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Sample records for australian rural communities

  1. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.

  2. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  3. Minority stress and community connectedness among gay, lesbian and bisexual Australians: a comparison of rural and metropolitan localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Ross, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) Australians residing in rural-remote and other non-inner metropolitan localities experience increased levels of minority stress and reduced social support relative to their inner metropolitan counterparts. A convenience sample of (n=1306) LGB Australians completed an online survey that assessed minority stressors, level of connection with other LGB individuals and social isolation. Postcodes provided were coded into three metropolitan and two rural zones. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to examine the effect of locality on minority stress and social support independent of sex, age, ethnicity, education and income. Those residing in rural-remote localities reported significantly increased concealment of sexuality from friends, more concern regarding disclosure of sexuality, less LGB community involvement, fewer friendships with other LGB people and, among men, higher levels of internalised homophobia than those residing in inner metropolitan areas. Unexpectedly, those residing in outer metropolitan areas of major cities experienced comparable levels of minority stress and LGB disconnection to those in rural and remote Australia. LGB individuals in rural-remote and outer metropolitan areas of major cities face increased exposure to a number of minority stressors and less LGB community connectedness. These are risk factors associated with psychiatric morbidity in LGB populations. Health promotion targeted at reducing homophobia and discrimination in rural-remote and outer metropolitan communities and additional services to assist LGB Australians struggling with stigma and isolation in non-inner city areas may help mitigate the disadvantages faced by these LGB populations. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. An Approach for Enhancing Adoption, Use and Utility of Shared Digital Health Records in Rural Australian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Helen; Cummings, Elizabeth; Turner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, shared digital health records are considered an important addition to improving modern health care provision. Australia launched its version, My Health Record (MyHR), in 2012 but has experienced low adoption and challenges in practical implementation and evaluation. Individuals living with complex and chronic conditions in rural and remote communities often experience challenges in obtaining equitable access to health care provision. They are also supposed to face additional barriers to adopting and using eHealth services. This paper reports on research investigating adoption, use and utility of MyHR, in rural remote Australian community settings. Based on this research an approach for improving national roll out of MyHR is presented. The approach highlights a means to understand and engage communities with complex care needs, to support their adoption and use of digital tools. It also draws attention to holistic methods for evaluating and assessing impact at individual, community and health care provision levels.

  5. The Australian Telecentre Program: A New Approach to Technology Transfer and Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crellin, Ian R.

    Telecottages originated in Scandinavia in the 1980s in an attempt to reverse the decline of isolated communities by giving them access to information and services, facilities for training and distance education, and the opportunity to produce income through telecommuting. In 1992-1993, the Australian government began funding the Telecentre…

  6. Australian rural, remote and urban community nurses' health promotion role and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Janet; Jarvis, Lynda; Campbell-Crofts, Sandra; Whitehead, Dean

    2016-09-01

    Community nurses have often been 'touted' as potential major contributors to health promotion. Critical literature, however, often states that this has not been the case. Furthermore, most studies examining nurses' role and function have occurred mainly in hospital settings. This is a sequential mixed-methods study of two groups of community nurses from a Sydney urban area (n = 100) and from rural and remote areas (n = 49) within New South Wales, Australia. A piloted questionnaire survey was developed based on the five action areas of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Following this, 10 qualitative interviews were conducted for both groups, plus a focus group to support or refute survey results. Findings showed that rural and remote nurses had more positive attitudes towards health promotion and its clinical implementation. Survey and interview data confirmed that urban community nurses had a narrower focus on caring for individuals rather than groups, agreeing that time constraints impacted on their limited health promotion role. There was agreement about lack of resources (material and people) to update health promotion knowledge and skills. Rural and remote nurses were more likely to have limited educational opportunities. All nurses undertook more development of personal skills (DPS, health education) than any other action area. The findings highlight the need for more education and resources for community nurses to assist their understanding of health promotion concepts. It is hoped that community nurse leaders will collectively become more effective health promoters and contribute to healthy reform in primary health care sectors.

  7. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson Lynne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189 were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP

  8. Compositional, Contextual, and Collective Community Factors in Mental Health and Well-Being in Australian Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessica; Ward, Bernadette M.; Snow, Pamela; Kippen, Sandra; Judd, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    There are disproportionately higher and inconsistently distributed rates of recorded suicides in rural areas. Patterns of rural suicide are well documented, but they remain poorly understood. Geographic variations in physical and mental health can be understood through the combination of compositional, contextual, and collective factors pertaining to particular places. The aim of this study was to explore the role of “place” contributing to suicide rates in rural communities. Seventeen mental health professionals participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Principles of grounded theory were used to guide the analysis. Compositional themes were demographics and perceived mental health issues; contextual themes were physical environment, employment, housing, and mental health services; and collective themes were town identity, community values, social cohesion, perceptions of safety, and attitudes to mental illness. It is proposed that connectedness may be the underlying mechanism by which compositional, contextual, and collective factors influence mental health and well-being in rural communities. PMID:26848083

  9. Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Jon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to

  10. Constructions of Local Culture and Impacts on Domestic Violence in an Australian Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Studies of domestic violence in rural areas have predominantly focused on barriers that keep women trapped in abusive relationships. The literature has frequently suggested that rural culture influences the incidence of domestic violence, the forms it takes, and how it is experienced. Yet there is surprisingly little research on how rural culture…

  11. Supporting Rural Australian Communities after Disaster: the Warrumbungle Bushfire Support Coordination Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Jacqueline; Rich, Jane; Booth, Angela; Rowlands, Allison; Mackenzie, Lisa; Reddy, Prasuna

    2015-06-01

    . On the whole, the BSCS was perceived by former service users and key stakeholders as acceptable and effective. To develop a better understanding of the role of community-based disaster recovery support services, there is a need for more timely, rigorous and representative evaluation of disaster support services like the BSCS. Recommendations are made for the planning and development of future disaster support services. Key words: bushfires, natural disaster, Australia, disaster recovery support service, rural and remote, communities.

  12. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  13. The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change: Part I—Conceptualising and measuring vulnerability

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    Nelson, R.; Kokic, P.; Crimp, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Howden, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability is a term frequently used to describe the potential threat to rural communities posed by climate variability and change. Despite growing use of the term, analytical measures of vulnerability that are useful for prioritising and evaluating policy responses are yet to evolve. Demand for

  14. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  15. Drought, drying and climate change: emerging health issues for ageing Australians in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Graeme; Hanna, Liz; Kelly, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Older Australians living in rural areas have long faced significant challenges in maintaining health. Their circumstances are shaped by the occupations, lifestyles, environments and remoteness which characterise the diversity of rural communities. Many rural regions face threats to future sustainability and greater proportions of the aged reside in these areas. The emerging changes in Australia's climate over the past decade may be considered indicative of future trends, and herald amplification of these familiar challenges for rural communities. Such climate changes are likely to exacerbate existing health risks and compromise community infrastructure in some instances. This paper discusses climate change-related health risks facing older people in rural areas, with an emphasis on the impact of heat, drought and drying on rural and remote regions. Adaptive health sector responses are identified to promote mitigation of this substantial emerging need as individuals and their communities experience the projected impact of climate change.

  16. Rural pharmacy closures: implications for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Kelli; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Retail pharmacies provide essential services to residents of rural areas and serve many communities as the sole provider of pharmacist services. Losing the only retail pharmacy within a rural community (census designated city), and within a 10 mile radius based on driving distance ("sole community pharmacy"), may affect access to prescription and over-the-counter drugs and, in some cases, leave the community without proximate access to any clinical provider. This policy brief documents the closure of local retail pharmacies in which the pharmacist was the only clinical provider available in the community at the time the pharmacy closed. Characteristics of the community and the retail pharmacy are described. The findings may suggest future policy actions to minimize the risk or mitigate the negative consequences of pharmacy closures. Key Findings. (1) Between May 1, 2006, and October 31, 2010, 119 sole community pharmacies closed. (2) Of those 119 pharmacies, 31 were located in rural communities with no other health professionals or clinical providers. (3) In 16 states, at least 1 community lost a sole community retail pharmacy, and there was no other pharmacy within 10 miles (actual driving distance). (4) Of the 31 pharmacy closures in communities with no other providers, 17% were located in remote rural areas designated with a Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) score of 10 or higher. Such a score means that, on average, 60 minutes of travel time is required to reach an urbanized area, and 40 minutes is required to reach a large urban cluster of 20,000 population or more.

  17. Planning Schools for Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith, Charles; Dickens, Ben

    School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good…

  18. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  19. Fatigue and mental health in Australian rural and regional ambulance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyper, Zoe; Paterson, Jessica L

    2016-02-01

    Australian ambulance personnel experience stress, fatigue and exposure to traumatic events. These risks have been extensively researched in metropolitan paramedics. However, there has been limited research in rural and regional personnel. Rural and regional ambulance personnel make up a significant proportion of the Australian ambulance workforce and may be exposed to unique stressors. The aim of the current study was to investigate levels of fatigue, stress, and emotional trauma in rural and regional ambulance personnel. A sample of 134 (103 male, 31 female) rural and regional ambulance personnel completed a mixed methods survey assessing fatigue, stress and emotional trauma. Data were analysed using a combination of descriptive analysis and qualitative, deductive analysis that involved data immersion, coding, and categorisation. Participants reported high levels of fatigue and emotional trauma. Qualitative data revealed stressors including community expectations and 'office politics'. Participants also reported negative effects of fatigue including errors in drug administration and falling asleep while driving. The majority of participants reported normal levels of stress. It may be the case that working with known individuals in a community offers some degree of 'protective' impact for stress in rural and regional ambulance personnel. This is one of the first studies to investigate fatigue, stress, and emotional trauma in a rural and regional ambulance population. Results indicate a complex and unique profile of risks and challenges for this critical and understudied community resource. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Learning in Rural Communities: A Response to Rapid Economic Change. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

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    Kilpatrick, Sue; Falk, Ian; Harrison, Lesley

    Rural communities with populations of under 15,000 are the least resilient to negative economic shocks, but local initiatives can reduce the negative impact of rapid economic change. Data from a study of three rural Australian communities and one "community-of-common-purpose" were used to develop a model of how the informal learning…

  1. Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buykx Penny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care; (b Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction; and (c Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability. Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how

  2. What Is Social Capital? A Study of Interaction in a Rural Community. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ian; Kilpatrick, Sue

    A case study in a rural Australian township sought to determine the nature of the interactive productivity between the local networks in a community. Participants were chosen based on recommendations of community members concerning to whom they turn for help, advice, or information. Community interactivity was recorded using interviews,…

  3. Establishing a drug and alcohol service in an Australian rural area.

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    Helliwell, D; Reilly, D; Rippingale, C

    1992-01-01

    The response to drug and alcohol problems in a small Australian rural community is described. The town of Nimbin, the centre of this community, is characterized by alternative life-styles. The area has received considerable publicity over illicit drug use, particularly marijuana-growing and a recent increase in injecting drug usage. The town has one medical practice with two general practitioners and this centre has been actively involved in the development of drug and alcohol services. This paper describes the development of a drug and alcohol service from the perspective of a local general practitioner. Reference is made to problems of community resistance, hospital issues and the steps taken to acquire knowledge and skills in the management of patients presenting to the practice. The importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in the development of services which included a needle and syringe exchange and a methadone treatment programme is emphasized.

  4. Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship

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    Darryl Maybery

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

  5. Australian Rural Accountants' Views on How Locally Provided CPD Compares with City-Based Provision

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    Halabi, Abdel K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses Australian rural accountants' attitudes and levels of satisfaction with continuing professional development (CPD), based on whether the CPD was delivered by a professional accounting body in a rural or metropolitan area. The paper responds to prior research that finds rural accountants are dissatisfied with professional…

  6. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

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    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  7. Non-dental primary care providers’ views on challenges in providing oral health services and strategies to improve oral health in Australian rural and remote communities: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Setting Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. Participants 35 primary care providers who had experie...

  8. Examining the Average Citation Index of "Education in Rural Australia" (Now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education")

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    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John

    2013-01-01

    The journal "Education in Rural Australia" (now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education") has been in existence since 1991. During the Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) period, the journal maintained a B ranking, indicating that it was a quality journal within a specialised field. With the abolishment…

  9. Municipal service provision in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Municipal service provision in rural communities  EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize...... a place-based approach for rural development and thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. Rural municipalities are challenged due to demographic changes and population decline and consequently need to adjust municipal services. In this respect it is stressed that service provision...... communities. The paper further discusses whether rural municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....

  10. Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience

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    Isaac, Vivian; Walters, Lucie; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia. All 732 students who completed their RCS term in 2013 were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures Rural self-efficacy: Six questions to measure self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice, based on the sources of self-efficacy described by Bandura. Rural career intention: Students were asked to identify their preferred location for future practice. The options were, Capital or Major City; Inner regional city or large town; Smaller town and very remote area. Results Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia (response rate 89.2%). 83.8% of all students recalled an increase in their interest levels for rural medicine as a result of their RCS experience. Actual career intention to work in a regional area or rural area was 60.2%. Bivariate analyses showed female gender (p=0.003), rural background (prural medicine (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5)) and rural career intent (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3)). (Model included gender, rural background, preference for RCS, generalist intent, rural practice interest and self-efficacy). Conclusions Self-efficacy is associated with increased interest levels for rural medicine and rural medical career intent. PMID:26671960

  11. Trade Books with a Rural Community Theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Lists books with rural or small community themes available for children, grades K-eight, to serve as motivational reading texts or resources in units on farming or rural life in social studies or science. Categorizes selections as informational, poetry, traditional, contemporary realistic fiction, fantasy, historical fiction, or concept books.…

  12. Trade Books with a Rural Community Theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Lists books with rural or small community themes available for children, grades K-eight, to serve as motivational reading texts or resources in units on farming or rural life in social studies or science. Categorizes selections as informational, poetry, traditional, contemporary realistic fiction, fantasy, historical fiction, or concept books.…

  13. Reproductive Health in a Rural Ngwa Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the study were collected from a rural Ngwva community using two separate surveys — a ... factors that affect maternal reproductive health status. Little attempt has been made to investigate ... one point the Ngwa see the family in its nuclear.

  14. TRAINING OF RURAL COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Community development might be a solution to reduce delays, and it was implemented by the involved players of the community. It asks to identify the common problems, community response, and network partnership. Sustainable development means to refuse fatality, community entropy and to undertake negentropic actions. Its finality is the respect for the human being, not compromising the capacity of the future generations to live at least as we do, if not better. We can identify on the field the necessary elements for (reconstructing some sustainable developed communities. The author identifies successful experiences, examples of good practices in the context of globalization and communitization, homogenization and heterogenization. Rural community development starts with acknowledging importance of the village and of its capacities to use opportunities to act in a constructive manner. After providing definitions for community development, social and solidary economy and sustainable development, the associations` role, the author dwells on the training, profile and tasks of the rural community development agent.

  15. Developing sustainable social programmes for rural ethnic seniors: perspectives of community stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel; Hulme Chambers, Alana

    2017-05-01

    This qualitative study explores barriers to delivering sustainable rural community programmes to increase social participation among Australian ethnic seniors. In 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 stakeholders across eight rural/regional organisations that had received state government funding to provide social participation initiatives for ethnic seniors. Within interviews, participants were asked to outline factors that had enhanced or hindered their capacity to deliver the funded projects, and their plans for sustainability. Data were analysed thematically in accordance with Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone's (1998) tripartite programme sustainability framework (project design and implementation, organisational setting and broader community environment). Findings indicate that in the context of resource and staffing constraints and a lack of ethnic critical mass, programme sustainability reflected the increased capacity of rural ethnic seniors to integrate into existing community groups and maintain their own groups and activities. However, this is dependent on the ability of mainstream government, health and social care services to cater for diverse cultural needs and preferences, the ability of rural organisations to support ethnic seniors to manage their own cultural groups and activities, and the capacity of funding bodies, rural community and policy structures to maintain cultural sensitivity while compensating for the rural premium. In addition to identifying some key learnings for rural governments, health and community organisations, this research highlights the precarious nature of rural programme sustainability for ethnic seniors in the context of wider community, organisational and policy constraints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Economic Development Capacity amongst Small Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines indigenous capacity for local community development. Examines new economic development initiatives by communities, nature of relationships between local and larger economies, and how relationships affect local capacity for new economic activities. Discusses benefits of spatial framework in rural development and planning. (TES)

  17. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  18. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  19. Improving collected rainwater quality in rural communities.

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    Garrido, S; Aviles, M; Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A; Montellano, L; Gonzalez, B; de la Paz, J; Ramirez, R M

    2011-01-01

    The country of Mexico is facing serious problems with water quality and supply for human use and consumption in rural communities, mainly due to topographic and isolation. In Mexico the average annual precipitation is 1,500 cubic kilometers of water, if 3% of that amount were used, 13 million Mexicans could be supplied with drinking water that they currently do not have access. Considering the limited infrastructure and management in rural communities, which do not receive services from the centralized systems of large cities, a modified pilot multi-stage filtration (MMSF) system was designed, developed, and evaluated for treating collected rainwater in three rural communities, Ajuchitlan and Villa Nicolas Zapata (Morelos State) and Xacxamayo (Puebla State). The efficiencies obtained in the treatment system were: colour and turbidity >93%. It is worth mentioning that the water obtained for human use and consumption complies with the Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA1-1994.

  20. Creating Opportunities: Good Practice in Small Business Training for Australian Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lyn; Daws, Leonie; Wood, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    To overcome barriers to participation in small business training faced by rural Australian women, training needs and delivery issues were identified and a good practice matrix was developed with the following components: marketing, content, delivery, support, impact, and innovation. Underlying principles included unique needs, diversity, use of…

  1. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dollman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status. Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  2. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-08

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  3. What Makes Rural Communities Tick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Sonya

    1989-01-01

    Compares traits and attitudes of two Illinois farming communities with populations characterized as "German yeoman" and "Yankee entrepreneur." Discusses how community characteristics shape responses to social and economic changes and affect the course of economic development. (SV)

  4. Premises of Sustainable Development on Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Turtureanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors want to highlight the opportunity on rural areas and development in termsof durability. The content of sustainable development offers to local communities real and lasting solutions.In this sense for a community to be truly sustainable, it must adopt a holistic approach, taking into accountshort-term environmental and economic sustainability of natural and cultural resources. The authors believethat a sustainable community among its objectives to include their major environmental issues, povertyeradication, improvement of quality of life, developing and maintaining an effective and viable localeconomies, leading to a global vision of sustainable development of all sectors of the community.

  5. Social Aspects Of Rural Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerová Věra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A well-balanced relationship between economic and social progress is the main prerequisite of rural community stability. Economic development is influenced by many factors. Some of these are statistically discoverable and quantifiable, while others, which fall within the sphere of social relations and their identification, are more difficult to measure and interpret. Czech rural areas face many problems which arise from their specific features – socio-demographic structure, job possibility of various social groups, provision of the proper level of public services, transport accessibility, etc. However, there is no direct connection between economic factors and mutual relations within the rural community. Values, opinions and the behavioural patterns of people are immediately displayed in a locality, but their character is shaped by the regional and national assumptions of every stage of development. Contributions are drawn from the accessible literature and secondary data of empirical research projects.

  6. Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

    2009-01-01

    This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

  7. Towards a cyber security aware rural community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available communities, but the current focus has been in the rural areas. The program takes on an informal work session approach with presentations and discussion sessions. The cyber security awareness program modules are divided into four main themes: physical security...

  8. Community Gardening in Rural Regions: Enhancing Food Security and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    Community gardening projects can enhance community food security and improve the nutrition of project participants. However, limited information exists on the most effective models and methods for establishing community gardens in rural areas. A survey of 12 rural community gardening projects found a variety of program models: community gardens…

  9. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  10. The concept of rural community practice (RCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N Ole; Evans, Brian; King, Lonnie J

    2006-01-01

    The need to devote more human resources to veterinary public practice to cope with escalating threats to biological security, public health, and economic prosperity, while also addressing societal value changes, has been widely recognized and supported. Most envisage increasing the numbers of veterinarians in government employment. Why not at least combine this initiative, wherever possible, with far greater involvement of rural practitioners to deliver contractual public-practice services and provide an enhanced community interface? This could make the difference between having a local practice in a community or none at all, as well as promising to be more cost effective. The concept of rural community practice (RCP) envisages combining traditional services provided in a "mixed-animal" veterinary practice with an expanded portfolio of public-practice and communication services that meet the emerging animal, public, and ecosystem health needs of the collective community, not just those of animal owners. These services could include those involving active sentinel surveillance programs for both domestic animal and wildlife diseases; on-farm food safety; bio-security; traceability and export certification and audit programs; disease investigation, including foreign animal diseases; surge capacity emergency response; managing for ecosystem health; and client and community education. An expanded practice team of animal-health professionals and technologists, led by veterinarians, would deliver these services. This RCP approach should have the potential to make rural practice more attractive from economic, lifestyle, and job-satisfaction perspectives; to enhance the visibility and recognition of the profession; and to respond to changing and new societal needs. It also promises to maintain a stable network of veterinary practices in rural communities. In addition, the recognition of veterinary medicine as a public good should provide for consideration of increased

  11. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant pr...

  12. Trends in social activism across Australian minority communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores trends in social activism across Australian ethnic minority communities over a ten year period (1999-2009 and its relationship to indicators of social cohesion. It explores the impact of social modernisation in enabling the facilitation of effective grassroots campaigns on issues relevant the communities', and how they may influence public policy. Consideration is afforded to the impact on community participation with the rise of security policy on the national agenda, and significant events on domestic and global scales over a period which encompassed extraordinary acts of terrorism, irregular arrivals of asylum seekers, and unparalleled political and community confutation. It is asserted that participation in social activism is an important indicator of political empowerment within the dominant political structure, and could suitably enrich research into social cohesion in Australia. Keywords: political participation, public policy, social activism, social cohesion, social modernisation

  13. Illuminating the Nights in Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Achara N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric power supply in many cities in developing countries is erratic and can only be described as non-existent in the rural areas. Kerosene lantern, the main source of illuminating the night is associated with obnoxious fumes production and more especially the kerosene fuel is scarce to find. Rural dwellers who cannot afford the globed kerosene lanterns either use the locally fabricated globeless kerosene lanterns, ―atunja‖ or log fire. Log fire is associated with deforestation and desert encroachment. A solar lantern has been designed and built for illuminating the nights in rural communities. Battery and LED are part of the components used and it is recommended that appropriate safety measures are put in place not only in use but also in their disposal.

