurrence and in vitro determined adaptive ability of propagules to survive prolonged exposure to hypersaline conditions indicate that E. amstelodami, E. herbariorum, and E. repens contribute to the indigenous fungal community in hypersaline water environments, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and "E. halotolerans" are only temporal inhabitants of brine at lower salinities.

  19. Patterns of microbial diversity along a salinity gradient in the Guerrero Negro solar saltern, Baja CA Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse G Dillon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to use environmental sequencing of 16S rRNA and bop genes to compare the diversity of planktonic bacteria and archaea across ponds with increasing salinity in the Exportadora de Sal (ESSA evaporative saltern in Guerrero Negro, Baja CA S., Mexico. We hypothesized that diverse communities of heterotrophic bacteria and archaea would be found in the ESSA ponds, but that bacterial diversity would decrease relative to archaea at the highest salinities. Archaeal 16S rRNA diversity was higher in Ponds 11 and 12 (370 & 380 g l-1 total salts respectively compared to Pond 9 (180 g l-1 total salts. Both Pond 11 and 12 communities had high representation (47 and 45% of clones respectively by Haloquadratum walsbyi-like (99% similarity lineages. The archaeal community in Pond 9 was dominated (79% by a single uncultured phylotype with 99% similarity to sequences recovered from the Sfax saltern in Tunisia. This pattern was mirrored in bop gene diversity with greater numbers of highly supported phylotypes including many Haloquadratum-like sequences from the two highest salinity ponds. In Pond 9, most bop sequences, were not closely related to sequences in databases. Bacterial 16S rRNA diversity was higher than archaeal in both Pond 9 and Pond 12 samples, but not Pond 11, where a non-Salinibacter lineage within the Bacteroidetes >98% similar to environmental clones recovered from Lake Tuz in Turkey and a saltern in Chula Vista, CA was most abundant (69% of community. This OTU was also the most abundant in Pond 12, but only represented 14% of clones in the more diverse pond. The most abundant OTU in Pond 9 (33% of community was 99% similar to an uncultured gammaproteobacterial clone from the Salton Sea. Results suggest that the communities of saltern bacteria and archaea vary even in ponds with similar salinity and further investigation into the ecology of diverse, uncultured halophile communities is warranted.

  20. Patterns of microbial diversity along a salinity gradient in the Guerrero Negro solar saltern, Baja CA Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Carlin, Mark; Gutierrez, Abraham; Nguyen, Vivian; McLain, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use environmental sequencing of 16S rRNA and bop genes to compare the diversity of planktonic bacteria and archaea across ponds with increasing salinity in the Exportadora de Sal (ESSA) evaporative saltern in Guerrero Negro, Baja CA S., Mexico. We hypothesized that diverse communities of heterotrophic bacteria and archaea would be found in the ESSA ponds, but that bacterial diversity would decrease relative to archaea at the highest salinities. Archaeal 16S rRNA diversity was higher in Ponds 11 and 12 (370 and 380 g l(-1) total salts, respectively) compared to Pond 9 (180 g l(-1) total salts). Both Pond 11 and 12 communities had high representation (47 and 45% of clones, respectively) by Haloquadratum walsbyi-like (99% similarity) lineages. The archaeal community in Pond 9 was dominated (79%) by a single uncultured phylotype with 99% similarity to sequences recovered from the Sfax saltern in Tunisia. This pattern was mirrored in bop gene diversity with greater numbers of highly supported phylotypes including many Haloquadratum-like sequences from the two highest salinity ponds. In Pond 9, most bop sequences, were not closely related to sequences in databases. Bacterial 16S rRNA diversity was higher than archaeal in both Pond 9 and Pond 12 samples, but not Pond 11, where a non-Salinibacter lineage within the Bacteroidetes >98% similar to environmental clones recovered from Lake Tuz in Turkey and a saltern in Chula Vista, CA was most abundant (69% of community). This OTU was also the most abundant in Pond 12, but only represented 14% of clones in the more diverse pond. The most abundant OTU in Pond 9 (33% of community) was 99% similar to an uncultured gammaproteobacterial clone from the Salton Sea. Results suggest that the communities of saltern bacteria and archaea vary even in ponds with similar salinity and further investigation into the ecology of diverse, uncultured halophile communities is warranted.

  1. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  2. Isolation and characterization from solar salterns of North Algeria of a haloarchaeon producing a new halocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazguene, Souhila; Rossi, Mosè; Gogliettino, Marta; Palmieri, Gianna; Cocca, Ennio; Mirino, Sara; Imadalou-Idres, Nacera; Benallaoua, Said

    2018-03-01

    Halophilic archaea, thriving in hypersaline environments, synthesize antimicrobial substances with an unknown role, called halocins. It has been suggested that halocin production gives transient competitive advantages to the producer strains and represents one of the environmental factors influencing the microbial community composition. Herein, we report on the antibacterial activity of a new haloarchaeon selected from solar salterns of the northern coast of Algeria. A total of 81 halophilic strains, isolated from the microbial consortia, were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds by interspecies competition test and against a collection of commercial haloarchaea. On the basis of the partial 16S rRNA sequencing, the most efficient halocin producer was recognized as belonging to Haloferax (Hfx) sp., while the best indicator microorganism, showing high sensitivity toward halocin, was related to Haloarcula genus. The main morphological, physiological and biochemical properties of Hfx were investigated and a partial purification of the produced halocin was allowed to identify it as a surface membrane protein with a molecular mass between 30 and 40 kDa. Therefore, in this study, we isolated a new strain belonging to Haloferax genus and producing a promising antimicrobial compound useful for applications in health and food industries.

  3. Heavy Metal Detoxification by Different Bacillus Species Isolated from Solar Salterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shameer; Chinthala, Paramageetham

    2015-01-01

    The biosorption mechanism is an alternative for chemical precipitation and ultrafiltration which have been employed to treat heavy metal contamination with a limited success. In the present study, three species of Bacillus which were isolated from solar salterns were screened for their detoxification potential of the heavy metals, lead, chromium, and copper, by biosorption. Biosorption potential of each isolate was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) as the amount of metal present in the medium after the treatment with the isolates. Bacterial isolates, Bacillus licheniformis NSPA5, Bacillus cereus NSPA8, and Bacillus subtilis NSPA13, showed significant level of lead biosorption with maximum of 87–90% by Bacillus cereus NSPA8. The biosorption of copper and chromium was relatively low in comparison with lead. With the obtained results, we have concluded that the bacterial isolates are potential agents to treat metal contamination in more efficient and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26525498

  4. Heavy Metal Detoxification by Different Bacillus Species Isolated from Solar Salterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameer Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption mechanism is an alternative for chemical precipitation and ultrafiltration which have been employed to treat heavy metal contamination with a limited success. In the present study, three species of Bacillus which were isolated from solar salterns were screened for their detoxification potential of the heavy metals, lead, chromium, and copper, by biosorption. Biosorption potential of each isolate was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS as the amount of metal present in the medium after the treatment with the isolates. Bacterial isolates, Bacillus licheniformis NSPA5, Bacillus cereus NSPA8, and Bacillus subtilis NSPA13, showed significant level of lead biosorption with maximum of 87–90% by Bacillus cereus NSPA8. The biosorption of copper and chromium was relatively low in comparison with lead. With the obtained results, we have concluded that the bacterial isolates are potential agents to treat metal contamination in more efficient and ecofriendly manner.

  5. Xerophilic fungal genus Wallemia: Bioactive inhabitants of marine solar salterns and salty food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajc Janja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wallemia is a genus of cosmopolitan xerophilic fungi, frequently involved in food spoilage of particularly sweet, salty, and dried food. Until recently, only a single species, Wallemia sebi, was recognized in the genus. When a large group of strains globally collected in salterns and other different ecological niches was analyzed on the level of physiological, morphological and molecular characteristics, a new basidiomycetous class, Wallemiomycetes, covering an order of Wallemiales was proposed and three Wallemia species were recognized: W. ichthyophaga, W. sebi and W. muriae. Wallemia ichthyophaga was recognized as the most halophilic eukaryote known, thus representing an appropriate eukaryotic model for in depth studies of adaptation to hypersaline conditions. Our preliminary studies indicated that all three Wallemia species synthesized a yet undescribed haemolytic compound under, surprisingly, low water activity conditions. Due to the taxonomic status w hich was unrevealed only recently, there were so far no reports on the production of any bioactive compounds by the three newly described species. The article aims to present the taxonomy, ecology, physiology and so far described molecular mechanisms of adaptations to life at low water activity, as well as bioactive potential of the genus Wallemia, a phylogenetically ancient taxon and a taxonomic maverick within Basidiomycota.

  6. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  7. Composition changes of phototrophic microbial communities along the salinity gradient in the solar saltern evaporation ponds of Eilat, Israel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řeháková, Klára; Zapomělová, Eliška; Prášil, Ondřej; Veselá, J.; Medová, Hana; Oren, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 636, č. 1 (2009), s. 77-88 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0462; GA AV ČR KJB600960703; GA AV ČR 1QS600170504; GA AV ČR 1QS500200570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : phototrophic microbial community * salterns * species composition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.754, year: 2009

  8. Distribution of benthic phototrophs, sulfate reducers, and methanogens in two adjacent saltern evaporation ponds in Eilat, Israel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sørensen, K.; Řeháková, Klára; Zapomělová, Eliška; Oren, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, 2-3 (2009), s. 275-284 ISSN 0948-3055. [GAP workshop /8./. Eilat, 30.03.2008-08.04.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/0462; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960703; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : salterns * microbial community * molecular ecology * phototrohs * sulfate reducers * methanogens Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2009

  9. Biochemical adaptation of phytoplankton to salinity and nutrient gradients in a coastal solar saltern, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Olfa; Sellami-Kammoun, Alya; Ayadi, Habib; Drira, Zaher; Bouain, Abderrahmen; Aleya, Lotfi

    2008-11-01

    The distribution of protein and carbohydrate concentrations of the particulate matter (size fraction: 0.45-160 μm) was studied, from 22 January 2003 to 02 December 2003, in three ponds of increasing salinity in the Sfax solar saltern (Tunisia). The coupling of N/P: DIN (DIN = NO 2- + NO 3- + NH 4+) to DIP (DIP = PO 43-) with P/C: protein/carbohydrates ratios along salinity gradient allowed the discrimination of three types of ecosystems. Pond A1 (mean salinity: 45.0 ± 5.4) having marine characteristics showed enhanced P/C ratios during a diatom bloom. N/P and P/C ratios were closely coupled throughout the sampling period, suggesting that the nutritional status is important in determining the seasonal change in the phytoplankton community in pond A1. In pond A16 (mean salinity: 78.7 ± 8.8), despite the high nitrate load, P/C ratios were overall lower than in pond A1. This may be explained by the fact that dinoflagellates, which were the most abundant phytoplankton in pond A16 might be strict heterotrophs and/or mixotrophs, and so they may have not contributed strongly to anabolic processes. Also, N/P and P/C ratios were uncoupled, suggesting that cells in pond A16 were stressed due to the increased salinity caused by water evaporation, and so cells synthesized reserve products such as carbohydrates. In pond M2 (mean salinity: 189.0 ± 13.8), P/C levels were higher than those recorded in either pond A1 or A16. N/P and P/C were more coupled than in pond A16. Species in the hypersaline pond seemed paradoxally less stressed than in pond A16, suggesting that salt-tolerant extremophile species overcome hypersaline constraints and react metabolically by synthesizing carbohydrates and proteins.

  10. Halomonas rifensis sp. nov., an exopolysaccharide-producing, halophilic bacterium isolated from a solar saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjres, Hakima; Béjar, Victoria; Quesada, Emilia; Abrini, Jamal; Llamas, Inmaculada

    2011-11-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was conducted on strain HK31(T), a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a solar saltern in Chefchaouen, Morocco. The strain was a Gram-reaction-negative, oxidase-positive rod, which was motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The strain required NaCl for growth and grew in salt concentrations (mixture of sea salts) of 0.5-20 % (w/v) (optimum 5-7.5 %, w/v), at 25-45 °C (optimum 32 °C) and at pH 5-10 (optimum pH 6-9). Strain HK31(T) did not produce acids from sugars and its metabolism was respiratory, using oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. The strain was positive for the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate granules and formed mucoid colonies due to the excretion of an exopolysaccharide. The DNA G+C content was 61.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that it belonged to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most phylogenetically related species was Halomonas anticariensis, with which strain HK31(T) showed a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.48 %. Its major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(16 : 0), C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c, C(16 : 1)ω7c/iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and C(12 : 0) 3-OH and the predominant respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone with nine isoprene units (Q-9). Based on the evidence provided in this study, strain HK31(T) (= CECT 7698(T) = LMG 25695(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas rifensis is proposed.

  11. Halomonas indalinina sp.nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a solar saltern in Cabo de Gata, Al,eria, southern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, A.; Aguilera, M.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Incerti, C.; Russell, N.J.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.

    2007-01-01

    moderately halophilic bacterium, strain CG2.1T, isolated from a solar saltern at Cabo de Gata, a wildlife reserve located in the province of Almería, southern Spain, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. This organism was an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative rod that produced orange-pigmented

  12. Halobellus inordinatus sp. nov., from a marine solar saltern and an inland salt lake of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xing-Xing; Mou, Yun-Zhuang; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Han, Dong; Ren, Min; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2013-11-01

    Two halophilic archaeal strains, YC20(T) and XD15, were isolated from a marine solar saltern and an inland salt lake in China. Both had pleomorphic cells that lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. They were neutrophilic, requiring at least 100 g NaCl l(-1) and 0.5-95 g MgCl2 l(-1) for growth at the optimum growth temperature of 37 °C. The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS) and two major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1) and mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), respectively. Trace amounts of two unidentified glycolipids were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 99.5 % identical and showed 94.0-95.9 % similarity to the most closely related members of the genus Halobellus of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB' gene sequence similarity between strains YC20(T) and XD15 was 98.2 % and these sequences showed 89.6-92.8 % similarity to those of the most closely related members of the genus Halobellus. The DNA G+C contents of strains YC20(T) and XD15 were 65.8 mol% and 65.4 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YC20(T) and strain XD15 was 92 %, and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness to members of the genus Halobellus. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains YC20(T) and XD15 represent a novel species of the genus Halobellus, for which the name Halobellus inordinatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC20(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12120(T) = JCM 18361(T)) and the other strain is XD15 ( = CGMCC 1.12236 = JCM 18648).

  13. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  14. Biofilm-associated indole acetic acid producing bacteria and their impact in the proliferation of biofilm mats in solar salterns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, S.; Raiker, L.; Tiwari, A.; Mayilraj, S.; Dastager, S.

    ., yeast extract 1.0 g., ferric chloride 0.1 g., sodium chloride 19.45 g., magnesium chloride 8.8 g., sodium sulphate 3.24 g., calcium chloride 1.8 g., potassium chloride 0.55 g., sodium sulphate 3.24 g., potassium bromide 0.88 g., sodium bicarbonate 0....16 g., strontium chloride 0.034 g., boric acid 0.022 g., sodium silicate 0.004 g., sodium fluoride 0.0024 g., ammonium nitrate 0.0016 g., disodium phosphate 0.008 g., agar 2.0 g., saltern water 1 L, pH 7.6 ± 0.2) and nutrient agar (NA) plates...

  15. Characterization of Halorubrum sfaxense sp. nov., a New Halophilic Archaeon Isolated from the Solar Saltern of Sfax in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigui, Hana; Masmoudi, Salma; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Maalej, Sami; Dukan, Sam

    2011-01-01

    An extremely halophilic archaeon, strain ETD6, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Sfax, Tunisia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Halorubrum among the family Halobacteriaceae, with a close relationship to Hrr. xinjiangense (99.77% of identity). However, value for DNA-DNA hybridization between strain ETD6 and Hrr.xinjiangense were about 24.5%. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 65.1 mol% (T(m)). Strain ETD6 grew in 15-35% (w/v) NaCl. The temperature and pH ranges for growth were 20-55°C and 6-9, respectively. Optimal growth occurred at 25% NaCl, 37°C, and pH 7.4. The results of the DNA hybridization against Hrr. xinjiangense and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain ETD6 from other Hrr. species. Therefore, strain ETD6 represents a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Hrr. sfaxense sp. nov. is proposed. The Genbank EMBL-EBI accession number is GU724599.

  16. Use of a mixed culture strategy to isolate halophilic bacteria with antibacterial and cytotoxic activity from the Manaure solar saltern in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Martínez, Natalia; Acosta-González, Alejandro; Díaz, Luis E; Tello, Edisson

    2017-12-08

    Water evaporation in solar salterns creates salinity gradients that promote the adaptation of microbial species to different salinities. This competitive habitat challenges the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms and promotes alterations in their production of secondary metabolites. Thus, solar salterns are a potentially important source of new natural products. In Colombia, the most important and representative solar saltern is located in Manaure (La Guajira) in the north of Colombia. The aim of this study was to develop an alternative screening strategy to select halophilic bacteria as producers of bioactive compounds from mixed microbial cultures rather than individual environmental isolates. Brine and sediment samples from different ponds (across a salinity gradient) were inoculated in seven different culture media to grow bacteria and archaea, allowing for a total of 40 different mixed cultures. An organic extract from each mixed culture was obtained and tested against multidrug resistant pathogens, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In addition, the extracts were tested against two human cancer cell lines, cervical adenocarcinoma (SiHa) and lung carcinoma (A-549). Twenty-four of the forty extracts from mixed cultures obtained from brine and sediment samples from the Manaure solar saltern showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. Two extracts, referred to as A1SM3-29 and A1SM3-36, were also active against a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with the latter extract also showing slight cytotoxic activity against the assayed human lung cancer cell line. From this mixed culture, nine isolates were cultivated, and their extracts were tested against the same pathogens, resulting in the identification of a Vibrio sp. strain (A1SM3-36-8) with antimicrobial activity that was similar to that observed for the mixed culture extract

  17. Planococcus salinarum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern, and emended description of the genus Planococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Soo-Young; Oh, Ki-Hoon; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2010-04-01

    A Gram-positive, non-motile and coccoid-, short rod- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, ISL-16(T), was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain ISL-16(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 30 degrees C and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ISL-16(T) joined the cluster comprising species of the genus Planococcus. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence contained the same signature nucleotides as those defined for the genus Planococcus. Strain ISL-16(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.9-98.2 % to the type strains of species of the genus Planococcus. Strain ISL-16(T) contained MK-8 and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinones and anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 48.3 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ISL-16(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Planococcus were 15-28 %. Differential phenotypic properties, together with its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, enabled strain ISL-16(T) to be differentiated from recognized species of the genus Planococcus. On the basis of the data presented, strain ISL-16(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Planococcus, for which the name Planococcus salinarum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ISL-16(T) (=KCTC 13584(T)=CCUG 57753(T)). An emended description of the genus Planococcus is also given.

  18. Biological and physical modification of carbonate system parameters along the salinity gradient in shallow hypersaline solar salterns in Trapani, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Kuroda, Junichiro; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Suzuki, Atsushi; Shibuya, Takazo; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Lugli, Stefano; Santulli, Andrea; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2017-07-01

    We investigated changes in the chemical characteristics of evaporating seawater under the influence of microbial activity by conducting geochemical analyses of the brines and evaporite sediments collected from solar salterns in Trapani, Italy. The microbial activity had a substantial effect on the carbonate system parameters. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was substantially removed from the brine during the course of evaporation from the seawater to the point where calcium carbonate precipitates, with an accompanying decrease in its carbon isotopic composition (δ13CDIC) to as low as -10.6‰. Although the removal of DIC was due to calcium carbonate precipitation, photosynthesis, and the degassing of CO2(aq) induced by evaporation, the presence of 13C-depleted δ13CDIC in ponds where calcium carbonate precipitates can be attributed to the dissolution of atmospheric CO2 because of intensive CO2(aq) uptake by photosynthesis, and/or mineralization of organic matter by sulfate reduction. In contrast, δ13CDIC increased up to 7.2‰ in the salinity range where halite precipitates, which can be ascribed to the domination of the effect of degassing of CO2(aq) under conditions with reduced microbial activity. A gradual decrease in microbial activity was also reflected in compound-specific δ13C of photosynthetic pigments; isotopic fractionation associated with DIC assimilation increased linearly as the evaporation proceeded, indicating DIC-limited conditions within the microbial mats and gypsum crusts because of restricted DIC diffusion from the overlying brine and/or suppression of primary production at higher salinity.

  19. Communities structure of the planktonic halophiles in the solar saltern of Sfax, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Jannet; Carrias, Jean-François; Ayadi, Habib; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Bouaïn, Abderrahmen

    2009-01-01

    The composition and distribution of the main planktonic halophilic micro-organisms (heterotrophic and autotrophic picoplankton, nanoplankton, phytoplankton, ciliates) and metazooplankton were investigated in six ponds of increasing salinity in the solar salt works of Sfax, Tunisia, from January to December 2003. Marked changes in the composition and biomass of the communities were found along the salinity gradient, especially at salinities of 150 and 350. Autotrophic picoplankton, nanoplankton, diatoms, dinoflagellates and ciliates characterized the less salted ponds. Planktonic biomass was the highest at intermediate salinity as a consequence of a bloom of Ochromonas. Species richness of phytoplankton, ciliates and zooplankton greatly decrease above a salinity of 150 and typical halophiles ( Dunaliella salina, cyanobacteria, Fabrea salina and Artemia salina) were found between 150 and 350 salinity. In this environment, F. salina appeared more adapted than the brine shrimp to survive during phytoplankton blooms. The halophilic plankton was however almost entirely composed of heterotrophic prokaryotes in the crystallizers. We thus observed a progressive disappearance of the autotrophic planktonic communities along the salinity gradient. Multivariate analysis of the communities provides evidence that ponds represent discrete aquatic ecosystems within this salt works.

  20. Distinctive Accessory Minerals, Textures and Crystal Habits in Biofilm Associated Gypsum Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.; Parenteau, M.

    2008-12-01

    Gypsum-depositing environments near Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico were investigated in order to differentiate the influence of microbial activity versus nonbiological processes upon sedimentary fabrics and minerals. Field sites were located in sabkhas (mudflats and anchialine pools) and in seawater concentration ponds in the salt production facility operated by Exportadora de Sal, S. A. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) was classified according to sedimentary environment (e.g., mudflats, anchialine pools, saltern ponds, surface and subsurface sediments), sedimentary texture, mineral composition, crystal habit, brine composition and other geochemical and biological factors. Gypsum types that develop in the absence of biofilms include water column precipitates (pelagic grains) and subsedimentary crystalline discs that form from phreatic brine ripening. Subsedimentary gypsum forming in sabkha environments had a sinuous axial microtexture and poikilitically enclosed detrital particles whereas water column precipitates exhibited euhedral prismatic habits and extensive penetrative twinning. Gypsum that was influenced by biofilms included cumulate crusts and gypsooids / gypsolite developing in anchialine pools and in saltern concentration ponds. Gypsum precipitating within subaqueous benthic microbial mats, or biofilm/sediment surfaces offered compelling evidence of biofilm influence on crystal textures and habits. Biofilm effects include irregular high relief surface textures, accessory minerals (elemental sulfur, Ca-carbonate, Sr/Ca-sulfate, Mg-oxide and Mg- sulfate) and distinctive crystal habits. Elemental sulfur, Ca-carbonate, and Sr/Ca-sulfate are known byproducts of bacterially mediated sulfate reduction (BSR). Populations of gypsum crystals within biofilms exhibited euhedral to lensoidal morphologies with unique equant and distorted prismatic forms. These forms had been shown to arise from form- and face-specific inhibition by bioorganic functional groups (Cody

  1. Draft genome of Haloarcula rubripromontorii strain SL3, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Sánchez-Nieves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Haloarcula belongs to the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has 10 valid species. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain SL3, a new species within this genus, isolated from the Solar Salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Genome assembly performed using NGEN Assembler resulted in 18 contigs (N50 = 601,911 bp, the largest of which contains 1,023,775 bp. The genome consists of 3.97 MB and has a GC content of 61.97%. Like all species of Haloarcula, the genome encodes heterogeneous copies of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. In addition, the genome includes 6 rRNAs, 48 tRNAs, and 3797 protein coding sequences. Several carbohydrate-active enzymes genes were found, as well as enzymes involved in the dihydroxyacetone processing pathway which are not found in other Haloarcula species. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIUF00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9001.

  2. Impacts of restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on the seasonal distribution of abiotic variables, phytoplankton, copepods, and ciliates in a man-made solar saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobbi-Rebai, Rayda; Annabi-Trabelsi, Neila; Khemakhem, Hajer; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2013-03-01

    The restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum landfill was investigated for its effects on the seasonal distribution of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods. Sampling was carried out monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 at four ponds of increasing salinity (A1, 41 psu; A5, 46 psu; A16, 67 psu; and C31, 77 psu) in the Sfax solar saltern (southeastern Tunisia). Physicochemical and biological analyses were carried out using standard methods. Results showed drastic reduction of phosphate input and greater diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods than before restoration. Pennate diatoms and new ciliates, considered bio-indicators of less-stressed marine ecosystems, proliferated in the A1 pond for the first time after restoration. Copepods appeared to feed on a wide range of prey. Economically, removal of the 1.7 million m(3) of phosphate improved the quality of the site's salt production, enabling the salt company to receive the quality ISO 9001 accreditation.

  3. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  4. Early Australian Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John S.

    Comparative research indicates that almost without exception, late eighteenth century non-standard English pronunciation was very close to what is called Broad Australian. Present Australian English is closely akin to the blended, popular colloquial London English, spoken by the largest group of Australia's first settlers. This pronunciation…

  5. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  6. Taxonomic description and genome sequence of Bacillus campisalis sp. nov., a member of the genus Bacillus isolated from a solar saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Kaur, Gurwinder; Kumar, Anand; Bala, Monu; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Kaur, Navjot; Kumar, Narender; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2015-10-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-stain positive bacterium isolated from a solar saltern sample collected from Kanyakumari, coastal region of the Bay of Bengal, India, was analysed by using a polyphasic approach. The isolated strain, designated SA2-6T, had phenotypic characteristics that matched those of the genus Bacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1493 bases) of the novel strain was compared with those of previously studied Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and was moderately closely related to the type strain of Bacillus foraminis at 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, followed by those of Bacillus thioparans (96.9 %), Bacillus subterraneus (96.8 %), Bacillus jeotgali (96.6 %), Bacillus selenatarsenatis (96.6 %) and Bacillus boroniphilus (96.6 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain SA2-6T differs from all other species of the genus Bacillus by at least 2.5 %. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone, meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid, and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major fatty acids. Major lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Based on data from this polyphasic study, strain SA2-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus campisalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA2-6T ( = MTCC 11848T = DSM 28801T). The draft genome of strain SA2-6T consisted of 5 183 363 bp with G+C content of 45.44 mol%, 5352 predicted coding sequences, 191 RNAs and 479 subsystems.