  14. Rural Community Colleges Developing Perceptions of Self-Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.; Tuttle, Courtney C.

    2006-01-01

    Rural America, in direct competition with growing suburban and urban America, has struggled to maintain a high quality of life. Rural out-migration levels are high, as are poverty and illiteracy rates. Rural community colleges have worked to defend and expand opportunities in rural settings, yet face their own challenges tied to resources,…

  15. 42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... county; or (2) If it is within a Metropolitan county, all Census Tracts that are assigned a Rural-Urban... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3... PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN TRAINING GRANT PROGRAM § 5a.3 Definition of Underserved Rural...

  16. Contributing to a culture of learning: a mentor development and support project for Australian rural nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Lennon, Donna; Francis, Karen

    2007-12-01

    Mentoring in rural and remote nursing receives little attention in the literature, even though it is emerging in Australia as a popular strategy to improve the retention of staff. The Association for Australian Rural Nurses established a 2-year Mentor Development and Support Project in 2003 with the aim of promoting mentoring among rural and remote nurses. During the life of the project, 101 such nurses attended Mentor Development Workshops. This project demonstrated that training is an important prerequisite for rural and remote nurses who are planning to enter a mentoring relationship. Participant evaluation showed an increase in mentoring knowledge and skills and a subsequent rise in confidence about undertaking the role. Participants also believed that their increased capacity to mentor was reflected in their workplaces, contributing to a positive culture of learning.

  17. An innovation in Australian dental education: rural, remote and Indigenous pre-graduation placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazen, Jennifer J; Kruger, Estie; Dyson, Kate; Tennant, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Anticipating the looming crisis in access to dental services in rural and remote areas, the Western Australian Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health developed an undergraduate rural placement program to provide dental students of The University of Western Australia opportunities for direct experience of rural and remote practice during the final year of the undergraduate curriculum. The Rural, Remote and Indigenous Placement program started in 2002 and, to the end of 2005, had placed 78 final year dental students in supervised clinical practice in rural, remote or Indigenous practice. In this study, the evolution of the program (2002-2005) is described and student evaluation of the program is reported. While involved in the rural placement program, students were assessed by experienced dental practitioners and provided program evaluation. This structured feedback allowed continuous improvement of the program. Data from each year's graduates was also analysed to examine the question of influence of placements on practice location during the first 6 months after graduation. Although it will be many years before the effects of outplacement programs can be specifically attained, the evidence to date indicates that the program may be a valuable tool among the plethora of strategies being investigated to augment Australia's rural oral health workforce.

  18. Sustainable Leadership in Small Rural Schools: Selected Australian Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon; Stevens, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    According to Hargreaves and Fink (The seven principles of sustainable leadership, 2003; Sustainable leadership, 2006), sustainable leadership matters, spreads and lasts, and is fundamental to enduring and widespread school improvement. This observation is especially germane to the context of leading small primary schools in rural locations, where…

  19. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  20. Active living environment assessments in four rural Latino communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia K. Perry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities.

  1. the impact of community participation in rural water management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... embrace community management model in rural water systems. Community ... participation in decision making which has been welcomed even ... substantial support in the international community ... Methodology. The Study ...

  2. Cultural Diversity, Racialisation and the Experience of Racism in Rural Australia: The South Australian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, James; Dunn, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Rural spaces in settler nations like Australia are commonly perceived as "white", with low numbers of "non-white" ethnic minorities. Perhaps because of this, although ethnic diversity is a feature of some rural communities, there is a paucity of research into issues of cultural exclusion. This is surprising in view of recent…

  3. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods.

  4. Evidence of a Housing Decision Chain in Rural Community Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christine C.; Crull, Sue R.; Bruin, Marilyn J.; Yust, Becky L.; Shelley, Mack C.; Laux, Sharon; Memken, Jean; Niemeyer, Shirley; White, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore and explain the role housing plays in rural community vitality. Community vitality refers to economic strength and social well-being. In spring 2002 we collected primary interview data from informants in 134 small rural communities in nine north-central states and identified related secondary data from…

  5. Quality of Community Life among Rural Residents: An Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, Seongyeon; Cook, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationships among housing satisfaction, community attachment and community satisfaction and the complex mechanisms involved in predicting community satisfaction among residents in rural communities. The role of housing satisfaction and community attachment in predicting community satisfaction was…

  6. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Godrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA. Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256 living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23. A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20 for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007, promotion (p = 0.017, location of food outlets (p = 0.027, and price (p = 0.043. Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  7. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and

  8. Indicators of Community Cohesion in an Australian Country Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Holdsworth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While the notion that communities require resources in the form of financial capital for their development and wellbeing has long been recognised, it has become increasingly apparent that economic resources alone do not lead to community sustainability and wellbeing. The building and supporting of strong, safe, socially cohesive communities that embrace social connections and commitment, has become an important goal of policy and initiatives at all levels of government. The aims of this study were to identify a common understanding of the concept of ‘community cohesion’, and to develop a set of indicators based on both the experiences of residents in a rural community and the relevant contemporary academic literature. Because community cohesion is an intangible concept subject to multiple meanings, qualitative research methods were used. We identified four main themes which could be translated into the key indicators. The most significant finding is that neighbourliness was identified by participants as the key aspect of community cohesion. Yet, whilst it is central, this does not mean excessive familiarity or the taking of liberties. Indeed, part of neighbourliness involves respecting each other’s boundaries and respect for diversity.

  9. Food cost disparities in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Fanning, Frances; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    Promotion of healthy eating is an effective public health strategy to prevent chronic disease incidence and progression. However, food prices can impede healthy eating, especially in rural communities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether food costs are associated with nutritional quality, geographic location, and month of year. The Overall Nutritional Quality Index and cost of 92 foods were assessed four times over a 10-month period in the primary grocery stores in four Kentucky counties, two rural and two urban. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in food costs by nutritional quality, county, and month. Among more nutritious food items, costs were lower in urban areas. This was particularly true among foods in the highest quartile of nutritional quality. Across all counties, there was a pattern of highest per-serving costs in the second quartile of nutritional quality, whereas more nutritious foods were less expensive. Strategies that help individuals improve the ability to identify and prepare less costly foods with high nutritional value may be effective in improving dietary habits, particularly in rural, impoverished food deserts.

  10. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D Leonhardt

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spec., revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia. Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association.

  11. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  12. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynn Josephine D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

  13. Community Participation and Project Sustainability in Rural Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Participation and Project Sustainability in Rural Nigeria: A Study of ... and increased community capacity, empowerment and voice, which can in turn ... Research findings indicate that the nature and extent of participation for the ...

  14. 78 FR 38361 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community... organizations with expertise in rural housing and community development to enhance the capacity and ability of local governments, Indian tribes, housing development organizations, rural community...

  15. The Attraction of Adjunct Faculty to Rural Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Hara Dracon

    2010-01-01

    As rural community colleges face mounting fiscal pressure, the ability to attract adjunct faculty members to support the institutional mission becomes increasingly important. Although the professional literature documents differences between rural, suburban, and urban community colleges, the effect of this institutional diversity on the role and…

  16. Exploring Men's Perpetrator Programs in Small Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Shirley; Wendt, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of an exploratory study conducted in a small rural community in South Australia in 2006. Human service providers, experienced in working with victims and/or perpetrators of domestic violence, were asked about their experiences and perceptions of perpetrator programs in small rural communities. Specifically,…

  17. Child-Caregiver Interaction in Two Remote Indigenous Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eVaughan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As

  18. Social capital and health in rural and urban communities in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah; Kavanagh, Anne M; Bentley, Rebecca J

    2009-02-01

    This paper seeks to compare the relationships between social capital and health for rural and urban residents of South Australia. Using data from a South Australian telephone survey of 2,013 respondents (1,402 urban and 611 rural), separate path analyses for the rural and urban samples were used to compare the relationships between six social capital measures, six demographic variables, and mental and physical health (measured by the SF-12). Higher levels of networks, civic participation and cohesion were reported in rural areas. Education and income were consistently linked with social capital variables for both rural and urban participants, with those on higher incomes and with higher educational achievement having higher levels of social capital. However, there were also differences between the rural and urban groups in some of the other predictors of social capital variables. Mental health was better among rural participants, but there was no significant difference for physical health. Social capital was associated with good mental health for both urban and rural participants, but with physical health only for urban participants. Higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with better mental health for both urban and rural participants, but with better physical health only for urban participants. The study found that social capital and its relationship to health differed for participants in rural and urban areas, and that there were also differences between the areas in associations with socioeconomic variables. Policies aiming to strengthen social capital in order to promote health need to be designed for specific settings and particular communities within these.

  19. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  20. Rural Community as Context and Teacher for Health Professions Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Kedar; Allison, Jill; Upadhyay, Shambu; Bhandary, Shital; Shrestha, Shrijana; Renouf, Tia

    2016-11-07

    Nepal is a low-income, landlocked country located on the Indian subcontinent between China and India. The challenge of finding human resources for rural community health care settings is not unique to Nepal. In spite of the challenges, the health sector has made significant improvement in national health indices over the past half century. However, in terms of access to and quality of health services and impact, there remains a gross urban-rural disparity. The Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has adopted a community-based education model, termed "community based learning and education" (CBLE), as one of the principal strategies and pedagogic methods. This method is linked to the PAHS mission of improving rural health in Nepal by training medical students through real-life experience in rural areas and developing a positive attitude among its graduates towards working in rural areas. This article outlines the PAHS approach of ruralizing the academy, which aligns with the concept of community engagement in health professional education. We describe how PAHS has embedded medical education in rural community settings, encouraging the learning context to be rural, fostering opportunities for community and peripheral health workers to participate in teaching-learning as well as evaluation of medical students, and involving community people in curriculum design and implementation.

  1. Rural Community Variation in Physician RecruitmentReadiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ed Baker[1; David Schmitz[2; Lisa MacKenzie[1; Bradley Morris[1; Ted Epperly[2

    2014-01-01

    The capacity at which a rural community can mobilize resources involved in recruiting physicians has positive implicationsfor community health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether rural communities varied in their physician recruitmentreadiness. Methods: The Critical Access Hospital Community Apgar Questionnaire (CAH CAQ) was the instrument used in this study.Seventy one (71) rural communities in five US states who participated in the Community Apgar Program were included in this researchIn each rural community, the administrator of the critical access hospital and the physician/clinician with recruiting responsibilitiesparticipated individually in a structured interview. A total of 71 administrators and 71 physician/clinicians participated in the study(total N = 142). Cumulative Community Apgar scores were calculated for each rural community. Descriptive statistics were calculatedfor this measure including means, standard deviations and coefficient of variations. No statistical differences were discerned acrossstate mean cumulative Community Apgar scores. Cumulative Community Apgar scores demonstrated variability within states and inthe aggregate across states. The five rural states included in this study showed similar distributions/patterns of cumulative CommunityApgar scores within their respective states. These distributions/patterns demonstrated variability in the cumulative Community Apgarscores in every state. Likewise, the aggregate distribution of cumulative Community Apgar scores demonstrated variability across thefive states. These rural communities vary in their physician recruitment readiness as measured by the CAH CAQ. As such,improvement efforts need to be customized for the specifics of the individual community. One size does not fit all.

  2. Prevention and Control of Adolescents’ Deviant Behavior in Rural Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,an analysis is made from the point of view of sociology on traditional modeling logic of prevention and control of adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community,and maintenance and reproduction of this model.The traditional prevention and control model of adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community is diversity-orderly pattern prevention and control system.This system is based on natural economy,especially on agricultural economy."Supervision by public opinion and moral imitation" is the basic operation logic of this system.It contains a compensation mechanism of "bringing up children for the purpose of being looked after in old age" and "favor returning".Then,deconstruction of traditional prevention and control model for adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community is analyzed.Along with advance in rural modern democratic management and legal construction and growing of rural market economy,function of traditional diversity-orderly pattern of prevention and control of adolescents’ deviate behavior in rural community is weak and weak in prevention and control of modern rural adolescents’ deviant behavior.Finally,modeling ideas of new(coordinative) prevention and control of rural adolescents’ deviant behavior are put forward from four aspects,namely,democracy and legal system,community,family and various rural adolescent admittance organizations.

  3. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  4. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.

  5. Psychogeriatric care: building rural community capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, M H; Hemingway, D; Grant, J; Jamer, B

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, British Columbia (BC) Canada has been undergoing a process of regionalization of health services which includes decentralization and the demand for self-sufficiency with respect to caring for people with mental health issues. In BC, regionalization has meant the continued downsizing of its one large provincial psychiatric hospital Riverview, which has resulted in relocating patients from this hospital to cities and towns throughout BC, and the establishment and/or renovation of psychiatric tertiary-care facilities to treat local community members who experience mental ill health. In the context of the relocation of psychiatric tertiary care, communities in northern BC face the specific challenge of having to provide these specialized services in remote settings, not only for people transferred from Riverview, but also for the increasing number of people 'aging-in-place' in a region that has the fastest growth of older adults in BC. Little is known about the capacity of these remote communities to manage change, develop broader models of care, and integrate people with psychogeriatric mental health issues with residents at existing facilities. This study employed a qualitative research design which involved field research in the rural community where people were transferred, and interviews and focus groups with key people involved in the transfer process. In the analysis of the data a gender-based lens was applied to clarify the differing needs and concerns of male and female patients and to attend to possible needs relating to culture and ethnicity. The findings illustrate persistent 'hinterland-metropolis' and 'front-line versus administrative staff' tensions, with respect to resource distribution and top-down governance, and demonstrate the need for more transparent and comprehensive planning by health authorities with respect to instituting mental health reforms in a northern context, as well as improved communication between administrative

  6. Improving organisational systems for diabetes care in Australian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Gary

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from diabetes. There is an urgent need to understand how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver diabetes services to those most in need, to monitor the quality of diabetes care received by Indigenous people, and to improve systems for better diabetes care. Methods The intervention featured two annual cycles of assessment, feedback workshops, action planning, and implementation of system changes in 12 Indigenous community health centres. Assessment included a structured review of health service systems and audit of clinical records. Main process of care measures included adherence to guideline-scheduled services and medication adjustment. Main patient outcome measures were HbA1c, blood pressure and total cholesterol levels. Results There was good engagement of health centre staff, with significant improvements in system development over the study period. Adherence to guideline-scheduled processes improved, including increases in 6 monthly testing of HbA1c from 41% to 74% (Risk ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.71–2.10, 3 monthly checking of blood pressure from 63% to 76% (1.27, 1.13–1.37, annual testing of total cholesterol from 56% to 74% (1.36, 1.20–1.49, biennial eye checking by a ophthalmologist from 34% to 54% (1.68, 1.39–1.95, and 3 monthly feet checking from 20% to 58% (3.01, 2.52–3.47. Medication adjustment rates following identification of elevated HbA1c and blood pressure were low, increasing from 10% to 24%, and from 13% to 21% respectively at year 1 audit. However, improvements in medication adjustment were not maintained at the year 2 follow-up. Mean HbA1c value improved from 9.3 to 8.9% (mean difference -0.4%, 95% CI -0.7;-0.1, but there was no improvement in blood pressure or cholesterol control. Conclusion This quality improvement (QI intervention has proved to be highly acceptable in the

  7. can volunteer community health workers in rural Uganda provide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Integrated community case management (iCCM) involves assessment and treatment of common ... proportions of children treated for fever, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in rural Uganda. ...... Clinical management of acute diarrhoea:.

  8. Uses, benefits and challenges of using rural community telecentres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levi Manda

    attracting all groups of people in the community, change the internet service provider, buy ... telecentres bring the benefits of ICTs closer to rural areas thereby helping ..... respondents, as indicated above, are students and that most Malawians.

  9. Hypertension in a Rural Community in Rivers State, Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension in a Rural Community in Rivers State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: ... (SSA), is now a serious endemic threat and an important public health issue. ... Medical history such as prior knowledge of blood pressure status and family ...

  10. 77 FR 7576 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... as oral and written communication skills; and an ability and willingness to participate in a... range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities...

  11. Community participation in rural health: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Amanda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for

  12. Community Forestry and Sustainable Development in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After analysis on the current situation of international forestry, this paper proposes that integration, coordination and sustainable development will be the general developing trend of forest in China, and commercial forest, ecological forest and community forest should be organically combined with integrative development and sustainable development in rural areas. This paper focuses especially on clarifying the importance of community forest to the social development or rural areas, and emphasizes tha...

  13. Caring for the country: fatigue, sleep and mental health in Australian rural paramedic shiftworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, James A; Francis, Andrew J P; Paxton, Susan J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated sleep quality, fatigue, mental health and physical activity in rural paramedic shiftworkers. Although limited, previous studies have associated high fatigue levels and poorer health in this sector with shiftwork rostering and occupational demands. A modified version of the Standard Shiftwork Index was completed by 150 paramedics (117 male and 31 females) from rural Victoria. Single sample t tests found significantly higher levels of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress, and significantly poorer sleep quality than reference samples. Paramedics also reported less physical activity than community samples. By regression analysis, sleep quality explained the greatest amount of variance in fatigue scores, followed by depression and age. No gender differences in levels of depression or fatigue were found. Consistent with an earlier study of metropolitan paramedics based on the same methodology, findings suggest rural ambulance paramedic shiftworkers are at particular risk for increased levels of fatigue and depression (regardless of age or gender) and poor quality sleep. Organisational intervention was suggested.

  14. Rural schools and democratic education. The opportunity for community participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bustos Jiménez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the notions of participation and community empowerment in rural schools are analysed through reflection on experiences conducted in different countries. Reference is made to ducational models of participatory development which, from the viewpoint of excellence, result in increasing educational outcomes and higher rates of satisfaction among the targeted rural populations. Taking as point of departure agents which are considered potential generators of knowledge in rural areas, we examine the process of incorporating the wealth of the rural context. The difficulties that the community group usually faces for its legitimacy as a source of input in rural areas are also shown. Finally, we discuss how the teaching staff can positively contribute to their process of joining the school life.

  15. Development of Rural Communities by Diversification of Rural Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Dora Orboi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development is a process taking place at the same time with the complex and sustainable agricultural development; agriculture and the rural area being interdependent sides specific to rural communities. When analysing economic activity in the rural area we should pay a particular attention to the identification of such alternative activities that have a real chance for development and create new jobs that compensate the diminution of labour occupancy degree in agriculture. Opportunities of rural economy represent a source of having alternative income for the population from rural communities in order to escape from poverty and in order to accelerate the social progress in the rural area. Alternative activities with economic, social and cultural impact, providers of jobs and incomes are: the development of agro tourism and rural tourism, processing and promoting foodstuff, local traditional drinks, ecological foodstuff, handicraft and silviculture. Improving the conditions for business in the rural area is a main condition for the generation of economic activities generating jobs in the rural area.

  16. Broadband provision to underprivileged rural communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makitla, I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing access to remote rural areas presents a unique set of technical and non-technical challenges. These challenges are key issues that arise when deploying wireless networks to remote rural areas in developing countries; long distances between...

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-04-07

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  19. Using Communities of Practice to Enhance Interdisciplinary Teaching: Lessons from Four Australian Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Emma; Davison, Aidan; McGregor, Helen; Warr, Kristin; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We report on the establishment of communities of practice at four Australian institutions and evaluate their effectiveness and durability as a means of building staff and institutional capacity for interdisciplinary teaching. A community of practice approach is a potentially valuable methodology for overcoming dynamics of fragmentation, isolation…

  20. Community Health Centers and the Rural Economy: The Struggle for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Rural Health Association, Kansas City, MO.

    The intent of this project was to determine the financial impact of the rural economic crisis on rural community health centers. A 1986-87 survey reported changes in accounts receivable, bad debt, and sliding fee use, and the effect such changes may have on the cash position of rural community health centers. Of 284 rural community and migrant…

  1. Communities of knowledge and knowledge of communities: An appreciative inquiry into rural wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen May Kevany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a retrospective examination of the use of appreciative inquiry (AI in a study on rural wellbeing. It provides a reflection on the rationale for choosing AI as a suitable methodology, critiques the application of AI in rural settings and considers its suitability for this inquiry into individual and community wellbeing. The article also considers the value of AI as a participatory research approach for community-university partnerships. A review of the literature on AI is distilled to examine the limitations as well as the utility of AI. Through an effective use of AI, communities of knowledge can be fostered and the knowledge of communities can be valued and harvested to enhance the wellbeing of rural communities. Keywords: appreciative inquiry, wellbeing, rural community, community-university partnerships

  2. Using Ethnography to Link School and Community in Rural Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Robert David

    1986-01-01

    Examines the use of "directed ethnography," a collaborative ethnographic approach, found to improve the work of Ladino teachers in rural Yucatan community schools. The participating teachers analyze the collected community data and modify their teaching style/curriculum materials to reflect the experience of their Maya Grade 3 students.…

  3. The Wellness Mobile: Bringing Preventative Health Services to Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Ralph; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Wellness Mobile transports medical supplies, equipment, informational materials, and staff to rural Saskatchewan communities to assist them in developing wellness programs that stress disease prevention. Staff from the Wellness Mobile offer health-risk screening and appraisal to community members and work with local practitioners and schools…

  4. Sustainable Small Schools: A Handbook for Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Craig B., Ed.; Eckman, John M., Ed.

    This book aims to help parents, community members, and educators find resources, design school options, and take action together to improve small rural schools in ways that meet community and student needs. Chapter 1 discusses the virtues of smallness, outlines basic assumptions about the role and nature of good education, examines the…

  5. Reaching Rural Communities: Videoconferencing in K-12 Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Mila

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study exploring the effects of using videoconferencing (VC) to deliver dance instruction to rural communities. The context of the study is a university community partnership run through blended live and VC instruction with elementary and middle school students in Eloy, Arizona. This research is part of a…

  6. Rural Community Development Strategy beyond the Access to Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akther, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    Telecenters is one of the promising models recognized by the United Nations (UN) to achieve the global access of ICTs. This paper provides insight in the role and usages of Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) projects with a specific focus of telecenters in developing...... for development with impact analysis of ICT4D project. The understanding of community capability building is addressed by identifying core capabilities of ICT for the rural community, and highlighting the relationship between the ICT and development. The study also demonstrates how ICT may bridge the gap between...... the policy and actual practices of rural community with respect of ICT development....