  7. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  8. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  9. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues such ......-go’ principle at times conceptually overlaps with cosmopolitan ethics. However, it also bears the potential to hinder cosmopolitan practices. Ultimately national and cosmopolitan ethical frameworks have to be interrogated simultaneously when applied to micro-level interactions.......This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues...

  10. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  11. Australian uranium today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  12. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  13. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  14. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  15. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  16. Crystal Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nangia (2002). “Today, research areas under the wide umbrella of crystal engineering include: supramolecular synthesis; nanotechnology; separation science and catalysis; supramolecular materials and devices; polymorphism; cocrystals, crystal structure prediction; drug design and ligand–protein binding.”

  17. Conditions for Australian consent to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This article contains the text of the statement by the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the House of Representatives, Noember 1980, on conditions for Australian consent to the reprocessing of nuclear material of Australian origin

  18. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  19. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  20. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  1. The Australian synchrotron research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  2. Australian coal industry continues expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent saleable Australian black coal production figures are given along with trends in development of new operations and new technology aiming to provide a sound basis for the continuing expansion of the Australian coal industry. Export prices from 1982 to 1991 to Japan (Australia's major export market) are provided, together with Australian dollar return to exporters at the exchange rate prevailing at the start of each contract year. An increased demand for steaming coal is expected, thus maintaining Australia's position as the world's larger exporter. 4 tabs

  3. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  4. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  5. Characterization of halo-alkaline and thermostable protease from Halorubrum ezzemoulense strain ETR14 isolated from Sfax solar saltern in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Donyez Frikha; Smaoui, Salma Masmoudi; Ghanmi, Fadoua; Boujelben, Ines; Maalej, Sami

    2016-04-01

    A total of 54 halophilic strains were isolated from crystallizer TS18 (26 strains) and non-crystallizer M1 (28 strains) ponds and screened for their ability to produce protease, amylase, and lipase activities. Enzymatic assays allowed the selection of thirty-two active strains, among them, the ETR14 strain from TS18 showed maximum protease production yields and therefore, selected for further analysis. The results from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain belonged to Halorubrum ezzemoulense (Hrr. ezzemoulense) species. Further results indicated that optimum growth and protease production yields were obtained with 10-15% NaCl concentrations in the DSC-97 medium. The enzyme was also able to maintain high levels of protease activity at salt concentrations of up to 25%. While readily available carbon sources were noted to significantly reduce protease production, the combination between yeast extract and peptone enhanced protease excretion, which reached a maximum of 284 U ml(-1) at the end of the exponential growth phase. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 9 and 60 °C. The halophilic protease retained 87% of its initial activity after 1 h incubation at 70 °C and showed high stability over a wide range of pH, ranging from 7 to 10. This protease exhibited good temperature, pH, and salinity tolerance, which distinguishes it from other proteases previously described from other members of the holoarchaea genera and makes it a promising candidate for application in various industries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. An Australian view of the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. Introduction (principal Australian uranium deposits, possible Australian production, estimates of world-wide uranium resources and production, estimates of world-wide uranium requirements); Australian marketing policy; commercial considerations; uncertainties affecting the industry, including unnecessary and undesirable government involvement, and supply and demand. (U.K.)

  7. Australian Journalists' Professional and Ethical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, John

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the first comprehensive national study of Australian journalists. Finds that Australian journalists are similar to their United States colleagues in distributions of age, sex, and socioeconomic background, but have less formal education. Shows that Australians have mixed professional and ethical values and are committed both to…

  8. Nucleation and crystal growth in batch crystallizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to gain knowledge of the mechanism of formation of the crystal size distribution in batch crystallizers in order to give directives for design and operation of batch crystallizers. The crystal size distribution is important for the separation of crystals and mother

  9. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  10. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  11. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  12. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...

  13. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig

    2017-10-23

    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  14. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  15. Energy and the Australian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain, P.; Schuyers, G.

    1981-01-01

    The economic consequences of developing, and of failing to develop, potential sources of energy in Australia are examined. The analysis is preceded by a review of the past and present structure and performance of the Australian energy sector and a survey of the prospective world demand for energy in its various forms

  16. Australian Naturalism and Its Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Park Sun

    1997-01-01

    Details the ongoing debate between Australian naturalists and their critics since the publication of C.W. Evers and G. Lakomski's seminal book "Knowing Educational Administration." Examines critics' views in several categories: the coherence concept, coherentism criteria, the naturalistic fallacy, and questions concerning foundations and…

  17. Boomerang - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Garrett, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was one of seven major national research facilities funded by the Federal Government in December 1995. The program provides guaranteed access and travel funds for Australian scientists to conduct synchrotron radiation-based research at two overseas facilities - the Photon Factory at Tsukuba in Japan and the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National Laboratory in the US. The Federal Government also provided funding of $100K to carry out a Feasibility Study for an Australian-based facility. This has been completed and included a mission to a number of laboratories overseas that were or had recently constructed a facility that could be considered for Australia. Following the mission, consensus was achieved within the community for the specifications of a proposed Australian facility. The proposed facility, Boomerang, has an energy of 3 GeV, an emittance of 16 nm rad and will be equipped in the first phase with 9 instrument stations. Boomerang will be competitive in performance with other facilities currently under construction overseas. A detailed proposal has been submitted to the Federal Government for funding. No site has been specified in the proposal. The proposal was prepared within the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) following extensive consultation with industrial and scientific groups in all Australian states. Valuable contributions have been made by members of all the committees of the ASRP, the Australian synchrotron research community that works through the ASRP and the National Synchrotron Steering Committee. Important contributions have also been made by many industrial groups including consortia in Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. The input from the ANKA staff at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and, in particular. Professor Einfeld has been a critical component. The estimated capital cost of a no frills laboratory has been estimated to be $100M in 1999 dollars. The

  18. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  19. Curators and Australian art history

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sayers

    2011-01-01

    Most Australians do not read art history, but they do look at art in museums. There, visitors experience displays that embody art histories. The enthusiasms and research interests of curators combine with collection strengths to create these art histories. In this process, particular artists, ideas and mediums are privileged. Drawing on personal experience this talk looked at some examples of influential curators, displays, exhibitions and collecting programs over the last thirty years. In th...

  20. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  1. Home advantage in Australian soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the magnitude of home advantage (HA) in Australian soccer and to investigate how home-team crowd support and away-team travel may contribute to it. A paired design was used wherein each match contributed two observations, one for the home team and one for the away team. The data used in this study were all matches from the first seven seasons (2005/06-2011/12) of the Australian A-League - the major soccer league in Australia. Repeated measures Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the effect that crowd size and density, distance and direction travelled by away teams, and crossing time zones may have on HA. HA in terms of the percentage of competition points gained by home teams in the A-League averaged 58% over the study period. HA increased significantly with increasing number of time zones crossed by away teams (pteam crowd support. Travel management programs aimed at reducing the effects of jet lag could significantly improve away team performance in Australian soccer. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  3. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other…

  4. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  5. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  6. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  7. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  8. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  9. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  10. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  11. Characteristics of Religious Knowledge among Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the Spirit of Generation Y project and extensions of that project undertaken in 25 Australian schools by the Christian Research Association, it is argued that the approach to religious knowledge by Australian students can be contrasted with their approach to other forms of knowledge by four features. These are diversity of opinion in…

  12. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  13. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the

  14. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/aifsc/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox ...

  15. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  16. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  17. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  18. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  19. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal

  20. From Desert to Dessert: Why Australian Dust Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K. A.; Mackie, D. S.; Boyd, P. W.; McTainsh, G. H.

    2006-12-01

    The growth of some types of phytoplankton in several parts of the world ocean, including much of the Southern Ocean, is limited by the supply of iron. Large Australian dust storms uplift, transport and abrade soils, to produce aeolian dust that is a significant source iron to the Southern Ocean. Atmospheric processes that enhance the dissolution of iron from aeolian dusts are of interest and have been studied for material from major dust producing regions like the Sahara, Gobi and Australian deserts; the reported solubility of iron from aeolian dusts ranges from <0.01% to 80%. The characteristic red soils, sands and dusts from Australia are generally believed to consist of quartz grains with a coating of fine grains and crystals of iron oxides, primarily hematite and goethite. The precise mineralogy of soil and dust grain coatings is poorly understood and it also not well known how the coatings are altered during uplift and transport to the ocean. Current models to understand the processes operating during the transport and atmospheric processing of dust include some generalisations and simplifications that are not always warranted and our work has shown the overlooked complexity of the system. Models for aeolian-iron dissolution based on Northern Hemisphere data commonly include the pollutants SOx and NOx. The modern Southern Hemisphere is less polluted and thus resembles past environmental systems. The dissolution of iron from soils of the Saharan, Gobi and Australian deserts in the presence of protons only (i.e. without SOx and NOx) occurs in two phases. The first, faster phase, representing up to 20% of total iron is via a surface-controlled mechanism. The rate determining variable is the exposed surface area of the iron oxides and not the size of the underlying quartz grain. The second, slower, phase of dissolution occurs via the transport-controlled formation of a leached layer. During the simulated aeolian abrasion of Australian soils from dust producing

  1. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  3. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  4. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.W.; Trahair, R.C.S.; Powell, R.J.; Walker, R.M.

    1985-08-01

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  6. EQA from an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Renze

    2007-11-01

    Enrolment in external quality assurance programs is part of the accreditation process for medical laboratories in Australia, with the majority of Australian laboratories being enrolled in programs from RCPA Quality Assurance Programs Pty Limited, a company owned by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. An important feature of these programs is that they have been developed with the involvement and contribution of the profession. For example, the Chemical Pathology programs are a joint venture between the company and the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). Some of the unique features of the programs are the composition of the material, the use of target values, the structure and information in the reports and the use of the internet for data entry and data review. Over the past thirty years, the development of these programs has made a significant contribution to the quality of laboratories in Australia.

  7. Identifying anterior segment crystals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, I W; Brooks, A M; Reinehr, D P; Grant, G B; Gillies, W E

    1991-01-01

    A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were f...

  8. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  9. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverd, V.; Raupach, M. R.; Briggs, P. R.; Canadell, J. G.; Davis, S. J.; Law, R. M.; Meyer, C. P.; Peters, G. P.; Pickett-Heaps, C.; Sherman, B.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2) budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990-2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP); net ecosystem production (NEP); fire; land use change (LUC); riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock) and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial). Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012), a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05°) offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011), a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean) and 68 ± 15 TgC yr-1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes), which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr-1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr-1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP) is 36 ± 29 TgC yr-1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr-1) by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV) in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009-2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  10. The Size and Organisation of the Australian Army in the Near Future Given the Australian Defence Force White Paper 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    over the past ten years are Defending Australia : Defence White Paper 1994, Australian Strategic Policy 1997, and Defence 2000 Our Future Defence Force...Australian Army. Commonwealth of Australia , 1994. Defending Australia : Defence White Paper 1994, Canberra, A.C.T: Australian Government Publishing Service. de...THE SIZE AND ORGANISATION OF THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY IN THE NEAR FUTURE GIVEN THE AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE WHITE PAPER 2000 A thesis presented to the

  11. Australian Vocational Education: Learning from Past Mistakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John

    1992-01-01

    Competing pressures on Australian educational managers include pressure to implement competency-based training, to manage using the industrial model, and to husband resources, conflicting with traditional educational goals, government policies, and demands for accountability. (SK)

  12. Healthier times?: revisiting Indigenous Australian health history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The perception that Indigenous Australians were primitive hunters and gatherers who lived in a nomadic 'Stone Age' culture resonates through most narratives found on Indigenous people in pre-colonial times. This narrative is better placed in the realm of myth; I contest claims that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians was only forty years in pre-colonial times, by providing suggestive evidence that there is a strong probability that longevity favoured Indigenous Australians in comparison to many poorer sectors of the European population living in slum habitats. As well, I will challenge notions that Indigenous Australians were more violent than supposedly 'civilised' nations. Finally I express the hope that future researchers will revisit archival sources to develop a more nuanced perspective on the past.

  13. Linguistic aspects of Australian Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard Australian English (SAE) at one end, through to something very close to creole at the other. The phonetics and phonology, grammar, and lexicon of AAE are influenced to varying degrees by the Australian Aboriginal language substrate. There are also some features typical of non-standard Englishes in general, and some which have been retained from earlier forms of the colonial language. Many teachers still see this variety as an uneducated or corrupted form of Standard Australian English, rather than as a different dialect of English that is just as efficient a medium of communication.

  14. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  15. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  16. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Jared Denman

    2009-01-01

    The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintai...

  17. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  18. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  19. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  20. Publishing and Australian literature : crisis, decline or transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  1. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  2. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  3. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  4. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  5. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  6. Crystal structure and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  7. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  8. Biogeographic patterns in the Australian chondrichthyan fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, P R; White, W T

    2011-11-01

    The major biogeographic structure and affinities of the Australian chondrichthyan fauna were investigated at both interregional and intraregional scales and comparisons made with adjacent bioregions. Faunal lists were compiled from six geographical regions with species from these regions assigned to distributional classes and broad habitat categories. Australian species were further classified on provincial and bathomic structure following bioregionalization outputs from regional marine planning. About 40% of the world's chondrichthyan fauna occurs in Indo-Australasia (482 species) of which 323 species are found in Australian seas. The tropical Australian component, of which c. 46% of taxa are regional endemics, is most similar to faunas of Indonesia, New Guinea and New Caledonia. The temperate Australian component is most similar to New Zealand and Antarctica with about half of its species endemic. Highest levels of Australian endemism exist in bathomes of the outer continental shelf and upper slope. A relatively high proportion of regional endemism (57% of species) on the slope in the poorly surveyed but species-rich Solanderian unit is probably due to high levels of large-scale habitat complexity in the Coral Sea. The richness of demersal assemblages on the continental shelf and slope appears to be largely related to the spatial complexity of the region and the level of exploration. Much lower diversity off Antarctica is consistent with the pattern in teleosts. The complex chondrichthyan fauna of Australia is confirmed as being amongst the richest of the mega-diverse Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Species-level compositions of regional faunas across Indo-Australasia differ markedly because of moderate to high levels of intraregional speciation. Faunal assemblages in Australian marine provinces and bathomes differ from each other, supporting a broader pattern for fishes that underpins a marine planning framework for the region. © 2011 CSIRO. Journal of Fish Biology

  9. Marine biodiversity in the Australian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alan J; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J

    2010-08-02

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas.

  10. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  11. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends...... on the Liquid Crystal parameters....

  12. Rubella antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; Bertolini, Joseph; Kotharu, Pushpa; Maher, Darryl; Cripps, Allan W

    2017-08-03

    Rubella antibodies are not routinely measured in immunoglobulin products and there is a lack of information on the titer in Australian products. To facilitate future studies of the effectiveness of passive immunisation for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome, this study measured the concentration of rubella-specific antibodies in Australian intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) human immunoglobulin products suitable for post-exposure prophylaxis using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. The GMT ± GSD for the IM product was 19 ± 1.2 IU/mg (2980 ± 1.2 IU/mL). The GMT ± GSD for the IV product was 12 ± 1.5 IU/mg (729 ± 1.5 IU/mL). At present, Australian guidelines recommend offering non-immune pregnant women exposed to rubella 20 mL of intramuscular immunoglobulin within 72 hours of exposure. This equates to 42,160 IU of rubella antibodies if the lowest titer obtained for the Australian IM product is considered. The same dose would be delivered by 176 mL of the Australian IV product at the lowest measured rubella-specific antibody titer.

  13. The Australian National Proton Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.; Rozenfeld, A.; Bishop, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Protons have been used in the treatment of cancer since 1954 and over 30,000 patients have been treated around the world. Their precise dose distribution allows the treatment of small tumours in critical locations such as the base of skull and orbit and is an alternative to stereotactic radiotherapy in other sites. With the development of hospital-based systems in the 1990's, common tumours such as prostate, breast and lung cancer can now also be treated using simple techniques. The therapeutic ratio is improved as the dose to the tumour can be increased while sparing normal tissues. The well defined high dose region and low integral dose compared with photon treatments is a particular advantage in children and other situations where long-term survival is expected and when used in combination with chemotherapy. In January 2002, the NSW Health Department initiated a Feasibility Study for an Australian National Proton Facility. This Study will address the complex medical, scientific, engineering, commercial and legal issues required to design and build a proton facility in Australia. The Facility will be mainly designed for patient treatment but will also provide facilities for biological, physical and engineering research. The proposed facility will have a combination of fixed and rotating beams with an energy range of 70-250 MeV. Such a centre will enable the conduct of randomised clinical trials and a comparison with other radiotherapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Cost-utility comparisons with other medical treatments will also be made and further facilities developed if the expected benefit is confirmed. When patients are not being treated, the beam will be available for commercial and research purposes. This presentation will summarize the progress of the Study and discuss the important issues that need to be resolved before the Facility is approved and constructed

  14. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  15. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  16. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  17. Australian regulatory changes open crudes to export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.A.

    1988-01-18

    Since the price collapse of 1986, the Australian Government has been deregulating its domestic crude oils, which since the late 1960s, have been allocated solely to Australian refiners at set prices, and where no crude oil was exported. This arrangement is now being dismantled, and has allowed export since 1983, with modest free-market sales since 1985. Much of the exported crude is currently from older, established fields, but with a number of new fields that have come into production recently, some of the newer streams are beginning to find their way to many distant parts of the refining world. There are five important Australian crude oils either now being, or likely to be, exported: Barrow Island and Gippsland crudes, which are produced from fields discovered in 1960s; and Jabiru, Jackson blend, and Northwest Shelf condensate, all coming to production during the last 5 years. This article discusses each of these oils.

  18. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  19. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  20. Crossing borders: extraterritorial application of Australian directors’ duties

    OpenAIRE

    McKeown, Peter Julian Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Australian corporations operate in an increasingly international environment. It has intuitive appeal that Australian law should regulate the conduct of directors of Australian corporations even if it occurs outside Australia. This however can create tension with the competing rights of the foreign state in whose territory this conduct occurs to regulate such conduct. This thesis examines two questions. Firstly, does Australian law governing directors’ duties in fact apply to activities of a ...

  1. Potential for Australian involvement in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D. J.; Collins, G. A.; Hole, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Fusion, the process that powers the sun and stars, offers a solution to the world's long-term energy needs: providing large scale energy production with zero greenhouse gas emissions, short-lived radio-active waste compared to conventional nuclear fission cycles, and a virtually limitless supply of fuel. Almost three decades of fusion research has produced spectacular progress. Present-day experiments have a power gain ratio of approximately 1 (ratio of power out to power in), with a power output in the 10's of megawatts. The world's next major fusion experiment, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will be a pre-prototype power plant. Since announcement of the ITER site in June 2005, the ITER project, has gained momentum and political support. Despite Australia's foundation role in the field of fusion science, through the pioneering work of Sir Mark Oliphant, and significant contributions to the international fusion program over the succeeding years, Australia is not involved in the ITER project. In this talk, the activities of a recently formed consortium of scientists and engineers, the Australian ITER Forum will be outlined. The Forum is drawn from five Universities, ANSTO (the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and AINSE (the Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering), and seeks to promote fusion energy in the Australian community and negotiate a role for Australia in the ITER project. As part of this activity, the Australian government recently funded a workshop that discussed the ways and means of engaging Australia in ITER. The workshop brought the research, industrial, government and general public communities, together with the ITER partners, and forged an opportunity for ITER engagement; with scientific, industrial, and energy security rewards for Australia. We will report on the emerging scope for Australian involvement

  2. Regulation of online pharmacy: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Paul

    2003-02-01

    This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.

  3. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research relations.......This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...

  4. Australian uranium wants to stay at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this issue a battle of purchase of Australian WMC Company - minor of nickel, copper and uranium. Domestic company BHB Hilton will probably win this battle. This company offers 7.3 billion USD for WMC. Australian company offers approximately in 800 million USD more than Swiss competitor Xstrata. WMC controls more than one third of worldwide known uranium deposits in its mine Olympic Dam. WMC is the fifth largest producer of nickel in the world. United company should be the second in the world in copper mining after Chile Codelco and the third in aluminium mining after Russian company Norilsk Nickel and Canadian Inco

  5. Learning Design and Inquiry in Australian History Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Global and digital connectivity transform Australian classrooms by creating rich environments for inquiry learning. Developing inquiry learning in this Information Communication Technology (ICT) context is an Australian educational goal. Recently the Australian Curriculum reform and the Digital Education Revolution has become a catalyst for…

  6. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  7. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  8. Crystallization and crystal properties of squid rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Midori; Kitahara, Rei; Gotoh, Toshiaki; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2007-01-01

    Truncated rhodopsin from the retina of the squid Todarodes pacificus was extracted and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Hexagonal crystals grown in the presence of octylglucoside and ammonium sulfate diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. Rhodopsin, a photoreceptor membrane protein in the retina, is a prototypical member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. In this study, rhodopsin from the retina of the squid Todarodes pacificus was treated with V8 protease to remove the C-terminal extension. Truncated rhodopsin was selectively extracted from the microvillar membranes using alkyl glucoside in the presence of zinc ions and was then crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Of the various crystals obtained, hexagonal crystals grown in the presence of octylglucoside and ammonium sulfate diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. The diffraction data suggested that the crystal belongs to space group P6 2 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 122.1, c = 158.6 Å. Preliminary crystallographic analysis, together with linear dichroism results, suggested that the rhodopsin dimers are packed in such a manner that their transmembrane helices are aligned nearly parallel to the c axis

  9. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  10. A Community Standard: Equivalency of Healthcare in Australian Immigration Detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    The Australian government has long maintained that the standard of healthcare provided in its immigration detention centres is broadly comparable with health services available within the Australian community. Drawing on the literature from prison healthcare, this article examines (1) whether the principle of equivalency is being applied in Australian immigration detention and (2) whether this standard of care is achievable given Australia's current policies. This article argues that the principle of equivalency is not being applied and that this standard of health and healthcare will remain unachievable in Australian immigration detention without significant reform. Alternate approaches to addressing the well documented issues related to health and healthcare in Australian immigration detention are discussed.

  11. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  12. Macromolecular crystallization in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, Edward H; Helliwell, John R

    2005-01-01

    Density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of growing crystals are greatly reduced when crystallization takes place in a reduced gravity environment. In the case of macromolecular crystallography a crystal of a biological macromolecule is used for diffraction experiments (x-ray or neutron) so as to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal then the greater the molecular structure detail that can be extracted. It is this structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences, with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyse the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural advances. Finally, limitations and alternatives to microgravity and future directions for this research are covered. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry and mathematics meet to enable insight to the fundamentals of life. As the reader will see, there is a great deal of physics involved when the microgravity environment is applied to crystallization, some of it known, and undoubtedly much yet to

  13. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  14. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  15. Wilderness quality mapping - the Australian experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick Sawyer

    2015-01-01

    By 1995 wilderness quality maps developed under the Australian Government's National Wilderness Inventory (NWI) program had been published for most of Australia, but few traces of the NWI now remain and the word "wilderness" has become almost unmentionable in government and professional land management circles. Yet its popular appeal is demonstrated by...

  16. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  17. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  18. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  19. The Banality of Exclusion in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The systematic exclusion of asylum seekers from Australian higher education reveals much about present day Australia. This essay begins with a brief context and outline of the international refugee crisis and Australia's reaction. Next, consideration is given to how this nation has identified itself historically and how it has behaved in recent…

  20. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  1. Australian Geography and the Corporate Management Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes the intrusion into Australian higher education of the corporate management model. Considers the implications of this mechanization for geography instruction. Notes centralizing tendencies and merger policies with the corresponding market imperatives of efficiency and accountability. Argues that this produces employable manpower but does…

  2. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  3. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  4. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  5. Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films. Greg McCarthy. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  6. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  7. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  8. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice.

  9. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  10. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  11. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  12. Australian Allograpta Osten Sacken (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximo Mengual

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Allograpta terraenovae sp. n. and Allograpta notiale sp. n. are described from Australia. Notes on the Australian species of Allograpta and an identification key to them are also given. The lectotype of Allograpta javana Wiedemann is designated, and the species Syrphus pallidus Bigot is synonymized under Allograpta australensis (Schiner.

  13. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  14. Contributions to Indo-Australian Herpetology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1934-01-01

    A complete account of all the reptiles then known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago was published by De Rooij in 1915 and 1917. Since this time several new species have been described, while others have been suppressed or revived. Also the problem of geographical variation begins to

  15. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  16. Early Childhood Intervention: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkar, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the developmental systems approach, an approach developed by M. Guralnick (2001), with an aim to assess and evaluate early childhood intervention (ECI) practices in Australia. The author explores the Australian national context of ECI and its complexities and conclude with recommendations to address (a) the possibility of a…

  17. Australian clinical dosimetry service at ARPANSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Abel; Williams, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Earlier this year, the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council accepted the Federal Government's offer to fund the establishment and operation for 3 years of an Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS). The service will be located within the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in Yallambie, Victoria and will commence operation at the beginning of 20II. The purpose of the ACDS is to make available independent checks and auditing services to all Australian radiotherapy services. These services will range form postal audits to site visits, and include treatment dose assessments using phantoms (Level III audits). There will be a Clinical Advisory Group to oversee the development of the service, so the ACPSEM and other professional groups will playa key role in developing the ACDS. In consultation with radiotherapy facilities, the ACDS will establish an Audit Panel which will be made up of local staff to assist with on site work and minimise travel costs. The results of all measurements made by the ACDS will be confi dential: only de-identified data would be publicly reported. The service will be free to participating facilities in the first 3 years. An independent review will be conducted in the third year to determine the ongoing arrangements for the service.

  18. Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Euthecosomata) from the Australian Cainozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    All Tertiary euthecosomatous gastropods from the Australian continent known to the author are described. The species introduced by Ralph Tate (1887) are revised. Altogether 18 species are discussed. A new genus, Spoelia, and five new species, viz. Limacina curryi, L. lunata, L. tatei, Spoelia

  19. Industrial Relations in Australian Tertiary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Keith

    1989-01-01

    A government official in industrial relations and former university administrator chronicles the emergence of unions in Australian universities and discusses the current state of academic trade unionism, focusing on the restructuring of the compensation system and the problems resulting from the process. (MSE)

  20. Religious Identity and Plurality amongst Australian Catholics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, the Catholic Education Offices in the State of Victoria, Australia, have collaborated on a large research project with the Catholic University in Leuven that focuses on Catholic Identity. This is an interesting situation when there are, indeed, multiple Catholic identities evident in Australian society. This article ...

  1. Ethnicity and Gender in Australian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jim

    The Australian education system is denying equity and social justice to ethnic minorities and women. This paper examines the development of Australia's educational policy for those two groups. It argues that the educational disadvantages they have experienced have been enhanced by the marginalization of the issues. Policies such as multicultural…

  2. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  3. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  4. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  5. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  6. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  7. The mechanism of borax crystallization using in situ optical microscopy and AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharso, G.; Parkinson, M.; Ogden, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The quality of high-purity borax depends both on the concentrations of the impurities and the product appearance, which are mainly determined by the size and morphology of the crystals. Thus, knowledge about crystallization of borax is of direct relevance to the industrial production of borax. In addition, fundamental studies of borax crystallization will provide results of relevance to the crystallization of other economically important materials. An investigation into the fundamental mechanism of crystal growth of borax from aqueous solution was carried out, as a model system. The investigation focussed on the growth mechanism, and the influence of factors such as solution supersaturation, temperature, crystal size and solution flow on the rate of crystal growth. In situ optical microscopy was used to determine growth rates of three different faces of borax crystals at 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C, at various concentrations. It was found that the growth rate increases with increasing temperature and supersaturation. At low concentration , growth on the (010), (001), and (111) faces occurs via a spiral growth mechanism and at high concentration birth and spread is the principal mechanism operating. The activation energy for the different mechanisms was determined. Examination by ex situ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed features suggesting that the (100), (010), (001) faces of borax crystals grow by spiral mechanism at low concentration and two dimensional nucleation at high concentration. These experiments support the data obtained from in situ optical microscopy. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  8. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed. PMID:28879986

  9. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  10. Demonstration of Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment where equal parts of copper and aluminum are heated then cooled to show extremely large crystals. Suggestions are given for changing the orientation of crystals by varying cooling rates. Students are more receptive to concepts of microstructure after seeing this experiment. (DH)

  11. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  12. Crystal growth and crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Selected topics that may be of interest for both crystal-structure and crystal-growth communities are overviewed. The growth of protein crystals, along with that of some other compounds, is one of the topics, and recent insights into related phenomena are considered as examples of applications of general principles. The relationship between crystal growth shape and structure is reviewed and an attempt to introduce semiquantitative characterization of binding for proteins is made. The concept of kinks for complex structures is briefly discussed. Even at sufficiently low supersaturations, the fluctuation of steps may not be sufficient to implement the Gibbs-Thomson law if the kink density is low enough. Subsurface ordering of liquids and growth of rough interfaces from melts is discussed. Crystals growing in microgravity from solution should be more perfect if they preferentially trap stress-inducing impurities, thus creating an impurity-depleted zone around themselves. Evidently, such a zone is developed only around the crystals growing in the absence of convection. Under terrestrial conditions, the self-purified depleted zone is destroyed by convection, the crystal traps more impurity and grows stressed. The stress relief causes mosaicity. In systems containing stress-inducing but poorly trapped impurities, the crystals grown in the absence of convection should be worse than those of their terrestrial counterparts.

  13. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-14

    The last five years' achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  14. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  15. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  16. SYMMETRY OF COMPOSITE CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1991-01-01

    Composite crystals are crystals that consist of two or more subsystems, in first approximation each one having its own three-dimensional periodicity. The symmetry of these subsystems is then characterized by an ordinary space group. Due to their mutual interaction the true structure consists of a

  17. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  18. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C

    2010-01-01

    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  19. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  20. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  1. Bioengineered magnetic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyutich, O; Sarua, A; Schwarzacher, W

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on the successful application of a protein crystallization technique to fabricate a three-dimensionally ordered array of magnetic nanoparticles, i.e. a novel type of metamaterial with unique magnetic properties. We utilize ferritin protein cages for the template-constrained growth of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of magnetite/maghemite Fe 3 O 4 -γ-Fe 2 O 3 (magnetoferritin), followed by thorough nanoparticle bioprocessing and purification, and finally by protein crystallization. Protein crystallization is driven by the natural response of proteins to the supersaturation of the electrolyte, which leads to spontaneous nucleation and 3D crystal growth. Within a short period of time (hours to days) we were able to grow functional crystals on the meso-scale, with sizes of the order of tens, up to a few hundred micrometres. We present initial magnetic and Raman spectroscopy characterization results for the obtained 3D arrays of magnetic nanoparticles

  2. Crystallization phenomena of isotactic polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Peter Jan

    1975-01-01

    In this thesis the crystallization behavior of isotactic polystyrene has been described. The kinetics of the crystallization process and the crystalline structure were studied both for crystallization in the bulk and from dilute solutions. ... Zie Summary

  3. Accelerators for the Australian environment and heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1999-01-01

    Australian researchers have access to a variety of natural systems where records of the Earth's past environment have been stored. These archives include sediment cores, Antarctic ice, Tasmanian pine trees, rock surfaces, corals, etc. Each of these media contain information on past environmental conditions but the records must be carefully deciphered and compared with one-another. The AMS analysis of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides is essential for providing absolute time scales for these natural archives. Other analytical methods based on high-energy ion interactions are well suited to characterise environmental and archaeological samples with high sensitivity. The use of ANSTO's accelerators in research programs related to the environment in the Australian region is reviewed

  4. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  5. Crystals, inflammation, and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Ann K

    2011-03-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are common components of osteoarthritic joint fluids and tissues. Why these crystals form and how they contribute to joint damage in osteoarthritis remain unclear. With renewed interest in inflammation as a key component of osteoarthritis the role of calcium-containing crystals in this common disease warrants re-examination. There is ample evidence supporting a pathogenic role for inflammation in osteoarthritis, and the innate immune system likely participates in this inflammatory process. Recent work reinforces the almost universal existence of calcium-containing crystals in tissues from patients with end-stage osteoarthritis. Calcium-containing crystals may contribute to inflammation in osteoarthritis tissues through their direct interactions with components of the innate immune system, as well as by inducing or amplifying other inflammatory signals. There is increasing evidence that calcium-containing crystals contribute to osteoarthritis and their inflammatory properties may mediate detrimental effects through innate immunity signals. Calcium-containing crystals may thus represent important therapeutic targets in osteoarthritis.

  6. Quartz crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  7. Exploring the professional values of Australian physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Alejandra; Stupans, Ieva; Scutter, Sheila; King, Sharron

    2013-03-01

    A profession's values guide daily practice and professional behaviours. They clarify what professionalism means to a profession, by providing insight into the values that members of the profession aim to uphold and profess. There has been limited research into the values of the Australian physiotherapy profession, and as such, the values that guide practice and constitute professionalism are not explicit. This study aimed to make a preliminary identification of the values of the profession, by exploring the shared professional values of 14 Australian physiotherapists. This study was guided by a qualitative approach and constructivist paradigm. Purposive sampling was employed to identify physiotherapists who could contribute rich information to the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using an inductive data analysis method. The emerging professional values formed three main themes. The first theme, 'the patient and the patient-therapist partnership', incorporated values such as having patient trust and working collaboratively with patients. The theme labelled 'physiotherapy knowledge, skills and practice' included the values of having an evidence base and respecting professional boundaries. The last theme, 'altruistic values', was inclusive of values such as honesty, empathy and caring. The values that emerged went beyond philanthropic values, to values that guided every day practice, professional relationships and the responsibilities of being a professional. The results contribute to research orientated towards identifying the values of the profession and in doing so, clarifying what professionalism means to the Australian physiotherapy profession. Differences between the values identified by the American Physical Therapy Association and the study reported in this paper highlight the importance of identifying the values of the profession within the Australian context. In terms of practice implications, physiotherapists may be prompted to

  8. Dendroclimatological potential of the Australian red cedar

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Ingo; Banks, J. C. G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined Toona ciliata M.Roemer (Australian red cedar) for its potential to deliver annually resolved tree-ring proxy data. Such proxies are valuable and sought-after sources for reconstructing climate beyond instrumental records, especially in Australia. T. ciliata was chosen because it is one of the few deciduous tree species in Australia experiencing a seasonally dormant period of the cambium. This was confirmed by a preliminary tree-ring analysis which revealed distinct growth rings. B...

  9. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological

  10. Do Momentum Strategies Work?: - Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Drew; Madhu Veeraraghavan; Min Ye

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the profitability of momentum investment strategy and the predictive power of trading volume for equities listed in the Australian Stock Exchange. Recent research finds that momentum and trading volume appear to predict subsequent returns in U.S. market and past volume helps to reconcile intermediate-horizon “under reaction” and long-horizon “overreaction” effects. However, bulk of the evidence on this important relationship between past returns and future returns is l...

  11. Occupational heat stress in Australian workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Ollie; Brotherhood, John R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this review was to summarize the current state of knowledge on heat stress risk within typical Australian occupational settings. We assessed identified occupations (mining, agriculture, construction, emergency services) for heat production and heat loss potential, and resultant levels of physiological heat strain. A total of 29 reports were identified that assessed in-situ work settings in Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales ...

  12. Benchmarking management practices in Australian public healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy; Agarwal, Neeru; Randhawa, Krithika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quality of management practices of public hospitals in the Australian healthcare system, specifically those in the state-managed health systems of Queensland and New South Wales (NSW). Further, the authors assess the management practices of Queensland and NSW public hospitals jointly and globally benchmark against those in the health systems of seven other countries, namely, USA, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy and Canada. In this study, the authors adapt the unique and globally deployed Bloom et al. (2009) survey instrument that uses a "double blind, double scored" methodology and an interview-based scoring grid to measure and internationally benchmark the management practices in Queensland and NSW public hospitals based on 21 management dimensions across four broad areas of management - operations, performance monitoring, targets and people management. The findings reveal the areas of strength and potential areas of improvement in the Queensland and NSW Health hospital management practices when compared with public hospitals in seven countries, namely, USA, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy and Canada. Together, Queensland and NSW Health hospitals perform best in operations management followed by performance monitoring. While target management presents scope for improvement, people management is the sphere where these Australian hospitals lag the most. This paper is of interest to both hospital administrators and health care policy-makers aiming to lift management quality at the hospital level as well as at the institutional level, as a vehicle to consistently deliver sustainable high-quality health services. This study provides the first internationally comparable robust measure of management capability in Australian public hospitals, where hospitals are run independently by the state-run healthcare systems. Additionally, this research study contributes to the empirical evidence base on the quality of

  13. Use of Opioid Analgesics in Older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Felicity C; Bereznicki, Luke R E; Thompson, Angus J; Peterson, Gregory M

    2015-08-01

    To identify potential medication management issues associated with opioid use in older Australians. Retrospective cross-sectional review of the utilization of analgesics in 19,581 people who underwent a medication review in Australia between 2010 and 2012. Australian residents living in the community deemed at risk for adverse medication outcomes or any resident living fulltime in an aged care facility. Patient characteristics in those taking regularly dosed opioids and not and those taking opioid doses >120 mg and ≤120 mg MEQ/day were compared. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between regular opioid and high dose opioid usage and key variables. Additionally, medication management issues associated with opioids were identified. Opioids were taken by 31.8% of patients, with 22.1% taking them regularly. Several major medication management issues were identified. There was suboptimal use of multimodal analgesia, particularly a low use of non-opioid analgesics, in patients taking regular opioids. There was extensive use (45%) of concurrent anxiolytics/hypnotics among those taking regular opioid analgesics. Laxative use in those prescribed opioids regularly was low (60%). Additionally, almost 12% of patients were taking doses of opioid that exceeded Australian recommendations. A significant evidence to practice gap exists regarding the use of opioids amongst older Australians. These findings highlight the need for a quick reference guide to support prescribers in making appropriate decisions regarding pain management in older patients with persistent pain. This should also be combined with patient and caregiver education about the importance of regular acetaminophen to manage persistent pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Australian synchrotron - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.; Jackson, A.; Seaborne, G.; Hobbs, R.; Garrett, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises progress with the development of the Australian Synchrotron. The facility is based on the Boomerang Storage Ring which has a DBA structure with 14 superperiods. The design objective was to achieve a low emittance in a relatively compact circumference that had an excellent dynamic aperture and was obust with respect to potential construction aberrations. The potential suite of beamline and instrument stations is discussed and some examples are given

  15. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    by Disney and Johnson (2001) and the World Bank (Pordes, 1994). There have also been various papers and reviews about Australian and U.S. military...longer able to earn income to support themselves. As identified by the World Bank (Pordes, 1994) changes in social trends imply that extended...industrialized world , government policy on retirement has slowly become a major part of a country’s social construct (be it in the form of publicly funded

  16. Palliative care in Australian medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daryl R; Teh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Greater emphasis needs to be placed on medical student palliative care education within the Australian arena. The development of a comprehensive, relevant and practical educational curriculum in this area during medical school is imperative in order to adequately equip the future junior medical workforce. Further development of a national palliative care curriculum as well as research comparing various teaching methods and curricula should be the priorities in the near future.

  17. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  18. Landscape Salinisation and Management: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hoey

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Australian landscapes are facing an increasing salinisation threat. It is estimated that 2.5 million hectares are affected by land salinisation, and this area is expected to triple by 2050. Federal and State governments have jointly developed a policy framework to address this issue, with each state refining their own salinity management strategies within this framework. Scientific assessment and modelling underpin these salinity management strategies, though socio-economic considerations are also important. Landscape salinity assessment techniques used in the Australian context are outlined, and examples of salinity hazard and recharge mapping at the landscape scale described. Current developments in both recharge assessment, and groundwater flow modelling in Australia are described, and the use of these models in underpinning state salinity strategic planning discussed. The salinity management ‘toolkit’ is discussed. The progression from initially applying engineering solutions to deal with the symptoms of salinisation; to dealing with the causes of salinisation; to developing an integrated catchment management approach; to including a stronger emphasis on market-based economic measures; and the importance of over-arching Catchment Blueprints, is described in detail.The application of knowledge and experience gained through the management of Australian land salinisation to other countries is discussed in the context of the salinity problem in the Sultanate of Oman.

  19. Exposure to radon in Australian tourist caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    In 1991 the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) produced guidelines and recommendations dealing with workplace exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. An intervention level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3} has been proposed. Australia has over 40 tourist caves, under the management of the various State Departments or private groups. The limited data available on radon levels in Australian caves would suggest that some of these caves may be in excess of the proposed intervention level, thus presenting a potential health risk for the cave guides. This paper summarises the current information on radon in Australian caves and describes the proposed methodologies to be used for a Worksafe Australia-funded survey of radon levels in Tourist caves within Australia. This survey is to be carried out jointly by researchers at the Australian Radiation Laboratory, University of Auckland and the University of Sydney, during 1994 and 1995. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Exposure to radon in Australian tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Lyons, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) produced guidelines and recommendations dealing with workplace exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. An intervention level of 1000 Bq m -3 has been proposed. Australia has over 40 tourist caves, under the management of the various State Departments or private groups. The limited data available on radon levels in Australian caves would suggest that some of these caves may be in excess of the proposed intervention level, thus presenting a potential health risk for the cave guides. This paper summarises the current information on radon in Australian caves and describes the proposed methodologies to be used for a Worksafe Australia-funded survey of radon levels in Tourist caves within Australia. This survey is to be carried out jointly by researchers at the Australian Radiation Laboratory, University of Auckland and the University of Sydney, during 1994 and 1995. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Earthrods: The need for an Australian standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle, W. [Transnorth Pty Ltd., Morphett Vale, SA (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Earth-rods are an integral and important part of most electrical distribution systems but there is no Australian Standard covering their design and detail. This leads to a wide and diverse range of earth-rod types in use as many authorities prepare their own criteria which may differ from others and yet the basic performance of the earth-rods is expected to be the same. This paper presents a case for the preparation of an Australian Standard so that users can select standard earth-rods and manufacturers can optimize production costs. It identifies the many and various types, forms and materials used in Australia for earth-rods by power authorities, communications, consumers and other major users of earthing systems. Add-on points, couplings, driving heads and installation methods are also discussed. The paper concludes with a request that the Electricity Supply Association of Australia (ESAA) and/or Standards Australia become involved in establishing an Australian Standard for earth-rods covering such aspects as materials, dimensions, cladding thickness, coupling characteristics, mechanical and electrical properties and tests, and any other variables which control the effectiveness of the earth-rods. (author). 6 figs.

  2. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) is a joint venture between the Australian mining industry through the Australian Mineral Industries Research Association Ltd. (AMIRA) and three of the organizations working most actively in this area in Australia: CSIRO Minesite Rehabilitation Research Program; University of Queensland Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation; and Curtin University Mulga Research Centre. The ACMRR was established in July 1993 to provide a national framework to conduct Strategic Research into minesite rehabilitation. It is an industry led and funded initiative. The Goals of the Centre include: to conduct strategic research into minesite rehabilitation to provide sustainable environmental solutions which are acceptable to industry, government and the community; to be recognized as a center of excellence undertaking commissioned research on minesite rehabilitation in an independent and thorough manner; to provide scientific and technological foundations to facilitate industry and government in setting acceptable standards; to act as networking and communications focus; and to enhance education and training in minesite rehabilitation. Strategic Research Programs in: Water Systems--downstream surface and groundwater quality; Land--the long-term behavior and stability of constructed landforms; Ecosystems--the long-term sustainability of constructed landforms; Waste--the long-term treatment and disposal of waste products; will allow the ACMRR to achieve these goals through specific research projects in these areas, developed with industry sponsors. This paper will discuss their progress to date, research projects underway, and plans for the future

  3. Hypersonic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L

    2005-03-25

    In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.

  4. Magnetic ions in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, K W

    2014-01-01

    There have been many demonstrations, particularly for magnetic impurity ions in crystals, that spin-Hamiltonians are able to account for a wide range of experimental results in terms of much smaller numbers of parameters. Yet they were originally derived from crystal field theory, which contains a logical flaw; electrons on the magnetic ions are distinguished from those on the ligands. Thus there is a challenge: to replace crystal field theory with one of equal or greater predictive power that is based on a surer footing. The theory developed in this book begins with a generic Hamiltonian, on

  5. Hydrodynamics of superfluid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, G.A.; Papoyan, K.V.; Sedrakyan, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that three-velocity hydrodynamics equations describing the properties of a two-condensate crystal determine the low-frequency spectrum with allowance for superfluid drag. The drag on one superfluid component of density rho/sup( s/) 12 from another component of density rho/sup( s/) 22 , gives rise to two branches of vibrations of frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 , unlike the case of a one-condensate crystal. The absorption coefficient for transverse sound in a one-condensate crystal is expressed in terms of the quantum-mechanical characteristic quantity that describes the tunneling of atoms

  6. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  7. CAUSALITY OF WEATHER CONDITIONS IN AUSTRALIAN STOCK EQUITY RETURNS

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Vlady; Ekrem Tufan; Bahattin Hamarat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates causality of weather and its impact on the The S&P/ASX All Australian 200 Index has been selected as a proxy for the Australian capital market. The index consists exclusively of Australian domiciled companies. Following previous research in behaviour finance in the area of environmental psychology, the data set covers temperature, quality temperature, wet bulb temperature, quality wet bulb temperature, humidity, pressure and vapour pressure variables. The data set is a...

  8. Offshore Processes: International Perspectives on Australian Film and Television

    OpenAIRE

    Haag, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Australian cinema has never been solely national, neither in the contexts of its production nor in its themes and influences. It reflects the cultural and historical diversity of a continent that has been shaped by the sovereign presence of Indigenous people and more than two centuries of migration. Australian film and television is diverse and inherently international. The symposium “Offshore Processes: International Perspectives on Australian Film and Television” explored the transnational ...

  9. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Bambang Yudi

    2005-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  10. Effects of Exchange Rates on World Prices of Australian Wool

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nazrul; Tcha, MoonJoong; Stanton, John

    2006-01-01

    Australian wool producers are being told that exchange rate have driven systematic fluctuation in the price of their wool at auction. This paper presents some key findings of a major collaborative study on the effect of exchange rates on Australian wool prices with the Economic Research Centre at the University of Western Australia. The effect of the exporter and importer’s market powers on the extent of price changes due to exchange rates, was analysed using Australian Bureau of Statistics w...

  11. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  12. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... of doping, use a microstructure of air and glass to obtain a refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. This air/glass microstructure lends the photonic crystal fibers a range of unique and highly usable properties, which are very different from those found in solid standard fibers......, leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...

  13. Crystal-Clear Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondris-Crawford, Renate J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides diagrams to aid in discussing polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) technology. Equipped with a knowledge of PDLC, teachers can provide students with insight on how the gap between basic science and technology is bridged. (ZWH)

  14. Creep of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.-P.

    1988-01-01

    Creep mechanisms for metals, ceramics and rocks, effect of pressure and temperature on deformation processes are considered. The role of crystal defects is analysed, different models of creep are described. Deformation mechanisms maps for different materials are presented

  15. Crystal engineering: structure, property and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Desiraju, Gautam R.

    2017-01-01

    Crystal engineering, which was considered to be crystal structure engineering, is now transforming into crystal property engineering. The same or similar crystal structures could have different properties while different crystal structures could have similar properties.

  16. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  17. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Laschat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  18. Macromolecular Crystal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.; Bellamy, Henry D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many ways of judging a good crystal. Which we use depends on the qualities we seek. For gemstones size, clarity and impurity levels (color) are paramount. For the semiconductor industry purity is probably the most important quality. For the structural crystallographer the primary desideratum is the somewhat more subtle concept of internal order. In this chapter we discuss the effect of internal order (or the lack of it) on the crystal's diffraction properties.

  19. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  20. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  1. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Automotive Repairs and Service Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the automotive repairs and service trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: motor mechanic, automotive electrician, and panel beater. The…

  2. National Statement for Engaging Young Australians with Asia in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Engaging Young Australians with Asia" is a national policy statement which supports "The Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." These goals promote understanding of the value of cultural and linguistic diversity, and possessing the knowledge, skills and understanding to contribute…

  3. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  4. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  5. Steering a crystallization process to reduce crystal polydispersity; case study of insulin crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanev, Christo N.; Petrov, Kostadin P.

    2017-12-01

    The use of the classical nucleation-growth-separation principle (NGSP) was restricted hitherto to nucleation kinetics studies only. A novel application of the NGSP is proposed. To reduce crystal polydispersity internal seeding of equally-sized crystals is suggested, the advantage being avoidance of crystal grinding, sieving and any introduction of impurities. In the present study, size distributions of grown insulin crystals are interpreted retrospectively to select the proper nucleation stage parameters. The conclusion is that when steering a crystallization process aimed at reducing crystal polydispersity, the shortest possible nucleation stage duration has to be chosen because it renders the closest size distribution of the nucleated crystal seeds. Causes of inherent propensity to increasing crystal polydispersity during prolonged growth are also explored. Step sources of increased activity, present in some crystals while absent in others, are pointed as the major polydispersity cause. Insulin crystal morphology is also considered since it determines the dissolution rate of a crystalline medicine.

  6. Influencing Safety in Australian Agriculture and Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain-Rigg, Kristin E; Franklin, Richard C; King, Jemma C; Lower, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Improving the health and safety of those working in Australian agriculture and fishery industries is a recognized priority area for preventative activities. With Australian agricultural industries being among the nation's most dangerous workplaces, there is a need for action. While there are currently known solutions, their implementation is limited. Influential agents, i.e., people who can influence others, are important for helping engender action to enact solutions into practice. This study examines agents that influence safety behavior either negatively (barriers) or positively (facilitators), in the Australian agriculture and fishery industries. Focus groups were conducted with producers and industry representatives. Thematic analysis identified barriers and facilitators to improve health and safety. These were assessed against the Socioecological Model, which considers the various, and often intersecting, human (intrapersonal, i.e. values and attitudes, peers, familial, and cultural) factors influencing safety behavior. Seven categories of human influences were identified: self, peers, family, intergenerational change, industry agents, government agents, and other. Peers (including direct managers) and family were seen to be direct influencers. Individuals signal to others that safety is valued and important. This is reinforced by experience, skill, attitudes, and behavior. Safety practice knowledge acquisition occurred via the family unit, specific training, industry, or knowledge transfer between industries. Government influence predominately focused on legislation and while the source of this influence is distant, it does influence behavior. There is a need to support comprehensive programs. These should include strengthening relationships via peer-to-peer networking, sharing information about safety initiatives, appropriate legislation, and enhancing leadership of all influencers with regard to safety.

  7. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  8. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  9. Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2010-10-01

    Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.

  10. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Nunan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated for distance education in university teaching and learning in Australia.

  11. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  12. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  13. Crystallization phenomena in slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrling, Carl Folke

    2000-09-01

    The crystallization of the mold slag affects both the heat transfer and the lubrication between the mold and the strand in continuous casting of steel. In order for mold slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise, a fundamental understanding of the melting and solidification behavior of a slag must be developed. Thus it is necessary to be able to quantify the phenomena that occur under the thermal conditions that are found in the mold of a continuous caster. The double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT) and the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope used in this study are two novel techniques for investigating melting and solidification phenomena of transparent slags. Results from these techniques are useful in defining the phenomena that occur when the slag film infiltrates between the mold and the shell of the casting. TTT diagrams were obtained for various slags and indicated that the onset of crystallization is a function of cooling rate and slag chemistry. Crystal morphology was found to be dependent upon the experimental temperature and four different morphologies were classified based upon the degree of melt undercooling. Continuous cooling experiments were carried out to develop CCT diagrams and it was found that the amount and appearance of the crystalline fraction greatly depends on the cooling conditions. The DHTT can also be used to mimic the cooling profile encountered by the slag in the mold of a continuous caster. In this differential cooling mode (DCT), it was found that the details of the cooling rate determine the actual response of the slag to a thermal gradient and small changes can lead to significantly different results. Crystal growth rates were measured and found to be in the range between 0.11 mum/s to 11.73 mum/s depending on temperature and slag chemistry. Alumina particles were found to be effective innoculants in oxide melts reducing the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and also extending

  14. Introduction to protein crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Alexander; Gavira, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance about 150 years ago and was developed in the late 19th century as a powerful purification tool and as a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by the manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch and liquid–liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years owing to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits and the application of laboratory robotics. A brief review will be given here of the most popular methods, some guiding principles and an overview of current technologies. PMID:24419610

  15. Crystallization in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissopoulou, Kyriakh; Perivolari, Helena; Leisch, Stefanos; Papananou, Hellen; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.