  7. Community participation in rural Ecuador’s school feeding programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    communities and schools in Ecuador, the study examines community participation related to the implementation of the School Feeding Program in rural schools in Ecuador. The conceptual framework for the study is shaped by the concepts of student and community participation within the Health Promoting School......, priorities and systems of meanings. Research limitations/implications – The notion of community participation at school can be seen to be better aligned with a socio-ecological health promotion perspective to include the community agenda too. The participatory HPS approach needs to consider that community...

  8. Role of community pharmacists in asthma – Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade of coordinated research efforts, in various aspects of asthma care, has culminated in the implementation trial of the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a comprehensive disease management model. There has been research investigating asthma medication adherence through data mining, ways in which usual asthma care can be improved. Our research has focused on self-management education, inhaler technique interventions, spirometry trials, interprofessional models of care, and regional trials addressing the particular needs of rural communities. We have determined that inhaler technique education is a necessity and should be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. We have identified this effectiveness of health promotion and health education, conducted within and outside the confines of the pharmacy, in public for a and settings such as schools, and established that this outreach role is particularly well received and increases the opportunity for people with asthma to engage in their asthma management. Our research has identified that asthma patients have needs which pharmacists delivering specialized models of care, can address. There is a lot of evidence for the effectiveness of asthma care by pharmacists, the future must involve integration of this role into primary care.

  9. Educadores Polivalentes: Alternativa Educativa para Comunidades Rurales (Effective Educators: Alternative Education for Rural Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Rodrigo Vera

    The document provides educators with data and information regarding the utilization of alternative educational processes in Latin American rural communities. Many communities exist at social and economic poverty levels and are isolated from urban centers. Documents compiled for use at alternative education conferences, held in Paipa, Colombia in…

  10. Life satisfaction of older Chinese adults living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chi, Iris; Xu, Ling

    2013-06-01

    Guided by the socio-environmental theoretical framework, this study examined factors associated with life satisfaction experienced by older Chinese adults living in rural communities. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted by the China Research Center on Aging in 2000. This study included 10,084 rural older adults in mainland China. In this study 60.2 % of rural older adults were satisfied with their lives. Results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that life satisfaction reported by rural older Chinese adults was significantly related to education, financial resources, self-rated health, financial support from children, satisfaction with children's support, house sitting for their children, visiting neighbors, and being invited to dinner by neighbors. Research and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.

  11. "Everybody Knows Everybody Else's Business"-Privacy in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Smith, Annetta; Atherton, Iain; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2016-12-01

    Patients have a right to privacy in a health care setting. This involves conversational discretion, security of medical records and physical privacy of remaining unnoticed or unidentified when using health care services other than by those who need to know or whom the patient wishes to know. However, the privacy of cancer patients who live in rural areas is more difficult to protect due to the characteristics of rural communities. The purpose of this article is to reflect on concerns relating to the lack of privacy experienced by cancer patients and health care professionals in the rural health care setting. In addition, this article suggests future research directions to provide much needed evidence for educating health care providers and guiding health care policies that can lead to better protection of privacy among cancer patients living in rural communities.

  12. Violence against rural older women: promoting community awareness and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A; Brossoie, Nancy; McPherson, Marya C; Pulsifer, Mary Beth; Brown, Patricia N

    2013-03-01

    To identify opportunities and challenges in promoting community support for rural older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Using community-based participatory research principles, we engaged in an academic-community partnership to analyse the research literature, estimate IPV incidence and prevalence, ascertain professional and older IPV victim perspectives through focus groups and interviews, and develop a collaborative community response plan. This study took place from 2008 to 2010 in the USA. IPV in late life is underreported by victims and often unrecognised by the academic and service community. Professionals, while agreeable to collaborating to support older IPV victims, sought coordination and leadership from domestic violence agencies. Older victims stressed the need for improved professional sensitivity to their unique needs and more service options. The insights generated during this project produced a framework on which rural communities can build to address the hidden and growing problem of late life IPV. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  13. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).

  14. Pie Suppers and Cake Walks: A Historical Perspective of a Closed Rural Community School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruby; Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rural community schools and their educational mission have always provided a sort of connectivity for the rural community. This research takes a closer look at the closing of a small rural community school located in a southern Appalachian region and determines its effects upon the teachers, students, and community culture. Although these students…

  15. Services for clients of community support programs in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, E J

    1997-01-01

    To improve understanding of services provided or coordinated by rural community support programs (CSPs) for people with severe mental illness, this article identifies services most used by clients and the amounts of services used. Data on publicly funded services for more than 900 clients in 13 rural CSPs in a midwestern state have been analyzed. Virtually all clients were Caucasian. Information about types and amounts of client services for 12 consecutive months was obtained from county information systems, local records, and Medicaid claims. Most CSP clients use case management, community support, medication checks, counseling, and medication counseling services. Much smaller percentages use other outpatient, residential, vocational, and inpatient services. Significant amounts of only two services, case management and community support, are reported. The findings emphasize the ability of rural mental health providers to supply general services, but some limitation in provision of specialized services and facilities.

  16. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods....... This has led to the following question being asked: Are forests and environmental resources able to help poor households escape poverty? Empirically, answering this question is important if the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction, contributing to the first Millennium Development Goal......, is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing...

  17. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods....... This has led to the following question being asked: Are forests and environmental resources able to help poor households escape poverty? Empirically, answering this question is important if the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction, contributing to the first Millennium Development Goal......, is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing...

  18. The Australian Community Does Not Support Gender Selection by IVF for Social Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Gab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the attitudes of the Australian community to IVF by a reliable community poll. Cross-sectional surveys, conducted by telephone of a random sample of 650 Australians were undertaken. The sample was drawn from the residential phone numbers in the Australian electronic “White Pages” and stratified by geographical area with quotas controlled by gender and age to be representative of the Australian population. The participants were asked to answer to three questions about gender selection, and their response was measured as “yes-allowed,” “no-not allowed,” or “undecided” for each of the questions. Whilst 91% of respondents supported the use of IVF to help infertile couples, only 20% supported gender selection within IVF or for family balancing. When it came to the use of IVF only for gender selection, only 17% were in favour. This survey shows that Australian community overwhelmingly opposes gender selection for social reasons.

  19. Community participation in rural Ecuador’s school feeding programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    communities and schools in Ecuador, the study examines community participation related to the implementation of the School Feeding Program in rural schools in Ecuador. The conceptual framework for the study is shaped by the concepts of student and community participation within the Health Promoting School...... paradigm. Findings - The findings help identify and portray different forms of community participation, ranging from a total absence of meaningful participation, through very limited, to consequential participation determined as community influence on the SFP practices to meet the community needs......, priorities and systems of meanings. Research limitations/implications – The notion of community participation at school can be seen to be better aligned with a socio-ecological health promotion perspective to include the community agenda too. The participatory HPS approach needs to consider that community...

  20. RESEARCH AND INFESTATION OF CASES OF DENGUE IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Silva Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate to the infestation of Aedes aegypti and dengue cases that occurred in the rural communities covered by the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand – PR. The survey was conducted during 2009, divided into two stages, to survey the infestation was used to house infestation (IIP. Five communities were considered positive when the presence of Aedes aegypti infestation levels of communities was higher Charmed the West, Newfoundland, Nice. These data showed that higher rates will be higher infestation rate risk of people being affected by the mosquito. Dengue cases occurred more frequently in communities that had high rates of infestation. The population through prevention and awareness is one way to prevent the spread of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in rural communities.

  1. Rural and Metropolitan Pediatric Burns in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory: Does Distance Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ela J; Zeni, Geoffrey; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    To determine if differences exist between children who sustain burns in rural areas and in metropolitan areas, an analysis of children presenting to the Burns Unit at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, from the January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 was performed. In all, 4326 children met the inclusion criteria, of which 21.2% came from rural regions. Just more than a quarter (26.0%) of rural children and 11.6% from metropolitan areas were Indigenous Australian (P burns in both populations. Of the rural children, 40.8% sustained contact burns, 37.7% scald, and 12.5% flame. In contrast, 58.8% metropolitan children sustained scalds, 27.4% contact, and 4.5% flame. The home was the most common place for all burns to occur, but rural injuries commonly occurred outdoors. Burns were associated with risk-taking behavior in 15.3% rural and 8.7% metropolitan children (P children in both groups received adequate first aid (20 minutes of cool running water). Major burn injuries (≥10% Total BSA) occurred in 3.4% of rural and 2.1% metropolitan children (P = 0.02). Skin grafting was required in 28.3% rural and 16.3% metropolitan children (P = 0.0001). Nearly 32% of rural children required admission to the Burns Unit for >24 hours (15.9% metropolitan; P = 0.0001). Significant differences exist between burns sustained by rural and metropolitan children. This should be accounted for in burns prevention campaigns and the education of local health practitioners.

  2. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Under Secretary for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and... Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be exercised only during the absence or... may hereafter be delegated to the Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development....

  3. Smart sustainable energy for rural community development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable access to electricity is a basic precondition for improving people’s lives in rural areas, for enhanced healthcare and education, and for growth within local economies. Currently more than 1.5 billion people worldwide do not have access...

  4. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  5. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  6. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  7. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  8. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  9. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE ben

  10. Community-Based Rural Tourism: A Proposed Sustainability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayat Kalsom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tourism projects run by community in the rural areas are labelled as Community-based Rural Tourism (CBRT, a type of a more ‘responsible’ tourism that contributes to sustainable development. However, a framework is needed to enable planners and managers to understand its criteria thus ensuring that the CBRTs fulfil the sustainability requirement. This paper presents findings from a literature review on previous writings in this topic. Findings from an analysis on the criteria of a sustainable CBRT product are discussed. It is found that in order for it to play a role in sustainable development, a CBRT product must focus on competitive management, resource conservation, and benefit creation to the community. The three elements need to be supported, in turn, by community involvement and commitment. As the proposed conceptual framework of sustainable CBRT product can be a basis for further research in CBRT, it offers producing theoretical and practical implications.

  11. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  12. Rural Community Psychology and the Farm Foreclosure Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses socio-psychological effect of farm foreclosures and decline of agriculturally-related businesses in the midwest/plains states. Suggests that models for understanding human response to natural disasters are applicable to this crisis. Challenges the myth that rural people and communities bond together under stress and offers suggestions to…

  13. Landscapes of Learning: Lifelong Learning in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Fred, Ed.

    This document contains 12 papers about lifelong learning in rural communities in Great Britain. The papers, which are intended for lecturers, tutors, and guidance professionals but may also prove useful to organizations providing lifelong learning and policymakers, include conceptual tools as well as empirical case studies documenting lifelong…

  14. Faculty Perspectives on Diversity at a Rural Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James C.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States has become progressively more diverse in rural areas, America's higher education system has wrestled to comprehend and resolve issues related to diversity in higher education. Community colleges enrolled nearly 50% of culturally diverse college students (Cohen & Brawer, 2002) because they often afford the only points of…

  15. rural communities and policy participation: the case of economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    Rural communities of Zimbabwe have long been marginalised as evidenced by a large development gap between them and urban ... meeting local state and global challenges requires the reimaging of .... The Indian saying that ... radios. Policy makers are said to have been producing policies basing on assumptions of the ...

  16. Rising Cost of Gasoline Pinches Students at Rural Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    Aware of the increasing burden of fuel costs on their students, administrators of rural community colleges are looking for ways to help students stay on track with their studies even as their monthly transportation bills rise. Two common tactics are increasing the number of online courses and offering block scheduling that allows students to pack…

  17. Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network: A Portable Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The experiences of two teachers describe how BreadNet, an online professional-development and educational conference, enables teachers with similar interests to work together and maintain a sense of community. BreadNet allowed their rural schools to participate in projects with distant schools, leading to improvements in the quantity and quality…

  18. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  19. Mobile Technologies for Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within...

  20. Why and how do general practitioners teach? An exploration of the motivations and experiences of rural Australian general practitioner supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Gerard; Fry, Jennifer; O'Meara, Peter; Tourle, Vianne

    2015-10-29

    In medical education, a learner-centred approach is recommended. There is also a trend towards workplace-based learning outside of the hospital setting. In Australia, this has resulted in an increased need for General Practitioner (GP) supervisors who are receptive to using adult learning principles in their teaching. Little is known about what motivates Australian GP supervisors and how they currently teach. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 20 rural GP supervisors who work within one Regional Training Provider region in Australia explored their reasons for being a supervisor and how they performed their role. Data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. GP supervisors identified both personal and professional benefits in being a supervisor, as well as some benefits for their practice. Supervision fulfilled a perceived broader responsibility to the profession and community, though they felt it had little impact on rural retention of doctors. While financial issues did not provide significant motivation to teach, the increasing financial inequity compared with providing direct patient care might impact negatively on the decision to be or to remain a supervisor in the future. The principal challenge for supervisors was finding time for teaching. Despite this, there was little evidence of supervisors adopting strategies to reduce teaching load. Teaching methods were reported in the majority to be case-based with styles extending from didactic to coach/facilitator. The two-way collegiate relationship with a registrar was valued, with supervisors taking an interest in the registrars beyond their development as a clinician. Supervisors report positively on their teaching and mentoring roles. Recruitment strategies that highlight the personal and professional benefits that supervision offers are needed. Practices need assistance to adopt models of supervision and teaching that will help supervisors productively manage the increasing

  1. Mental health consumer and caregiver perceptions of stigma in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; Mey, Amary; Fowler, Jane L; Kelly, Fiona; McConnell, Denise; Hattingh, Laetitia; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2014-09-01

    The stigma of mental illness can be a barrier to effective medication management in the community pharmacy setting. This article explored mental health consumers' or caregivers' experiences of stigma in Australian community pharmacies. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of consumers or caregivers (n = 74). Interview transcripts were analysed using a general inductive approach. Stigma presented a barrier to effective mental health management. Self-stigma impeded consumers' community pharmacy engagement. Positive relationships with knowledgeable staff are fundamental to reducing stigma. Findings provide insight into the stigma of mental illness in community pharmacies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  3. Credit Accessibility Granted by Rural Banks in Rural Community: Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Binfor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the rural banks was to improve the standard of the living in the rural community they operate. This is done by encouraging the rural indigenes to save with them, and assist them by granting credit facilities to them. It is obvious that in spite of the existence of the bank in the community, people still take loans from friends and relatives (moneylenders, when in comparably have higher interest rate than that of the bank. Some take 100% interest within the shortest time with properties used as collateral until the money are paid back before the properties are released to them. The researcher found out that the public lack information about the rural bank in their community, which leads to their access of credit from friends and relatives known as Money Lenders instead of the bank. The concern in this study is, therefore, the lack of information between banks and the public. Even though the display of information by banks is supposed to provide vital information to customers, a number of concerns are raised. They are directed at how the rural banks can bring about effective banking services to the rural community. Given the low level of literacy, how many customers can read the information displayed in the banks if they are available? How many can understand what they read if they are able to read? In addition, to what extent does this information assist customers in their demand for credits? With what strategies do the banks reach out to the public? If not all, most of these concerns have informed the focus of discussion in this paper.

  4. Culture of a Contemporary Rural Community: El Cerrito, New Mexico. Rural Life Studies: 1, November 1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Olen; Loomis, C. P.

    Located on the Pecos River in San Miguel County, El Cerrito (New Mexico) was a culturally stable rural community. Almost a cultural island, its inhabitants were of native or Spanish American stock, descendants of conquistadores who mixed their blood with that of the indigenous population. Religion and the Catholic church had a profound influence…

  5. Rurality, Region, Ethnic Community Make-Up and Alcohol Use among Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C.; Stanley, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As the most widely used substance among adolescents in the United States, alcohol remains a critical public health issue. The majority of research in this area has focused on individual-level variables. This study examined the contextual effects of rurality, geographic region, and community ethnicity in the prediction of alcohol use among…

  6. Place, Purpose, and Role in Rural Community Development Outreach: Lessons from the West Virginia Community Design Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines how the social construction of community may influence faculty perceptions, roles, and actions in rural community development outreach. Special attention is given to the social construction of rural communities and how disciplinary perspective and popular culture influence these perceptions of community. The essay considers how…

  7. Playing their part: the role of physical activity and sport in sustaining the health and well being of small rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M; Moore, J; Mahoney, M

    2002-01-01

    It is widely recognised that the health of rural Australians is poor in comparison with their urban counterparts. Similarly, the role played by physical activity in maintaining health has been well researched and is well documented. However, little appears to have been published in recent years about the links between physical activity and health in rural communities. The objective of this article was to begin to address that gap. To achieve this, the article drew on research conducted in two small rural communities in Victoria Australia, and highlighted the role that physical activity and sport played in sustaining the health and wellbeing of individuals and communities in rural areas. Taking the World Health Organisation's definition of health (a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease) as its measure, the paper highlighted the many ways in which physical activity and sport in rural communities contribute to physical health, mental wellbeing and social cohesiveness. Based this finding, the authors suggest that physical activity and sport make a significant contribution to the health and wellbeing of rural people and their communities and suggest that further research is necessary to better define this apparent contribution.

  8. Reaching Rural Canadian Communities in the Yukon and Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2016-10-01

    Canada is very large geographically, so many rural communities are very far from major centers. People in such communities are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to in-person interaction with science or scientists because resources tend to be directed at large population centers, where more people can be reached for the same amount of effort. While this geographic distance can be mitigated by doing outreach over the internet, there is at some level no substitute for showing up in person with e.g. meteorites in hand. Due to where various members of my family are located, I have occasion to visit Whitehorse, YT and Andrew, AB (~1.5 hour drive north-east of Edmonton) and have taken advantage of trips to these locations to do astronomy outreach in both schools and public libraries. I will discuss how I arranged school and library visits and general observations from my experience doing outreach in rural Canadian communities.

  9. An ecological approach to health promotion in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2010-03-01

    Poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities are a symptom of a disjuncture in the cultures of a disadvantaged (and only relatively recently enfranchised) minority population and a proportionally large, wealthy dominant immigrant population, problematic social policies and the legacy of colonialism. Developing effective health promotion interventions in this environment is a challenge. Taking an ecological approach, the objective of this study was to identify the key social, economic, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to poor hygiene in remote Aboriginal communities, and to determine approaches that will improve hygiene and reduce the burden of infection among children. The methods included a mix of quantitative and qualitative community-based studies and literature reviews. Study findings showed that a combination of crowding, non-functioning health hardware and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children. Also, models of health promotion drawn from developed and developing countries can be adapted for use in remote Australian Aboriginal community contexts. High levels of disadvantage in relation to social determinants of health underlie the problem of poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Measures need to be taken to address the immediate problems that impact on children's health-for example, by ensuring the availability of functional and adequate water and sanitation facilities-but these interventions are unlikely to have a major effect unless the underlying issues are also addressed.

  10. The Problems Existing in Building of Rural Community in Jilin Province and Corresponding Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses some problems existing in building of rural community in Jilin Province as follows:the funds for community building are short;the residents show sluggish participation in community;the infrastructure community building is backward;the organizational building of community lags behind;the operating mechanism is in chaos.Finally,corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward as follows:we should strengthen the funds guarantee of government for community building;we should reinforce the quality education for the rural residents;we should speed up the construction of rural infrastructure;we should improve organizational building of rural community.

  11. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-04-18

    Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Data were collected from 1,139 Australians regarding types of racial discrimination experienced, settings for these incidents, response mechanisms and psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) Psychological Distress Scale. Age, education, religion, gender, visibility and rurality were all significantly associated with differences in the frequency of experiencing racial discrimination. Experiencing racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. Mental health impacts were not associated with the type of discriminatory experience, but experiencing racial discrimination in shops and in employment and government settings was associated with being above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. One out of twelve response mechanisms was found to be associated with lower stress following a discriminatory incident. Study results indicate that poorer mental health was associated with the volume of discrimination experienced, rather than the type of experience. However, the impact of experiencing discrimination in some settings was shown to be particularly associated with high or very high psychological distress. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of racism have more potential to increase mental health in racial and ethnic minority communities than interventions that work with individuals in response to experiencing racism.

  12. An Assessment of a Freshmen Learning Community at a Rural, Public Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem facing many higher education institutions is the ability to engage freshmen students during the first semester of college in order to sustain their enrollment. This study assessed the effectiveness of a freshmen learning community as a retention strategy at a small, rural, and public community college. The purpose of this ex post facto…

  13. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  14. Ciclovia in a Rural Latino Community: Results and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Ko, Linda K; Hernandez, Lidia; Ortiz, Rosa; Linde, Sandra

    Ciclovias involve the temporary closure of roads to motorized vehicles, allowing for use by bicyclists, walkers, and runners and for other physical activity. Ciclovias have been held in urban and suburban communities in the United States and Latin America. We evaluated the first ciclovia held in a rural, predominantly Latino community in Washington State. Three blocks within a downtown area in a rural community were closed for 5 hours on a Saturday in July 2015. The evaluation included observation counts and participant intercept surveys. On average, 200 participants were present each hour. Fourteen percent of youth (younger than 18 years) were observed riding bikes. No adults were observed riding bikes. A total of 38 surveys were completed. Respondents reported spending on average 2 hours at the ciclovia. Seventy-nine percent reported that they would have been indoors at home involved in sedentary activities (such as watching TV, working on computer) if they had not been at the ciclovia. Regularly held ciclovias, which are free and open to anyone, could play an important role in creating safe, accessible, and affordable places for physical activity in rural areas. Broad community input is important for the success of a ciclovia.

  15. Ageing and poverty in rural Kenya: community perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranga, H M

    1997-10-01

    Poverty is widespread among rural African elderly and associated with poor health and unsatisfactory access to health care. The purpose of this study was to determine community perception of the poorest in a community in rural Kenya, more specifically to identify factors considered by community members as associated with poverty in their midst. There is need to protect the aged members of the society from payment for health care and to include them in decision-making process. This study was undertaken in seven sites in Kisumu and Homa Bay districts in western Kenya where the Bamako Initiative was first launched, in 1987, calling on UNICEF and WHO to help accelerate the implementation of primary health care at district level, giving priority to women and children. Two household interview baseline surveys comprising 210 and 87 households, respectively, corroborated by the more qualitative approaches of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and focus group discussions were conducted. This article analyses the importance of ageing as perceived by the communities as a factor associated with poverty.

  16. Community Correlates of Rural Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Chambers, Jeff M.

    2003-01-01

    Social disorganization is the primary theory by which criminologists account for crime rates. Current versions of social disorganization theory assume that strong networks of social relationship prevent crime and delinquency. A community's capacity to develop and maintain strong systems of social relationship is influenced by residential…

  17. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  18. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Smout

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively. The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7% and soil (55.6% in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to “closing the gap” in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  19. "Hey, I Saw Your Grandparents at Walmart": Teacher Education for Rural Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This is a case study about how teacher education might better prepare rural teacher candidates for rural schools. Parents, teachers, community members, and students associated with a rural school described what is important in the preparation of teachers for today's rural schools. Their goals and wishes for their children's school and…

  20. Contributors to suicidality in rural communities: beyond the effects of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handley Tonelle E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural populations experience a higher suicide rate than urban areas despite their comparable prevalence of depression. This suggests the identification of additional contributors is necessary to improve our understanding of suicide risk in rural regions. Investigating the independent contribution of depression, and the impact of co-existing psychiatric disorders, to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a rural community sample may provide clarification of the role of depression in rural suicidality. Methods 618 participants in the Australian Rural Mental Health Study completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, providing assessment of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-use disorders. Logistic regression analyses explored the independent contribution of depression and additional diagnoses to suicidality. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was performed to illustrate the benefit of assessing secondary psychiatric diagnoses when determining suicide risk. Results Diagnostic criteria for lifetime depressive disorder were met by 28% (174 of the sample; 25% (154 had a history of suicidal ideation. Overall, 41% (63 of participants with lifetime suicidal ideation and 34% (16 of participants with a lifetime suicide attempt had no history of depression. When lifetime depression was controlled for, suicidal ideation was predicted by younger age, being currently unmarried, and lifetime anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition to depression, suicide attempts were predicted by lifetime anxiety and drug use disorders, as well as younger age; being currently married and employed were significant protective factors. The presence of comorbid depression and PTSD significantly increased the odds of reporting a suicide attempt above either of these conditions independently. Conclusions While depression contributes significantly to suicidal

  1. The Rural Open Air Museums: Visitors, Community and Place

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    Pawlikowska-Piechotka Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rural museums perform not only the traditional tasks but are also the places where both the visitors and the local community members have chances for entertainment and attractive leisure time. Consequently one can find in museums numerous catering offers such as cafes, bistros, snack bars, restaurants, pubs and wine bars. The material presented is the result of theoretical and field studies carried out in the selected open air museums in Poland and focused on newly introduced commercial activities (as catering. Our research results show that the development of sustainable cultural tourism as a generator of income in the open air rural museums is important in the challenging economic time. Museums having catering services of different character could easier overcome financial struggle. Moreover there is no doubt that the introduction of an interesting and ambitious cuisine in the restaurants located in the rural open air museum is of great importance also in other terms: popularization of the food culture, rural tradition of region, healthy diet and lifestyle, chance to increase the museum attractiveness, important economic support to the museum and the local community and the improvement of living quality.

  2. Human artificial insemination by donor and the Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, G

    1985-03-01

    Findings from a national sample of 989 persons and an 'Opinion Leader' survey of 279 executive and ordinary members of 40 organizations identified as having an interest in AID showed that Australians overall approved of the procedure for helping infertile married couples, only 17% of the national sample unequivocally disapproving. Key variables in determining opinions on AID included age, education, country of origin, family status, religion and exposure to infertility. However only 15% of national respondents accepted that AID should be made available to any unmarried women on request although opinions were more evenly spread on its provision to unmarried women in a long-term relationship with a man. Over one-third of 'Opinion Leaders' believed that children should never be told of their AID conception, 13% that they should be given identifying and one third non-identifying information on the donor. A majority believed that AID should be directly carried out or supervised by doctors in hospital clinics. There was strong opposition to business or voluntary organization involvement. Suggestions for changes in the law, while emphasizing protection of donors, recipients, children, persons who ran AID programs and control over futuristic research activities, often showed a misunderstanding of the legal process. The major reasons for exclusion of donors were genetic defects and medical problems although many behavioural characteristics were mentioned. Views on recipients' rights to choose the sex of the AID child were marginally against the proposition.

  3. A cluster randomised trial to assess the impact of clinical pathways on AMI management in rural Australian emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Pamela C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in rural Australia are more likely to die in hospital following an acute myocardial infarction than those living in major cities. While several factors, including time taken to access hospital care, contribute to this risk, it is also partially attributable to the lower uptake of evidence-based guidelines for the administration of thrombolytic drugs in rural emergency departments where up to one-third of eligible patients do not receive this life-saving intervention. Clinical pathways have the potential to link evidence to practice by integrating guidelines into local systems, but their impact has been hampered by variable implementation strategies and sub-optimal research designs. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a five-step clinical pathways implementation process on the timely and efficient administration of thrombolytic drugs for acute myocardial infarctions managed in rural Australian emergency departments. Methods/Design The design is a two-arm, cluster-randomised trial with rural hospital emergency departments that treat and do not routinely transfer acute myocardial infarction patients. Six rural hospitals in the state of Victoria will participate, with three in the intervention group and three in the control group. Intervention hospitals will participate in a five-step clinical pathway implementation process: engagement of clinicians, pathway development according to local resources and systems, reminders, education, and audit and feedback. Hospitals in the control group will each receive a hard copy of Australian national guidelines for chest pain and acute myocardial infarction management. Each group will include 90 cases to give a power of 80% at 5% significance level for the two primary outcome measures: proportion of those eligible for thrombolysis receiving the drug and time to delivery of thrombolytic drug. Discussion Improved compliance with thrombolytic guidelines via

  4. Mental health nurses' contributions to community mental health care: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Brett; Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Australian mental health policy is focused on providing mental health care in the community setting and community mental health teams provide services to clients in a shared model with primary care. The historical literature reports that community mental health nurses' experience high levels of stress and are often allocated the most complex and challenging clients managed by the team. Yet information on their specific roles remains limited. This paper reports on research conducted at one Australian public mental health service to identify the components of the community mental health nursing role and to quantify the time nurses spent in each component during the study period. Six focus groups were conducted with community mental health nurses to identify their perceived role within the team. Data analysis identified 18 components of which 10 were related to direct clinical contact with clients and eight covered administrative and care coordination activities. A data collection tool based on the findings of the focus groups was designed and nurses recorded workload data on the tool in 15-min intervals over a 4-week period. Seventeen nurses collected 1528 hours of data. Internal coordination of care was identified as the top workload item followed by clinical documentation and national data collection responsibilities supporting the complexity of the community mental health nursing role. The high rating attached to the internal coordination of care role demonstrates an important contribution that community mental health nurses make to the functioning of the team and the delivery of quality mental health care.

  5. Videoconferencing and dietitian services in rural Ontario communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Registered dietitians (RDs) are regulated health professionals in short supply in Ontario and throughout Canada. Projected workforce studies indicate the situation will likely worsen. Accessing these nutrition specialists is an even greater concern for residents living in rural or remote regions of the province. Smaller communities are increasingly using telehealth as a way to deliver health care services and to improve access to health care professionals. The adoption of interactive videoconferencing as a telehealth application is examined as an alternative approach for accessing RDs in rural communities. While valid reasons exist for implementing videoconferencing, other issues must be considered. These include costs, technological requirements, organizational readiness, and legal and ethical concerns. Future research must fully address the concept of videoconferencing in relation to the Canadian dietetic workforce and practice requirements.

  6. The Role of Rural Communities in the Postsecondary Preparation of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Holly, L. Neal

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, rural education has been critiqued for contributing to brain drain and social stratification that saps the human, social, and economic resources of rural communities. This article, based on an investigation of six small rural school districts in the same state, offers an alternative view of the role of community groups and…

  7. The Availability, Prospects, and Fiscal Potential of On-Campus Housing at Rural Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Pat G.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Hardy, David E.; Bush, V. Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Many rural community colleges have long provided on-campus housing. This article profiles the availability of housing at rural community colleges in 2001-2002 and 2005-2006, examines the factors that will continue to make on-campus housing an important service at rural institutions, and draws on 2005-2006 data from the Institutional…

  8. Microbial communities on Australian modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Tamplin, M L

    2012-05-01

    The role of specific spoilage organisms (SSO) in products such as Atlantic salmon has been well documented. However, little is known about what other micro-organisms are present and these organisms may indirectly influence spoilage by their interactions with the SS0. We used a combination of culture-based and DNA-based methods to explore the microbial communities found on Atlantic salmon fillets packed in a modified atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. After 15 days the communities were dominated by Shewanella spp. or Carnobacterium spp. and a variety of other genera were present in smaller numbers. Variability in the microbial community composition in packages processed on the same day was also observed. This was mostly due to differences in the presence of minor members of the community including species from genera such as Iodobacter, Serratia, Morganella and Yersinia. The combination of culture-based and culture-independent methods provided greater insight into the development of microbial communities on Atlantic salmon than would have been possible using only one method. This work highlights the potential importance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fresh Atlantic salmon stored under modified atmosphere conditions.

  9. Can sustainable development save the rural coastal community?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer E., 1982-

    2011-01-01

    The research is presented as the final component of a Master’s Degree in Natural Resource Management with a specialty in Coastal and Marine Management from the University of Akureyri in conjunction with the University of the Westfjords. It serves to answer if the theories of sustainable development can be used to assess the degree of sustainable development taking place in a rural coastal community in a meaningful way. Through the development of a Sustainable Development Assessment Tool for R...

  10. Injuries in community-level Australian football: Results from a club-based injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-11-01

    Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A controlled community-based trial to promote smoke-free policy in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Adkins, Sarah; Begley, Kathy; York, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak tobacco control policies. The purpose was to test the effects of a stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention on readiness for smoke-free policy, and policy outcomes in rural underserved communities. A controlled community-based trial including 37 rural counties. Data were collected annually with community advocates (n = 330) and elected officials (n = 158) in 19 intervention counties and 18 comparison counties over 5 years (average response rate = 68%). Intervention communities received policy development strategies from community advisors tailored to their stage of readiness and designed to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science. Policy outcomes were tracked over 5 years. Communities receiving the stage-specific, tailored intervention had higher overall community readiness scores and better policy outcomes than the comparison counties, controlling for county-level smoking rate, population size, and education. Nearly one-third of the intervention counties adopted smoke-free laws covering restaurants, bars, and all workplaces compared to none of the comparison counties. The stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention acted as a value-added resource to local smoke-free campaigns by promoting readiness for policy, as well as actual policy change in rural communities. Although actual policy change and percent covered by the policies were modest, these areas need additional resources and efforts to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science in order to accelerate smoke-free policy change and reduce the enormous toll from tobacco in these high-risk communities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Food neophobia and associations with cultural diversity and socio-economic status amongst rural and urban Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flight, Ingrid; Leppard, Phillip; Cox, David N

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to diverse cultures and higher socio-economic status (SES) may increase knowledge of a wide variety of stimuli, including food, and be negatively associated with food neophobia. We contrasted questionnaire responses from two groups of Australian high school students (aged 12-18 years) from remote rural (rural, n=243) and cosmopolitan urban (city, n=696) locations to the food neophobia scale (FNS), familiarity with certain foods and willingness to try those foods. Cultural diversity measures and two SES scales were created. City students were less food neophobic than rural students (mean FNS scores 29.35 versus 34.68, pfoods and more willing to try unfamiliar foods, were of higher SES and had greater exposure to cultural diversity. However, the association between the FNS and familiarity with foods, willingness to try unfamiliar foods, SES, and exposure to cultural diversity, were only weak or moderate for both city and rural students. Greater exposure to cultural diversity and higher SES has some influence on adolescents' responses to unfamiliar foods, but the relationship between these factors and the FNS score is tenuous.

  13. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices.

  14. Assessing Flood Impacts in Rural Coastal Communities Using LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal communities are vulnerable to floods from storm events which are further exacerbated by storm surges. Additionally, coastal towns provide specific challenges during flood events as many coastal communities are peninsular and vulnerable to inundation of road access points. Publicly available lidar data has been used to model areas of inundation and resulting flood impacts on road networks. However, these models may overestimate areas that are inaccessible as they rely on publicly available Digital Terrain Models. Through incorporation of Digital Surface Models to estimate bridge height, a more accurate model of flood impacts on rural coastal residents can be estimated.

  15. Engagement in school and community civic activities among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-09-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development.

  16. Adaptation to study design challenges in rural health disparities community research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intervention research in rural health disparities communities presents challenges for study design, implementation, and evaluation, thus threatening scientific rigor, reducing response rates, and confounding study results. A multisite nutrition intervention was conducted in the rural Lower Mississip...

  17. Mobile crisis management teams as part of an effective crisis management system for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Doug; Sherry, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Mobile crisis management teams provide crisis prevention and intervention services in community settings. The Appalachian Community Services crisis management program shows how such teams can be used to effectively serve rural communities.

  18. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  19. DISTANCE EDUCATION POTENTIAL FOR A CANADIAN RURAL ISLAND COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom JONES

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning. A unique set of considerations confront many of these isolated communities if they wish to engage in distance education and training. This set ranges from internet access to excessive travel by secondary students to the lack of centralized facility. For this study, a group of 48 participants were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the potential for distance education to impact on the community's educational, both academic and vocational, life-long learning and economic needs. The results indicated that there were four general areas of purported benefit: academic advancement, an improved quality of life, support for young families and a stabilizing affect on the local economy. Suggestions for the implementation of a suitable distance education resource are noted.

  20. The effect of social support on the health of Indigenous Australians in a metropolitan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Rosenberg, Michael; Braham, Rebecca; Pescud, Melanie; Dimmock, James

    2014-10-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians continue to be poorly understood. Despite this, studies confirm that social connections are a very important part of Indigenous life, and it is likely these connections play an important role in influencing health outcomes among this population. Examining the support provided by social connections in relation to health behaviour may assist our understanding of health outcomes among Indigenous Australians. The current study is focused on exploring Indigenous participants' impressions of their social network and social support using Participatory Action Research methodology and qualitative methods. The objective was to identify the influence of social support on the health outcomes of Indigenous people within a Western Australian metropolitan community. Seventeen members of the community were interviewed during the study. The participants had extensive social networks that mainly comprised members of their kinship group. The consequences of this social network included: (1) the positive effects of social support from bonded relationships; (2) the negative effects of social support produced by over-obligation and unidirectional support involving bonded relationships; (3) limited or inadequate social support caused by withdrawal from bonded relationships; (4) lack of social support from bridging relationships; and (5) a strong desire for connection and a sense of belonging.

  1. Study of intra-racial exclusion within Australian Indigenous communities using eco-maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kerrie; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    In Australia, 'indigeneity' is not determined by skin colour, but rather by a person's heritage, acceptance by an indigenous community, and active participation in the affairs of that indigenous community. Some people who identify as indigenous, however, have experienced 'colourism' - that is, experiences of social exclusion because of the colour of their skin - from non-Indigenous and also Indigenous Australians. This paper describes research that explored the effect of intra-racial exclusion on the mental health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on skin colour or 'manifest indigeneity'. Framed within a qualitative design, an eco-map was used to guide in-depth interviews with 32 participants that gave rise to personal stories that described the distress of experiencing intra-racial colourism. Findings were derived from a thematic analysis that identified four major themes: 'Growing up black', 'Living on black country', 'Looking black', and 'Fitting in black'. These findings are important because they suggest a way forward for mental health nurses to better understand and support the mental health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians who have experienced social exclusion as a result of colourism.

  2. Advance Care Planning for Older Australians Living in the Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Crowe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of advance care planning (ACP education with people aged ≥60 years living in the community. The interactive workshop explored all aspects of ACP—legal, emotional, physical, spiritual, role of significant others—and allowed reflection time, questions, and group discussion. Evaluation of knowledge and attitudes toward ACP were completed pre- and post-training. Readiness-to-change and feedback about the workshop quality were collected post-training. Eleven workshops were delivered in Queensland (132 matched pre- and post-questionnaires compared for analysis. Participant’s ACP knowledge and confidence increased significantly (12/13 statements, p<0.05 alongside some shift in attitudes (4/12 statements, p<0.05 after training. Participants were engaged and rated the workshop positively. Single ACP workshops are an effective intervention for healthy older people in the community. Training should focus on demystifying legislation and documentation, the importance of planning and communicating wishes while still healthy, and the need to regularly review and update plans. Follow-up is required to assess translation of education into ACP action.

  3. Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenswah, Tolbert; Keita, Sakoba; Diallo, Boubakar; Kateh, Francis; Amoah, Aurora; Nagbe, Thomas K.; Raghunathan, Pratima; Neatherlin, John C.; Kinzer, Mike; Pillai, Satish K.; Attfield, Kathleen R.; Hajjeh, Rana; Dweh, Emmanuel; Painter, John; Barradas, Danielle T.; Williams, Seymour G.; Blackley, David J.; Kirking, Hannah L.; Patel, Monita R.; Dea, Monica; Massoudi, Mehran S.; Barskey, Albert E.; Zarecki, Shauna L. Mettee; Fomba, Moses; Grube, Steven; Belcher, Lisa; Broyles, Laura N.; Maxwell, T. Nikki; Hagan, Jose E.; Yeoman, Kristin; Westercamp, Matthew; Mott, Joshua; Mahoney, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; DeCock, Kevin M.; Marston, Barbara; Dahl, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities. PMID:27268508

  4. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity...... building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities...

  5. Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Threadgill, Paula; Kennedy, Betty; Strickland, Earline; Prewitt, T Elaine; Bogle, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception, capacity building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in the Lower Mississippi Delta to address high rates of chronic disease. Textual analysis of project documents identifies and describes strategies carried out to foster capacity building. Strategies to build community capacity include fostering participation, cultivating leadership opportunities, training community members as co-researchers, securing community resources, and implementing the intervention together. Incorporating capacity-building approaches in health promotion and nutrition-intervention programming in rural communities provides a means to enhance potential for sustainability of health outcomes and developed effectiveness.

  6. Mapping Point-of-Purchase Influencers of Food Choice in Australian Remote Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Henryks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians relies, in part, on addressing the poor levels of nutrition in remote Indigenous communities (RIC. This article identifies and maps key influencers of food choice at the point-of-purchase (POP in Australian RIC and identifies gaps in our knowledge. It is based on a narrative review of the literature pertaining to food in RIC from a range of disciplinary perspectives including nutrition, ethnography, public health, anthropology, and remote health to map POP drivers of food choice. In particular, the role of habit is identified as a key factor that has previously not been discussed in the literature. The conceptual framework can be used as a basis for future POP research in RIC and provides guidance for social marketers, public health, nutrition, and policy workers operating in this field.

  7. Increasing College-Going Rate, Parent Involvement, and Community Participation in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of leaders of grant-supported projects aimed at increasing the college-going rate of high school students in rural Appalachian counties in Mississippi to determine which factors they felt most influenced the college-going rate, parental participation in school activities, and community participation. Analysis of…

  8. Rural Community College Initiative IV: Capacity for Leading Institutional and Community Change. AACC Project Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Barnett, Lynn

    This brief reports on the Ford Foundation's establishment of the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) for selected institutions in economically distressed areas of the Southeast, Deep South, Southwest, Appalachia, and western Indian reservations. This is the fourth report in a series by the RCCI Documentation Team. The RCCI program challenges…

  9. Management of The Government for Public Facilities in The New Rural Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中平

    2016-01-01

    The new rural community is the product of the process of urbanization that farmers turned to the public to realize the important field. However, the government start to manage the he new rural community from the most closely facilities of public services of residents' daily life,.this article include three aspects, first is that public service facilities of government have many issues for the new rural community,second is that reasons for these problems,third is that some measures can address these problems , hoping to make the new rural community public services have been further developed.

  10. Uses and insufficiencies of justice: repair in rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Cepeda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The satisfaction of the rights of victims in the repair processes of serious violations of international human rights and international humanitarian law, involves the obligation to adopt criteria that take into account the perspective of the victims, why which the rationale, form and objectives of such remedies must be based on the construction and collective discussion of the people and communities involved. In this context, it is necessary to respond to what has been called a "failure to recognize" the peasantry from the adequacy of the various versions of justice, preventing compensation regulations and guarantee of rights, rural development policies and land reform. To develop such a purpose are explained four realities: first, the conflict is characterized rural, in a second time, precision and relate the properties of each of the positions of the concept of justice in the conflict, in third, is investigated by regulatory and case law concerning the rights of peasant communities and finally, fourth, will address the complementarity of justice and political participation in the context of justice and economic efficiency, recognizing the imminent inclusion of community peasant in the neoliberal economic model, for the foundation of adequate reparation policies.

  11. Factors associated to endemic dental fluorosis in Brazilian rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Efigênia F; Vargas, Andréa Maria D; Castilho, Lia S; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M; Fantinel, Lucia M; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2010-08-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5-with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4-with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07-6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01-1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  12. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  13. Profile of Preschool Diarrhoea in a Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Garg

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant new knowledge acquired in the last decade on the aetiology, epide­miology, pathogenesis, immunology and treatment of acute diarrhoea provided a solid basis for the immediate attack on the problem. Although acute diarrlioeal disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children yet only few stu­dies on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality are available. An attempt was Made in the present study to determine the magnitude of the problem of diarrhoea among preschool children and prevailing health practices so as to plan the action for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among preschool children in rural community.