    Polymer crystallization is a very interesting topic since it is responsible for the final properties of the materials. On the other hand, addition of inorganic nanomaterials has been recently widely used to optimize polymer properties. In this work, the effect of the presence of surfaces and of the severe confinement on polymer morphology and crystallization are investigated in hydrophilic nanohybrids of poly(ethylene oxide) and silica nanoparticles of different sizes; hybrids with different ratios of the two kinds of nanoparticles were synthesized as well, to achieve the highest confinement. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) were utilized to investigate the behavior and showed that the polymer chains that were able to crystallize showed a different crystalline behavior in the hybrids with lower Tm and lower crystallinity. Under severe confinement polymer crystallization was completely suppressed. Moreover, the crystallization kinetics was investigated with Isothermal Polarized Optical Microscopy (POM) and Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showing different characteristics in the hybrids compared to that of the neat polymer depending on the silica content. Sponsored by the Greek GSRT (AENAO research project, Action KRIPIS)

  16. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-07-13

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided.

  17. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  18. Determinants of Successful Training Practices in Large Australian Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, Susan

    The determinants of successful training practices in large Australian firms were examined. The study's three phases were as follows: (1) a review of existing literature; (2) a meta-analysis of previously conducted case studies of 49 large Australian firms in 14 industrial sectors; and (3) a comparative analysis of the findings of the past studies…

  19. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  20. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  1. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  2. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  3. Competing Issues in Australian Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…

  4. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  5. A Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Army Equipment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Army Equipment Evaluation Mark Edwards, Alistair Furnell...Jemma Coleman and Sheena Davis Land Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TR-3006 ABSTRACT Anthropometry is the...Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Defence Force Army Equipment Evaluation Executive Summary Anthropometry is the

  6. Depicting the Italo-Australian migrant experience down under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giorgio Mangiamele is widely regarded as the most significant first-generation Italo-Australian filmmaker of the post-war period. Indeed, as many critics have affirmed, Mangiamele's films of the fifties and sixties are fundamental for an accurate reading of Australian cinema 'in terms of its multiple representations of the ...

  7. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1987-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region. (author)

  8. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1987-04-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology (ASNT) was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region

  9. Australian English-Language Textbooks: The Gender Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jackie F. K.; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and extent of gender stereotyping, both linguistic and pictorial, in a set of 10 Australian English-language textbooks for intermediate learners. In order to determine how accurately the books reflect the status of women in contemporary Australian society a content and linguistic analysis was conducted, focusing on,…

  10. The Reformed Australian Child Support Scheme: An International Policy Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Describes antecedents, major objectives, and characteristics of Australian child support reforms in context of their introduction into highly discretionary family law system. Draws parallels with Wisconsin Child Support Assurance System. Discusses findings of Australian Institute of Family Studies evaluation which suggests that the scheme has…

  11. Telling Stories: Australian Literature in a National English Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Larissa McLean

    2008-01-01

    In the past two years, considerable media and government attention has been directed towards the teaching of Australian literature in secondary schools. This article explores the main themes of this discourse, and considers recent discussions about Australian literature in the National English Curriculum in the context of this debate. By way of…

  12. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  13. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  14. Ethics Education in Australian Preservice Teacher Programs: A Hidden Imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.; Maxwell, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the current approach to ethics education in accredited Australian pre-service teacher programs. Methods included a manual calendar search of ethics related subjects required in teacher programs using a sample of 24 Australian universities and a survey of 26 university representatives. Findings show a paucity of…

  15. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  16. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  17. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  18. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  19. Dare nuclear energy with the Australian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    Australian authorities have been traditionally opposed to nuclear energy. The interdiction to build nuclear power plants in the Australian states without the approval of the federal authority was even officially written in the environment code in 1999. Today coal provides 75% of the electricity needs of Australia. Because of climate warming, things are changing, the Australian government is now considering the possibility of using nuclear energy and a site located in southern Australian has been selected for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. In this context the Australian Nuclear Association (ANA) is developing an ambitious program for the promotion of all the applications of nuclear energy through the organisation of conferences and meetings with various experts of nuclear industry. The aim is to make the public aware of the assets of nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  20. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the Australian cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, B; Chousalkar, K K; Chenoweth, P J

    2013-03-01

    In cattle, Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with decreased fertility, granular vulvovaginitis, endometritis, salpingitis and spontaneous abortion in cows and seminal vesiculitis, balanoposthitis and changes in bull sperm. The presence of U. diversum within the Australian cattle population has not been established. One of the aims of this study was to determine if U. diversum was present in Australian cattle, using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), both of which are considered to be gold standards for bacterial identification. Of 100 samples collected from 66 male and 34 female cattle, 15 were positive for U. diversum. Therefore, Australia can no longer be considered free of U. diversum. Further studies should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum within Australian cattle herds and, if warranted, to investigate prevention, treatment and eradication protocols. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Australian studies: A vehicle for scientific and technological literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Beverley L.

    1990-01-01

    In Victoria, schools are adopting one common certificate, the VCE (Victorian Certificate of Education) which encompasses two years of study (Years 11 and 12) and comprises 44 subject areas or Studies, each of one semester duration. Amongst the compulsory subjects is Australian Studies (Units 1 and 2) with its focus on Work in Australian society. This paper discusses concerns about the teaching of the compulsory subject Australian Studies in the new VCE. The purpose is to consider whether the science and technology component in the Australian Studies course can raise the students’ level of scientific and technological literacy. The discussion is based on one semester’s teaching experience of Year 11 Australian Studies and consequent reflections on practice.

  2. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  3. Frequency doubling crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Francis; Velsko, Stephan P.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the adhesion domain of Epf from Streptococcus pyogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, Christian; Siemens, Nikolai; Middleditch, Martin J.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Baker, Edward N.

    2012-01-01

    The putative adhesion domain of the multidomain protein Epf from S. pyogenes has been crystallized in space groups P2 1 and P2 1 2 1 2 1 . The crystals diffracted to 2.0 and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively, at the Australian Synchrotron. The extracellular protein Epf from Streptococcus pyogenes is important for streptococcal adhesion to human epithelial cells. However, Epf has no sequence identity to any protein of known structure or function. Thus, several predicted domains of the 205 kDa protein Epf were cloned separately and expressed in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal domain of Epf was crystallized in space groups P2 1 and P2 1 2 1 2 1 in the presence of the protease chymotrypsin. Mass spectrometry showed that the species crystallized corresponded to a fragment comprising residues 52–357 of Epf. Complete data sets were collected to 2.0 and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively, at the Australian Synchrotron

  5. Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarbrick, Crystall M. D.; Patterson, Edward I.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Y. pestis are reported. X-ray crystallographic diffraction data to 2.0 Å resolution were collected at the Australian Synchrotron. Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4 days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12 1 1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit

  6. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  7. Revisiting the Occupational Aspirations and Destinations of Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ranbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from Australia lends support to the "Asian high achieving syndrome" in Chinese-Australian students and "self-deprivation syndrome" in Anglo-Australian students. Applying ethnographic case studies approach for doctoral thesis the author collected data on a longitudinal basis from homes and school of these students. All…

  8. Thermodynamics of Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    Thermodynamics of Crystals is a gold mine of a references bargain with more derivations of useful equations per dollar, or per page, than almost any other book I know. Useful to whom? To the solid state physicist, the solid state chemist working the geophysicist, the rock mechanic, the mineral physicist. Useful for what? For lattice dynamics, crystal potentials, band structure. For elegant, rigorous, and concise derivations of fundamental equations. For comparison of levels of approximation. For some data and physical insights, especially for metals and simple halides. This book is a reissue, with some changes and additions, of a 1970 treatise. It ages well, since the fundamentals do not change.

  9. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  10. Time crystals: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals—the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain. We shall also revisit the original Wilczek’s idea and review strategies aimed at spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry.

  11. Protein Crystal Malic Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Malic Enzyme is a target protein for drug design because it is a key protein in the life cycle of intestinal parasites. After 2 years of effort on Earth, investigators were unable to produce any crystals that were of high enough quality and for this reason the structure of this important protein could not be determined. Crystals obtained from one STS-50 were of superior quality allowing the structure to be determined. This is just one example why access to space is so vital for these studies. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  12. Biobank classification in an Australian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting.

  13. The nutritional knowledge of Australian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Christine; James, Erica L

    2005-07-01

    Sound nutrition is an essential component of good health. A number of health professionals, including nurses, provide nutritional information to the community. However, little research exists which measures the nutrition knowledge of nurses in Australia. The aim of this study was to determine the nutrition knowledge of nurses in regional Victoria. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with 103 nurses (81% currently practicing in an acute regional hospital). The nurses answered 48 multiple choice general knowledge questions (using a valid and reliable questionnaire) and provided educational and demographic details. Each multiple choice question was scored as correct or incorrect and given the value of one point (maximum possible 48 points). The mean knowledge score for all nurses was 60.2% (SD = 8.4). Older nurses, those with more years of experience, and nurses with general training (rather than a degree) scored higher average knowledge scores. Respondents reported requests for nutrition information from patients and clients, and indicated that the most frequently used nutrition information sources were dietitians, other nurses, professional journals, books and literature from the National Heart Foundation. The nutrition knowledge score reported in this study is low to moderate by definition from previous studies using the same questionnaire. It is recommended that the Australian nursing profession determines its own nutrition knowledge standard and the nutrition knowledge needs of nurses working in particular areas of practice. Further work is required to determine the validity and reliability of an Australian knowledge instrument.

  14. Hidden biases in Australian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaepfer, August

    2009-01-01

    The challenges in developing technology for the capture and storage of CO 2 from coal, oil and gas power generation, as well as those associated with the storage of nuclear waste, are widely regarded as solvable. According to proponents of clean coal, oil and gas technologies, as well as the proponents of nuclear technology, it is only a matter of time and resources to find a solution to their waste problems. Similarly, the Australian Government argues that our main efforts need to be concentrated on clean coal technologies, as well as considering the nuclear option. However, when it comes to the challenges associated with renewable energy technologies, like intermittency of wind generated grid power, storage of electricity from renewable energy and so on, there seems to be an attitude amongst Australian energy planners that these challenges represent insurmountable technical and financial problems, and will, at least in the short to medium term, prevent them from becoming a viable alternative to coal, oil, gas and uranium based energy technologies. (author)

  15. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  16. The potential for an Australian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.

    1982-06-01

    The production of uranium and its part upgrading to enriched uranium for export could be equivalent to 20-25 per cent of Australia's future export income from coal. Australia could be supplying 15,000 tonnes U/yr. and enrichment services of 2.5 million SWU/yr. by 2000. The principles of nuclear energy, nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle are described and the relationship between nuclear power and the requirements for uranium and the other steps in the fuel cycle is discussed. Estimates are given of the future world supply-demand balance for each step in the fuel cycle. A survey is made of world uranium resources and fuel cycle upgrading facilities. The costs of production and pricing are assessed in relation to the potential for an Australian industry. Comments are made on the possibility that Australia could provide the repository for both low-level radioactive waste from small countries and the bulk of the world's high level waste. The impact of a uranium industry on the Australian economy is discussed

  17. The napping behaviour of Australian university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lovato

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported sleep and napping behaviour of Australian university students and the relationship between napping and daytime functioning. A sample of 280 university first-year psychology students (median age  = 19.00 years completed a 6-item napping behaviour questionnaire, a 12-item Daytime Feelings and Functioning Scale, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results indicated that 53.6% of students reported napping with 34% napping at least 1-2 times per week, and 17% napping three or more occasions per week. Long naps, those over 30 minutes, were taken by 77% of the napping students. Sixty-one percent of students reported they took long naps during the post-lunch dip period, from 2-4 pm. Students who nap at least once per week reported significantly more problems organizing their thoughts, gaining motivation, concentrating, and finishing tasks than students who did not nap. Students who napped also felt significantly more sleepy and depressed when compared to students who did not nap. The results also indicated that nap frequency increased with daytime sleepiness. The majority of students (51% reported sleeping 6-7 hours per night or less. Overall, the results from this study suggest that among this population of Australian first-year university students habitual napping is common and may be used in an attempt to compensate for the detrimental effects of excessive sleepiness.

  18. Australian children's perceptions of discretionary foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray

    2018-01-01

    Energy-dense nutrient poor foods and drinks, often referred to as discretionary choices, can contribute a significant amount of energy, fat, sodium and sugar to the diet if consumed in large quantities. Currently many Australian children are consuming a diet that is characterised by large quantities of discretionary items. We undertook a qualitative study to gain a descriptive account of preadolescent children's attitudes and perceptions towards health and nutrition. A series of 6 focus groups and 14 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty-eight children aged 11-12 years, across three state government schools in a socially disadvantaged region of metropolitan South Australia. The naturalistic manner of qualitative inquiry led to several unintended yet highly pertinent emergent themes, including children's perceptions and practices surrounding discretionary food consumption. Our results indicate that while Australian guidelines recommend that discretionary foods are consumed 'only sometimes and in small amounts', children generally held a different belief with respect to what constituted 'sometimes'. Many children identified that discretionary foods should be consumed in moderation to maintain a balanced diet, yet reported consuming these foods frequently. Self-reported discretionary food consumption was grounded in socially constructed experiences valued by the children, who made situational attributions to foods and legitimised discretionary food consumption in certain contexts, for example during the weekend. Overall, there is variability between children's opinions about the acceptable frequency of consumption of discretionary foods compared with national guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Statins and memory loss: An Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamolowicz, Anna I; Chen, Huei-Yang; Panegyres, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Statins are a first-line drug treatment for hypercholesterolaemia. Recently there has been general public and media interest surrounding uses and side effects of statins, including memory loss. We analysed an Australian experience in statin usage in an attempt to improve understanding of the relationship between statins and memory-related adverse events. Total adverse events (TAE) and adverse events with single suspected medicines (SSM) for memory loss and other memory-related adverse events were searched for statin compounds from January 1992 to May 2013, using the Medicare Australia and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) websites and Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) adverse events data. TAE and SSM were compared to the number of prescriptions by item number searched using the PBS. The process was repeated for non-statin cholesterol-lowering drugs. The most common adverse event was amnesia (167 events for statins and six for non-statins). There were 239 TAE (incidence rate=0.88) listed for statins and 10 for non-statins (incidence rate=0.53). There were 217 SSM events listed for the statins (incidence rate = 0.08) and eight for the alternatives (incident rate=0.04). The differences between TAE and SSM incidence rates between statins and non-statins drugs were not significant (both p values >0.05). We found that there were no differences in memory-related adverse events between statins and other cholesterol-lowering medications using Australian PBS and TGA adverse events data.

  20. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  1. The Crystal Hotel: A Microfluidic Approach to Biomimetic Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiuqing; Wang, Yun-Wei; Ihli, Johannes; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Li, Shunbo; Walshaw, Richard; Chen, Li; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2015-12-02

    A "crystal hotel" microfluidic device that allows crystal growth in confined volumes to be studied in situ is used to produce large calcite single crystals with predefined crystallographic orientation, microstructure, and shape by control of the detailed physical environment, flow, and surface chemistry. This general approach can be extended to form technologically important, nanopatterned single crystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The CMS crystal calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lustermann, W

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the energy of electrons and photons with very high accuracy is of primary importance far the study of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in particular for the search of the Higgs Boson. The CMS experiment will use a crystal calorimeter with pointing geometry, almost covering 4p, as it offers a very good energy resolution. It is divided into a barrel composed of 61200 lead tungstate crystals, two end-caps with 14648 crystals and a pre-shower detector in front of the end-cap. The challenges of the calorimeter design arise from the high radiation environment, the 4 Tesla magnetic eld, the high bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the large dynamic range, requiring the development of fast, radiation hard crystals, photo-detectors and readout electronics. An overview of the construction and design of the calorimeter will be presented, with emphasis on some of the details required to meet the demanding performance goals. 19 Refs.

  3. Hardness of metallic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a new formula for calculating the hardness of metallic crystals, resulted from the research on the critical grain size with stable dislocations. The formula is = 6 /[(1 – )], where is the hardness, the coefficient, the shear modulus, the Poisson's ratio, a function of the radius of an atom () ...

  4. Thermoelectricity in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Said, Suhana; Nordin, Abdul Rahman; Abdullah, Norbani; Balamurugan, S.

    2015-09-01

    The thermoelectric effect, also known as the Seebeck effect, describes the conversion of a temperature gradient into electricity. A Figure of Merit (ZT) is used to describe the thermoelectric ability of a material. It is directly dependent on its Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, and inversely dependent on its thermal conductivity. There is usually a compromise between these parameters, which limit the performance of thermoelectric materials. The current achievement for ZT~2.2 falls short of the expected threshold of ZT=3 to allow its viability in commercial applications. In recent times, advances in organic thermoelectrics been significant, improving by over 3 orders of magnitude over a period of about 10 years. Liquid crystals are newly investigated as candidate thermoelectric materials, given their low thermal conductivity, inherent ordering, and in some cases, reasonable electrical conductivity. In this work the thermoelectric behaviour of a discotic liquid crystal, is discussed. The DLC was filled into cells coated with a charge injector, and an alignment of the columnar axis perpendicular to the substrate was allowed to form. This thermoelectric behavior can be correlated to the order-disorder transition. A reasonable thermoelectric power in the liquid crystal temperature regime was noted. In summary, thermoelectric liquid crystals may have the potential to be utilised in flexible devices, as a standalone power source.

  5. The Crystal Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  6. Positrons in ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, R.

    1988-01-01

    Positron annihilation experiments in ionic crystals are reviewed and their results are arranged. A discussion about the positron states in these materials is made in the light of these results and the different proposed models. The positronium in alkali halides is specially considered. (Author)

  7. Soap Bubbles and Crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jean Taylor is Professor. Emerita at Rutgers. University and currently a. Visitor at the Courant. Institute, NYU. She works on problems related to soap bubble froths, crystals, and how they evolve under various physical laws. Much of her recent research has been interdisciplinary, joint work with materials scientists ...

  8. Rhombohedrel Hybrid Crystal Semiconductor Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a new high speed and high efficiency hybrid crystal structure semiconductor device based on the the recent invention of rhombohedral hybrid crystal...

  9. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  10. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Playing With Antidepressants: Perspectives From Indian Australians and Anglo-Australians Living With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Antoniades, Josefine

    2017-11-01

    Patient perspectives were explored on the meaning and experience of antidepressant use by applying Johan Huizinga's theory of play to interviews from Indian Australians and Anglo-Australians diagnosed with depression. Through the analysis, the centrality of Huizinga's "magic circle" emerged, that is, defining the boundaries within which one could safely play. Consumption of antidepressants involved learning, breaking, and modulating rules of the game of adherence, then forging a new "magic circle." In these games, there were playful elements including experimentation, improvisation, absorption, and experiential learning. This application of Huizinga's theory in relation to antidepressant use is a novel approach in the literature on medication non/adherence. This application not only opens a new theoretical line of inquiry but also shows that antidepressant non/adherence is not a static practice but dynamic and changing, revealing critical insights around participant's agency, capabilities, desires, and notions of selfhood with regard to managing their depression and conceptualizing their recovery.

  12. Electrical properties of molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    This literature survey summarizes the electrical properties of molecular crystals: molecular crystal structure, transport and excitation mechanisms of charge-carriers, and differences compared to inorganic semi-conductors. The main results concerning the electrical conductivity of the most-studied molecular crystals are presented, together with the optical and photo-electrical properties of these crystals. Finally the different types of electrical measurements used are reviewed, as well as the limits of each method. (author) [fr

  13. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hassam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

  14. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  15. Evaluating explanations of the Australian 'heroin shortage'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Reuter, Peter; Collins, Linette; Hall, Wayne

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we outline and evaluate competing explanations for a heroin shortage that occurred in Australia during 2001 with an abrupt onset at the beginning of 2001. We evaluated each of the explanations offered for the shortage against evidence from a variety of sources: government reports, police and drug law enforcement documents and briefings, key informant (KI) interviews, indicator data and research data. No similar shortage occurred at the same time in other markets (e.g. Vancouver, Canada or Hong Kong) whose heroin originated in the same countries as Australia's. The shortage was due most probably to a combination of factors that operated synergistically and sequentially. The heroin market had grown rapidly in the late 1990s, perhaps helped by a decline in drug law enforcement (DLE) in Australia in the early 1990s that facilitated high-level heroin suppliers in Asia to establish large-scale importation heroin networks into Australia. This led to an increase in the availability of heroin, increasingly visible street-based drug markets, increased purity and decreased price of heroin around the country. The Australian heroin market was well established by the late 1990s, but it had a low profit margin with high heroin purity, and a lower price than ever before. The surge in heroin problems led to increased funding of the Australian Federal Police and Customs as part of the National Illicit Drug Strategy in 1998-99, with the result that a number of key individuals and large seizures occurred during 1999-2000, probably increasing the risks of large-scale importation. The combination of low profits and increased success of law enforcement may have reduced the dependability of key suppliers of heroin to Australia at a time when seized heroin was becoming more difficult to replace because of reduced supplies in the Golden Triangle. These factors may have reduced the attractiveness of Australia as a destination for heroin trafficking. The Australian heroin

  16. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Peter M; Chan, Lily; Moss, Chelsea L; Miller, Michelle D; Cobiac, Lynne

    2011-12-12

    There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) have played a role in this increase. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2) relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES), TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3) compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015) in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit) was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p < 0.05). In the 2007 survey 23% of children were overweight (17%) or obese (6%) while in the 1995 survey this figure was 21%. The proportion of children consuming SSBs in 1995 and 2007 for selected age groups were: 2-3 years - 25.8% and 12.8% respectively and 4-7 years - 33.6% and 20.5% respectively (p < 0.001 for both). This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite

  17. Growth charts for Australian children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofts, Louise; Das, Sandeep; Collins, Felicity; Burton, Karen L O

    2017-08-01

    Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder, the most common genetic cause of short stature in humans. Reference curves for head circumference, weight, height, and BMI are needed in clinical practice but none exist for the Australian population. This study aimed to produce head circumference, height, weight, and BMI reference percentile curves for Australian children and adolescents with achondroplasia. Measurements of head circumference, height and weight taken at clinical visits were retrospectively extracted from the electronic medical record. Age was corrected for prematurity. Patients were excluded from head circumference analysis if they had significant neurosurgical complications and from the weight and BMI analysis when they had a clinical diagnosis of overweight. Measurements were available on 138 individuals (69 males and 69 females) taken between 1970 and 2015, with over 50% collected since 2005. A total of 3,352 data points were available. The LMS method was used to produce growth charts with estimated centiles (10, 25, 50, 75, and 90th) separately for males and females. For females birth weight was 3 kg (2.5-3.5 kg), birth length 48 cm (44-50 cm) and head circumference 37.5 cm (36-39 cm), adult height was 125 cm (116-132 cm), weight 42 kg (34-54 kg), and head circumference 58 cm (55.5-60.5 cm) all 50th centile (10-90th). For males birth weight was 3.5 kg (3-4 kg), length 49 cm (46-52 cm) and head circumference 38.5 cm (36-41 cm), adult height was 134 cm (125-141 cm), weight 41 kg (24.5-57 kg) and head circumference 61 cm (58-64 cm). The curves are similar to previously published reference data from the USA and have expected population wide variation from curves from an Argentinian population. Despite limitations of our curves for adolescents (12 years and older) due to data paucity, these Australian growth charts for children and adolescents with achondroplasia will be a useful reference in clinical

  18. The carbon footprint of Australian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; McAlister, Scott; McGain, Forbes

    2018-01-01

    Carbon footprints stemming from health care have been found to be variable, from 3% of the total national CO 2 equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions in England to 10% of the national CO 2 e emissions in the USA. We aimed to measure the carbon footprint of Australia's health-care system. We did an observational economic input-output lifecycle assessment of Australia's health-care system. All expenditure data were obtained from the 15 sectors of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for the financial year 2014-15. The Australian Industrial Ecology Virtual Laboratory (IELab) data were used to obtain CO 2 e emissions per AUS$ spent on health care. In 2014-15 Australia spent $161·6 billion on health care that led to CO 2 e emissions of about 35 772 (68% CI 25 398-46 146) kilotonnes. Australia's total CO 2 e emissions in 2014-15 were 494 930 kilotonnes, thus health care represented 35 772 (7%) of 494 930 kilotonnes total CO 2 e emissions in Australia. The five most important sectors within health care in decreasing order of total CO 2 e emissions were: public hospitals (12 295 [34%] of 35 772 kilotonnes CO 2 e), private hospitals (3635 kilotonnes [10%]), other medications (3347 kilotonnes [9%]), benefit-paid drugs (3257 kilotonnes [9%]), and capital expenditure for buildings (2776 kilotonnes [8%]). The carbon footprint attributed to health care was 7% of Australia's total; with hospitals and pharmaceuticals the major contributors. We quantified Australian carbon footprint attributed to health care and identified health-care sectors that could be ameliorated. Our results suggest the need for carbon-efficient procedures, including greater public health measures, to lower the impact of health-care services on the environment. None. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  20. Surface properties of HMX crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, R. Y.; Adicoff, A.; Dibble, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The surface properties of Beta-HMX crystals were studied. The surface energies of three principal crystal faces were obtained by measuring contact angles with several reference liquids. The surface energies and polarity of the three crystal faces are found to be different.

  1. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  2. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  3. A Few Good Crystals Please

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the challenge of macromolecular crystal growth for structure determination is obtaining an appropriate number of crystals with a crystal volume suitable for X-ray analysis. In this respect an understanding of the effect of solution conditions on macromolecule nucleation rates is advantageous. This study investigated the effects of solution conditions on the nucleation rate and final crystal size of two crystal systems; tetragonal lysozyme and glucose isomerase. Batch crystallization plates were prepared at given solution concentration and incubated at set temperatures over one week. The number of crystals per well with their size and axial ratios were recorded and correlated with solution conditions. Duplicate experiments indicate the reproducibility of the technique. Results for each system showing the effect of supersaturation, incubation temperature and solution pH on nucleation rates will be presented and discussed. In the case of lysozyme, having optimized solution conditions to produce an appropriate number of crystals of a suitable size, a batch of crystals were prepared under exactly the same conditions. Fifty of these crystals were analyzed by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that even under the same crystallization conditions, a marked variation in crystal properties exists.