  14. Perceived Density, Social Interaction and Morale in New South Wales Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between population density, social interaction patterns, and morale in rural communities. It tests two apparently competing hypotheses concerning rural population density, social interaction patterns and overall levels of morale: one, that low (and rapidly declining) rural densities lead to feelings of…

  15. Rural Revitalization in New Mexico: A Grass Roots Initiative Involving School and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzel, Gerald R.; Benavidez, Alicia C.; Bianchi, Barbara C.; Croom, Linda L.; de la Riva, Brandy R.; Grein, Donna L.; Holloway, James E.; Rendon, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    The Rural Education Bureau of the New Mexico Public Education Department has established a program to address the special needs of schools and communities in the extensive rural areas of the state. High poverty rates, depopulation and a general lack of viable economic opportunity have marked rural New Mexico for decades. The program underway aims…

  16. HOME, SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS IN NUMERACY EDUCATION: AN AUSTRALIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrilyn Goos, Tom Lowrie, Lesley Jolly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of building educational partnerships between families, schools and communities is increasingly acknowledged since family and community involvement in education is thought to be associated with children’s success at school. Yet there arediscrepancies between the rhetoric of policy documents and the practice of family and community involvement in education. This paper draws on a large Australian study to critically examine different perspectives on numeracy education partnerships, with particular emphasis on the extent to which the needs of educationally disadvantaged children were being met. We elaborate a framework for analysing key features of educational partnerships, and then use the framework to compare the features of effective numeracy education partnerships represented in two case studies from our study. The case studies highlight different ways of initiating partnerships, different perspectives of stakeholders,different numeracy practices, and different ways of responding to cultural diversity and geographical isolation

  17. Toka Boot/The Big Jam: Making Music in Rural East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gillian; Dunphy, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a community music project in rural East Timor. Australian musician Gillian Howell lived for three months in the isolated town of Lospalos as an Asialink artist-in-residence, where she worked with local community members and visiting Australian musicians to share music and ideas, and to communicate across cultures. Three…

  18. Contributions of community psychology to rural advisory services: an analysis of Latin American rural extensionists' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention.

  19. The health perception rural community adolescents: between the ideal and the real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Giselly Milhome da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative exploratory-descriptive study was performed by means of the Community Based Participant Research. The main objective was to understand the health perception of adolescents from a rural community. The focal group and field journal techniques were used to collect data from 26 adolescents of a rural community. The results were analyzed and qualitatively interpreted, expressed through two thematic categories that showed the ideal and real health conception of the adolescents. From this group’s perspective, the health of rural community adolescents is determined by positive and negative aspects, with reveal their perception of health and disease. It is concluded that nursing can reduce the distance between the ideal and real health in the rural community by taking hold of the sociocultural approach of becoming adolescent and developing intersectoral interventions to promote satisfactory sanitary conditions and encourage the adolescent’s potential as a social actor. Descriptors: Adolescent; Rural Population; Public Health; Health Education; Community Health Nursing.

  20. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  1. A theory of how rural health services contribute to community sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Prior, Maria; Taylor, Judy

    2012-11-01

    Study and opinion suggest that health services play a significant role in supporting the social fabric of fragile rural communities. We draw on empirical evidence about the added-value contributions of health services to communities and unite it with theory of capitals to propose a theoretical model depicting how rural health services contribute to community sustainability. While providing an analytical framework, the paper also points to construction of a measurement tool for enabling planners to measure the contributions of diverse sectors to community sustainability and predict or measure the impact of changes to models of service delivery on the future of rural communities.

  2. Community health workers improve diabetes care in remote Australian Indigenous communities: results of a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robyn A; Schmidt, Barbara; Preece, Cilla; Owens, Vickie; Taylor, Sean; Li, Ming; Esterman, Adrian

    2015-02-19

    Health outcomes for Indigenous Australians with diabetes in remote areas remain poor, including high rates of avoidable complications which could be reduced with better primary level care. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based health-worker led case management approach to the care of Indigenous adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in primary care services in remote northern Australia. Two hundred and thirteen adults with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c > 8.5%) and significant comorbidities in 12 remote communities were randomly assigned by service cluster to receive chronic care co-ordination from a community-based health worker supported by a clinical outreach team, or to a waitlist control group which received usual care. At baseline, mean age of participants was 47.9 years, 62.4% were female, half were Aboriginal and half identified as Torres Strait Islander, 67% had less than 12 years of education, 39% were smokers, median income was $18,200 and 47% were unemployed. Mean HbA1c was 10.7% (93 mmol/mol) and BMI 32.5. At follow-up after 18 months, HbA1c reduction was significantly greater in the intervention group (-1.0% vs -0.2%, SE (diff) = 0.2, p = 0.02). There were no significant differences between the groups for blood pressure, lipid profile, BMI or renal function. Intervention group participants were more likely to receive nutrition and dental services according to scheduled care plans. Smoking rates were unchanged. A culturally safe, community level health-worker led model of diabetes care for high risk patients can be effective in improving diabetes control in remote Indigenous Australian communities where there is poor access to mainstream services. This approach can be effective in other remote settings, but requires longer term evaluation to capture accrued benefits. ANZCTR 12610000812099, Registered 29 September 2010.

  3. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  4. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    , vulnerability, and preparedness in LMIC communities. The current study established that selected communities near Trujillo, Peru recognize a high disaster impact from earthquakes and infection, but are not adequately prepared for potential future disasters. By identifying high-risk demographics, targeted public health interventions are needed to prepare vulnerable communities in the following areas: emergency food supplies, emergency water plan, medical supplies at home, and establishing evacuation plans. Stewart M , Grahmann B , Fillmore A , Benson LS . Rural community disaster preparedness and risk perception in Trujillo, Peru. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):387-392.

  5. The Changing Landscape of Health Care Financing and Delivery: How Are Rural Communities and Providers Responding?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Keith J.; Coburn, Andy; Cordes, Sam; Crittenden, Robert; Hart, J. Patrick; McBride, Timothy; Myers, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Rural communities have not kept pace with the recent dramatic changes in health care financing and organization. However, the Medicare provisions in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 will require rural providers to participate in the new systems. Case studies revealed the degree of readiness for change in six rural communities and charted their progress along a continuum, as reflected in three sets of activities: the development of networking; the creation of new strategies for managing patient...

  6. Diversion or Democratization: Do Rural, Hispanic, Community College Students Show Signs of Academic Undermatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between academic undermatch theory and the college-going decisions, experiences, and aspirations of first-generation, rural Hispanic community college students in the new destination meatpacking town of Winstead, Kansas. Ethnographic data from rural high school guidance counselors, community college faculty,…

  7. Preserving Access with Excellence: Financing for Rural Community Colleges. Policy Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Alexander, King F.; Opp, Ronald D.

    This document argues that for the 1.8 million students attending the 731 rural community colleges in the United States, the community college is often the only option for higher education. However, both access and excellence for rural students are being negatively impacted by recent federal and state policy that has decreased funding to community…

  8. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  9. Multiple Points of Contact: Promoting Rural Postsecondary Preparation through School-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Holly, L. Neal

    2013-01-01

    Formal and informal partnerships between rural schools and their communities can provide a wide range of supports for all students, but particularly those from low-income families. In this analysis of six small rural school districts in Virginia we show how the broad participation of community groups and individuals supports academic achievement…

  10. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  11. The Power of Competing Narratives: A New Interpretation of Rural School-Community Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry-Sorber, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Often considered harmonious places, rural communities are in reality spaces often fragmented along class lines, with political factions promoting competing values and interests regarding the purpose of schooling. Using an exemplar case, this study affords us a new interpretation of rural school-community relations in times of conflict. It…

  12. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  13. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  14. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  15. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  16. Case Study of Capacity Building for Smoke-Free Indoor Air in Two Rural Wisconsin Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Mahon, MS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite national declines in smoking prevalence, disparities that pose challenges to tobacco control efforts exist among rural manufacturing populations. This community case study sought to better understand the dynamics and nuances that facilitate or impede capacity-building efforts in rural communities.ContextTwo rural manufacturing communities in Wisconsin with similar demographic characteristics were chosen for study. One represented farming communities with close proximity to a metropolitan area, and the other represented more isolated communities.MethodsThe qualitative case study used a collaborative approach to collect data in four areas of research: 1 community context, 2 coalition functioning, 3 partnerships, and 4 strategy implementation. Data were analyzed using standard content analysis and triangulated for clarity and consistency.ConsequencesAlthough not all the factors found to influence capacity-building efforts were unique to rural environments, the effects were impacted by rural isolation, small population sizes, local attitudes and beliefs, and lack of diversity and resources. Differences in coalition leadership and strategy implementation influenced the effectiveness of the capacity-building efforts in each community, bringing attention to the unique nature of individual contexts.InterpretationImplementing capacity-building efforts in rural communities requires skilled and dedicated local leaders who have ready access to training and support (i.e., technical, emotional, and financial. Pairing of rural communities with greater use of distance technologies offers a cost-effective approach to reduce isolation and the constraints of financial and human resources.

  17. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, Menaka A; Owen, Julie

    2016-04-26

    Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students' feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public healthAn oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel comfortable in receiving oral health care services

  18. Evaluating tablet computers as a survey tool in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Steve M; Logan, Henrietta L; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G; Shepperd, James A

    2015-01-01

    Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants' responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida's state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants' usability ratings. Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Against all odds: designing and implementing a grassroots, community-designed RHIO in a rural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocella, Kiki C; Horowitz, Kim J; Young, Jami J

    2008-01-01

    Community Health Information Networks have provided lessons learned for RHIOs by bringing attention to issues of trust, buy-in, ownership and financing. This article reports the formation of a new rural RHIO, East Kern County Integrated Technology Association (EKCITA) and addresses unique rural demands and success themes specificto rural environments. A case study approach-grounded in action research and utilizing techniques of key informant interviews, participant observations and content review of written data sources from 2006-was utilized. Through a process of grassroots governance, transparency and consensus decision-making, EKCITA was incorporated in 2006. Taking lessons learned from past initiatives, this rural RHIO used a transparent and participative process while addressing unique challenges faced by rural regions. Through this process, seven additional success themes were identified, five of which are unique to rural regions. Rural communities can develop dynamic entities that address a host ofissues in addition to information technology.

  20. Analysis of the social network development of a virtual community for Australian intensive care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Kaye Denise; Hansen, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Social media platforms can create virtual communities, enabling healthcare professionals to network with a broad range of colleagues and facilitate knowledge exchange. In 2003, an Australian state health department established an intensive care mailing list to address the professional isolation experienced by senior intensive care nurses. This article describes the social network created within this virtual community by examining how the membership profile evolved from 2003 to 2009. A retrospective descriptive design was used. The data source was a deidentified member database. Since 2003, 1340 healthcare professionals subscribed to the virtual community with 78% of these (n = 1042) still members at the end of 2009. The membership profile has evolved from a single-state nurse-specific network to an Australia-wide multidisciplinary and multiorganizational intensive care network. The uptake and retention of membership by intensive care clinicians indicated that they appeared to value involvement in this virtual community. For healthcare organizations, a virtual community may be a communications option for minimizing professional and organizational barriers and promoting knowledge flow. Further research is, however, required to demonstrate a link between these broader social networks, enabling the exchange of knowledge and improved patient outcomes.

  1. School Contribution to Rural Communities: Leadership Issues. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Susan; Kilpatrick, Sue; Falk, Ian; Mulford, Bill

    A case study exploring the relationship between local leadership and the school-community partnership was conducted in a small, isolated Australian mining town. Data were generated from written materials such as the local newspaper and interviews with 8 school staff members and 11 community members involved with the schools or representing…

  2. Pregnancy-associated malaria in a rural community of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ofori, Mf; Ansah, E; Agyepong, I

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pregnant women in malaria-endemic communities are susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum infections, with adverse consequences including maternal anaemia, placental malaria parasitaemia and infant low birth weight (LBW). We sought to assess the prevalence, incidence, and clinical markers...... of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in a rural district of Ghana. METHODS: A total of 294 pregnant women were enrolled and followed passively and actively, monthly and weekly until delivery. Haemoglobin levels, malaria parasitaemia and Hb electrophoresis were done from peripheral blood samples. At delivery......, placental smears were examined for malaria parasites. RESULTS: Prevalence of peripheral blood P. falciparum parasitaemia at enrolment was 19.7% and related to parity. Incidence rate of parasitaemia was 0.06 infections/ person/month [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04 to 0.08]. Symptomatic infections rose...

  3. Empowering a group of seniors in a rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Marinho Machado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To describe the stages of the empowerment process of a group of seniors in a rural community. METHOD Convergent care research whose foundation is to use the scope of practice. Conducted with the proposal to change the practice of 21 seniors and nine health professionals, with the aim of health promotion empowerment. Data were collected during 22 meetings, and group interviews at the end of the intervention. RESULTS Showed that despite the initial impact of the change, the group was able to welcome the new change, taking advantage of the space to express anxieties, share joys, and build new knowledge, which led to the incorporation of changes that reflected in the development of healthy habits and improvements in interpersonal relationships. CONCLUSION The convergent care research consisted of strategy that changed the group's lives, empowering them with health promoting actions.

  4. Neurocysticercosis an epidemiological survey in two small rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter O. Arruda

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the epidemiological findings related to human taeniasis and cysticercosis, and swine cysticercosis in two small rural communities, Postinho (P and Tigre (T, of South Brazil. The prevalence of epilepsy was 2.04% (P and 2.25% (T. The prevalence of neurocysticercosis was 0.47% (P and 0.93% (T, and prevalence of swine cysticercosis was 12.8% (P and 27.8% (T. Taenia sp. infestation wis detected in 4.3% (P and 4.6% (T of stool examinations. The hyperendemic human taeniasis and cysticercosis and swine cysticercosis seems to be related to poor hygienic habits of the population, and the free access to human excreta by the pigs.

  5. The Barefoot Teacher on the Telematic Highway--Serving Rural Communities in Kwa Zulu Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregona, Charl; Harris, Maureen; Kruger, Johann

    The Department of Community Nursing and the Open Learning Centre of Technikon Natal (South Africa) and the community-owned Community Development Programme are collaborating to provide online learning to rural and urban community nurses. The project involves the development of a multimedia pharmacology course, a virtual Internet class, and the…

  6. Humans as long-distance dispersers of rural plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G Auffret

    Full Text Available Humans are known for their capacity to disperse organisms long distances. Long-distance dispersal can be important for species threatened by habitat destruction, but research into human-mediated dispersal is often focused upon few and/or invasive species. Here we use citizen science to identify the capacity for humans to disperse seeds on their clothes and footwear from a known species pool in a valuable habitat, allowing for an assessment of the fraction and types of species dispersed by humans in an alternative context. We collected material from volunteers cutting 48 species-rich meadows throughout Sweden. We counted 24,354 seeds of 197 species, representing 34% of the available species pool, including several rare and protected species. However, 71 species (36% are considered invasive elsewhere in the world. Trait analysis showed that seeds with hooks or other appendages were more likely to be dispersed by humans, as well as those with a persistent seed bank. More activity in a meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. When rural populations were larger, people might have been regular and effective seed dispersers, and the net rural-urban migration resulting in a reduction in humans in the landscape may have exacerbated the dispersal failure evident in declining plant populations today. With the fragmentation of habitat and changes in land use resulting from agricultural change, and the increased mobility of humans worldwide, the dispersal role of humans may have shifted from providers of regular local and landscape dispersal to providers of much rarer long-distance and regional dispersal, and international invasion.

  7. Rural Adolescents and Mental Health: Growing Up in the Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Beverly Hartung

    1987-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature on the subject of rural adolescent mental health. Discusses demographics, unique situations, and problems of rural youth. Presents impact of the rural economic crisis. Suggests treatment strategies to deal with mental health problems of rural adolescents: individual therapy, family therapy, and peer group programs. (NEC)

  8. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  9. The new Australian after-hours general practice incentive payment mechanism: equity for rural general practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Amanda L; Nelson, Mark; Palmer, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    In July 2015, a national scheme for after-hours incentive funding for general practices was re-introduced in Australia, 2-years after funding was transferred to regional primary health care organisations (Medicare Locals). The re-introduction was recommended in a 2014 review of after-hours primary care reflecting the "overwhelming desire" among general practice. Given the centrality of after-hours care provision in rural and remote practices identified in the review, we compare and contrast the current and historical after-hours incentive funding mechanisms focussing on fairness towards rural general practices. While there are similarities between the current and historical mechanisms, significant differences exist. The comparison is not straightforward. The major consistency is utilisation of practice standardised whole patient equivalents (SWPE) as the basis of funding, inherently favouring large urban general practices. This bias is expected to increase given a shift in focus from practices with no option but to provide 24/7 care to any practice providing 24/7 care; and an associated increased funding per SWPE. Differences primarily pertain to classification processes, in which the realities of rural service provision and recognition of regional support mechanisms are given minimal consideration. Rapid introduction of the new general practice after-hours incentive funding mechanism has led to inconsistencies and has exacerbated inherent biases, particularly inequity towards rural providers. Impact on morale and service provision in non-urban areas should be monitored.

  10. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  11. Community Development as an Approach to Community Engagement in Rural-Based Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netshandama, V. O.

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is that the "jury is still out" to describe what effective Community Engagement entails in South African higher education institutions. The current discussions about community engagement and service learning do not cover the primary objective of adding value to the community, particularly of the rural-based…

  12. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Thaochan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.

  13. Disabled women's attendance at community women's groups in rural Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourn, T.; Budhathoki, B.; Sen, A.; Adhikari, D.; Bamjan, J.; Pathak, S.; Basnet, A.; Trani, J. F.; Costello, A.; Manandhar, D.; Groce, N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. PMID:26519006

  14. The Utah Rural Residency Study: A Blueprint for Evaluating Potential Sites for Development of a 4-4-4 Family Practice Residency Program in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinella, A. Peter; Magill, Michael K.; Thiese, Steven M.; Turner, Deborah; Elison, Gar T.; Baden, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria were developed for evaluating rural Utah communities as potential sites for rural family practice residencies. Criteria were concerned with community facilities, physicians, numbers of patients, and physician and hospital commitment to teaching residents. Two of the 10 communities evaluated were found to be potentially capable of…

  15. Evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator Chemistry-Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Stone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry climate models are important tools for addressing interactions of composition and climate in the Earth System. In particular, they are used for assessing the combined roles of greenhouse gases and ozone in Southern Hemisphere climate and weather. Here we present an evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model, focusing on the Southern Hemisphere and the Australian region. This model is used for the Australian contribution to the international Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which is soliciting hindcast, future projection and sensitivity simulations. The model simulates global total column ozone (TCO distributions accurately, with a slight delay in the onset and recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion, and consistently higher ozone values. However, October averaged Antarctic TCO from 1960 to 2010 show a similar amount of depletion compared to observations. A significant innovation is the evaluation of simulated vertical profiles of ozone and temperature with ozonesonde data from Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica from 38 to 90° S. Excess ozone concentrations (up to 26.4 % at Davis during winter and stratospheric cold biases (up to 10.1 K at the South Pole outside the period of perturbed springtime ozone depletion are seen during all seasons compared to ozonesondes. A disparity in the vertical location of ozone depletion is seen: centered around 100 hPa in ozonesonde data compared to above 50 hPa in the model. Analysis of vertical chlorine monoxide profiles indicates that colder Antarctic stratospheric temperatures (possibly due to reduced mid-latitude heat flux are artificially enhancing polar stratospheric cloud formation at high altitudes. The models inability to explicitly simulated supercooled ternary solution may also explain the lack of depletion at lower altitudes. The simulated Southern Annular Mode (SAM index compares well with ERA-Interim data. Accompanying

  16. Rural community development in China and the industrial shift of the rural population: summary of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X

    1991-01-01

    As a summary of an international symposium on rural community development in China, commentary on China's rural reform, the industrial development of the rural population, and urbanization of the rural population and rural population control is provided. The successful reform that has occurred since the Party's 3rd Plenary session of the 11th Central Committee has been the implementation of the household joint production contract responsibility system. Farmers are enthusiastic about their right to land management. Recent focus on the declines and fluctuations in agricultural output has raised many questions. Suggestions have been made to raise agricultural prices and increase investment. Public ownership should remain with household management. The security of longterm ownership of land by individuals is not available, hence individuals are unwilling to make longterm investment. Another opinion was that the stagnation in production was temporary and a course of development; the cause was population pressure. Suggested future development after reforms should involve development of the village social structure. Communities already have a stable social system of blood ties and an administrative system organized by the party, government, and the economy. Communities with these characteristics could invest in the large-scale farming equipment which smaller households cannot afford, and take responsibility for land allocation and management and financial transactions. The role of the community would be a difficult one in balancing income distribution and expanding community benefits. The 2nd major influence on rural development has been growth in rural nonindustrial production in the small town enterprise. The urban policies of household registration and employment limit growth to rural enterprises which may use backward production technology and produce second-rate products. Eventually, rural industry will become both complementary and supplementary to the national

  17. Inexpensive, Robust Water Stage Sensor for Rural Community Footbridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A.; McDermot, D. J.; Langenfeld, K.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Footbridges across streams and rivers provide rural communities in many countries essential access to hospitals, schools, and economic opportunities. Without these, communities experience isolation during the rainy season. However, many of these bridges are subject to immersion at times, and there is a need for sensing the river stage before venturing onto a bridge. We have developed an inexpensive, robust, self-contained sensor that meets this need. A two-wire electrical cord, purchased in bulk from a home improvement supplier, is the basic sensing element. The two conductors of the cord form a transmission line capacitor. The cord is suspended below the footbridge and the capacitance is a function of the fraction of the electrical cord that is immersed in water. The cord/capacitor is part of the timing element of an electronic oscillator circuit. As the water level rises, the capacitance and oscillator frequency decrease. The oscillator frequency is measured with a microcontroller. The microcontroller calculates the corresponding water stage and displays it on a small LCD display. The electronics are contained in a 12×7×7 cm watertight container. Four AA batteries power the sensor. The device has calibration features to accommodate different types of electrical cord.

  18. Using participatory action research to foster nurse leadership in Australian rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Melanie; Kenny, Amanda; Nay, Rhonda

    2013-09-01

    This paper outlines the processes and results of a participatory action research study undertaken to identify issues that may impact on strategies to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. Five Directors of Nursing from rural regions of Victoria, Australia participated. The group activities involved discussion and analysis of previous research, a review of current literature and critical reflection of the leadership performance of their organization. The analysis identified five key themes; dispel the myths, adopt big-picture thinking, connect with colleagues, reflect on your own conduct, and create organizational buy-in. It is essential to have an awareness of contextual challenges, an understanding of the importance of your own conduct as a visible leader, and the need for effective communication to inform the development of strategies that may be used to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. The platform to discuss and critically analyze leadership saw a group consensus that affirmed the need for any approach to nursing leadership to be tailored to the individual healthcare organization.

  19. Community in Credit Unions: Has banking regulationimpaired CSR in Australian Customer Owned Banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne McGrath

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sector scan of a sample of Australian Credit Unions and Mutual Banks to examine the CSR reporting from the perspective of the three pillars model proposed by vanOorschot, de Hoog, van der Steen and van Twist (2013. It is argued that the pillar requiringco-operatives to ensure activities which ‘aim for change’, should promote increasing adoptionof CSR. The paper theorises that regulatory requirements imposed in Australia on all bankinginstitutions carry a higher proportional cost to the customer owned banking sector than theshareholder based commercial banks. This consumption of the limited financial resourcesavailable in this sector of banking services, are inhibiting regional Customer Owned Bankingproviders, as co-operative organisations, to fulfil the required co-operative principle to instigatechange for the betterment of communities. This failure could signal the demise of some entitiesin the jurisdiction of Customer Owned Banking.

  20. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  1. Expanded prescribing: a comparison of the views of Australian hospital and community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery; Sunderland, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Community pharmacies and hospitals are the two main professional areas for pharmacists. There is currently a lack of comparison of pharmacists working in these two distinct settings in relation to an expanded prescribing role. To compare the attitudes of hospital and community pharmacists regarding an expanded prescribing role. Australian pharmacists. A self-administered postal survey was used to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using SPSS(®) v19. Kendall's tau-c test was used to compare the mean values between categorical variables (i.e. hospital or community pharmacists) and continuous variables measuring attitudes on a Likert scale (i.e. reasons in favour and barriers of pharmacist prescribing, preferred therapeutic areas of prescribing and prescribing models). A Chi square test was used to analyse categorical variables (i.e. demographics). The opinion of hospital and community pharmacists regarding an expanded prescribing role. A response rate of 40.4% was achieved (1,049/2,592). Where significant differences were located, community pharmacists were more supportive of all proffered potential reasons in favour of pharmacist prescribing (p rule to 30 days (p = 0.011). This study suggests that there are differences between hospital and community pharmacists in what they regard as potential reasons in favour of an expanded pharmacist prescribing role, perceived barriers to such a role and whether to prescribe independently of doctors. Hospital pharmacists' attitudinal differences in terms of support for certain therapeutic areas of prescribing reflects probably their existing active role in clinical decision making processes in patients who are often seriously ill.

  2. Comparison of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes Circulating in Australian Hospitals and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L; Foster, Niki F; Huber, Charlotte A; Hong, Stacey; Harris-Brown, Tiffany; Robson, Jenny; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is becoming less exclusively a health care-associated CDI (HA-CDI). The incidence of community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased over the past few decades. It has been postulated that asymptomatic toxigenic C. difficile (TCD)-colonized patients may play a role in the transfer of C. difficile between the hospital setting and the community. Thus, to investigate the relatedness of C. difficile across the hospital and community settings, we compared the characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic host patients and the pathogens from these patients in these two settings over a 3-year period. Two studies were simultaneously conducted; the first study enrolled symptomatic CDI patients from two tertiary care hospitals and the community in two Australian states, while the second study enrolled asymptomatic TCD-colonized patients from the same tertiary care hospitals. A total of 324 patients (96 with HA-CDI, 152 with CA-CDI, and 76 colonized with TCD) were enrolled. The predominant C. difficile ribotypes isolated in the hospital setting corresponded with those isolated in the community, as it was found that for 79% of the C. difficile isolates from hospitals, an isolate with a matching ribotype was isolated in the community, suggesting that transmission between these two settings is occurring. The toxigenic C. difficile strains causing symptomatic infection were similar to those causing asymptomatic infection, and patients exposed to antimicrobials prior to admission were more likely to develop a symptomatic infection (odds ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 7.14). Our findings suggest that the development of CDI symptoms in a setting without establishment of hospital epidemics with binary toxin-producing C. difficile strains may be driven mainly by host susceptibility and exposure to antimicrobials, rather than by C. difficile strain characteristics. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Community-environment relations and development of rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    environment and carry out rural development activities. This study examined ... be within the resources capacity for renewal. The .... Availability and cost of labour determine how many rural farmers ..... appreciation for proper medical services.

  4. Cost-effective strategies for rural community outreach, Hawaii, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Karen L; Barbato, Anna; Holuby, R Scott; Ciarleglio, Anita E; Taniguchi, Ronald

    2014-12-11

    Three strategies designed to maximize attendance at educational sessions on chronic disease medication safety in older adults in rural areas were implemented sequentially and compared for cost-effectiveness: 1) existing community groups and events, 2) formal advertisement, and 3) employer-based outreach. Cost-effectiveness was measured by comparing overall cost per attendee recruited and number of attendees per event. The overall cost per attendee was substantially higher for the formal advertising strategy, which produced the lowest number of attendees per event. Leveraging existing community events and employers in rural areas was more cost-effective than formal advertisement for recruiting rural community members.

  5. What community characteristics help or hinder rural communities in becoming age-friendly? Perspectives from a Canadian prairie province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, John; Menec, Verena H

    2015-06-01

    Age-friendly initiatives are increasingly promoted as a policy solution to healthy aging, The primary objective of this article was to examine older adults' and key stakeholders' perceptions of the factors that either help or hinder a community from becoming age-friendly in the context of rural Manitoba, a Canadian prairie province. Twenty-four older adults and 17 key informants completed a qualitative interview. The findings show that contextual factors including size, location, demographic composition, ability to secure investments, and leadership influence rural communities' ability to become age-friendly. Government must consider the challenges these communities face in becoming more age-friendly and develop strategies to support communities.

  6. Rural health systems' perceptions of referral to community pharmacists during transitions of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Stephanie; DiDonato, Kristen L; Liu, Yifei; Hartwig, D Matthew; May, Justin; Schramm, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    To identify rural health systems' perceptions of value, benefits, barriers, and opportunities associated with community pharmacist involvement in patient transitions of care. Rural health systems in northwest and central Missouri. Qualitative descriptive study of key informant interviews with self-identified decision makers of rural health systems within a 50-mile radius of 15 independent community pharmacy chain locations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to evaluate themes in participant responses. Fifteen interviews were conducted at 8 rural health systems. Participants expressed significant value in community pharmacist involvement in transitions of care and highlighted several benefits, barriers, and opportunities related to potential collaboration. Benefits that were identified included medication monitoring, resource for patient information, and desire among health care providers to work with community pharmacists. Barriers included legal and regulatory issues with referral, communication, and prescriber utilization. Opportunities described included: patient education, monitoring, and follow-up; targeted interventions; medication access assistance; bedside medication delivery; and collaboration between community pharmacies and health care entities. Rural health system informants perceived community pharmacy involvement to be valuable and were receptive to collaboration during transitional care to improve patient outcomes. They highlighted barriers to overcome to truly incorporate community pharmacists into the transitional care arena. Understanding these rural health systems' perceptions can guide community pharmacies in developing collaborative relationships and patient care services to assist with care transitions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Digital Divide and Rural Community Colleges: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Moeck, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the seriousness of the digital divide-the discrepancy between technology-literate and -illiterate people-in rural areas in the United States. Reports that rural young, minority, and single-parent households lag behind the national average in both personal computer ownership and Internet access. Offers suggestions for ways rural community…

  8. Architecture of WiFi Based Broadcast Network for Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumshed Akhtar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital divide is a reality in developing nations. Most of the technological advancements are available only in urban areas and rural community is still deprived of communication technology even in 21 st century. To ensure the availability of Internet, TV (Television and other high data-rate services to the rural community; use of high power ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical band broadcast should be of interest. The aim of this research work is to design a WiFi based broadcast network that provides broadband access to remote areas and to study the propagation characteristics of this network in a typical rural community in the plains of Pakistan. This paper uses extensive measurements in indoor and outdoor environments of village ?Lower Kot Ratta? to develop a WiFi broadband broadcast propagation model for rural areas of Pakistan. The proposed model is simple, flexible and more suitable for rural areas as compared to existing models

  9. Summer in the country: changes in medical students' perceptions following an innovative rural community experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kevin Y; Quinn, Kathleen J; Stevermer, James J; Porter, Jana L; Webb, Weldon D; Williamson, Harold A; Burdin, Julie

    2013-08-01

    The University of Missouri School of Medicine developed the Summer Community Program through which rising second-year medical students work alongside rural, community-based physician preceptors. This program is part of a comprehensive, longitudinal pipeline designed to increase student interest in rural practice. The authors describe the Summer Community Program, explain changes in students' perceptions of rural practice and rural lifestyle post program, and report participants' specialty choices and first practice locations. The authors analyzed 229 participant responses (1996-2010) to pre- and postexperience questionnaires focused on perceptions of rural practice and lifestyle. The authors calculated the likelihood of participants matching into primary care compared with nonparticipants and analyzed participants' first practice locations. After the experience, participants' perceptions toward rural practice and lifestyle changed favorably, and 72% (n=208) reported more interest in rural practice. Compared with nonparticipants, summer participants were more likely to enter a primary care residency (relative risk [RR]=1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.50) and twice as likely to choose specifically family medicine (RR=2.21; 95% CI: 1.68-2.88). Forty-six percent (n=78) of participants chose rural locations for their first practices. This program has positively influenced students' perceptions of rural practice and lifestyle and increased their interest in rural practice. Participants entered primary care and family medicine residencies at higher rates than nonparticipants, and nearly half started their medical practices in rural locations. Replicating this program may increase interest in rural medicine and address rural physician workforce needs.

  10. Mahjong gambling in the Chinese-Australian community in Sydney: a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wu Yi; Walker, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2010-09-01

    Mahjong is a popular gambling game played in Chinese communities all over the world (Papineau, China Perspect 28:29-42, 2000) and is sometimes referred to as '' (guodu, the Chinese national gambling game) or '' (xiu changcheng, repairing the Great Wall). Exploratory studies using snowball sampling conducted by Zheng et al. (J Psychol Chin Soc 9(2):241-262, 2008) indicated that Mahjong is not only a popular pastime within the Sydney Chinese community but also problematic for around 3% of players. The current study aimed to extend earlier studies by estimating the prevalence of Mahjong problem gambling in a random sample of Sydney Chinese community members. In addition, due to first-hand gambling experience of the first author with superstitious Mahjong players, the study also investigated the role of superstitious beliefs in Mahjong gambling. The current study involved a series of self-report questionnaires administered to 469 randomly selected Chinese Australians in Sydney. The problem gambling rate, assessed by the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), was 3.8%, with Chinese males and older Chinese prominent. Superstitious beliefs were found to play a part in the maintenance of Mahjong gambling behaviour. Information stemming from the current study has helped gain insight into culturally specific forms of gambling, and to identify correlates of problem gamblers. Funding bodies and counselling services should be aware of the existence of this form of gambling, and should devise appropriate treatment plans for Mahjong problem gamblers.

  11. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Godwin

    Full Text Available Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006, suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies

  12. “And twelve months later, we are still waiting…”: Insights into teaching and use of ICT in rural and remote Australian schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Courtney

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the combined data sets from a large ARC (Australian Research Council funded study on the declining enrolments of female students in high school information technology subjects, and a SiMERR (Science, ICT and Mathematics Education for Rural and Regional Australia study of 9 rural or remote schools in the state of Queensland. The aim of examining the combined data set was to investigate any apparent differences between girls’ perceptions of studying higher level ICT subjects in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas. The findings of the study highlighted some problems experienced by female students studying outside of metropolitan areas. They perceived the subject offerings to be ‘more boring’ than their city counterparts and reported a lower level of home ownership. The paper offers possible explanations for the findings and strongly recommends that strategies need to be implemented to overcome these problems.

  13. The Politics of the MST Autonomous Rural Communities, the State, and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergara Camus, Leandro

    Examination of the politicization of landless people in the encampments and settlements of the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra (Landless Rural Workers' Movement-MST) in Brazil suggests that the movement's success rest on the fact that it generates relatively autonomous rural communities

  14. Community biomass handbook. Volume 3: How wood energy is revitalizing rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan. Bihn

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended to help people better understand how wood energy is helping to revitalize rural Alaskan communities by reducing energy costs, creating jobs, and helping to educate the next generation. The village of Koyukuk shows how modern wood energy systems can meet the challenges of remote rural Alaska. To fully succeed, however, these...

  15. The Politics of the MST Autonomous Rural Communities, the State, and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergara-Camus, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    Examination of the politicization of landless people in the encampments and settlements of the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra (Landless Rural Workers' Movement-MST) in Brazil suggests that the movement's success rest on the fact that it generates relatively autonomous rural communities

  16. Symbiotic Relationship between Telecentre and Lifelong Learning for Rural Community Development: A Malaysian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Jalaluddin Abdul; Razaq Ahmad, Abdul; Mahzan Awang, Mohd; Alfitri

    2014-01-01

    Telecentres in the 21st century may be able to improve standard of living, quality of life, and stability of knowledge for the rural population. The role of telecentres is widely increasing in developing political and management awareness, economic, socio-culture, technology, education and regulation awareness in rural communities. Telecentres in…

  17. University-Rural Community Partnership for People-Centred Development: Experiences from Makhado Municipality, Limpopo Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J.; Dube, B.; Mokganyetji, T.; Chitapa, T.

    2010-01-01

    Children, youth, women, the elderly, men and their leaders are integral components of rural communities. It is important to ensure that their unique needs and perceptions shape development programming. However, despite having various policies and legal frameworks introduced to deepen democracy in South Africa, current rural development programming…

  18. Unlikely Alliances: Treaty Conflicts and Environmental Cooperation between Native American and Rural White Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zoltan

    2005-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, members of Native and rural white communities unexpectedly came together to protect the same natural resources from a perceived outside threat. Environmental alliances began to bring together Native Americans and rural white resource users in areas of the country where no one would have predicted or even imagined them. In…

  19. Assets, Challenges, and the Potential of Technology for Nutrition Education in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy L.; Desmond, Sharon M.; Saperstein, Sandra L.; Billing, Amy S.; Gold, Robert S.; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine assets of and challenges to getting adequate nutrition and physical activity among low-income rural residents, and the potential for technology to provide health education. Methods: Environmental scans and community stakeholder interviews were conducted in 5 rural counties in Maryland. During environmental scans, stakeholders…

  20. The role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of rural communities: The case of rural cooperatives in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Mhembwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the research was to analyse the role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of local rural communities in Shurugwi District in Zimbabwe. Descriptive survey design was used in this mixed method approach to the study. A questionnaire, interviews and observation methods were employed as the main research instruments. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and data were collected from government officials and from members of the six cooperatives in Shurugwi District. A total of 50 research participants were involved in the study. It was found that cooperatives were established as a strategy to sustain livelihoods of rural communities. With the adoption of cooperatives, people in the rural communities managed to generate employment, boost food production, empower the marginalised, especially women, and promote social cohesion and integration, thereby improving their livelihoods and reducing poverty. Most cooperatives face a number of challenges that include lack of financial support, poor management and lack of management skills, and lack of competitive markets to sell their produce. The study recommends that the government and the banking sector render financial support to cooperatives in rural communities to allow them to expand and diversify their business operations; constant training on leadership and management skills is provided to cooperatives’ members. There is also a need for cooperatives, especially those in the agricultural sector, to form some producer associations so as to easily market their produce. Lastly, the study recommends that future research should focus on investigating issues that hinder the growth of the cooperative movement in rural communities of Zimbabwe. It is hoped that policy-makers, the academia and communities would benefit from the study.

  1. Rural Governance, Community Empowerment and the New Institutionalism: A Case Study of the Isle of Wight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Southern, Rebekah; Beer, Julian

    2007-01-01

    This article compares two different institutional models--state-sponsored rural partnerships and community-based development trusts--for engaging and empowering local communities in area-based regeneration, using the Isle of Wight as a case study. Following a critical review of the literature on community governance, we evaluate the effectiveness…

  2. "It Really Comes Down to the Community": A Case Study of a Rural School Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Communities, schools, their music programs, and the individuals who participate in these groups are tied to the social, cultural, and political contexts in which they reside. Schools are often connected to their communities, and are often deeply cherished in rural communities. School music programs hold the potential to influence a small…

  3. Being Involved in the Country: Productive Ageing in Different Types of Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sandra; Crothers, Natalie; Grant, Jeanette; Young, Sari; Smith, Karly

    2012-01-01

    Productive ageing recognises the contribution of older people to economic, social and cultural growth and helps build a sustainable community. Being involved in community life is good for individuals and good for society. However, we know very little about the participation of and contribution by people aged 50 and over in rural communities. This…

  4. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  5. On-line Professional Learning Communities: Increasing Teacher Learning and Productivity in Isolated Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Salazar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available On-line and distance professional learning communities provides teachers with increased access and flexibility as well as the combination of work and education. It also provides a more learner-centered approach, enrichment and new ways of interacting with teachers in isolated rural areas. For educational administrators, on-line learning offers high quality and usually cost-effective professional development for teachers. It allows upgrading of skills, increased productivity and development of a new learning culture. At the same time, it means sharing of costs, of training time, increased portability of training, and the exchange of creativity, information, and dialogue.

  6. Mitigation Efforts in Rural Communities after Extreme Weather Events - New Insights for Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes are undoubtedly course of the increasing frequency of extreme whether events all over the world. Rural communities belong to the “group of victims” which is greatly jeopardized by consequences of the extreme weather events. Having in mind limited capacities for the preparedness, response and recovery after any kind of emergency it is clear that the rural community mostly needs external help. That is the point of this paper: to make new insights about this important issue, and to discuss: “how to provide adequate help in the rural communities and build adequate adaptive and response capacities”. In many countries agriculture and rural tourism are main economic activities in the rural area and its interruption could be the obstacle for implementation of sustainable development. Various stakeholders omit to be aware of this issue. Emergency agencies and many others have to make the comprehensive plan for rural communities (having in mind all its limitations. In the Republic of Serbia rural communities do not have enough capacity for recovery and usually it takes many years after an event. A minimum of an economic recovery standard has to be created for the rural community. It also has to be a specific contingency plan in the future reorganizations of emergency services in Serbia and at the Western Balkan region. It should be one of the priority issues for stakeholders in the near future in disaster risk reduction. Providing equal access to resources to population in the rural community after the extreme weather event has to be the priority task for policy makers and all actors in emergency management.

  7. Safety and community: the maternity care needs of rural parturient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate rural parturient women's experiences of obstetric care in the context of the social and economic realities of life in rural, remote, and small urban communities. Data collection for this exploratory qualitative study was carried out in 7 rural communities chosen to represent diversity of size, distance to hospital with Caesarean section capability and distance to secondary hospital, usual conditions for transport and access, and cultural and ethnic subpopulations. We interviewed 44 women who had given birth up to 24 months before the study began. When asked about their experiences of giving birth in rural communities, many participants spoke of unmet needs and their associated anxieties. Self-identified needs were largely congruent with the deficit categories of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which recognizes the contingency and interdependence of physiological needs, the need for safety and security, the need for community and belonging, self-esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization. For many women, community was critical to meeting psychosocial needs, and women from communities that currently have (or have recently had) access to local maternity care said that being able to give birth in their own community or in a nearby community was necessary if their obstetric needs were to be met. Removing maternity care from a community creates significant psychosocial consequences that are imperfectly understood but that probably have physiological implications for women, babies, and families. Further research into rural women's maternity care that considers the loss of local maternity care from multiple perspectives is needed.

  8. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  9. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  10. The changing landscape of health care financing and delivery: how are rural communities and providers responding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K J; Coburn, A; Cordes, S; Crittenden, R; Hart, J P; McBride, T; Myers, W

    1999-01-01

    Rural communities have not kept pace with the recent dramatic changes in health care financing and organization. However, the Medicare provisions in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 will require rural providers to participate in the new systems. Case studies revealed the degree of readiness for change in six rural communities and charted their progress along a continuum, as reflected in three sets of activities: the development of networking; the creation of new strategies for managing patient care; and the adoption of new methods for contracting with health insurers. Some communities had constructed highly integrated systems, whereas others were just beginning to change their billing practices; a few were signing contracts for capitated care, in contrast to those that were resisting discounts in current fee structures. These six rural areas still have considerable ground to cover before their health care organization and financing reach the levels achieved by urban communities.

  11. Pattern of skin disorders in a rural community in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    west Nigeria. All consenting adults and children with parental consent that presented for the screening ... Keywords: pattern, skin disorders, skin infection, rural, community, Nigeria ..... Skin diseases in South-east Nigeria: a current perspective.

  12. Child feeding practices in a rural Western Kenya community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace M. Mbagaya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is nearly universal in Kenya. However, supplementation of breast milk starts too early, thereby exposing the infants to diarrhoea and other infections. Despite the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO of exclusive breastfeeding (EB from birth to six months, EB is rare and poorly timed and complementary feeding (CF practices are still common. The study describes feeding practices of children aged 0 to 24 months in the Mumias Division of the Kakamega district in Kenya. Method: Using a cross-sectional study, 180 mothers of infants/children were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, feeding practices and sources of information on the same were obtained from the mothers.Results: Whereas 92.1% of the children were breastfed, only 12.2% of the mothers practiced EB up to 4 to 6 months. Mothers introduced liquids and complementary foods at a mean age of 2.7 months and by the fourth month, more than one-third (34.5% of the mothers had initiated CF. Apart from water, fresh milk, tea, commercial juices, maize-meal/millet porridge, mashed potatoes, bananas and fruits were also introduced. The perceived reasons for introducing these foods included the child being old enough (33.8%, another pregnancy (25%, insufficient milk (20.3%, sickness of the mother or child (10.5% and in order for the child to eat other foods (11.4%. Over half (53.3% of the mothers obtained information on BF and CF from friends, neighbours, media advertisements and health workers.Conclusion: Breastfeeding is common; however, mothers do not seem to practice the WHO recommendations. Mothers in this study area and other rural communities need to be empowered with information on the correct BF and CF practices through existing government health services, nongovernmental organisations and other community-based networks, especially in the light of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

  13. A Participatory Systemic Approach To Rural Community Development In Vietnam

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    Tuan M. Ha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social economic political cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory ELLab through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture systems model of the current situation defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.