  4. Crystal engineering: A brief overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crystal engineering demands a detailed and thorough knowledge of intermolecular interactions, which act as the supramolecular glue that binds molecules into crystals. It also requires systematic strategies for the design of a crystal, the architectural blueprint as it were. Finally, this enterprise needs to be geared towards a ...

  5. Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector's responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2013-05-01

    Identify strategies to implement change across the Australian healthcare sector to better support social and natural environments. Methods. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Australian healthcare professionals. Interviewees described multiple barriers to implementing change and numerous strategies to overcome these barriers. They argued that action must be taken at the individual and systemic levels to produce substantial and effective change. The strategies recommended fall into four main categories: altering workplace cultures and professional identities, community engagement, political activity, and change from within. The overarching goals of these strategies are to reduce negative impacts on the natural environment, and increase social equity within and across generations. By implementing the strategies described, a more cohesive effort to address sustainability issues across the sector can be made. This may improve local and global health, within current and future generations. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Healthcare has a significant impact on the natural and social environments, which in turn have a significant impact upon health and healthcare. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper describes strategies to alter healthcare to better support environmental sustainability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Collective implementation of the described strategies may allow a more cohesive and effective response across the Australian healthcare sector, to enhance local and global health for current and future generations.

  6. Enhancing User Access to Australian marine data - the Australian Ocean Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Mancini, S.; Blain, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a national project funded by the Australian government established to deliver ocean observations to the marine and climate science community. Now in its 10th year its mission is to undertake systematic and sustained observations and to turn them into data, products and analyses that can be freely used and reused for broad societal benefits. As IMOS has matured as an observing system the expectation of the system's availability and reliability has also increased and IMOS is now seen as delivering `operational' information; it does this through the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN). The AODN runs its services in the commercial cloud service Amazon Web Services. This has enabled the AODN to improve the system architecture, utilizing more advanced features like object storage (S3 - Simple Storage Service) and autoscaling features, and introducing new checking and logging procedures in a pipeline approach. This has improved data availability and resilience while protecting against human errors in data handling and providing a more efficient ingestion process. Many of these features are available through AODN to the wider Australian marine and science community enabling the `family' of AODN to grow, thereby enabling rapid access to an increasing collection of ocean observations.

  7. Crystal Engineering of Hand-Twisted Helical Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhankar; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2017-02-08

    A strategy is outlined for the design of hand-twisted helical crystals. The starting point in the exercise is the one-dimensional (1D) plastic crystal, 1,4-dibromobenzene, which is then changed to a 1D elastic crystal, exemplified by 4-bromophenyl 4'-chlorobenzoate, by introduction of a molecular synthon -O-CO- in lieu of the supramolecular synthon Br···Br in the precursor. The 1D elastic crystals are next modified to two-dimensional (2D) elastic crystals, of the type 4-bromophenyl 4'-nitrobenzoate where the halogen bonding and C-H···O hydrogen bonding are well-matched. Finally, varying the interaction strengths in these 2D elastic crystals gives plastic crystals with two pairs of bendable faces but without slip planes. Typical examples are 4-chlorophenyl and 4-bromophenyl 4'-nitrobenzoate. This type of 2D plasticity represents a new type of bendable crystals in which plastic behavior is seen with a fair degree of isotropic character in the crystal packing. The presence of two sets of bendable faces, generally orthogonal to each other, allows for the possibility of hand-twisting of the crystals to give grossly helical morphologies. Accordingly, we propose the name hand-twisted helical crystals for these substances.

  8. Market outlook for Australian uranium producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    2001-01-01

    Recent improvements in the uranium market and political changes in Australia presented the uranium producers with their best opportunity in over 15 years. The removal of the well known 'three mines policy' by the current government has encouraged Australian producers to develop new development plans. With the expansion of the existing operations at Ranger and Olympic Dam, and the potential operations of Jabiluka, Kintyre, Koongara, Honeymoon and Beverley, Australia expects to increase annual production to 11630 t U 3 O 8 by the end of the decade. It will then join Canada as a major supplier of uranium to the world's nuclear power utilities in the 21st century. Uranium exploration, which has been virtually nonexistent over the past 15 years, has once again been reactivated. This occurred because of the change in the Government, but also because the Aboriginal groups are once more allowing exploration on their land. (author)

  9. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  10. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  11. Lifestyle of young Australian adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent disease that may affect the lifestyle adopted by young adults. This study investigated whether asthma status influences fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking behavior of young adults in Australia. Information of 2619 participants aged 18 to 29 years was extracted from the 2007-2008 Australian National Health Survey database. The level of physical activity and fruit consumption were found to be similar between young adults with and without asthma. Participants with asthma symptoms in the past 12 months were more likely to achieve the dietary recommendation for vegetable intake, but they tended to smoke tobacco and consume alcohol above safe levels. It may be necessary to develop prevention strategies targeting young adults with asthma that include screening for harmful use of substances. © 2012 APJPH.

  12. Health priorities in an Australian mining town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, I. K.; Skinner, T. C.; Bhana, A.

    2014-01-01

    recorded gender, age, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander self-identification status, whether people worked in the mining industry or not and in what capacity and occupation. Participants were asked a series of questions about health issues of concern from a list of 13 issues which included national......Introduction: In developed countries men's health is poorer than women's for a range of key indicators, and being an Indigenous man in Australia widens the gap substantially. Establishing the rates of mortality and health inequality between the sexes is useful for identifying that men's health...... needs attention and Indigenous men need particular attention. Men's health-seeking behaviour has been suggested as one of the causes of poor outcomes. This study aimed to identify differences in health concerns between men and women, and Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in an Australian mining town...

  13. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  14. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in Australian Merino lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, A E; Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Jerrett, I V

    2012-07-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a morphological abnormality in man and animals that is characterized by the occurrence of numerous axonal swellings (spheroids) in the nervous system. NAD has been described in Suffolk lambs in the USA, Merino lambs in Australia and several breeds of sheep in New Zealand. This paper describes the clinicopathological changes of only the second occurrence of NAD reported in Merino lambs. There were some features (myelin loss, gliosis and visual impairment) in these Australian cases that have not been reported previously in ovine NAD. Application of immunohistochemical markers of axonal transport suggested that disruption of this transport mechanism contributed to spheroid development. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health priorities in an Australian mining town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, I. K.; Skinner, T. C.; Bhana, A.

    2014-01-01

    needs attention and Indigenous men need particular attention. Men's health-seeking behaviour has been suggested as one of the causes of poor outcomes. This study aimed to identify differences in health concerns between men and women, and Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in an Australian mining town...... recorded gender, age, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander self-identification status, whether people worked in the mining industry or not and in what capacity and occupation. Participants were asked a series of questions about health issues of concern from a list of 13 issues which included national...... and local health priorities. They were then asked to prioritise their choices. Results: Three hundred and eighty participants completed the survey, 48% were male; 18.4% identified as an Indigenous person and 21% worked in the local mining industry. Men's and women's health priorities were generally similar...

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Australian Ration Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    74.85, 73.47, 3/8 73.86 Luncheon Meat Type I I Fat < 10% 11.31, 10.64, 4/4 11.74, 11.08 CRIM Cereal Block Moisture < 6% 6.37 1/1 Survival Biscuit...kg 0.8, 16.3, 8.0 3/3 Fruit Drink Powders Ascorbic Acid > 0.2% 0.152, 0.172, 3/3 0.092 0 EFR I Cereal Block Moisture < 6% 6.31 1/2 Chocolate Ascorbic...Laboratory PAPUA NEW GUINEA Jyothi Naga Headquarters MYSORE 570 010 India 2Australian Defence Cooperation Group (HO ADCG) MALAYSIA P.O. Box 2270

  17. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.

    1987-01-01

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  18. Occupational heat stress in Australian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Brotherhood, John R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the current state of knowledge on heat stress risk within typical Australian occupational settings. We assessed identified occupations (mining, agriculture, construction, emergency services) for heat production and heat loss potential, and resultant levels of physiological heat strain. A total of 29 reports were identified that assessed in-situ work settings in Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, that measured physiological responses and characterized the thermal environment. Despite workers across all industries being regularly exposed to high ambient temperatures (32-42°C) often coupled with high absolute humidity (max: 33 hPa), physiological strain is generally low in terms of core temperature (demands of many tasks, and self-regulated pacing of work possible in most jobs. Heat stress risk is higher in specific jobs in agriculture (e.g. sheep shearing), deep underground mining, and emergency services (e.g., search/rescue and bushfire fighting). Heat strain was greatest in military-related activities, particularly externally-paced marching with carried loads which resulted in core temperatures often exceeding 39.5°C despite being carried out in cooler environments. The principal driver of core temperature elevations in most jobs is the rate of metabolic heat production. A standardized approach to evaluating the risk of occupational heat strain in Australian workplaces is recommended defining the individual parameters that alter human heat balance. Future research should also more closely examine female workers and occupational activities within the forestry and agriculture/horticulture sector.

  19. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  20. Green Growth in cities: two Australian cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmee Tania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Growth (GG is about decoupling emission intensity from economic growth, which can be achieved by fostering positive economic growth through resource-efficiency, cleaner environment and increased resilience to climate change. Cities play an important role in economic development, as they are inhabited by a large proportion of the global population in a relatively small land area and cities are the wheel of the economy of a country. Implementation and measurement of GG in cities is challenging as the regulatory framework, roles and responsibilities to the citizen and the encompassing environment of cities differ significantly. This can be addressed by identifying a set of GG indicators that are relevant to target cities, which would be used by the cities to implement programs and policies, and to measure progress and performance. Australia is situated in an environment somewhat disconnected from the rest of the world, which is home to unique biodiversity and vulnerable ecosystems. The regulatory and institutional framework of Australian cities is different to many other cities in the world in terms of their obligations to the community and the environment, and the level of law enforcement, particularly in areas that are relevant for GG. This paper reviews the available GG indicators in cities and assesses the applicability of those indicators against the regulatory and institutional framework of Australian cities. The application of the proposed set of indicators to the City of Melbourne and the City of Perth helped to validate the appropriateness of those indicators and to assess the performance of the cities in relation to GG. It appears that the cities are performing well in some areas and need improvement in others. The cities also need to mainstream the GG indicators and to align their data measurement and recording systems in line with the proposed GG indicators.

  1. Nuclear techniques in Australian animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the production of domestic animals is frequently depressed by the climatic and ecological conditions. These negative effects can be overcome to a great extent by improved methods of animal and land management. In animal research, nuclear techniques are playing an important role in the study of different aspects of nutrition, metabolism, reproduction and health of domestic animals. In response to the need expressed by Member States for more information on these techniques, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA's Division of Technical Assistance organized a study tour to Australia, a country which has developed considerable expertise in agricultural and animal research. The purpose of the study tour was to enable veterinary and animal scientists and administrators from developing countries in Asia and the Far East to observe at first hand the ways in which animal production, particularly meat, milk and wool, can be increased in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fourteen senior scientists and research directors from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand) participated. The counterpart organizations in Australia were the Australian Development Assistance Agency (ADAA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The chief programmer and co-ordinator of the study tour was John E. Vercoe, officer-in-charge of CSIRO's Tropical Cattle Research Centre in Rockhampton, and a former IAEA staff member. The tour was financed by the United Nations Development Programme. The participants visited research facilities of universities, national and state laboratories and commercial cattle producers. The tour started at Sydney and proceeded north along the east coast of Australia to Townsville. On the way, major stops were made in Armidale, Grafton, Wollongbar, Brisbane and Rockhampton. In Rockhampton, a

  2. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2016-12-24

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  3. Graphene-based photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolesnikov, Anton A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel type of photonic crystal formed by embedding a periodic array of constituent stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric discs into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The photonic band structure and transmittance of such photonic crystal are calculated. The graphene-based photonic crystals can be used effectively as the frequency filters and waveguides for the far infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum. Due to substantial suppression of absorption of low-frequency radiation in doped graphene the damping and skin effect in the photonic crystal are also suppressed. The advantages of the graphene-based photonic crystal are discussed.

  4. Progress of Pharmaceutical Continuous Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejiang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. At present, most pharmaceutical crystallization processes are performed in batches. However, due to product variability from batch to batch and to the low productivity of batch crystallization, continuous crystallization is gaining increasing attention. In the past few years, progress has been made to allow the products of continuous crystallization to meet different requirements. This review summarizes the progress in pharmaceutical continuous crystallization from a product engineering perspective. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of continuous crystallization are compared, with the main difference between the two main types of crystallizers being their difference in residence time distribution. Approaches that use continuous crystallization to meet different quality requirements are summarized. Continuous crystallization has advantages in terms of size and morphology control. However, it also has the problem of a process yield that may be lower than that of a batch process, especially in the production of chirality crystals. Finally, different control strategies are compared.

  5. Liquid crystals in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

    2009-09-18

    Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  6. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  7. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  8. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  9. Magnetic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubchanskii, I L [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 72, R. Luxemburg St., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Dadoenkova, N N [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 72, R. Luxemburg St., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Lyubchanskii, M I [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 72, R. Luxemburg St., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Shapovalov, E A [Department of Physics, Donetsk National University, 24, Universitetskaya St., 83055 Donetsk (Ukraine); Rasing, Th [NSRIM Institute, University of Nijmegen, 6525 ED, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2003-09-21

    In this paper we outline a new direction in the area of photonic crystals (PCs), or photonic band gap materials, i.e. one-, two-, or three-dimensional superstructures with periods that are comparable with the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. The main (and principal) characteristic of this new class of PCs is the presence of magnetically ordered components (or external magnetic field). The linear and nonlinear optical properties of such magnetic PCs are discussed. (topical review)

  10. LEAR Crystal Barrel Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, K.; Keh, S.; Montanet, L.; Zoll, J.; Beckmann, R.; Friedrich, J.; Heinsius, H.; Kiel, T.; Lewendel, B.; Pegel, C.; and others

    1988-11-20

    The features of the Crystal Barrel Detector which is in preparation for LEAR at CERN, are discussed. The physics aims include q-barq- and exotics-spectroscopy and a detailed investigation of yet unknown p-barp-anihilation channels. An eventual later use on the PSI-B-Meson-Factory is discussed. The paper finishes with a description of the present status of the project.

  11. Rare earths crystal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    From the viewpoint of general crystal chemistry principles and on the basis of modern data the structural chemistry of rare earth compounds in different oxidation degrees (2,3,4) is briefly presented. The change of the structure type of oxides, halides and some other compounds of rare earths, as well as the coordination number of the central atom from lanthanide ionic radius is considered

  12. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  13. Crystals against cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    This is a remarkable example of direct technology transfer from particle physics to medicine. Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new medical imaging system for the diagnosis of breast cancer, which uses positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  14. Dynamics of Vortex Crystals.*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D. Z.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    1997-11-01

    We discuss the linear and nonlinear 2D dynamics of vortex crystals observed in experiments on pure electron plasmas [1]. Vortex crystals are rods of intense vorticity that form stable geometrical patterns in a low vorticity background. We consider a system consisting of several point vortices inside an initially circular background of constant vorticity. When the point vorticities have sufficiently small circulation compared to the background, there exist two time scales in the dynamics: a slow time scale associated with the motion of the point vortices and the driven response in the background; and a fast time scale associated with freely streaming Kelvin waves on the edge of the background vorticity profile. On the slow time scale, we show that the linear dynamics of the point vortices is equivalent to the classical problem of point vortices inside a circular conducting boundary, with the boundary radius equal to that of the background. However, filamentation involving both slow and fast time scales and subsequent wave breaking eventually occurs due to the nonlinear processes. This causes turbulent mixing of the background, and may be responsible for the irreversible ``cooling'' of the point vortex motions toward the vortex crystal state. Supported by NSF grant PHY94-21318. [1] K.S. Fine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3277 (1995).

  15. Dynamics of Vortex Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D. Z.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    1997-11-01

    This poster discusses the linear and nonlinear dynamics of vortex crystals observed in experiments on pure electron plasmas [1]. Vortex crystals are rods of intense density that form stable geometrical patterns in a low density background. We consider a system consisting of several line charges inside an initially circular background of constant density. When the line charges have sufficiently small charge per unit length compared to the background, there exist two time scales in the dynamics: a slow time scale associated with the motion of the line charges and the driven response in the background; and a fast time scale associated with freely streaming diocotron waves on the edge of the background density profile. On the slow time scale, we show that the linear dynamics of the line charges is equivalent to the classical problem of line charges inside a circular conducting wall, with the wall radius equal to that of the background. However, filamentation involving both slow and fast time scales and subsequent wave breaking eventually occurs due to the nonlinear processes. This causes turbulent mixing of the background, and may be responsible for the irreversible ``cooling'' of the line charge motions toward the vortex crystal state. Supported by NSF grant PHY94-21318. [1] K.S. Fine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3277 (1995).

  16. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  17. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  18. Indigenous Australian women's colonial sexual intimacies: positioning indigenous women's agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Corrinne Tayce

    2018-04-01

    Colonialist views of Indigenous bodies and sexualities continue to affect Indigenous peoples worldwide. For Indigenous Australians, this burden has resulted in repression and oppression of power, sex and desire. Focusing on the sexual intimacies of Indigenous Australian women, this paper provides an account of the dominant Australian historical discourses, finding that Indigenous women were viewed as exotic, erotic, something to be desired, yet simultaneously something to be feared. Our sexualities were described as savage, promiscuous and primitive and we were often viewed as prostitutes with our voices and views constrained by patriarchal and imperial regimes of power. But within this context, Indigenous women fought back through both individual and collective acts of agency. This paper demonstrates how Indigenous Australian women's agency not as a new phenomenon but rather as a position that disrupts the popular discourses of exploitation and victimhood that have been persistently perpetrated against Indigenous women.

  19. The Australian Defence Force: Broadened Concepts of Security Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wing, Ian

    1998-01-01

    ...-fighting role and could result in fundamental force structure and resource changes. More Australian Government policy changes are possible, and increased participation in counter-drug operations has been foreshadowed...

  20. Progress Towards Mars Rover Simulations in the Australian Outback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, B.; Fenton, A.; Hoffman, N.

    2001-03-01

    Mars Society Australia plans to conduct field operations of a simulated pressurised rover in the Australian desert. Scientific objectives will be combined with construction and design techniques to assist with future manned missions.

  1. Bark traits, decomposition and flammability of Australian forest trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootemaat, Saskia; Wright, Ian J.; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.; Shaw, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Bark shedding is a remarkable feature of Australian trees, yet relatively little is known about interspecific differences in bark decomposability and flammability, or what chemical or physical traits drive variation in these properties. We measured the decomposition rate and flammability

  2. The fluid phenomena in the crystallization of the protein crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Li; Kang Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that an optical diagnostic system consisting of Mach–Zehnder interferometer with a phase shift device and image processor has been used for study of the kinetics of protein crystal growing process. The crystallization process of protein crystal by vapour diffusion is investigated. The interference fringes are observed in real time. The present experiment demonstrates that the diffusion and the sedimentation influence the crystallization of protein crystal which grows in solution, and the concentration capillary convection associated with surface tension occurs at the vicinity of free surface of the protein mother liquor, and directly affects on the outcome of protein crystallization. So far the detailed analysis and the important role of the fluid phenomena in protein crystallization have been discussed a little in both space- and ground-based crystal growth experiments. It is also found that these fluid phenomena affect the outcome of protein crystallization, regular growth, and crystal quality. This may explain the fact that many results of space-based investigation do not show overall improvement. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. The Effects of Unemployment on the Earnings of Young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gray

    2000-01-01

    The high rates of youth unemployment experienced in a number of OECD economies has raised concerns about the effect of this on subsequent earnings. Using the Australian Youth Survey (AYS) a longitudinal survey of Australian youth, we estimate the effects of unemployment on subsequent hourly and weekly earnings. The estimates suggest that, when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account, it is only long histories of unemployment which have a negative effect on hourly wages. On the other ha...

  4. The chlorine-36 dating program at the Australian National University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.F.; Ophel, T.R.; Bird, J.R.; Calf, G.E.; Allison, G.B.; Chivas, A.R.

    1987-05-01

    A chlorine-36 dating capability based on the 14UD pelletron accelerator was developed at the Australian National University during 1986 and is now entering the routine measurement phase. It involves a collaboration between the Department of Nuclear Physics, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and CSIRO Division of Soils. The chlorine-36 dating system is described and some early results are presented for samples of chloride from salt lakes in Western Australia and soil profiles in South Australia

  5. The Australian stock market development: Prospects and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sheilla Nyasha; Nicholas M. Odhiambo

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the origin and development of the Australian stock market. The country has three major stock exchanges, namely: the Australian Securities Exchange Group, the National Stock Exchange of Australia, and the Asia-Pacific Stock Exchange. These stock exchanges were born out of a string of stock exchanges that merged over time. Stock-market reforms have been implemented since the period of deregulation, during the 1980s; and the Exchanges responded largely positively to these r...

  6. Structure and experiences of the Australian National Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed account is given of the history, structure and functions of the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO). Its nuclear materials accounting and control procedures and its research and development programs are discussed. Australia's physical protection policy and the ASO's role in this field are described. The Australian views on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials and the establishment of National Authorities such as the ASO are outlined

  7. Viewing platforms: a photographic investigation of Australian tourist landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Häggblom, Kristian Paul

    2017-01-01

    Viewing Platforms is a photographic investigation of the relationships that are played out in the Australian landscape between tourists and remote destinations and the subsequent interaction of society, space and nature. Photographs are made at both remote urban and rural landscape attractions and the liminal spaces that separate these tourist travel destinations. For this project, the uniquely Australian long distances to journey to these locations are considered part of the tourist experien...

  8. Nucleonic gauges in the Australian mining and exploration industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.

    2000-01-01

    On-line and in-situ nucleonic analysis systems have found widespread application in the Australian metalliferous mineral and coal industries. The rapid and reliable response of these systems has led to improved exploration and better control of mining and mineral processing. This paper reviews both types of nucleonic control system (on-line and in-situ) available in Australian exploration and mining market. (author)

  9. Determinants of voluntary accounting policy choices by Australian life insurers

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpes, P J M

    1997-01-01

    This paper empirically examines various incentives facing managers of Australian life insurers to voluntarily use actuarial-based income smoothing techniques (AIS). AIS were subsequently incorporated into jointly-developed Australian and New Zealand life insurance accounting standards (LIAS) issued in 1997. The propensity of managers to voluntarily use AIS is predicted to be related to the firm s tax rate, ownership structure, size, expense ratio and solvency. These predictions were tested on...

  10. Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng

    2009-11-01

    Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective.

  11. Measures of Buyer Concentration in the Australian Wool Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Phillip; Simmons, Phil

    1995-01-01

    The study uses empirical measures of market concentration to examine buyer competition in wool between 1974 and 1992. Three measures of concentration are examined, concentration ratios, Herfindahl indices and Lorenz curves. Data from the Australian Council of Wool Exporters are used to obtain estimates of these measures over the sample period. The results indicate that the buying sector in the Australian wool market is relatively concentrated and calculation of Spearman correlation coefficien...

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic resistance in Australian cystic fibrosis centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J; Ramsay, Kay A; Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Reid, David W; Wainwright, Claire E; Grimwood, Keith; Bell, Scott C; Kidd, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is associated with increased morbidity, antibiotic treatments and mortality. By linking Australian CF registry data with a national microbiological data set, we examined the association between where treatment was delivered, its intensity and P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. Sputa were collected from paediatric and adult CF patients attending 18 Australian CF centres. P. aeruginosa antibiotic susceptibilities determined by local laboratories were correlated with clinical characteristics, treatment intensity and infection with strains commonly shared among Australian CF patients. Between-centre differences in treatment and antibiotic resistance were also compared. Large variations in antibiotic usage, maintenance treatment practices and multi-antibiotic resistant P. aeruginosa (MARPA) prevalence exist between Australian CF centres, although the overall proportions of MARPA isolates were similar in paediatric and adult centres (31% vs 35%, P = 0.29). Among paediatric centres, MARPA correlated with intravenous antibiotic usage and the Australian state where treatment was delivered, while azithromycin, reduced lung function and treating state predicted intravenous antibiotic usage. In adult centres, body mass index (BMI) and treating state were associated with MARPA, while intravenous antibiotic use was predicted by gender, BMI, dornase-alpha, azithromycin, lung function and treating state. In adults, P. aeruginosa strains AUST-01 and AUST-02 independently predicted intravenous antibiotic usage. Increased treatment intensity in paediatric centres and the Australian state where treatment was received are both associated with greater risk of MARPA, but not worse clinical outcomes. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. DDA Computations of Porous Aggregates with Forsterite Crystals: Effects of Crystal Shape and Crystal Mass Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Harker, David; Woodward, Charles; Kelley, Michael S.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2015-01-01

    Porous aggregate grains are commonly found in cometary dust samples and are needed to model cometary IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Models for thermal emissions from comets require two forms of silicates: amorphous and crystalline. The dominant crystal resonances observed in comet SEDs are from Forsterite (Mg2SiO4). The mass fractions that are crystalline span a large range from 0.0 25 AU at 1E6 yr) by inner disk materials (crystals) are challenged to yield the highend-range of cometary crystal mass fractions. However, in current thermal models, Forsterite crystals are not incorporated into larger aggregate grains but instead only are considered as discrete crystals. A complicating factor is that Forsterite crystals with rectangular shapes better fit the observed spectral resonances in wavelength (11.0-11.15 microns, 16, 19, 23.5, 27, and 33 microns), feature asymmetry and relative height (Lindley et al. 2013) than spherically or elliptically shaped crystals. We present DDA-DDSCAT computations of IR absorptivities (Qabs) of 3 micron-radii porous aggregates with 0.13 crystals. We can produce crystal resonances with similar appearance to the observed resonances of comet Hale- Bopp. Also, a lower mass fraction of crystals in aggregates can produce the same spectral contrast as a higher mass fraction of discrete crystals; the 11micron and 23 micron crystalline resonances appear amplified when crystals are incorporated into aggregates composed otherwise of spherically shaped amorphous Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. We show that the optical properties of a porous aggregate is not linear combination of its monomers, so aggregates need to be computed. We discuss the consequence of lowering comet crystal mass fractions by modeling IR SEDs with aggregates with crystals, and the implications for radial transport models of our protoplanetary disk.

  14. Principles of crystallization, and methods of single crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacra, T.

    2010-01-01

    Most of single crystals (monocrystals), have distinguished optical, electrical, or magnetic properties, which make from single crystals, key elements in most of technical modern devices, as they may be used as lenses, Prisms, or grating sin optical devises, or Filters in X-Ray and spectrographic devices, or conductors and semiconductors in electronic, and computer industries. Furthermore, Single crystals are used in transducer devices. Moreover, they are indispensable elements in Laser and Maser emission technology.Crystal Growth Technology (CGT), has started, and developed in the international Universities and scientific institutions, aiming at some of single crystals, which may have significant properties and industrial applications, that can attract the attention of international crystal growth centers, to adopt the industrial production and marketing of such crystals. Unfortunately, Arab universities generally, and Syrian universities specifically, do not give even the minimum interest, to this field of Science.The purpose of this work is to attract the attention of Crystallographers, Physicists and Chemists in the Arab universities and research centers to the importance of crystal growth, and to work on, in the first stage to establish simple, uncomplicated laboratories for the growth of single crystal. Such laboratories can be supplied with equipment, which are partly available or can be manufactured in the local market. Many references (Articles, Papers, Diagrams, etc..) has been studied, to conclude the most important theoretical principles of Phase transitions,especially of crystallization. The conclusions of this study, are summarized in three Principles; Thermodynamic-, Morphologic-, and Kinetic-Principles. The study is completed by a brief description of the main single crystal growth methods with sketches, of equipment used in each method, which can be considered as primary designs for the equipment, of a new crystal growth laboratory. (author)

  15. Wave transport in the South Australian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, John A. T.; James, Charles

    2018-02-01

    The specification of the dynamics of the air-sea boundary layer is of fundamental importance to oceanography. There is a voluminous literature on the subject, however a strong link between the velocity profile due to waves and that due to turbulent processes in the wave boundary layer does not appear to have been established. Here we specify the velocity profile due to the wave field using the Toba spectrum, and the velocity profile due to turbulence at the sea surface by the net effect of slip and wave breaking in which slip is the dominant process. Under this specification, the inertial coupling of the two fluids for a constant viscosity Ekman layer yields two independent estimates for the frictional parameter (which is a function of the 10 m drag coefficient and the peak wave period) of the coupled system, one of which is due to the surface Ekman current and the other to the peak wave period. We show that the median values of these two estimates, evaluated from a ROMS simulation over the period 2011-2012 at a station on the Southern Shelf in the South Australian Basin, are similar in strong support of the air-sea boundary layer model. On integrating over the planetary boundary layer we obtain the Ekman transport (w*2/f) and the wave transport due to a truncated Toba spectrum (w*zB/κ) where w* is the friction velocity in water, f is the Coriolis parameter, κ is von Karman's constant and zB = g T2/8 π2 is the depth of wave influence in which g is the acceleration of gravity and T is the peak wave period. A comparison of daily estimates shows that the wave transports from the truncated Toba spectrum and from the SWAN spectral model are highly correlated (r = 0.82) and that on average the Toba estimates are about 86% of the SWAN estimates due to the omission of low frequency tails of the spectra, although for wave transports less than about 0.5 m2 s-1 the estimates are almost equal. In the South Australian Basin the Toba wave transport is on average about 42% of

  16. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  17. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets among Australian children: an Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Craig F; Simm, Peter J; Rodda, Christine P; Garnett, Sarah P; Zacharin, Margaret R; Ward, Leanne M; Geddes, Janet; Cherian, Sarah; Zurynski, Yvonne; Cowell, Christopher T

    2012-04-16

    To determine the incidence of and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency rickets in Australian children. 18-month questionnaire-based prospective observational study, using Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) data. Australian paediatricians and child health workers, January 2006 - July 2007. Children aged ≤ 15 years with vitamin D deficiency rickets (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] ≤ 50 nmol/L, and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels [> 229 IU/L] and/or radiological rickets). Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Description of demographics, clinical presentation, identification and further analysis of overrepresented groups, and treatment regimens compared with best-practice guidelines. We identified 398 children with vitamin D deficiency (55% male; median age, 6.3 years [range, 0.2-15 years]). The overall incidence in children ≤ 15 years of age in Australia was 4.9/100 000/year. All had a low 25OHD level (median, 28 nmol/L [range, 5-50 nmol]) and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level (median, 407 IU/L [range, 229-5443 IU/L]), and 48 (12%) were hypocalcaemic. Ninety-five children had wrist x-rays, of whom 67 (71%) had rachitic changes. Most (98%) had dark or intermediate skin colour and 18% of girls were partially or completely veiled. Most children were born in Africa (252; 63%) and 75% of children were refugees. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely related to serum vitamin D levels in children children before diagnosis. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is a significant problem in Australia among known high-risk groups. Public health campaigns to prevent, identify and tre@vitamin D deficiency, especially in high-risk groups, are essential.

  18. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  19. Crystal heating on the JUMBO double crystal monochromator at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowen, M.; Waldhauer, A.; Pianetta, P.

    1986-01-01

    Heating by intense synchrotron radiation causes the lattice of the first crystal in the JUMBO double crystal monochromator at SSRL to expand. Because the two crystals no longer have the same lattice spacing, they diffract X-rays of the same wavelength at different angles. This causes shifts in energy calibration and beam movement at the sample with change in photon energy or as the current in the storage ring decays. A simple thermal model that predicts the change in wavelength and angle of the monochromatic beam is described. These shifts are proportional to I sin theta tan theta, where I is the SPEAR ring current and theta is the angle of the beam incident on the first crystal. Heating experiments were conducted with Ge(111), quartz(10anti 10), and InSb(111) crystals. Bragg angle shifts of up to 0.25 0 were measured with high precision encoders mounted directly on the crystal goniometers. Photon energy calibration shifts of up to 3.5 eV (at 1700 eV) were measured. Preliminary results show good agreement with the model for Ge and quartz crystals, but not for InSb crystals. Further study is needed to refine the model for Ge and quartz crystals and to determine a better one for InSb. (orig.)

  20. Trial by fire: are the crystals macromolecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Kannan; Harris, Paul T; Arvidson, Dennis N

    2010-05-01

    Protein crystallization screens frequently yield salt crystals as well as protein crystals. A simple method for determining whether a crystal is composed of salt or macromolecules is suggested. A drop containing one or more crystals is transferred to a glass cover slip and the cover slip is then passed through the flame of a Bunsen burner. Macromolecule crystals are destroyed by this treatment, while salt crystals generally remain. The test can be performed after other commonly used tests such as crushing and staining.

  1. Crystal structure of pseudoguainolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Beghidja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lactone ring in the title molecule, C15H22O3 (systematic name: 3,4a,8-trimethyldodecahydroazuleno[6,5-b]furan-2,5-dione, assumes an envelope conformation with the methine C atom adjacent to the the methine C atom carrying the methyl substituent being the flap atom. The other five-membered ring adopts a twisted conformation with the twist being about the methine–methylene C—C bond. The seven-membered ring is based on a twisted boat conformation. No specific interactions are noted in the the crystal packing.

  2. Photonic crystal optofluidic biolaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Mohammad Hazhir; Ebnali-Heidari, Majid; Abaeiani, Gholamreza; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-09-01

    Optofluidic biolasers are recently being considered in bioanalytical applications due to their advantages over the conventional biosensing methods Exploiting a photonic crystal slab with selectively dye-infiltrated air holes, we propose a new optofluidic heterostructure biolaser, with a power conversion efficiency of 25% and the spectral linewidth of 0.24 nm. Simulations show that in addition to these satisfactory lasing characteristics, the proposed lab-on-a-chip biolaser is highly sensitive to the minute biological changes that may occur in its cavity and can detect a single virus with a radius as small as 13 nm.

  3. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  4. Current Australian physiotherapy management of hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Sallie M; Blackburn, Meagan S; McMahon, Kylie; Bennell, Kim L

    2010-12-01

    Symptomatic osteoarthritis can be a painful, costly and debilitating condition. Whilst there is a substantial body of literature surrounding osteoarthritis of the knee, there is less reported research on the hip joint, especially pertaining to physiotherapy intervention. This descriptive study aimed to describe current physiotherapy management of osteoarthritis of the hip by Australian physiotherapists in private practice and acute hospital settings. Cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire was administered to 364 public and private practitioners in the state of Victoria. A response rate of 66% was achieved. Physiotherapists working in the private and public sectors reported frequent use of manual therapy (78% and 87%, respectively), aquatic therapy (82% and 58%, respectively) and home exercise programmes (88% and 80%, respectively). Class-based physiotherapy is employed less frequently (44% and 28%, respectively). Strengthening exercises are the most common treatment technique. The widespread use of exercise and manual therapy in the management of osteoarthritis of the hip is highlighted. There was little difference in overall physiotherapy management between the public and private settings. The results identify interventions commonly used in clinical practice. The need for further research to evaluate the effectiveness of frequently used interventions is also highlighted. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Managing obesity in pharmacy: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Irene S I; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2010-12-01

    To explore pharmacists' opinions about the provision of weight management services in community pharmacy and their attitudes towards the establishment of an accredited training course in weight management in pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with practising pharmacists on site in various community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with twenty practising pharmacists were conducted. Of the twenty interviewed pharmacists, sixteen were involved in the provision of one or more pharmacy based weight management programs in their pharmacies. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the grounded theory approach. The data were thematically analysed to identify facilitators and perceived barriers to the provision of high quality services, and pharmacists' willingness to undertake training and accreditation. Participants clearly perceived a role for pharmacy in weight management. Key facilitators to provision of service were accessibility and the perception of pharmacists as trustworthy healthcare professionals. The pharmacists proposed collaboration with other healthcare professionals in order to provide a service incorporating diet, exercise and behavioural therapy. A program that was not-product-centred, and supported by ethical marketing was favoured. Appropriate training and accreditation were considered essential to assuring the quality of such services. Barriers to the provision of high quality services identified were: remuneration, pharmacy infrastructure, client demand and the current marketing of product-centred programs. Australian pharmacists believe there is a role for pharmacy in weight management, provided training in accredited programs is made available. A holistic, evidence-based, multi-disciplinary service model has been identified as ideal.

  6. Towards An Australian Validation of SMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Allahmoradi, M.; Peischl, S.; Ye, N.

    2009-04-01

    With the imminent launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, the first space-borne L-band passive microwave observations will soon be available. Consequently, preparations are underway world-wide to validate the brightness temperature measurements from this synthetic aperture technology and its derived soil moisture products during the early post launch stages. With the SMOS launch likely to be in the later part of this year, Australia is particularly well positioned for conducting the first SMOS validation campaign during its spring. The Australian campaign plans to map an approximately 500km x 100km transect (more than 20 pixels) of the Murrumbidgee Catchment of eastern Australia in its entirety at 1km resolution using the Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR). Moreover, the Murrumbidgee Catchment area is unique as it comprises a diverse range of topographic, climatic and land cover characteristics, and therefore represents an excellent validation site for the land component of the SMOS mission. This is further supplemented by a large database of previous campaign measurements, continuous soil moisture monitoring stations, and related meteorological data for the past five years. This paper outlines the airborne campaigns and related ground monitoring planned for this first validation campaign of SMOS. Persons interested in participating in the campaign are encouraged to contact the authors.

  7. Australian midwives' experiences of their workplace culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, Christine J; Reid, Fiona; Hunter, Billie

    2017-04-01

    A number of adverse events in Australia and overseas have highlighted the need to examine the workplace culture in the maternity environment. Little attention has been paid to the midwifery workplace culture in Australia. The study aimed to explore the midwifery workplace culture from the perspective of midwives themselves. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Group and individual interviews were undertaken of urban, regional and rural-based midwives in Australia. Data were analysed thematically. The study showed that both new and experienced midwives felt frustrated by organisational environments and attitudes, and expressed strategies to cope with this. Five themes were identified from the data. These were: Bullying and resilience, Fatigued and powerless midwives, Being 'hampered by the environment', and The importance of support for midwifery. The study discusses the themes in depth. In particular, discussion focusses on how midwifery practise was affected by midwives' workplace culture and model of care, and the importance of supportive relationships from peers and managers. This study illuminated both positive and negative aspects of the midwifery workplace culture in Australia. One way to ensure the wellbeing and satisfaction of midwives in order to maintain the midwifery workforce and provide quality care to women and their families is to provide positive workplace cultures. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radon concentrations in Western Australian homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, L.F. [Health Dept. of Western Australia, Perth, WA (Australia). Radiation Health Branch

    1994-12-31

    Although there have been previous surveys of radon levels in some Western Australian homes, given the size of Western Australia (WA), it is desirable to carry out more measurements to better assess the likely radiation dose to the WA population. By monitoring a sufficient number of homes it will also be possible to identify any areas w here pockets of high radon concentrations exist in WA. An initial phase 1, radon survey, was carried out over the whole of the State. From the data gathered from phase 1 areas where higher radon levels might occur were identified. These areas of higher radon levels were investigated in phase 2 of the radon survey. Phase 2 involved dividing WA into 4 regions (based on electoral districts) and investigating radon levels in each region. For each region, approximately 500 homes were selected at random for radon monitoring. So far phase 1 has been completed and for phase 2 Regions 1 and 2 have been monitored. Data from phase 1 and Region 1 are presented. Initial data indicate a mean radon level of 15.7 Bqm{sup -3}, with 3 homes recording radon levels in excess of 100 Bqm{sup -3}. 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  9. Australians Abroad: Narrative Paths and Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Nooy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although commonly characterized as an immigrant nation, Australia has been shaped just as importantly by the overseas journeys of its people, and the liminal experiences thus provided have not only been self-defining and defining of the other, but at times nation-defining. This special issue proposes a multidisciplinary analysis of Australian travellers and expatriates past and present: the reasons for and destinations of their travel, its impact on their identity, the roles they play, their writings and reflections, their linguistic and intercultural competence. Clusters of travellers to particular destinations give rise to narrative patterns which solidify into templates, the narrative equivalent of the beaten track. The essays that follow highlight both discursive grooves and off-piste accounts that challenge the patterns. In both cases, the emphasis in the essays is on the travellers’ active engagement in the experience and on their negotiation of existing discourses. For even those who follow the trail invest it with personal meanings.

  10. Malignant otitis externa: An Australian case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish a clinicopathological profile of malignant otitis externa (MOE) in an Australian tertiary referral institution. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort outcomes study. METHODS: 24 patients were identified with MOE between January 1998 and July 2007. Patients were classified into Radiological Grades I-IV. Laboratory investigations Including C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and average glucose level over admission were recorded. RESULTS: Radiological Grade was significantly associated with duration of therapy (rank correlation 0.57, p = 0.004). CRP was a useful indicator confirming disease resolution. Diabetics with MOE had elevated average blood sugar levels during their Hospital admission (p < 0.001) and had poor overall glycaemic control represented by Elevated HBA1c scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant otitis externa is a rare disease, which is best managed in a multidisciplinary team setting. This practical grading system can be used to predict the duration of therapy at time of diagnosis, which enables the efficient utilisation of Hospital resources. Poorly controlled diabetics are more susceptible to developing. MOE than diabetics with satisfactory glycaemic control and may represent a subgroup of more brittle diabetics. CRP combined with appropriate clinical and radiological investigations is useful in assessing disease resolution.

  11. Primary dermal melanoma: a West Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, James; Chin, Olivia; Hanikeri, Mark; Wood, Benjamin A

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify a subgroup of patients with putative primary dermal melanoma after thorough multidisciplinary clinical and histological evaluation, and to describe the clinical, histological and selected molecular features of these lesions. The records of the Western Australian Melanoma Advisory Service were searched for potential cases of primary dermal melanoma. The clinical and histological features were reviewed, immunohistochemical assessment was performed and clinical outcomes recorded. Eighteen cases of putative primary dermal melanoma with available clinical data were identified. Two of 12 cases in which further histological sections could be obtained were excluded because of the presence of findings suggesting an epidermal origin on these further sections. In one additional case, such origin could not be histologically excluded. Median follow-up period for the remaining cases was 68 months. Confirmed primary dermal melanoma accounts for 0.87% of cases of melanoma referred to a subspecialist melanoma advisory service. These cases show significant histological overlap with dermal/subcutaneous metastases of melanoma, but display a relatively good prognosis, with a 5-year survival of 87.5%. Our results support the recognition of a distinct group of melanoma that mimics metastatic melanoma, but is associated with a relatively favourable outcome. The group of putative primary dermal melanoma is likely to be heterogenous, including cases of primary nodular melanoma in which epidermal connection has not been identified, metastatic melanoma with an occult primary lesion and true primary dermal melanoma. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Australian maternity reform through clinical redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Donna L; White, Jan; Lainchbury, Kathleen A; Gunn, Helen; Jarman, Helen; Welsh, Alec W; Challis, Daniel; Tracy, Sally K

    2012-05-01

    The current Australian national maternity reform agenda focuses on improving access to maternity care for women and their families while preserving safety and quality. The caseload midwifery model of care offers the level of access to continuity of care proposed in the reforms however the introduction of these models in Australia continues to meet with strong resistance. In many places access to caseload midwifery care is offered as a token, usually restricted to well women, within limited metropolitan and regional facilities and where available, places for women are very small as a proportion of the total service provided. This case study outlines a major clinical redesign of midwifery care at a metropolitan tertiary referral maternity hospital in Sydney. Caseload midwifery care was introduced under randomised trial conditions to provide midwifery care to 1500 women of all risk resulting in half of the publicly insured women receiving midwifery group practice care. The paper describes the organisational quality and safety tools that were utilised to facilitate the process while discussing the factors that facilitated the process and the barriers that were encountered within the workforce, operational and political context.

  13. Australian Correctional Management Practices for Terrorist Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Tompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.

  14. Competition and trade in Australian gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Leanne; Mander, Sally

    1993-01-01

    Although Australia has large gas reserves, the bulk of reserves (about 80 per cent) are located on the North West Shelf, off Western Australia. On the other had, the major demand centres are located in the south east of the country. The relative scarcity of proven gas reserves close to major markets has meant that governments in the state and territories with reserves have a strong vested interest in the future use of the gas. Equally, governments in states and territories that do not have gas reserves are interested in securing future supplies. The scope for increasing competition and trade in Australian gas markets depends on a number of features of the industry. These include: the characteristics of the resource, the structure of supply including the presence of natural monopolies, the nature and extent of upstream or downstream integration of firms and the presence of long term contracts - the characteristics of gas demand, and the regulatory and policy framework. The main purpose in this article is to review the economic factors driving natural gas markets in Australia, highlighting the factors influencing competition and trade. Against this background, some options for reform are also examined. 30 refs., 6 figs

  15. The Australian SKA Pathfinder: First Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a precursor and technology demonstrator for the Square Kilometre Array.A specialist wide-field survey instrument, ASKAP compises 36 x 12m dish antennas with a maximum separation of 6km. The array operates in the frequency range 700 - 1800 MHz and has an instantaneous bandwidth of 300 MHz. Each dish is mounted with a 'phased array feed', a radio receiver that dramatically enhances the telescope's field-of-view from 1 to 30 square degrees. ASKAP is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory, Australia's core site for the SKA.Ten Science Survey Projects have been established by teams of more than 600 astronomers from around the world. Astronomical research topics tackled by these teams include galaxy evolution, cosmic magnetism, the history of gas in galaxies and cosmology. A program of ASKAP Early Science will commence in late 2015. The 6-antenna Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) is currently being used by the commissioning team and at the time of writing has produced its first scientific discovery paper.In this talk, hear the ASKAP Project Scientist report some of the exciting new capabilities demonstrated by ASKAP and learn about the first scientific discoveries made by the commissioning and early science team.

  16. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  17. Liquor licences issued to Australian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Munro, Geoffrey; Buykx, Penny; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John; Clark, Madeline

    2017-08-01

    Children's positive socialisation to alcohol is associated with early initiation of drinking and alcohol-related harm in adult life. Internationally, there have been reports of adults' alcohol consumption at school events in the presence of children. The aim of this research was to identify the conditions under which Australian schools are required to apply for a liquor licence and the associated prevalence of liquor licences for these events where children were likely to be present. A document review was conducted to examine temporary liquor licensing legislation. Quantitative analysis was used to examine relevant licensing data. Coding criteria was developed to determine school type, student year levels and the likely presence of children. Four jurisdictions provided data on 1817 relevant licences. The average annual licences/100 schools was highest amongst Independent schools followed by Catholic and public (government) schools. The rates were highest in Queensland and Victoria where children were present at 61% and 32% of events respectively. While there are legislative differences across jurisdictions, the prevalence of adults' alcohol use at school events in the presence of children may reflect the various education department policies and principals' and school communities' beliefs and attitudes. Licences are not required for all events where liquor is consumed so the prevalence of adults' use of alcohol at school events is likely to be higher than our analyses imply. Such practices may undermine teaching about alcohol use in the school curriculum and health promotion efforts to develop alcohol-free events when children are present.

  18. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  19. Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, George W; Spiess, Hans W

    1999-01-01

    This handbook is a unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the physics of liquid crystals. In over 500 pages it provides detailed information on the physical properties of liquid crystals as well as the recent theories and results on phase transitions, defects and textures of different types of liquid crystals. An in-depth understanding of the physical fundamentals is a prerequisite for everyone working in the field of liquid crystal research. With this book the experts as well as graduate students entering the field get all the information they need.

  20. Preventing Crystal Agglomeration of Pharmaceutical Crystals Using Temperature Cycling and a Novel Membrane Crystallization Procedure for Seed Crystal Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel membrane crystallization system was used to crystallize micro-sized seeds of piroxicam monohydrate by reverse antisolvent addition. Membrane crystallization seeds were compared with seeds produced by conventional antisolvent addition and polymorphic transformation of a fine powdered sample of piroxicam form I in water. The membrane crystallization process allowed for a consistent production of pure monohydrate crystals with narrow size distribution and without significant agglomeration. The seeds were grown in 350 g of 20:80 w/w acetone-water mixture. Different seeding loads were tested and temperature cycling was applied in order to avoid agglomeration of the growing crystals during the process. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM; and particle vision and measurement (PVM were used to monitor crystal growth; nucleation and agglomeration during the seeded experiments. Furthermore; Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor solute concentration and estimate the overall yield of the process. Membrane crystallization was proved to be the most convenient and consistent method to produce seeds of highly agglomerating compounds; which can be grown via cooling crystallization and temperature cycling.

  1. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  2. Crystal face temperature determination means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  3. Occupational therapy publications by Australian authors: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2018-01-18

    Bibliometrics refers to the collection and measurement of publishing and citation data configurations with the goal of quantifying the influence of scholarly activities. Advantages of bibliometrics include the generation of quantitative indicators of impact, productivity, quality and collaboration. Those parties who benefit from the results of bibliometric analysis include researchers, educators, journal publishers, employers and research funding bodies. A bibliometric analysis was completed of peer-reviewed literature from 1991 to 2015, written by Australian occupational therapists (who were able to be identified as such), and indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) or the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. "Occupational therapy" and "occupational therapist(s)" were used as keywords to search journal articles' publication title, abstract, author details, keywords and KeyWord Plus. Between 1991 and 2015, 752 peer-reviewed journal articles were published by Australian occupational therapy authors. On average, those articles had 3.7 authors, 35 references, and were nine pages in length. The top four journals in which Australian occupational therapists published were Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, American Journal of Occupational Therapy, and Physical and Occupational Therapy in Paediatrics. The four Australian institutions that generated the largest number of occupational therapy articles were the University of Queensland, University of Sydney, La Trobe University, and Monash University. The top four countries with whom Australian authors collaborated in manuscript writing were the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Sweden. The volume of occupational therapy peer-reviewed literature has grown over the last two decades. Australian authors have and continue to make significant contributions to the occupational therapy body of knowledge nationally and internationally. © 2018

  4. Spirometry reference values in Indigenous Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tamara L; Chang, Anne B; Petsky, Helen L; Rodwell, Leanne T; Brown, Michael G; Hill, Debra C; Thompson, Bruce; McElrea, Margaret S

    2016-07-04

    To evaluate published spirometry data for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples to determine (i) whether their ethnicity influenced spirometry results; and (ii) if any reliable spirometry reference values exist for Indigenous Australians. Systematic review of published and grey literature. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, references of included articles and appropriate grey literature. Last searches were conducted in April 2016. We included any study that performed spirometry on healthy Indigenous Australians and compared their results with those from people of European ancestry. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts and then reviewed potentially relevant full-text articles for possible inclusion. We used PRISMA systematic review reporting methods to collate data. Of a possible 125 studies, 18 full-text articles were reviewed, but only nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria. None specified Torres Strait Islander inclusion. All studies reported lower spirometry values (as much as 30% lower) for Aboriginal people compared with non-Indigenous people. Five studies developed spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians; however, none adhered to all participant inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. Hence, reported results and subsequent reference values may not be a true representation of spirometry values in healthy Indigenous people. The lower spirometry values reported for Indigenous Australians may be due to study limitations. Furthermore, there are currently no reliable spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians that adhere to current guidelines. Developing a set of Indigenous Australian reference values will improve the accuracy of test interpretation and aid in the diagnosis of respiratory disease in this population.

  5. Monitoring of uncultured Dunaliella sp. in an Egyptian solar saltern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specific PCR primers and methodology were designed to amplify the gene cbbL, which encodes the large subunit of the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, EC 4.1.1.39) of only Dunaliella species, from the extracted microbial metagenome. The 700 bp-PCR amplicons were cloned and ...

  6. Bullying in the Australian ICT workplace: the views of Australian ICT professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeslam Al-Saggaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine bullying in the workplace from the perspective of Australian Information Communication Technology (ICT professionals. The data collection for this project included conducting a quantitative survey with 2,315 participants and 43 qualitative interviews with members of Australian Computer Society (ACS. We found that 630 ICT professionals, or 27.23% of all survey respondents, identified workplace bullying as an ethical problem. The majority of survey respondents who selected bullying as an ethical issue were permanent full time employees (N= 413, 65.6%. A significant relationship was found between respondents identifying bullying as an ethical issue in the survey and their job classification (Deviance = 25.55, Df = 11, p=0.0076, suggesting that job classification, among other things, does predict respondents’ selection of bullying. Furthermore, our survey and interview findings indicate that the more mature respondents, as well as those in the managerial roles, have a greater concern about bullying.