  14. A survey of foot problems in community-dwelling older Greek Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small

  15. Dedicated researcher brings cancer care to rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Bhuller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics

  16. Globalisation, rural restructuring and health service delivery in Australia: policy failure and the role of social work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Margaret

    2007-05-01

    The impacts of globalisation and rural restructuring on health service delivery in rural Australia have been significant. In the present paper, it is argued that declining health service access represents a failure of policy. Rural communities across the world are in a state of flux, and Australia is no different: rural communities are ageing at faster rates than urban communities and young people are out-migrating in large numbers. During the past 5 years, rural Australia has also experienced a severe and widespread drought that has exacerbated rural poverty, and impacted on the health and well-being of rural Australians. Australian governments have responded to globalising forces by introducing neoliberal policy initiatives favouring market solutions and championing the need for self-reliance among citizens. The result for rural Australia has been a withdrawal of services at a time of increased need. This paper addresses the social work response to these changes.

  17. Homestead tree planting in two rural Swazi communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Tree planting practices were investigated on a total of 95 homesteads in two communities in rural Swaziland. Information was also collected on socioeconomic characteristics of the homesteads. In both the study areas, Sigombeni and Bhekinkosi, there was considerable variation amongst individual homesteads in size, relative wealth (as indicated by cattle and motor vehicle ownership), and amount and types of trees planted. Eighty-five percent of all homesteads in Sigombeni and 73% in Bhekinkosi had planted at least one tree. Common forms of planting included small woodlots, fruit trees, and ornamentals. Virtually all the woodlots consisted of two introduced wattle species (Acacia mearnsii and A. decurrens). The most commonly planted fruit trees were avocados, bananas, and peaches. No complex or labor-intensive agroforestry practices (such as maize/leucaena intercropping) were observed. There was some evidence that the poorest and newest homesteads were the least likely to have planted any trees and that the richest homesteads were the most likely to have planted woodlots. The results indicate that forestry research and extension efforts should take into account homestead characteristics, and strive to offer a range of tree planting options that vary in input requirements, labor needs, and complexity.

  18. Seroprevalence of Chikungunya Virus in a Rural Community in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rivaldo V; Trinta, Karen S; Montalbano, Camila A; Sucupira, Michel V F; de Lima, Maricelia M; Marques, Erenilde; Romanholi, Izilyanne H; Croda, Julio

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently expanding. In 2015, 38,332 cases of Chikungunya were reported to the Brazilian epidemiological surveillance system. Eighteen months after notification of the first case in the city of Feira de Santana, we conducted the first serosurvey to define the magnitude of transmission in a rural community in Brazil. The serosurvey was conducted in a random sample of 450 residences in the Chapada district, located 100 kilometers from Feira de Santana. We administered questionnaires and tested 120 sera from Chapada district residents for CHIKV IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies. An individual with CHIKV infection was defined as any person with CHIKV IgM or IgG antibodies detected in the serum. One Hundred cases of Chikungunya were reported after prolonged rainfall, which reinforced the relationship between the rainfall index and CHIKV transmission. Eighteen months after the start of the outbreak, we identified a seroprevalence of 20% (95% CI, 15.4-35%). CHIKV IgG- and IgM-specific antibodies were detected in 22/120 (18.3%) and 6/120 (5.0%) individuals, respectively. Among seropositive patients, 13/24 (54.2%) reported fever and joint pain over the previous two years (pChikungunya in the Chapada district, and in half of the confirmed CHIKV infections, patients reported arthralgia and fever over the previous two years.

  19. Implementation of a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies: Facilitators and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Fowler, Jane; Wheeler, Amanda J

    Community pharmacists are in an ideal position to promote and provide mental health medication management services. However, formalised or structured pharmacy services to support consumers with mental health conditions are scarce. Australian mental health consumers indicated a need for targeted community pharmacy mental health services which presented an opportunity to develop an intervention that were integrated with remunerated professional services. The study aimed to pilot a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies. Pharmacists worked in partnership with consumers, carers and mental health workers over three to six months to set and support achievement of individual goals related to medicines use, physical health and mental wellbeing. This paper provides a comparison of community pharmacies that successfully delivered the intervention with those that did not and identifies facilitators and challenges to service implementation. One hundred pharmacies opted to pilot the delivery of the intervention in three Australian states (Queensland, Western Australia and northern New South Wales). Of those, 55 successfully delivered the intervention (completers) whilst 45 were unsuccessful (non-completers). A mixed methods approach, including quantitative pharmacy surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews, was used to gather data from participating pharmacies. Following intervention development, 142 pharmacists and 21 pharmacy support staff attended training workshops, received resource kits and ongoing support from consumer and pharmacist mentors throughout intervention implementation. Baseline quantitative data was collected from each pharmacy on staff profile, volume of medicines dispensed, the range of professional services delivered and relationships with health professionals. At the completion of the study participants were invited to complete an online exit survey and take part in a semi-structured interview that

  20. Bacterial community dynamics over successional stages of Australian biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Angela; Woodhouse, Jason; Neilan, Brett

    2015-04-01

    A key aspect for successful ecological rehabilitation is understanding the naturally occurring ecosystem and landscape function which is to be restored. This allows for recovery indicators to be identified and criteria to be developed to assess progress and outcomes. In arid rangelands, environmental stresses result in characteristically heterogeneous landscapes where biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover large expanses of inter-plant areas. Here, BSCs perform crucial roles in nutrient cycling and re-distribution, affect hydrological patterns and stabilise the soil surface. They also serve as a large reservoir of microbial and avascular plant biodiversity. The recognition of these important roles has resulted in increased global arid rehabilitation efforts employing BSCs. Within Australia, research has focused on the macro components of BSCs including lichens and mosses, however, there have been insufficient studies examining the BSC bacterial communities and their dynamics over different successional stages. This project surveyed the bacterial community of crust-free soil and three successional stages of undisturbed BSCs from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in order to provide reference standards of naturally occurring Australian BSCs. Visual assessments were conducted and BSCs were categorised as Early, Mid or Late stage depending on colour, thickness, topography and presence of lichens and mosses. The crust-free soil and different stages were sampled within three 50 m2 plots of the same edaphic conditions near the town of Cobar, NSW. High throughput sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was performed targeting the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Preliminary analysis has revealed a clear distinction between the crust-free and crusted soil while Canonical Analysis of Principal Co-ordinates (CAP) suggests the presence of two distinct BSC microbial communities despite three stages being sampled. Across all sample types, the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria

  1. Linking rural community livelihoods to resilience building in flood risk reduction in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gwimbi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of disastrous flooding events and the mounting losses in both life and property values in Zimbabwe have drawn attention to the flooding situation in the country, especially the rural areas. This article explores the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to flood risks associated within increasingly frequent and severe events linked to climate change. Starting by reviewing the current literature on rural livelihoods, resilience and vulnerability research, the paper argues for a coordinated teamwork approach in flood risk mitigation in rural areas. The paper concludes with several recommendations for enhanced resilience to flood hazards.

  2. Effects of a community-based salt reduction program in a regional Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Mary-Anne; Wu, Jason H Y; Selwyn, Adriana; Crino, Michelle; Woodward, Mark; Chalmers, John; Webster, Jacqui; Nowson, Caryl; Jeffery, Paul; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Neal, Bruce

    2016-05-11

    Salt reduction is a public health priority but there are few studies testing the efficacy of plausible salt reduction programs. A multi-faceted, community-based salt reduction program using the Communication for Behavioral Impact framework was implemented in Lithgow, Australia. Single 24-h urine samples were obtained from 419 individuals at baseline (2011) and from 572 at follow-up (2014). Information about knowledge and behaviors relating to salt was also collected. Survey participants were on average 56 years old and 58 % female. Mean salt intake estimated from 24-h urine samples fell from 8.8 g/day (SD = 3.6 g/day) in 2011 to 8.0 (3.6) g/day in 2014 (-0.80, 95 % confidence interval -1.2 to -0.3;p salt reduction (64 % vs. 78 %; p salt substitute at the end of the intervention period and 90 % had heard about the program. Findings were robust to multivariable adjustment. Implementation of this multi-faceted community-based program was associated with a ~10 % reduction in salt consumption in an Australian regional town. These findings highlight the potential of well-designed health promotion programs to compliment other population-based strategies to bring about much-needed reductions in salt consumption. NCT02105727 .

  3. Empirical Study on the Reform of Water Resources Management in Xinjiang Rural Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pichang; YUE; Jian; DAI; Chaohui; LU; Jianguo; DING; Mubarek

    2013-01-01

    With the case study of two rural communities of Hetian County and Shawan County in Xinjiang, the foundation, operation and development of the water management organizations in the two communities and their reform achievements were studied and compared. It was concluded that the reform of water resources management should be in accordance with the practical conditions of rural communities. Only with the same objectives of community people and by benefiting the farmers could the reform of water resources management be effectively implemented and achieve good results.

  4. The role of community self help projects in rural development of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunleye-Adetona, C.I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempt to examine the impact of self-help projects in rural development using Irepodun Local Government Area as a case study, Kwara State, Nigeria. A sample of 200 respondents was interviewed through the use of questionnaire format. In the course of the study, it was revealed that income encouraged the people to embark on self help projects. Community unions / association contributed immensely in the execution of self help projects and the subsequent rural development. The Chi-square and correlation results, concluded that the inhabitants of the area are not equally satisfied with self help projects and amenities and that there is a relationship between population and self help projects and also that self help projects has increased the standard of living of the people in the area. There is an unequal distribution of self help projects in the study area. And since the level and efficiency of self help projects on rural communities normally influence the development of the rural areas, governments should therefore redirect its rural development towards capital and developmental projects in rural areas and make population be the focus for all communities in the rural areas. This will ensure an equitable distribution of self help projects an essential tool for balanced socio-economic development of the rural areas especially in Nigeria.

  5. Representations and antinomies: rural and city social objects in a Brazilian peasant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Mariana; de Souza, Lídio; Trindade, Zeidi Araujo; Menandro, Maria Cristina Smith

    2013-01-01

    The present work is part of a series of studies that primarily focus on social representations of rural and city objects in the process of constructing a social identity of the countryside. Using social representation theory, this study aimed to investigate the representational field linked to the rural and city objects for the members of a peasant community. A total of 200 members of a Brazilian rural community from four generational groups, of both sexes and aged between 7 and 81 years, participated in this study. We conducted individual interviews with semi-structured scripts. The data corpora, processed using EVOC software, consisted of free associations of the rural and city inductor terms. In constitutive terms, the results allow for the identification of antinomies between the objects discussed; in functional terms, they indicate that the process of constructing social identity is based on the symbolic field, which acts as a reference system for the preparation of the rural identity shared by the participants.

  6. Distance is no hurdle: Reforming the family violence exception to better protect immigrant women in rural, regional and remote communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After careful consideration consistent with COPE guidelines, the editorial staff has concluded that there is no case of plagiarism associated with this article. (10th August, 2016 The editors have received allegations that the paper references arguments and evidence without attribution to pre-existing literature, and that it exhibits stylistic similarities to other sources on the same topic. The editors are currently conducting an investigation under the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE guidelines to confirm or refute the allegations. (29th June, 2016 This article considers the impact of migration laws on immigrant women in rural, regional and remote communities (RRR communities who are victims of family violence. The Migration Regulations 1994 (Cth (‘the Regulations’ includes a ‘family violence exception’ that allows for the grant of permanent residency to women who hold a temporary partner visa in circumstances where the relationship with the Australian sponsor has broken down due to family violence. However, the Regulations impose strict procedural and evidentiary requirements for making a family violence claim. These laws disproportionately impact those in RRR communities by failing to account for their isolation, lack of access to services and particular vulnerabilities. As a result, immigrant women in RRR communities are restricted in their ability to access the family violence exception. This article calls for reform of the Regulations to address the locational disadvantages faced by immigrant women in RRR communities. Building on the work of the Australian Law Reform Commission, it argues for the repeal of the provisions governing evidentiary requirements for ‘non-judicially determined’ claims of family violence. In its place, it is suggested that there should be no restrictions on the types of evidence that can be provided. In addition, all non-judicially determined family violence claims would be referred to an

  7. Changes in the Romanian Rural Communities. A Socio-Theological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Magdalena NECULA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sociological studies emphasize the influence of religion on human communities in general and on rural societies, in particular. In this paper, we intend to analyze the main aspects that determine modernization, rural religiosity, social changes in rural areas of Romania, highlighting the importance of the priest in these communities. Rural religiosity expresses the specific relation with the sacred. The village is “purposely placed around the Church and cemetery, namely around God and the dead”- Lucian Blaga. Rural religiosity is concrete and practical, not theoretical speculation. In the second part of the paper we have defined the Church as a sanctuary and community of believers and we have presented its main features as Symbol of Faith- “one, holy and apostolic”. We presented the Church’s involvement in the life of rural community, especially through its local representative – the priest, pointing out that the religious institution interacts with people and supports them in their integration into social life. Over the decades, the Church, by its specific teachings, encouraged the people to love their fellow human beings, to belong to a group and to a society. The Church gives solutions to the social problems that have arisen in people’s lives. The Church’s involvement in the rural society tends to become normal, considering the fact that it was banned during the communist regime, but its visibility depends also on other institutions like the Mayor, local and central political government and so on.

  8. Research on the Harmonious Development of New Rural Communities under the Perspective of Balancing Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of offering a definition of New Rural Communities (NRCs), the paper analyzes the values of New Rural Communities and argues that the construction of NRCs is able to contribute to the enhancement of the comprehensive agricultural production capability as well as the development of social productivity. Meanwhile the incomes of the rural residents can be boosted, which denotes the realization of a harmonious society where the achievements of China’s reform and development are shared by each citizen. Moreover, the construction of NRCs facilitates the economization of land use and thus improves the overall living standard of the residents, while helping to cut the administrative cost and promote democracy at the primary level. This paper also points out various problems arising during the construction of NRCS in China: blindly following suit in accordance with the modes of the urban communities; lack of funds, which leads to the absence of the supporting mechanisms of NRCs; vague positioning and the ensuing shortage of impetus for continued development. Finally, the paper raises the corresponding measures and suggestions: first, based on reality, make overall planning and scientific arrangement; second, the government should play the dominant role while respecting the principal position of the rural residents and introducing the market mechanism; third, increase science and technology input and attach equal importance to economic and social benefits; fourth, broaden fund-raising channels while completing the supervision mechanism.

  9. Place Identity, Participation, and Emotional Climate in a Rural Community From the Northern Coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Silvana; Espinosa, Agustín; Rottenbacher, Jan Marc

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in rural communities from the Peruvian northern coast, it is common to find a climate of distrust and pessimism that accompanies the lack of coordinated social action and community participation among residents. This study analyzes the relationships that people develop with regard to the place where they live in, how it associates to the ways they participate in their community and the relationship that these two variables have with the perceived emotional climate, in a rural community from the northern coast of Peru (n = 81). Results indicate that place identity is significantly associated with a high community participation and a climate of trust in the community. Finally, a Path Analysis is performed to analyze comprehensively the relationship between these variables. The results suggest that place identity does have an influence on perceived positive climate in the community, being mediated by the dimensions of community participation.

  10. Conversation Maps and Diabetes Education Groups: An Evaluation at an Australian Rural Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewming, Sue; D'Amore, Angelo; Mitchell, Eleanor K L

    2016-02-01

    Objective. The rural Central Gippsland Health Service (CGHS) assists patients with diabetes through the provision of diabetes education. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the CGHS 5-week didactic program and a modified group-participatory Conversation Maps diabetes education program. Method. A pre- and post-program survey was conducted of clients who attended the two different diabetes education programs. The survey consisted of a self-constructed demographic questionnaire, the Diabetes Knowledge Test, the Diabetes Empowerment Scale, and the Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure. Results. For the CGHS program, there were no differences between pre- and post-program surveys in knowledge scores (11.05 ± 3.56 vs. 12.75 ± 4.19, P = 0.0883, n = 20), self-care activities (4.46 ± 1.11 vs. 4.83 ± 0.68, P = 0.0832, n = 12), or empowerment scores (7.16 ± 1.60 vs. 7.92 ± 1.26, P = 0.0540, n = 17). For the modified Conversation Maps program, there were significant improvements between pre- and post-program surveys in knowledge scores (12.42 ± 4.15 vs. 15.54 ± 3.79, P = 0.0004, n = 26), self-care activities (4.74 ± 1.09 vs. 5.32 ± 0.80, P = 0.0139, n = 24), and empowerment scores (6.56 ± 2.19 vs. 8.11 ± 1.46, P = 0.0016, n = 21). The greatest difference between the two programs was observed in knowledge gain (P = 0.0178). Overall, participants were satisfied with both programs, with no difference seen in satisfaction levels (P = 0.9763). A1C results improved in both programs to a mean of 6.7% (P = 0.0071 for CGHS and P = 0.0092 for Conversation Maps). Conclusion. The modified Conversation Maps program resulted in significant improvements for rural participants.

  11. Factors influencing community nursing roles and health service provision in rural areas: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Annette; Terry, Daniel R; Lê, Quynh; Hoang, Ha

    2016-02-01

    This review sought to better understand the issues and challenges experienced by community nurses working in rural areas and how these factors shape their role. Databases were searched to identify relevant studies, published between 1990 and 2015, that focussed on issues and challenges experienced by rural community nurses. Generic and grey literature relating to the subject was also searched. The search was systematically conducted multiple times to assure accuracy. A total of 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. This critical review identified common issues impacting community nursing and included role definition, organisational change, human resource, workplace and geographic challenges. Community nurses are flexible, autonomous, able to adapt care to the service delivery setting, and have a diversity of knowledge and skills. Considerably more research is essential to identify factors that impact rural community nursing practice. In addition, greater advocacy is required to develop the role.

  12. Cannabis use and violence in three remote Aboriginal Australian communities: Analysis of clinic presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n = 88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n = 58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n = 40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR = 3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Evolutionary Approach of Virtual Communities of Practice: A Reflection within a Network of Spanish Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario

    The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.

  14. Pharmacy Access to Emergency Contraception in Rural and Frontier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, Jeri L.; Abood, Richard; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Maderas, Nicole Monastersky; Foster, Diana Greene; Ravnan, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Context: Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) has emerged as a major public health effort in the prevention of unintended pregnancies. The recent FDA decision to allow over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception for adult women presents important rural health implications. American women, especially those living in rural and…

  15. Pharmacy Access to Emergency Contraception in Rural and Frontier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, Jeri L.; Abood, Richard; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Maderas, Nicole Monastersky; Foster, Diana Greene; Ravnan, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Context: Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) has emerged as a major public health effort in the prevention of unintended pregnancies. The recent FDA decision to allow over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception for adult women presents important rural health implications. American women, especially those living in rural and…

  16. Climate Variability and Change as Perceived by Rural Communities in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Mhazo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the perception of climate variability and change by rural communities in Swaziland. Interviews were conducted to a total of 60 members of three rural communities (20 from each community selected from Middleveld, Lowveld and the Lubombo ecological zones. The reported signs of climate variability included late rains, low rains, drought and famine. The effects of climate variability felt by community members included failure of crops, death of livestock and low crop yields. The majority of the community members did not provide any scientifically proven causes of climate variability. The causes cited included that of community not keeping Swazi customs, supernatural powers and that of being an act of God. Community members did not have adequate information on climate variability and change. The limited information accessible to many communities was through the local radio in the form of daily weather forecast. The information was found to lack details and of a very short term nature. The feelings of the community members were that weather forecast should provide medium to long-term information. The weather prediction focused on major towns, and was of less relevance to many rural communities. Communities suggested an effective early warning system to operate at constituency level. They specified need for weather stations at community levels in order for them to monitor and record weather data.

  17. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Methods Data were collected from 1,139 Austra...

  18. Sex Education in Rural Schools in the United States: Impact of Rural Educators' Community Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The overall purpose of this exploratory research was to better understand rural educators' feelings about school-based sex education in order to foster better communication and collaboration between prevention researchers and rural teachers and administrators. In order to accomplish this purpose, the research question asked "How does…

  19. Understanding community beliefs of Chinese-Australians about cancer: initial insights using an ethnographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Soo See; Meiser, Bettina; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Katherine; Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2005-03-01

    Ethnography was employed to investigate the hypothesis that the cultural meaning of cancer is one of the possible barriers to access of cancer services. The objectives were to identify indigenous terminologies, taxonomies and illness explanatory models of cancer in a community-based sample of 15 Chinese-Australians and a sample of 16 informants who had been recruited through two Sydney familial cancer clinics. Many of the informants included in their narrative terms that seemed to match Western biomedical explanations for cancer. The majority of informants also maintained traditional Chinese beliefs, despite high acculturation and beliefs in biomedical explanations about cancer. Explanations of illness including cancer, referred to the following concepts: (i) karma (yeh), (ii) retribution (bao ying), (iii) fate (ming yun) or Heaven's or God's will, (iv) geomancy (feng-shui), (v) touched evil (zhong chia), (vi) misfortune or bad luck (shui wan, dong hark); (vii) offending the gods or deities requiring prayers or offerings for appeasement; and (viii) kong-tau (spells invoked through human intervention). Taking into consideration the heterogeneity of the Chinese population, the findings provide an insight into Chinese illness conceptualization that may assist health professionals to develop an understanding of how the cultural explanatory models affect access to screening services, communication of diagnosis of cancer and management of treatment regimen. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Theoretical framework for government information service delivery to deep rural communities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, PS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available the information from both the community and SMMEs on their needs. The questionnaire was administered to three communities in KwaNongoma rural. These were KwaKhangela, KwaMeme and KwaSomkhele. Respondents were asked to give their opinions on how far their needs...

  1. Community perceptions of a rural medical school : a pilot qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nestel, Debra; Gray, Katherine; Simmons, Margaret; Pritchard, Shane A; Islam, Rumana; Eng, Wan Q; Ng, Adrian; Dornan, Tim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient

  2. Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

  3. Community Participation in Rural Ecuador's School Feeding Programme: A Health Promoting School Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…

  4. Usefulness of a Survey on Underage Drinking in a Rural American Indian Community Health Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results…

  5. Perceptions of the Environment for Eating and Exercise in a Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Mary Maly; Warren, Barbour S.; Devine, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To understand how members of a rural community perceive the effect of the built, natural, and social environments on their food choice and physical activity behaviors. Methods: A constructivist community environmental assessment was conducted including 17 individual qualitative interviews, 2 focus groups, and photo elicitation (n = 27)…

  6. Understanding the Link between Social Organization and Crime in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Syvertsen, Amy K; Greenberg, Mark T

    Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization - collective efficacy and social trust - with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency.