  7. A Stalagmite record of Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon variability from the Australian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Polyak, Victor J.; Brown, Josephine R.; Asmerom, Yemane; Wanamaker, Alan D.; LaPointe, Zachary; Ellerbroek, Rebecca; Barthelmes, Michael; Cleary, Daniel; Cugley, John; Woods, David; Humphreys, William F.

    2013-10-01

    Oxygen isotopic data from a suite of calcite and aragonite stalagmites from cave KNI-51, located in the eastern Kimberley region of tropical Western Australia, represent the first absolute-dated, high-resolution speleothem record of the Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) from the Australian tropics. Stalagmite oxygen isotopic values track monsoon intensity via amount effects in precipitation and reveal a dynamic Holocene IASM which strengthened in the early Holocene, decreased in strength by 4 ka, with a further decrease from ˜2 to 1 ka, before strengthening again at 1 ka to years to levels similar to those between 4 and 2 ka. The relationships between the KNI-51 IASM reconstruction and those from published speleothem time series from Flores and Borneo, in combination with other data sets, appear largely inconsistent with changes in the position and/or organization of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Instead, we argue that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may have played a dominant role in driving IASM variability since at least the middle Holocene. Given the muted modern monsoon rainfall responses to most El Niño events in the Kimberley, an impact of ENSO on regional monsoon precipitation over northwestern Australia would suggest non-stationarity in the long-term relationship between ENSO forcing and IASM rainfall, possibly due to changes in the mean state of the tropical Pacific over the Holocene.

  8. Liquid Crystals in Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Bermúdez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs, only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs. Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  9. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2016-05-27

    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  10. Electron spectroscopy of crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nemoshkalenko, V V

    1979-01-01

    This book is conceived as a monograph, and represents an up-to-date collection of information concerning the use of the method of X-ray photoelectron spec­ troscopy in the study of the electron structure of crystals, as well as a personal interpretation of the subject by the authors. In a natural way, the book starts in Chapter 1 with a recapitulation of the fundamentals of the method, basic relations, principles of operation, and a com­ parative presentation of the characteristics and performances of the most com­ monly used ESCA instruments (from the classical ones-Varian, McPherson, Hewlett Packard, and IEEE-up to the latest model developed by Professor Siegbahn in Uppsala), and continues with a discussion of some of the difficult problems the experimentalist must face such as calibration of spectra, prepara­ tion of samples, and evaluation of the escape depth of electrons. The second chapter is devoted to the theory of photoemission from crystal­ line solids. A discussion of the methods of Hartree-Fo...

  11. Reconfigurable topological photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Desnavi, Sameerah; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2018-02-01

    Topological insulators are materials that conduct on the surface and insulate in their interior due to non-trivial topology of the band structure. The edge states on the interface between topological (non-trivial) and conventional (trivial) insulators are topologically protected from scattering due to structural defects and disorders. Recently, it was shown that photonic crystals (PCs) can serve as a platform for realizing a scatter-free propagation of light waves. In conventional PCs, imperfections, structural disorders, and surface roughness lead to significant losses. The breakthrough in overcoming these problems is likely to come from the synergy of the topological PCs and silicon-based photonics technology that enables high integration density, lossless propagation, and immunity to fabrication imperfections. For many applications, reconfigurability and capability to control the propagation of these non-trivial photonic edge states is essential. One way to facilitate such dynamic control is to use liquid crystals (LCs), which allow to modify the refractive index with external electric field. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control of topological edge states by modifying the refractive index of a LC background medium. Background index is changed depending on the orientation of a LC, while preserving the topology of the system. This results in a change of the spectral position of the photonic bandgap and the topological edge states. The proposed concept might be implemented using conventional semiconductor technology, and can be used for robust energy transport in integrated photonic devices, all-optical circuity, and optical communication systems.

  12. The UnAustralian Condition: An Essay In Four Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Pavlides

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It was in the 1990s, following a flurry of the use of the expression ‘un-Australian’ by politicians, that the Macquarie Dictionary first included a definition of the term. In 2006, whilst conducting a review of the Hansard records going back 20 years, Professor Klaus Neumann found that politicians in the Senate and the House of Reps had used the term 600 times . Within the Australian parliament the term was used to describe anything from rental cars to socialism, to the imposition of import duties for agricultural equipment. So what does the term mean? In its earliest use from the mid 1850s onwards, ‘un-Australian’ was used in positive sense to describe the things that were akin to the British motherland and unlike the host country. In the 1990s, academic Joe Pugliese saw the use of the term as marking a profound anxiety about Australian identity and as signalling Australia’s failure to come to terms with its history . Former Australian Prime Minister John Howard invoked the word ‘un-Australian’ to great effect. In 2004, 28.2 per cent of the mentions of the word in major metropolitan newspapers were attributed to him by Media Monitor. Re elected to office four times, Howard took Australians into the new millennium by reinvigorating a homogeneous and one dimensional Australian identity forever indebted to its British origins. From the mid 1990’s, until the mid 2000s Australians failed to move beyond a state of mind that made a national identity contingent on the pre-eminence of the British diaspora. Thus, in this paper I argue that the constant anxiety about national identity for Australians links directly to the unresolved questions which surround diasporic belonging. I suggest that Australian national identity is condemned to oscillate uncertainly between the two terms – ‘parvenu’ or ‘pariah’– until new ways of national belonging are defined and accepted by Australians a new transnational era.

  13. Amine free crystal structure: The crystal structure of d(CGCGCG)2 and methylamine complex crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Hirofumi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Hiyama, Yoichi; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Ishida, Toshimasa

    2006-01-01

    We succeeded in the crystallization of d(CGCGCG) 2 and methylamine Complex. The crystal was clear and of sufficient size to collect the X-ray crystallographic data up to 1.0 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. As a result of X-ray crystallographic analysis of 2F o - F c map was much clear and easily traced. It is First time monoamine co-crystallizes with d(CGCGCG) 2 . However, methylamine was not found from the complex crystal of d(CGCGCG) 2 and methylamine. Five Mg ions were found around d(CGCGCG) 2 molecules. These Mg ions neutralized the anion of 10 values of the phosphate group of DNA with five Mg 2+ . DNA stabilized only by a metallic ion and there is no example of analyzing the X-ray crystal structure like this. Mg ion stabilizes the conformation of Z-DNA. To use monoamine for crystallization of DNA, we found that we can get only d(CGCGCG) 2 and Mg cation crystal. Only Mg cation can stabilize the conformation of Z-DNA. The method of using the monoamine for the crystallization of DNA can be applied to the crystallization of DNA of long chain of length in the future like this

  14. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories.

  15. Structure, dynamics and movement patterns of the Australian pig industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, I J; Davis, J; Sergeant, E S G; Garner, M G

    2014-03-01

    To assess management practices and movement patterns that could influence the establishment and spread of exotic animal diseases (EAD) in pigs in Australia. A literature review of published information and a telephone survey of 370 pig producers owning >10 pigs who were registered with the PigPass national vendor declaration scheme. The movement and marketing patterns of Australian pig producers interviewed were divided into two groups based predominantly on the size of the herd. Major pig producers maintain closed herds, use artificial insemination and market direct to abattoirs. Smaller producers continue to purchase from saleyards and market to other farms, abattoirs and through saleyards in an apparently opportunistic fashion. The role of saleyards in the Australian pig industry continues to decline, with 92% of all pigs marketed directly from farm to abattoir. This survey described movement patterns that will assist in modelling the potential spread of EAD in the Australian pig industry. Continued movement towards vertical integration and closed herds in the Australian pig industry effectively divides the industry into a number of compartments that mitigate against the widespread dissemination of disease to farms adopting these practices. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals. Are they improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Walker, Karen Z; Gill, Timothy P

    2012-10-01

    The nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals is not systematically monitored despite the importance of breakfast for general health. We examined whether the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals has improved between 2004 and 2010, and whether any change could be detected after the introduction of Daily Intake Guide (DIG) front-of-pack labelling. Supermarket surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010 using the same methodology to collect information from the nutrition information panels of Australian breakfast cereals and the nutrient content of cereals was compared by year. Breakfast cereals with and without DIG labelling in 2010 were also compared. Nutritional quality was assessed using UK Traffic Light criteria. No significant difference was detected in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals between 2004 and 2010. There was no notable improvement in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals marketed as the same product in both years. Overall there has been little improvement in the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals in the 6 year period. A large proportion of Australian breakfast cereals were considered high sugar. In conclusion, the introduction of DIG labelling does not appear to have promoted product reformulation, and breakfast cereals carrying DIG labels were not consistently healthier. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Liminality, the Australian State and Asian Nurse Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Willis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades the flow of Asians to Australia through legitimate immigration programs has accelerated. This is particularly the case for Asian nurses coming from countries that were once subjected to European colonisation. The difficulties encountered by nurses from Asian countries mirror those of earlier waves of migrants. These include navigating the language and differences in cultural mores, values, and beliefs, along with the loneliness that may come from leaving strong family ties at home. While racism has been evident for all earlier waves of migrants, Asians face an additional hurdle linked to the uneasy relationship Australians and the Australian state has with Asia. Australia is geographically in Asia, but culturally Anglo and European.  The impact this might have on the working relationships of Asian and Australian born registered nurses is significant given the nature of their work in caring for the sick and elderly. This liminal relationship between the Australian state and Asians provides a theoretical insight into the particular difficulties experienced by Asian nurses and the integration programs that might assist them and their Australian colleagues to develop cohesive working relationships.

  18. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Grischa R.; Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M.; Bond, Charles S.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Androulakis, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community

  19. Exposure to wet work in working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegel, Tessa G; Nixon, Rosemary L; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-02-01

    The Australian National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance (NHEWS) Survey 2008 was a cross-sectional survey undertaken by Safe Work Australia to inform the development of exposure prevention initiatives for occupational disease. This is a descriptive study of workplace exposures. To assess the occupational and demographic characteristics of workers reporting exposure to wet work. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 4500 workers. Two wet work exposure outcomes (frequent washing of hands and duration of time spent at work with the hands immersed in liquids) were analysed. The response rate for the study was 42.3%. For hand-washing, 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-10.7] reported washing their hands more than 20 times per day. For immersion of hands in liquids, 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1) reported immersion for more than 2 hr per day. Females were more likely to report exposure to frequent hand-washing than males [odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.49-2.61]. Workers in the lowest occupational skill level jobs were more likely to report increased exposure to hands immersed in liquids than those in the highest (OR 6.41, 95% CI 3.78-10.88). Workers reporting skin exposure to chemicals were more likely to report exposure to hand-washing (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.91-4.66) and immersion of the hands in liquids (OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.92-5.74). Specific groups of workers reported high levels of exposure to wet work. There were differences between the profiles of workers reporting frequent hand-washing and workers reporting increased duration of exposure to hands immersed in liquids. We also found a high correlation between wet work and chemical exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Liquor licences issued to Australian schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Ward

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s positive socialisation to alcohol is associated with early initiation of drinking and alcohol-related harm in adult life. Internationally, there have been reports of adults’ alcohol consumption at school events in the presence of children. The aim of this research was to identify the conditions under which Australian schools are required to apply for a liquor licence and the associated prevalence of liquor licences for these events where children were likely to be present. Methods A document review was conducted to examine temporary liquor licensing legislation. Quantitative analysis was used to examine relevant licensing data. Coding criteria was developed to determine school type, student year levels and the likely presence of children. Results Four jurisdictions provided data on 1817 relevant licences. The average annual licences/100 schools was highest amongst Independent schools followed by Catholic and public (government schools. The rates were highest in Queensland and Victoria where children were present at 61% and 32% of events respectively. Conclusions While there are legislative differences across jurisdictions, the prevalence of adults’ alcohol use at school events in the presence of children may reflect the various education department policies and principals’ and school communities’ beliefs and attitudes. Licences are not required for all events where liquor is consumed so the prevalence of adults’ use of alcohol at school events is likely to be higher than our analyses imply. Such practices may undermine teaching about alcohol use in the school curriculum and health promotion efforts to develop alcohol-free events when children are present.

  1. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. THEORY OF INCOMMENSURATE CRYSTAL FACETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of incommensurately modulated crystals is considered. A surface free energy model is constructed which interprets the stabilization of the incommensurate facets as due to surface pinning of the phase of the modulation wave. The stepped nature of the true crystal surface restricts the

  3. Photoelastic sphenoscopic analysis of crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, L.; Rinaldi, D.; Scalise, L.; Paone, N.; Davı, F.

    2016-01-01

    Birefringent crystals are at the basis of various devices used in many fields, from high energy physics to biomedical imaging for cancer detection. Since crystals are the main elements of those devices, a great attention is paid on their quality and properties. Here, we present a methodology for the photoelastic analysis of birefringent crystals, based on a modified polariscope. Polariscopes using conoscopic observation are used to evaluate crystals residual stresses in a precise but time consuming way; in our methodology, the light beam shape, which impinges on the crystal surface, has been changed from a solid cone (conoscopy) to a wedge (sphenoscopy). Since the polarized and coherent light is focused on a line rather than on a spot, this allows a faster analysis which leads to the observation, at a glance, of a spatial distribution of stress along a line. Three samples of lead tungstate crystals have been observed using this technique, and the obtained results are compared with the conoscopic observation. The samples have been tested both in unloaded condition and in a loaded configuration induced by means of a four points bending device, which allows to induce a known stress distribution in the crystal. The obtained results confirm, in a reliable manner, the sensitivity of the methodology to the crystal structure and stress.

  4. Photoelastic sphenoscopic analysis of crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalto, L. [DIISM, Dip. Di Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); SIMAU, Dip. Di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell’ambiente ed Urbanistica—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Rinaldi, D. [SIMAU, Dip. Di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell’ambiente ed Urbanistica—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Scalise, L.; Paone, N. [DIISM, Dip. Di Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Davì, F. [DICEA, Dip. Di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Architettura—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Birefringent crystals are at the basis of various devices used in many fields, from high energy physics to biomedical imaging for cancer detection. Since crystals are the main elements of those devices, a great attention is paid on their quality and properties. Here, we present a methodology for the photoelastic analysis of birefringent crystals, based on a modified polariscope. Polariscopes using conoscopic observation are used to evaluate crystals residual stresses in a precise but time consuming way; in our methodology, the light beam shape, which impinges on the crystal surface, has been changed from a solid cone (conoscopy) to a wedge (sphenoscopy). Since the polarized and coherent light is focused on a line rather than on a spot, this allows a faster analysis which leads to the observation, at a glance, of a spatial distribution of stress along a line. Three samples of lead tungstate crystals have been observed using this technique, and the obtained results are compared with the conoscopic observation. The samples have been tested both in unloaded condition and in a loaded configuration induced by means of a four points bending device, which allows to induce a known stress distribution in the crystal. The obtained results confirm, in a reliable manner, the sensitivity of the methodology to the crystal structure and stress.

  5. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  6. Supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recognition and binding, ice structures, and supramolecular chemistry. The traditional view is .... pair-wise leads to synthon control and crystal design in multifunctional molecules. ..... Crystal structure of Na(sac)•1.875H2O (Na pink, O red, N blue, S yellow, C gray, H cream). The regular region on the left side has 10 sac. −.

  7. MyCrystals - a simple visual data management program for laboratory-scale crystallization experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Løvgreen, Mikkel; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2009-01-01

    MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which...

  8. Mechanics, Problems and Contributions of Tertiary Strategic Alliance: The Case of 22 Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffu, Kojo; Mamman, Aminu

    1999-01-01

    A study of international strategic alliances involving 22 Australian universities indicates that a majority of universities have frameworks for internationalization initiatives, with top institutional management instrumental in initiating joint ventures with overseas institutions despite limited resources. Australian universities believe they…

  9. Lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1990-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  10. Natural photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  11. Diffraction. Single crystal, magnetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, G.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of crystal structure and magnetic ordering is usually based on diffraction phenomena caused by the interaction of matter with X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Complementary information is achieved due to the different character of X-rays, neutrons and electrons, and hence their different interactions with matter and further practical aspects. X-ray diffraction using conventional laboratory equipment and/or synchrotron installations is the most important method for structure analyses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss special cases, for which, in addition to this indispensable part, neutrons are required to solve structural problems. Even though the huge intensity of modern synchrotron sources allows in principle the study of magnetic X-ray scattering the investigation of magnetic structures is still one of the most important applications of neutron diffraction. (K.A.)

  12. Lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1990-12-18

    A crystallizer is described which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities. 3 figs.

  13. Crystal Ball at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Luke, D.; Peck, C.; Strauch, K.

    1975-01-01

    The modifications to the SPEAR version of the Crystal Ball required by the higher energies at PEP are discussed. Since the hadron multiplicity is expected to rise as log s, their average energy must rise. On the other hand, if the hadrons are produced in jets, the low energy part of their spectrum is not heavily depleted. This implies that modifications for high energy particles should not deteriorate low energy performance. An external iron calorimeter for measuring the high energy hadrons, charged and neutral, is considered. To improve the angular resolution on γ's, an active internal converter has been studied, estimates have been made of its expected performance, and difficulties requiring further study have been outlined

  14. Between Smoke and Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Christensen, Lars Thøger; Thyssen, Ole

    Responsible corporate behavior is not defined once and for all. Rather it develops as society and organizations interact, learn and change. It has convincingly been argued that in the area of CSR, there is a particular need for organizations to keep the definition of CSR open and inclusive to new...... on the CSR form rather than the CSR function, i.e. critiquing the organizational work to achieve a desirable CSR image rather than achieving the CSR substance. We argue that this dichotomy is misplaced and misses the point. In this paper we attempt to demonstrate that CSR is about a continued balancing act...... between image and substance and most importantly it is a balancing act in which ”image” and public relations may drive organizations to improved “substance”. With reference to Odysseus, we label this a balancing act between the Scylla of crystal and the Charybdis of smoke....

  15. Photonic crystals in epitaxial semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    La Rue, R M de

    1998-01-01

    The title of the paper uses the expression "photonic crystals". By photonic crystals, we mean regular periodic structures with a substantial refractive index variation in one-, two- or three- dimensional space. Such crystals can $9 exist naturally, for example natural opal, but are more typically fabricated by people. Under sufficiently strong conditions, i.e., sufficiently large refractive index modulation, correct size of structural components, and $9 appropriate rotational and translational symmetry, these crystals exhibit the characteristics of a photonic bandgap (PBG) structure. In a full photonic bandgap structure there is a spectral stop band for electromagnetic waves $9 propagating in any direction through the structure and with an arbitrary state of polarization. This behavior is of interest both from a fundamental viewpoint and from the point of view of novel applications in photonic devices. The $9 paper gives an outline review of work on photonic crystals carried out by the Optoelectronics Researc...

  16. Prediction of molecular crystal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, T

    2001-01-01

    The ab initio prediction of molecular crystal structures is a scientific challenge. Reliability of first-principle prediction calculations would show a fundamental understanding of crystallisation. Crystal structure prediction is also of considerable practical importance as different crystalline arrangements of the same molecule in the solid state (polymorphs)are likely to have different physical properties. A method of crystal structure prediction based on lattice energy minimisation has been developed in this work. The choice of the intermolecular potential and of the molecular model is crucial for the results of such studies and both of these criteria have been investigated. An empirical atom-atom repulsion-dispersion potential for carboxylic acids has been derived and applied in a crystal structure prediction study of formic, benzoic and the polymorphic system of tetrolic acid. As many experimental crystal structure determinations at different temperatures are available for the polymorphic system of parac...

  17. General crystal in prebiotic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.

    1993-09-01

    General crystal is an extension of the crystal concept to any form of matter which exhibit neighbour structure determination. This extension makes many results of solid state physics applicable to heterogeneous matter. Among other it includes the description of phase transition from random to unique structure. The advantage of the general crystal approach is demonstrated on globular protein, on of the most important macromolecules of life, which are capable to adopt unique 3D structure spontaneously, regardless of the heterogeneous character of their chemical structure and conformation. It is suggested that the use of general crystal concept may help to find candidates among heterogeneous matters capable to spontaneous self-organization in the same way as crystallization results in unique structure of homogeneous matter, and to apply some of the results of solid state physics to describe the phase transition and other behaviour of this matter. (author). 10 refs

  18. Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanaraj, Govindhan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Dudley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, many successful attempts have been made to describe the art and science of crystal growth. Most modern advances in semiconductor and optical devices would not have been possible without the development of many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The objective of the Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth is to present state-of-the-art knowledge of both bulk and thin-film crystal growth. The goal is to make readers understand the basics of the commonly employed growth processes, materials produced, and defects generated. Almost 100 leading scientists, researchers, and engineers from 22 different countries from academia and industry have been selected to write chapters on the topics of their expertise. They have written 52 chapters on the fundamentals of bulk crystal growth from the melt, solution, and vapor, epitaxial growth, modeling of growth processes and defects, techniques of defect characterization as well as some contemporary specia...

  19. Growth of emerald single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukin, G.V.; Godovikov, A.A.; Klyakin, V.A.; Sobolev, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to its use for jewelry, emerald can also be used in low-noise microwave amplifiers. The authors discuss flux crystallization of emerald and note that when emerald is grown by this method, it is desirable to use solvents which dissolve emerald with minimum deviations from congruence but at the same time with sufficient high efficiency. Emerald synthesis and crystal growth from slowly cooled solutions is discussed as another possibility. The techniques are examined. Vapor synthesis and growht of beryl crystals re reviewed and the authors experimentally study the seeded CVD crystallization of beryl from BeO, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 oxides, by using complex compounds as carrier agents. The color of crystals of emerald and other varieties of beryl is detemined by slelective light absorption in teh visible part of the spectrum and depends on the density and structural positions of chromphore ions: chromium, iron, vanadium, nickel, manganese and cobalt

  20. Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultr......Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound...... with an ultrasound frequency of 20kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 degrees C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that...... ultrasound power. This study also showed, the higher the ultrasound amplitude the smaller the crystals obtained....

  1. A requirement for Australian research: access to 'big science' facilities, a report by the Australian National Committee for crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    Two types of 'Big Science' research facility - synchrotron radiation sources and intense neutron beams - are now recognised as essential resources for a wide range of research activities in chemistry, physics and biology. The cost of such facilities and the lack of a sufficiently large user base will probably preclude their construction in Australia in the foreseeable future. The needs of Australian crystallographers for access to such facilities are assessed. In relation to synchrotron radiation sources, the Committee considered only the question of access to such facilities overseas. In relation to neutron beam sources, the Committee's inquiries included not only the question of access to powerful facilities overseas but also the special problems which confront Australian crystallographers as a result of the obsolescence of the HIFAR reactor. The arguments about, and options for, funding Australian use of facilities overseas are presented. The Committee concluded there is a strong case for the purchase of a beam-line at an overseas synchrotron radiation facility and a strong, though less urgent, case for substantial Australian involvement in an overseas neutron beam facility. The Committee recommended that the Australian HIFAR reactor be refurbished in its present shell, retaining the present flux and power levels, and that in the upgrading of the neutron scattering instrumentation at HIFAR special consideration be given to including items which are sufficiently specialised to attract the international neutron scattering community

  2. Elder participation and senior power in Australian electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Allan; Hudson, Robert B; McCormack, John

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to assess the "goodness of fit" between the social science literature on the impact of older voters on electoral outcomes and the Australian experience of the politics of aging. While the literature suggests that the notion of senior power is a flawed one, Australia's 2004 federal election campaign indicated that this is not quite so. This article offers a possible explanation for the difference between the literature and the Australian experience in terms of the calculus that underpinned the election campaign, namely, capturing the votes of swing voters in marginal seats including "silver" swing voters in seats with a disproportionate number of older voters. The preliminary findings of a small exploratory study of campaign strategists suggest that there may be a real basis to this explanation. Thus, there does appear to be some basis for asserting that "gray power"does play a role in Australian national electoral politics.

  3. The prevalence of dental anomalies in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H Q; Constantine, S; Anderson, P J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies within an Australian paediatric population using panoramic radiographs. This was a prospective review of 1050 panoramic radiographs obtained as part of a school dental screening program in suburban and rural New South Wales, Australia. Fifty-four (5.14%) patients had a dental anomaly present. Agenesis was noted to have occurred 69 times across 45 patients (4.28%), along with seven cases of impaction (0.6%) and three cases of supernumerary teeth (0.28%). Dental anomalies rarely occur in the Australian population, which possesses a wide-ranging multiethnic cohort. Despite their rarity, they can be incidentally discovered so identification and management by dental practitioners are important. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  4. The outlook for the world and Australian oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, K.; Fok, G.

    1996-01-01

    Global demand for oil is projected to continue its upward trend to 2000-1, with growth in the transport sector expected to underpin future increases in oil consumption. World oil consumption is projected to be matched by global production, keeping the average annual oil price relatively stable. In many countries, the diversion of oil revenue to other projects is threatening to constrain increases in production capacity, particularly in the OPEC countries. The encouragement of foreign investment in state oil industries is a likely method of easing the constraint. Australian exploration activity is rising steadily with the prospect of stable oil prices, expanding gas markets and the incentives provided by a number of recent discoveries. While the geographical pattern of Australian production has now changed, with Western Australian production exceeding Victoria production, Australia is expected to maintain its position in the world oil market as a significant producer, importer and exporter. (author). 6 figs., 23 refs

  5. A database of chlorophyll a in Australian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Claire H.; Ajani, Penelope; Armbrecht, Linda; Atkins, Natalia; Baird, Mark E.; Beard, Jason; Bonham, Pru; Burford, Michele; Clementson, Lesley; Coad, Peter; Crawford, Christine; Dela-Cruz, Jocelyn; Doblin, Martina A.; Edgar, Steven; Eriksen, Ruth; Everett, Jason D.; Furnas, Miles; Harrison, Daniel P.; Hassler, Christel; Henschke, Natasha; Hoenner, Xavier; Ingleton, Tim; Jameson, Ian; Keesing, John; Leterme, Sophie C.; James McLaughlin, M; Miller, Margaret; Moffatt, David; Moss, Andrew; Nayar, Sasi; Patten, Nicole L.; Patten, Renee; Pausina, Sarah A.; Proctor, Roger; Raes, Eric; Robb, Malcolm; Rothlisberg, Peter; Saeck, Emily A.; Scanes, Peter; Suthers, Iain M.; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Talbot, Samantha; Thompson, Peter; Thomson, Paul G.; Uribe-Palomino, Julian; van Ruth, Paul; Waite, Anya M.; Wright, Simon; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2018-01-01

    Chlorophyll a is the most commonly used indicator of phytoplankton biomass in the marine environment. It is relatively simple and cost effective to measure when compared to phytoplankton abundance and is thus routinely included in many surveys. Here we collate 173, 333 records of chlorophyll a collected since 1965 from Australian waters gathered from researchers on regular coastal monitoring surveys and ocean voyages into a single repository. This dataset includes the chlorophyll a values as measured from samples analysed using spectrophotometry, fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The Australian Chlorophyll a database is freely available through the Australian Ocean Data Network portal (https://portal.aodn.org.au/). These data can be used in isolation as an index of phytoplankton biomass or in combination with other data to provide insight into water quality, ecosystem state, and relationships with other trophic levels such as zooplankton or fish. PMID:29461516

  6. Intercollegiate conversations: Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; Graham, Ian S

    2017-06-01

    In the first of a series of online interviews with other Australian and New Zealand Specialty Colleges about the developments and shared challenges with implementing competency-based medical education, I spoke with the current Dean of Education at the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, Dr Ian Graham. Dr Graham is not an anaesthetist. He is a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators, educator and consultant in health management. He was appointed into the role of part-time Dean of Education at the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists in August 2014. The interview was conducted in person on 13 April 2016 at Austin Hospital in Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia, and subsequent changes were made to the manuscript through email by Dr Graham on 28 August 2016. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. A concise culture review of Aboriginal and Australian fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the Australian fiction, we have suggested that some blossoming of this Australian genre happened during the nineteenth century, so in this review we have to start with some earlier works to express the cultural and poetical picture just unpretentious but completely. Firstly, it ought to be the Aboriginal literature which is of great importance to many both within Australia and internationally. This culture review will relate to the Aboriginal writing in English. The transformative survey of Aboriginal writing presents the stories and patterns of Australian culture and society in new ways, foregrounding and celebrating Indigenous experience and expression. It introduces powerful and creative individual voices as it also reveals a larger history of struggle, suffering and strength.

  8. A database of chlorophyll a in Australian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Claire H.; Ajani, Penelope; Armbrecht, Linda; Atkins, Natalia; Baird, Mark E.; Beard, Jason; Bonham, Pru; Burford, Michele; Clementson, Lesley; Coad, Peter; Crawford, Christine; Dela-Cruz, Jocelyn; Doblin, Martina A.; Edgar, Steven; Eriksen, Ruth; Everett, Jason D.; Furnas, Miles; Harrison, Daniel P.; Hassler, Christel; Henschke, Natasha; Hoenner, Xavier; Ingleton, Tim; Jameson, Ian; Keesing, John; Leterme, Sophie C.; James McLaughlin, M.; Miller, Margaret; Moffatt, David; Moss, Andrew; Nayar, Sasi; Patten, Nicole L.; Patten, Renee; Pausina, Sarah A.; Proctor, Roger; Raes, Eric; Robb, Malcolm; Rothlisberg, Peter; Saeck, Emily A.; Scanes, Peter; Suthers, Iain M.; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Talbot, Samantha; Thompson, Peter; Thomson, Paul G.; Uribe-Palomino, Julian; van Ruth, Paul; Waite, Anya M.; Wright, Simon; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2018-02-01

    Chlorophyll a is the most commonly used indicator of phytoplankton biomass in the marine environment. It is relatively simple and cost effective to measure when compared to phytoplankton abundance and is thus routinely included in many surveys. Here we collate 173, 333 records of chlorophyll a collected since 1965 from Australian waters gathered from researchers on regular coastal monitoring surveys and ocean voyages into a single repository. This dataset includes the chlorophyll a values as measured from samples analysed using spectrophotometry, fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The Australian Chlorophyll a database is freely available through the Australian Ocean Data Network portal (https://portal.aodn.org.au/). These data can be used in isolation as an index of phytoplankton biomass or in combination with other data to provide insight into water quality, ecosystem state, and relationships with other trophic levels such as zooplankton or fish.

  9. Allied health weekend service provision in Australian rehabilitation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Erin L; Kuys, Suzanne S; Brauer, Sandra G

    2018-03-23

    To determine current Australian allied health rehabilitation weekend service provision and to identify perceived barriers to and facilitators of weekend service provision. Senior physiotherapists from Australian rehabilitation units completed an online cross-sectional survey exploring current service provision, staffing, perceived outcomes, and barriers and facilitators to weekend service provision. A total of 179 (83%) eligible units responded, with 94 facilities (53%) providing weekend therapy. A Saturday service was the most common (97%) with the most frequent service providers being physiotherapists (90%). Rehabilitation weekend service was perceived to increase patient/family satisfaction (66%) and achieve faster goal attainment (55%). Common barriers were budgetary restraints (66%) and staffing availability (54%), with facilitators including organisational support (76%), staff availability (62%) and staff support (61%). Despite increasing evidence of effectiveness, only half of Australian rehabilitation facilities provide weekend services. Further efforts are required to translate evidence from clinical trials into feasible service delivery models. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  10. Which health conditions impact on productivity in working Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Ware, Robert S; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2011-03-01

    To identify health conditions associated with productivity loss in working Australians, adjusting for comorbidity, demographics, and work-related characteristics. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit study cross-sectional screening data set was used to identify health-related productivity losses in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. Data collected with the World Health Organisation Health and Productivity Questionnaire were analyzed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively. Health conditions impacted on both presenteeism and absenteeism. Drug and alcohol problems and psychological distress had a greater impact on absenteeism and presenteeism than other investigated health conditions. Demographic characteristics, health status (comorbidity), and work-related characteristics all impacted significantly on both absenteeism and presenteeism. Mental health conditions contributed more strongly to productivity loss than other investigated health conditions.

  11. Tritium activity in Australian rainwater 1962-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calf, G.E.

    1988-07-01

    Atmospheric tritirecipitated in rainfall has been measured since 1962 in samples from a network of Australian monitoring stations. Atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests have injected into the atmosphere about 350 kg of tritium, mostly into the northern hemisphere's troposphere and stratosphere, causing atmospheric concentrations of tritium to reach peak values of 50 to 100 tritium units (TU) in the southern hemisphere. Tritium from underground testing has not contributed significantly to the amounts in the atmosphere or in surface waters. In Australia, peak concentrations of precipitated tritium were observed in 1962, 1964 and 1969. The tritium activity in rainwater for all Australian stations decreased after 1969. Radioactive decay of bomb tritium will decrease the tritium budget to the natural level by the early 1990s in Australian precipitation

  12. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  13. Correlates of housing affordability stress among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.

  14. Nanoparticles in liquid crystals, and liquid crystals in nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Liquid crystals are remarkably sensitive to interfacial interactions. Small perturbations at a liquid crystal interface, for example, can be propagated over relatively long length scales, thereby providing the basis for a wide range of applications that rely on amplification of molecular events into macroscopic observables. Our recent research efforts have focused on the reverse phenomenon; that is, we have sought to manipulate the interfacial assembly of nanoparticles or the organization of surface active molecules by controlling the structure of a liquid crystal. This presentation will consist of a review of the basic principles that are responsible for liquid crystal-mediated interactions, followed by demonstrations of those principles in the context of two types of systems. In the first, a liquid crystal is used to direct the assembly of nanoparticles; through a combination of molecular and continuum models, it is found that minute changes in interfacial energy and particle size lead to liquid-crystal induced attractions that can span multiple orders of magnitude. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by experimental observations, which also suggest that LC-mediated assembly provides an effective means for fabrication of plasmonic devices. In the second type of system, the structure of a liquid crystal is controlled by confinement in submicron droplets. The morphology of the liquid crystal in a drop depends on a delicate balance between bulk and interfacial contributions to the free energy; that balance can be easily perturbed by adsorption of analytes or nanoparticles at the interface, thereby providing the basis for development of hierarchical assembly of responsive, anisotropic materials. Theoretical predictions also indicate that the three-dimensional order of a liquid crystal can be projected onto a two-dimensional interface, and give rise to novel nanostructures that are not found in simple isotropic fluids.

  15. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  16. Design and Implementation of the Australian National Data Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Treloar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 This paper will describe the genesis and realisation of the Australian National Data Service (ANDS. It will commence by outlining the context within which ANDS was conceived, both in the international research and Australian research support domains. It will then describe the process that brought about the ANDS vision and the principles that informed the realisation of that vision. The paper will then outline each of the four ANDS programs (Developing Frameworks, Providing Utilities, Seeding the Commons, and Building Capabilities while also discussing particular items of note about the approach ANDS is taking. The paper concludes by briefly examining related work in the UK and US.

  17. Trypanosomiasis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, J T; Stenner, R; Gillett, A K; Barbosa, A; Ryan, U; Irwin, P J

    2017-07-01

    An adult female Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) presented with icterus and anaemia. Examination of a blood smear revealed numerous trypanosomes 20.4-30.8 µm long with tapered ends. Necropsy and histological findings were consistent with trypanosome infection of lymphoid tissue and intravascular haemolysis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated this trypanosome species to be genetically distinct and most similar to Trypanosoma minasense and Trypanosoma rangeli (with a genetic distance of 1% at the 18S rRNA locus for both). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a trypanosome infection associated with clinical disease in bats. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. International medical graduates - challenges faced in the Australian training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Louise; Usherwood, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Few studies have examined the challenges faced by international medical graduate (IMG) registrars and their supervisors in the Australian General Practice Training Program. This study explored registrar and supervisor perspectives on these challenges. Five IMG registrars and 10 experienced supervisors were interviewed between August 2006 and March 2007. Six themes were identified: language and communication, cultural issues, understanding the Australian health care system, clinical knowledge and its application, consulting styles and registrar support. Addressing the issues identified in this study can provide an easier transition for IMG registrars and help them reach their full potential.

  19. An empirical investigation of Australian Stock Exchange data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, William K.

    2004-10-01

    We present an empirical study of high frequency Australian equity data examining the behaviour of distribution tails and the existence of long memory. A method is presented allowing us to deal with Australian Stock Exchange data by splitting it into two separate data series representing an intraday and overnight component. Power-law exponents for the empirical density functions are estimated and compared with results from other studies. Using the autocorrelation and variance plots we find there to be a strong indication of long-memory type behaviour in the absolute return, volume and transaction frequency.

  20. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  1. New ceramic prevents atomic waste leaks, Australian scientists say

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at the Australian National University say they have invented a material that will safely seal radioactive atomic waste and prevent leaks from occurring for millions for years. Synroc, or synthetic rock, is an advanced ceramic which, when fused with radioactive waste, locks the waste in a crystalline structure, according to a Reuters report. A five kilogram chunk of chemically-inactive synroc is all that is left after 100 litres of radioactive waste is processed. The ceramic was developed in conjunction with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization and a consortium of four mining companies

  2. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume

  3. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new...

  4. Forward contracts in electricity markets: The Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Edward J.; Hu, Xinin; Winchester, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Forward contracts play a vital role in all electricity markets, and yet the details of the market for forward contracts are often opaque. In this paper we review the existing literature on forward contracts and explore the contracting process as it operates in Australia. The paper is based on interviews with participants in Australia's National Electricity Market (NEM). The interviews were designed to understand the contracting process and the practice of risk management in the Australian energy-only pool market. This survey reveals some significant gaps between the assumptions made in the academic literature and actual practice in the Australian market place. (author)

  5. Effective University Teaching: Views of Australian University Students from Low Socio-Economic Status Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Marcia; O'Shea, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As the Australian higher education population further diversifies as a result of federal government policy changes, the collective understanding of effective university teaching in the Australian context will need to evolve to incorporate such shifts. The Australian Government has set clear targets for increased university participation of people…

  6. 76 FR 69120 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Government later has questions concerning inventories of Australian- obligated source material in quantities... the Agreement between the United States of America and the Australian Government for Peaceful Nuclear... Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  7. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Walsh, Mark [Mater Hospital and Lady Cilento Children' s Hospital Medical Imaging Department, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Francis, Joshua R. [Royal Darwin Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Darwin (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  8. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Francis, Joshua R; Walsh, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment.

  9. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  10. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 56A

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY):…

  11. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the "Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians" and the "Australian Curriculum";…

  12. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  13. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  14. Course diversity within South Australian secondary schools as a factor of successful transition and retention within Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There has long been a disparity in the provision of curriculum within Australian secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate whether diversity within schools alters students’ university experiences. While much of the existing literature focuses on each aspect individually, this paper attempts to clarify a link between these factors by focussing on the transition process. A theoretical analysis of key concepts surrounding a web of inter-related issues, including student satisfaction, interest and motivation frames the quantitative data collection. The methodology employed consists of analysing a balanced sample of South Australian secondary schools, from an array of different locations, SES groupings and sizes, and an acknowledgement of previous studies into the first year experience within Australian Universities. The findings suggest that there is a disparity between learning areas in school curricula and an inherent link has been established with issues such as student attrition and dissatisfaction in universities.

  15. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation of the price disclosure policy had a

  16. Pressure sensor using liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Devendra S. (Inventor); Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A pressure sensor includes a liquid crystal positioned between transparent, electrically conductive films (18 and 20), that are biased by a voltage (V) which induces an electric field (E) that causes the liquid crystal to assume a first state of orientation. Application of pressure (P) to a flexible, transparent film (24) causes the conductive film (20) to move closer to or farther from the conductive film (18), thereby causing a change in the electric field (E'(P)) which causes the liquid crystal to assume a second state of orientation. Polarized light (P.sub.1) is directed into the liquid crystal and transmitted or reflected to an analyzer (A or 30). Changes in the state of orientation of the liquid crystal induced by applied pressure (P) result in a different light intensity being detected at the analyzer (A or 30) as a function of the applied pressure (P). In particular embodiments, the liquid crystal is present as droplets (10) in a polymer matrix (12) or in cells (14) in a polymeric or dielectric grid (16) material in the form of a layer (13) between the electrically conductive films (18 and 20). The liquid crystal fills the open wells in the polymer matrix (12) or grid (16) only partially.

  17. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  18. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * DICHROIC DYES * Chemical Structure * Chemical and Photochemical Stability * THEORETICAL MODELLING * DEFECTS CAUSED BY PROLONGED LIGHT IRRADIATION * CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PHOTOSTABILITY * OTHER PARAMETERS AFFECTING PHOTOSTABILITY * CELL PREPARATION * DICHROIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Of Dyes * Absorbance, Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Measurements * IMPACT OF DYE STRUCTURE AND LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A DICHROIC MIXTURE * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio * EFFECT OF LENGTH OF DICHROIC DYES ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE BREADTH OF DYE ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE HOST ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE ORDER PARAMETER OF DYES IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST * IMPACT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * Temperature Range * Viscosity * Dielectric Constant and Anisotropy * Refractive Indices and Birefringence * solubility43,153-156 * Absorption Wavelength and Auxochromic Groups * Molecular Engineering of Dichroic Dyes * OPTICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND LIFE PARAMETERS * Colour And CIE Colour space120,160-166 * CIE 1931 COLOUR SPACE * CIE 1976 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * CIE UNIFORM COLOUR SPACES & COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE120,160-166 * Electro-Optical Parameters120 * LUMINANCE * CONTRAST AND CONTRAST RATIO * SWITCHING SPEED * Life Parameters and Failure Modes * DICHROIC MIXTURE FORMULATION * Monochrome Mixture * Black Mixture * ACHROMATIC BLACK MIXTURE FOR HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Effect of Illuminant on Display Colour * Colour of the Field-On State * Effect of Dye Linewidth * Optimum Centroid Wavelengths * Effect of Dye Concentration * Mixture Formulation Using More Than Three Dyes * ACHROMATIC MIXTURE FOR WHITE-TAYLOR TYPE DISPLAYS * HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Theoretical Modelling * Threshold Characteristic * Effects of Dye Concentration on Electro-optical Parameters * Effect of Cholesteric Doping * Effect of Alignment

  19. Current trends in protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavira, José A

    2016-07-15

    Proteins belong to the most complex colloidal system in terms of their physicochemical properties, size and conformational-flexibility. This complexity contributes to their great sensitivity to any external change and dictate the uncertainty of crystallization. The need of 3D models to understand their functionality and interaction mechanisms with other neighbouring (macro)molecules has driven the tremendous effort put into the field of crystallography that has also permeated other fields trying to shed some light into reluctant-to-crystallize proteins. This review is aimed at revising protein crystallization from a regular-laboratory point of view. It is also devoted to highlight the latest developments and achievements to produce, identify and deliver high-quality protein crystals for XFEL, Micro-ED or neutron diffraction. The low likelihood of protein crystallization is rationalized by considering the intrinsic polypeptide nature (folded state, surface charge, etc) followed by a description of the standard crystallization methods (batch, vapour diffusion and counter-diffusion), including high throughput advances. Other methodologies aimed at determining protein features in solution (NMR, SAS, DLS) or to gather structural information from single particles such as Cryo-EM are also discussed. Finally, current approaches showing the convergence of different structural biology techniques and the cross-methodologies adaptation to tackle the most difficult problems, are presented. Current advances in biomacromolecules crystallization, from nano crystals for XFEL and Micro-ED to large crystals for neutron diffraction, are covered with special emphasis in methodologies applicable at laboratory scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystal extraction: Alignment of crystal with respect to the beam

    CERN Document Server

    Gyr, Marcel

    1992-01-01

    The program CRYSTAL.BAS allows to calculate the exact alignment of the crystal with respect to thebeam. It is written in QBasic and installed on server USRV_865 connected to the PC network. This note describes how to access and to run this program from any PC which is connected to the network NICE. The angle of the two crystals actually installed has been scanned over a relatively wide range and at different positions with respect to the ideal closed orbit, thereafter referred to as beam center line. The signal (Volt) produced by the position sensitive detectors (PSD) intercepting the reflected laser beams used to monitor the crystal alignment, is plotted in the attached figures.

  1. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...

  2. Crystal structure determination of Efavirenz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popeneciu, Horea; Dumitru, Ristoiu; Tripon, Carmen; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pop, Mihaela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Needle-shaped single crystals of the title compound, C 14 H 9 ClF 3 NO 2 , were obtained from a co-crystallization experiment of Efavirenz with maleic acid in a (1:1) ratio, using methanol as solvent. Crystal structure determination at room temperature revealed a significant anisotropy of the lattice expansion compared to the previously reported low-temperature structure. In both low- and room temperature structures the cyclopropylethynyl fragment in one of the asymmetric unit molecules is disordered. While at low-temperature only one C atom exhibits positional disorder, at room temperature the disorder is present for two C atoms of the cyclopropane ring

  3. Crystal plasticity study of single crystal tungsten by indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Weizhi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its favorable material properties, tungsten (W) has been studied as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. Experiments on W heating in plasma sources and electron beam facilities have shown an intense micro-crack formation at the heated surface and sub-surface. The cracks go deep inside the irradiated sample, and often large distorted areas caused by local plastic deformation are present around the cracks. To interpret the crack-induced microscopic damage evolution process in W, one needs firstly to understand its plasticity on a single grain level, which is referred to as crystal plasticity. In this thesis, the crystal plasticity of single crystal tungsten (SCW) has been studied by spherical and Berkovich indentation tests and the finite element method with a crystal plasticity model. Appropriate values of the material parameters included in the crystal plasticity model are determined by fitting measured load-displacement curves and pile-up profiles with simulated counterparts for spherical indentation. The numerical simulations reveal excellent agreement with experiment. While the load-displacement curves and the deduced indentation hardness exhibit little sensitivity to the indented plane at small indentation depths, the orientation of slip directions within the crystals governs the development of deformation hillocks at the surface. It is found that several factors like friction, indentation depth, active slip systems, misoriented crystal orientation, misoriented sample surface and azimuthal orientation of the indenter can affect the indentation behavior of SCW. The Berkovich indentation test was also used to study the crystal plasticity of SCW after deuterium irradiation. The critical load (pop-in load) for triggering plastic deformation under the indenter is found to depend on the crystallographic orientation. The pop-in loads decrease dramatically after deuterium plasma irradiation for all three investigated crystallographic planes.

  4. Crystals and liquid crystals confined to curved geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Vinzenz; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    This review introduces the elasticity theory of two-dimensional crystals and nematic liquid crystals on curved surfaces, the energetics of topological defects (disclinations, dislocations and pleats) in these ordered phases, and the interaction of defects with the underlying curvature. This chapter concludes with two cases of three-dimensional nematic phases confined to spaces with curved boundaries, namely a torus and a spherical shell.

  5. Crystal Adaptronics: Mechanically Reconfigurable Elastic and Superelastic Molecular Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Karothu, Durga Prasad; Naumov, Pance

    2018-04-06

    Mechanically reconfigurable molecular crystals-ordered materials that can adapt to variable operating and environmental conditions by deformation, whereby they attain motility or perform work-are quickly shaping up a new research direction in materials science, crystal adaptronics. Properties such as elasticity, superelasticity and ferroelasticity that are normally related to inorganic materials, and phenomena such as shape-memory and self-healing effects which are well established for soft materials, are increasingly reported for molecular crystals, yet their mechanism, quantification, and relation to the crystal structure in organic crystals are not immediately intelligible to the chemistry and materials science research communities. This Minireview provides a condensed topical overview of the elastic, superelastic and ferroelastic molecular crystals, emerging new classes of materials that bridge the gap between the soft matter and inorganic materials. The occurrence and detection of these unconventional properties, and the underlying structural features of the related molecular materials are discussed and highlighted together with selected prominent recent examples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Crystal structure of pymetrozine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngeun Jeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H11N5O {systematic name: 6-methyl-4-[(E-(pyridin-3-ylmethylideneamino]-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(2H-one}, C10H11N5O, is used as an antifeedant in pest control. The asymmetric unit comprises two independent molecules, A and B, in which the dihedral angles between the pyridinyl and triazinyl ring planes [r.m.s. deviations = 0.0132 and 0.0255 ] are 11.60 (6 and 18.06 (4°, respectively. In the crystal, N—H...O, N—H...N, C—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, together with weak π–π interactions [ring-centroid separations = 3.5456 (9 and 3.9142 (9 Å], link the pyridinyl and triazinyl rings of A molecules, generating a three-dimensional network.

  7. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Single Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Santillan, Joaquin

    2014-06-01

    The present work studies (0001) Al2O3 and (111) Al2MgO4 wetting with pure molten Al by the sessile drop technique from 1073 K to 1473 K (800 °C to 1200 °C) under Ar at PO2 10-15 Pa. Al pure liquid wets a smooth and chemically homogeneous surface of an inert solid, the wetting driving force ( t, T) can be readily studied when surface solid roughness increases in the system. Both crystals planes (0001) Al2O3 and (111) Al2MgO4 have crystallographic surfaces with identical O-2 crystalline positions however considering Mg2+ content in Al2MgO4 structure may influence a reactive mode. Kinetic models results under similar experimental conditions show that Al wetting on (0001) Al2O3 is less reactive than (111) Al2MgO4, however at >1273 K (1000 °C) (0001) Al2O3 transformation occurs and a transition of wetting improves. The (111) Al2MgO4 and Al system promotes interface formations that slow its wetting process.

  9. Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Porter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition By Deidre Slattery. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xvii + 302 pp. AU$ 45.00, US$ 35.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30171-3.

  10. Eating Disorders among Indian and Australian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostedt, John P.; Schumaker, John F.; Nathawat, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influx of western-style eating disorders into India, Asia, and the southern Pacific region. Predicted Australian students would have more eating disorder symptoms, but instead, the Indian students showed more symptoms. Concludes substantial evidence of western-style eating disorders appear in the privileged socioeconomic class of…

  11. An Australian war correspondent in Ladysmith: The siege report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa on 21 October 1899, the day of the battle at Elandslaagte, as war correspondent to the Melbourne Argus. This book .... modern historians, have hinted that Australians learned racism and 'absorbed the local settlers' view' during their ... dehurnanisation of the enemy is oft-used propaganda. By Christmas, Macdonald's.

  12. Experiences of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended "Generation Next" seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the…

  13. Aligning IT and Business Strategy: An Australian University Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Alignment with business objectives is considered to be an essential outcome of information technology (IT) strategic planning. This case study examines the process of creating an IT strategy for an Australian university using an industry standard methodology. The degree of alignment is determined by comparing the strategic priorities supported by…

  14. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains statutory rules made under the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 defining how specified standards to be observed, practices and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken by controlled persons in relation to activities relating to controlled facilities, as well as in relation to dealings with controlled apparatus or controlled material

  15. Holiday and School-Term Sleep Patterns of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-01-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient…

  16. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  17. Research Support in Australian Academic Libraries: Services, Resources, and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Mamtora, Jayshree

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade Australian academic libraries have increasingly aligned their research support services with assessment criteria used in the national research evaluation exercise (Excellence for Research in Australia). The same period has seen growing interest in research impact outside of traditional measures, such as bibliometrics. Social…

  18. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  19. Online Religious Advertising: The Case of Australian Christian Youth Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, Paul Emerson

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the changing nature of Christian denominational discourse in an Australian context as informed by Internet technologies. It will take as its case study three Internet sites developed and published for the promotion of three separate Christian youth festivals held in Australia between July 2008 and January 2009, undertaking a…

  20. The Australian Geodetic Observing Program. Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, G.; Dawson, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Australian government has through programs like AuScope, the Asia Pacific Reference Frame (APREF), and the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring (PSLM) Project made a significant contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Program. In addition to supporting the national research priorities, this contribution is justified by Australia's growing economic dependence on precise positioning to underpin efficient transportation, geospatial data management, and industrial automation (e.g., robotic mining and precision agriculture) and the consequent need for the government to guarantee provision of precise positioning products to the Australian community. It is also well recognised within Australia that there is an opportunity to exploit our near unique position as being one of the few regions in the world to see all new and emerging satellite navigation systems including Galileo (Europe), GPS III (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Beidou (China), QZSS (Japan) and IRNSS (India). It is in this context that the Australian geodetic program will build on earlier efforts and further develop its key geodetic capabilities. This will include the creation of an independent GNSS analysis capability that will enable Australia to contribute to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and an upgrade of key geodetic infrastructure including the national VLBI and GNSS arrays. This presentation will overview the significant geodetic activities undertaken by the Australian government and highlight its future plans.