  7. The Power Within: Institution-Based Leadership Development Programs in Rural Community Colleges in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbini, Jaleh T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine institution-based leadership development programs in rural community colleges in Illinois, and the impact of these programs in supporting and preparing future community college leaders. The study also explored the efficacy of these programs and whether their implementation aligns with the institutions'…

  8. Perceptions of Students at a Rural Mississippi Community College Regarding Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrris, Cortney R.

    2013-01-01

    Research studies show that there is a skills gap in American society today. This research study examined employability perceptions of community college students at a rural community college in Mississippi. Students were asked to complete an online survey that questioned the degree of importance placed on several employability skills, as well as…

  9. Perceptions of Students at a Rural Mississippi Community College Regarding Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrris, Cortney R.

    2013-01-01

    Research studies show that there is a skills gap in American society today. This research study examined employability perceptions of community college students at a rural community college in Mississippi. Students were asked to complete an online survey that questioned the degree of importance placed on several employability skills, as well as…

  10. Community perceptions of a rural medical school : a pilot qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nestel, Debra; Gray, Katherine; Simmons, Margaret; Pritchard, Shane A; Islam, Rumana; Eng, Wan Q; Ng, Adrian; Dornan, Tim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient invol

  11. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  12. Barriers to the routine collection of health outcome data in an Australian community care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    For over a decade, organizations have attempted to include the measurement and reporting of health outcome data in contractual agreements between funders and health service providers, but few have succeeded. This research explores the utility of collecting health outcomes data that could be included in funding contracts for an Australian Community Care Organisation (CCO). An action-research methodology was used to trial the implementation of outcome measurement in six diverse projects within the CCO using a taxonomy of interventions based on the International Classification of Function. The findings from the six projects are presented as vignettes to illustrate the issues around the routine collection of health outcomes in each case. Data collection and analyses were structured around Donabedian's structure-process-outcome triad. Health outcomes are commonly defined as a change in health status that is attributable to an intervention. This definition assumes that a change in health status can be defined and measured objectively; the intervention can be defined; the change in health status is attributable to the intervention; and that the health outcomes data are accessible. This study found flaws with all of these assumptions that seriously undermine the ability of community-based organizations to introduce routine health outcome measurement. Challenges were identified across all stages of the Donabedian triad, including poor adherence to minimum dataset requirements; difficulties standardizing processes or defining interventions; low rates of use of outcome tools; lack of value of the tools to the service provider; difficulties defining or identifying the end point of an intervention; technical and ethical barriers to accessing data; a lack of standardized processes; and time lags for the collection of data. In no case was the use of outcome measures sustained by any of the teams, although some quality-assurance measures were introduced as a result of the project.

  13. Improving Sanitation Project Management for Unsewered Rural Communities in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MAHI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic potential in Morocco is limited, droughts are more frequent, resulting of climate change, and increasing water demand relating to the population growth and socio-economic development. Morocco has invested in the urban sanitation sector through the establishment of the National Liquid Sanitation Program. In rural Area, the intervention in this sector remains limited due to various constraints. In order to support the efforts of establishment of the National Rural Assainissment Program (PNAR, we conducted a case study that recommended the treatment of wastewater by an innovative process used for the first time in Morocco. We realized, first, a pilot experiment at the douar (Unstructured Village Talat Marghen within the rural Municipality of Aghouatim a few km from Marrakech. The innovative aspect of the project is managerial proposes covering the different technical aspects, management and institutional innovation, to meet the various constraints that characterize the rural areas.

  14. Understanding the Business Case for Telemental Health in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John; Hartley, David; Croll, Zachariah; Hansen, Anush

    2016-07-01

    Telemental health has been promoted to address long-standing access barriers to rural mental health care, including low supply and long travel distances. Examples of rural telemental health programs are common; there is a less clear picture of how widely implemented these programs are, their organization, staffing, and services. There is also a need to understand the business case for these programs and assess whether and how they might realize their promise. To address these gaps, a national study was conducted of rural telemental health programs including an online survey of 53 programs and follow-up interviews with 23 programs. This article describes the current landscape and characteristics of these programs and then examines their business case. Can rural telemental health programs be sustained within current delivery systems and reimbursement structures? This question is explored in four areas: need and demand, infrastructure and workforce, funding and reimbursement, and organizational fit and alignment.

  15. Determinants of Full Vaccination Status in a Rural Community with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    a goal for full immunization of children less than one year old at .... illnesses and appropriate referral as research bene ts. ..... rate of immunization among Nigerian children attending a ... of children under ve years in rural Bangladesh.

  16. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  17. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A White

    Full Text Available Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014, this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  18. Developing sustainable models of rural health care: a community development approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J; Ball, P; Alston, M

    2007-01-01

    Globally, small rural communities frequently are demographically similar to their neighbours and are consistently found to have a number of problems linked to the international phenomenon of rural decline and urban drift. For example, it is widely noted that rural populations have poor health status and aging populations. In Australia, multiple state and national policies and programs have been instigated to redress this situation. Yet few rural residents would agree that their town is the same as an apparently similar sized one nearby or across the country. This article reports a project that investigated the way government policies, health and community services, population characteristics and local peculiarities combined for residents in two small rural towns in New South Wales. Interviews and focus groups with policy makers, health and community service workers and community members identified the felt, expressed, normative and comparative needs of residents in the case-study towns. Key findings include substantial variation in service provision between towns because of historical funding allocations, workforce composition, natural disasters and distance from the nearest regional centre. Health and community services were more likely to be provided because of available funding, rather than identified community needs. While some services, such as mental illness intervention and GPs, are clearly in demand in rural areas, in these examples, more health services were not needed. Rather, flexibility in the services provided and work practices, role diversity for health and community workers and community profiling would be more effective to target services. The impact of industry, employment and recreation on health status cannot be ignored in local development.

  19. Equitable access: Remote and rural communities 'transport needs'

    OpenAIRE

    White, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Transport in rural and remote regions receives considerable attention in research, but this is often focussed on specific means of resolving problems in those regions - for example, the role of demand-responsive bus services, or scope for attracting users to rail services. The aim of this paper is to take a broader view, firstly in defining what constitute rural and remote regions, and secondly in considering a wide range of public transport options available. Experience in Britain will be ta...

  20. Differences in health care seeking behaviour between rural and urban communities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoeven Marinka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. Design A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to health care was collected. Results The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988. Conclusion Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour.

  1. Treating the aged in rural communities: the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Martha R; Scogin, Forrest; Johnson Norton, Misti

    2010-05-01

    Many rural communities are experiencing an increase in their older adult population. Older adults who live in rural areas typically have fewer resources and poorer mental and physical health status than do their urban counterparts. Depression is the most prevalent mental health problem among older adults, and 80% of the cases are treatable. Unfortunately, for many rural elders, depressive disorders are widely under-recognized and often untreated or undertreated. Psychotherapy is illustrated with the case of a 65-year-old rural married man whose presenting complaint was depressive symptoms after a myocardial infarction and loss of ability to work. The case illustrates that respect for rural elderly clients' deeply held beliefs about gender and therapy, coupled with an understanding of their limited resources, can be combined with psychoeducational and therapeutic interventions to offer new options. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The role and organisation of community palliative specialist nursing teams in rural England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Maria; Staton, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    This article describes a study that used a qualitative approach, purposive sampling and semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with specialist palliative care nurses from six rural community teams in England. The study investigated how services were organised and the issues of delivering specialist palliative nursing care in a rural area. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The findings showed many similarities in that the majority of patients in rural areas were not accessing hospice services and there was a greater reliance on care at home. However, the challenges in delivering care ranged from managing patient expectations, geographical distance, lack of technology to support remote working and education for the specialist palliative care teams. The study makes specific recommendations for rural community specialist palliative care teams.

  3. Providing mental health services to older people living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Allan V; Scogin, Forrest R; Burgio, Louis D; Morthland, Martin P; Ford, Bryan K

    2007-01-01

    Rural dwelling elders who experience mental health problems often have difficulty finding help since rural communities often lack adequate mental health service providers. This paper reports on the initial phase of a 5-year, interdisciplinary clinical research study that is testing the effectiveness of providing a home delivered, therapeutic psychosocial intervention, aimed at improving the emotional wellbeing and the quality of life of medically frail elders who live in rural communities. In the early phases of this study, the clinical research team encountered a number of interesting and often unanticipated challenges as it attempted to recruit study participants and provide services to them. In this article, we examine these challenges and share what we have learned so far about providing mental health services to elderly persons living in rural environments.

  4. Participatory Design to Enhance ICT Learning and Community Attachment: A Case Study in Rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.

  5. Addressing the problem of rural community engagement in healthcare service design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimegeer, Amy; Farmer, Jane; West, Christina; Currie, Margaret

    2011-07-01

    Policy suggests that health service providers should plan services with communities. In remote and rural areas this is sometimes ineffective, resulting in resistance to change. An action research project investigated best practise in rural community engagement. As a result a planning 'game' was developed that uses a number of types and levels of cards and allows community members, as part of a process of engagement, to express their priorities and designs in a form that is directly usable by health service managers. The game is a unique community engagement resource in that it combines the priorities of the community (including their experiences of using services) with existing service data. It allows community members and service managers to apply their priorities for services to a healthcare budget to identify appropriate and affordable ways of providing safe local services.

  6. Social cohesion, cultural identity, and drug use in Mexican rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fernando; Diaz, David B; López, Aida L; Collado, Ma Elena; Aldaz, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore drug use in Mexican rural communities and its relationship to social cohesion, cultural identity, migration, and transculturation. Community models typification was used, considering cohesion as the central point of analysis. The research was conducted during 15-day periods in each of nine communities during 1991. Both documentary and ethnographic techniques were used to gather information. Results indicated that rural communities where there was little or no drug use among its members show more social cohesion, cultural identity, and community links consolidation, and more capacity for integrating change. This pattern is most apparent among young community members who have had more contact with the outer world (drug trafficking, North American culture, and Mexican urban culture).

  7. Developing core interprofessional competencies for community rehabilitation practitioners: findings from an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E; Muenchberger, H; Catalano, T; Amsters, D; Dorsett, P; Cox, R

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the core competencies that underpin the practice of community rehabilitation (CR) practitioners working in a single state in Australia. Using a recursive and consultative methodology designed to build consensus, CR professionals, trainers, educators, and researchers developed a preliminary set of core interprofessional competencies that were considered essential to their practice. Data were collected in four main stages that engaged practitioners and experts in the CR field in the process of identifying, defining, validating, and endorsing a set of competencies. The first stage involved focus groups with 50 senior practitioners in metropolitan, rural/remote, regional, and indigenous communities. The second and third stages involved expert panels consisting of 20 trainers/educators, senior leaders, and scholars who refined, defined and validated the competency areas and developed statements that reflected the data.These statements formed the basis of a survey that was distributed to all current CR practitioners based in this state for endorsement, 40 of whom responded. Ten competencies emerged from this process. Although there are limitations to the application of competencies, they will have significant implications for the future training of CR practitioners who can transcend professional boundaries.

  8. Childbirth in a rural highlands community in Papua New Guinea: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Vallely, Andrew; Homer, Caroline S E; Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    to explore men's and women's experiences, beliefs and practices surrounding childbirth in a rural highlands community in Papua New Guinea. a qualitative study comprising focus group discussions, key informant and in depth interviews. the study was undertaken in a rural community in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. 51 women and 26 men participated in 11 focus group discussions. Key informant and in depth interviews were undertaken with 21 women and five men. both women and men recognised the importance of health facility births, linking village births with maternal and newborn deaths. Despite this, many women chose to give birth in the community in circumstances influenced by cultural and customary beliefs and practices. Women giving birth in the community frequently gave birth in an isolated location. Traditional beliefs surrounding reasons for difficult births, including spiritual beliefs were reported along with the use of traditional methods used to help prolonged and difficult births. while the importance of health facility births is recognised in this rural community many women continue to give birth in the village. Identifying and understanding local customs, beliefs and practices, particularly those that may be harmful to women and their newborn infants, is critical to the development of locally-appropriate community-based strategies for improving maternal and infant health in rural communities in PNG and other resource-limited, high burden settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extending connections between land and people digitally: designing with rural Herero communities in Namibia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bidwell, NJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available -1 Heritage and Social Media: Understanding Heritage in Participatory Culture June 2012/Chapter 11 Extending connections between land and people digitally: designing with rural Herero communities in Namibia Bidwell NJ1 and Winschiers-Theophilus H2 1...CSIR. Meraka Institute. PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Dean of the School of Information Technology at the Polytechnic of Namibia ABSTRACT Dilemmas arise in designing digital systems that enable rural dwellers to create, store...

  10. DIAGNOSIS IMPORTANCE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL AGROFORESTAL IN PEASANT COMMUNITIES OF SIERRA DE HUAUTLA

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Uribe-Gómez; Artemio Cruz-León; Dionicio Juárez-Ramón; Alejandro Lara-Bueno; José L. Romo-Lozano; Ramón Valdivia-Alcalá; Marcos Portillo-Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Family agricultural is socioeconomically important in rural areas, but in Mexico, from the 80's this production system presents social stagnation. This type of agriculture presents a dynamic reality in the interests of each producer and limiting access to factors of production (land, labor and capital). In this investigation a methodology for analysis and diagnosis of production systems in rural areas, in two communities in the Country Sierra de Huautla Tepalcingo, Morelos, Mexico was applied...

  11. Medical-attention injuries in community Australian football: a review of 30 years of surveillance data from treatment sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-03-01

    In recent reports, Australian football has outranked other team sports in the frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) presentations. Understanding the profile of these and other "medical-attention" injuries is vital for developing preventive strategies that can reduce health costs. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency and profile of Australian football injuries presenting for medical attention. A systematic search was carried out to identify peer-reviewed articles and reports presenting original data about Australian football injuries from treatment sources (hospitals, EDs, and health-care clinics). Data extracted included injury frequency and rate, body region, and nature and mechanism of injury. Following literature search and review, 12 publications were included. In most studies, Australian football contributed the greatest number of injuries out of any sport or recreation activity. Hospitals and EDs reported a higher proportion of upper limb than lower limb injuries, whereas the opposite was true for sports medicine clinics. In hospitals, fractures and dislocations were most prevalent out of all injuries. In EDs and clinics, sprains/strains were most common in adults and superficial injuries were predominant in children. Most injuries resulted from contact with other players or falling. The upper limb was the most commonly injured body region for Australian football presentations to hospitals and EDs. Strategies to prevent upper limb injuries could reduce associated public health costs. However, to understand the full extent of the injury problem in football, treatment source surveillance systems should be supplemented with other datasets, including community club-based collections.

  12. Community Participation in Rural Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation: A Case Study of Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Veerashekharappa

    2001-01-01

    Providing safe drinking water and sanitation to the rural community is the sole responsibility of state. However, with the introduction of reforms an attempt is made to enhance private investment in this sector by involving community in all stages of development including operation and maintenance. Thus, government is changing its role from service provider to facilitator. This study finds out that community participation has enhanced private investment and identifies the constraints in opera...

  13. Appalachian Citizens for Children's Rights: A Rural Community Self-Help Approach to the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Ron, Ed.; And Others

    The report describes the design of a community development model for child abuse and neglect which used resources already existing in a rural area. The first section presents basic generalizations about rural areas, services, and rural human services professionals. Section II presents working papers, definitions, and concepts used in the project.…

  14. The Reliance on and Demand for Adjunct Faculty Members in America's Rural, Suburban, and Urban Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Hara D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a survey of chief academic officers at 347 community colleges nationwide, this study examined the impact of institutional type (rural, suburban, urban) on reliance on and demand for adjunct faculty members. Findings indicated that rural institutions rely less on adjuncts, whereas both rural and urban institutions report high levels of…

  15. Epidemiology of Hymenolepis nana infections in primary school children in urban and rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P R; Patterson, B A

    1994-04-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained on 3 occasions at 10-12 wk intervals from 315 children in 3 rural villages in Zimbabwe and from 351 children in the high-density suburbs of an adjacent small town. Specimens were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for eggs of Hymenolepis nana, and these were found in 142 (21%) children. Infections occurred more frequently in younger children in the urban area but in older children in rural areas. The prevalence in urban areas (24%) was higher than in rural areas (18%), and in urban areas infection correlated with low "hygiene scores" (determined by observation) and with the presence in the household of an infected sibling. The prevalence of infection in the 3 rural communities did not correlate with availability of water, number of households per toilet, with low "hygiene scores," or with the presence of an infected sibling. Treatment with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg praziquantel cured 84% of the infected children. New or reinfections occurred more frequently in households that had an infected sibling in an urban but not rural setting. The study demonstrates distinct differences in the transmission of H. nana infection in rural and urban communities. The data suggest intrafamily transmission in urban areas, particularly in households with poor hygiene behavior, leading to primary infection early in life. In rural areas, the prevalence of infection and the incidence of reinfection were highest in children of school age, and there was little evidence for intrafamily transmission of the parasite.

  16. From social network to safety net: Dementia-friendly communities in rural northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Elaine C; Denton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Dementia-friendly communities, as communities that enable people with dementia to remain involved and active and have control over their lives for as long as possible, centrally involve social support and social networks for people living with dementia. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand the context of dementia in rural northern communities in Ontario with an emphasis on understanding how dementia friendly the communities were. Using qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with a total of 71 participants, including 37 health service providers, 15 care partners, 2 people living with dementia and 17 other community members such as local business owners, volunteers, local leaders, friends and neighbours. The strong social networks and informal social support that were available to people living with dementia, and the strong commitment by community members, families and health care providers to support people with dementia, were considered a significant asset to the community. A culture of care and looking out for each other contributed to the social support provided. In particular, the familiarity with others provided a supportive community environment. People with dementia were looked out for by community members, and continued to remain connected in their communities. The social support provided in these communities demonstrated that although fragile, this type of support offered somewhat of a safety net for individuals living with dementia. This work provides important insights into the landscape of dementia in rural northern Ontario communities, and the strong social supports that sustain people with dementia remaining in the communities.

  17. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  18. Building a Community-Academic Partnership: Implementing a Community-Based Trial of Telephone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Rural Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Aisenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.

  19. Barriers to the routine collection of health outcome data in an Australian community care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancarrow SA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan A NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: For over a decade, organizations have attempted to include the measurement and reporting of health outcome data in contractual agreements between funders and health service providers, but few have succeeded. This research explores the utility of collecting health outcomes data that could be included in funding contracts for an Australian Community Care Organisation (CCO. An action-research methodology was used to trial the implementation of outcome measurement in six diverse projects within the CCO using a taxonomy of interventions based on the International Classification of Function. The findings from the six projects are presented as vignettes to illustrate the issues around the routine collection of health outcomes in each case. Data collection and analyses were structured around Donabedian's structure–process–outcome triad. Health outcomes are commonly defined as a change in health status that is attributable to an intervention. This definition assumes that a change in health status can be defined and measured objectively; the intervention can be defined; the change in health status is attributable to the intervention; and that the health outcomes data are accessible. This study found flaws with all of these assumptions that seriously undermine the ability of community-based organizations to introduce routine health outcome measurement. Challenges were identified across all stages of the Donabedian triad, including poor adherence to minimum dataset requirements; difficulties standardizing processes or defining interventions; low rates of use of outcome tools; lack of value of the tools to the service provider; difficulties defining or identifying the end point of an intervention; technical and ethical barriers to accessing data; a lack of standardized processes; and time lags for the collection of data. In no case was

  20. Scoping review of the exclusion and inclusion of rural newcomers in community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Emma; O'Meara, Peter; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have considered the impact of rural migration on rural community engagement. The objective of this research was to undertake a scoping review about the inclusion and exclusion of newcomers in rural community participation to inform design of inclusive participation processes. The scoping review used the six stages of Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. Narrative analysis of the articles was structured using three themes of inclusion and exclusion derived from the literature: interpersonal, socio-cultural norms, and structural and organisational processes. Inclusion and exclusion at the interpersonal level is intricate and often represents broader social rules and tensions that newcomers must navigate in order to become involved. Social norms, such as fear of outsiders and difference, can exclude newcomers from participating in a rural community. Newcomer's awareness of these issues means they are mindful of how they contribute and give respect to the social position of existing residents. Despite this, resistance to change is experienced by newcomers when contributing in organisational contexts. Formal participation processes can harness the practice and value of rural hospitality that newcomers experience as inclusionary. Deliberately designing group processes and operational norms for inclusion can reduce tensions when change occurs and prevent group loss due to exclusionary practices. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. The complexity of rural contexts experienced by community disability workers in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Booyens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.

  2. A Comparison of Didactic and Inquiry Teaching Methods in a Rural Community College Earth Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Margery Elizabeth

    The combination of increasing enrollment and the importance of providing transfer students a solid foundation in science calls for science faculty to evaluate teaching methods in rural community colleges. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods, inquiry teaching methods and didactic teaching methods, applied in a rural community college earth science course. Two groups of students were taught the same content via inquiry and didactic teaching methods. Analysis of quantitative data included a non-parametric ranking statistical testing method in which the difference between the rankings and the median of the post-test scores was analyzed for significance. Results indicated there was not a significant statistical difference between the teaching methods for the group of students participating in the research. The practical and educational significance of this study provides valuable perspectives on teaching methods and student learning styles in rural community colleges.

  3. Public Health Service Act, Rural Physician Training Grant Program, definition of "underserved rural community." Interim final rule with request for comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    This interim final rule (IFR) with request for comment is meant to comply with the statutory directive to issue a regulation defining "underserved rural community" for purposes of the Rural Physician Training Grant Program in section 749B of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. This IFR is technical in nature. It will not change grant or funding eligibility for any other grant program currently available through the Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) or HRSA. For purposes of the Rural Physician Training Grant Program only, HRSA has combined existing definitions of "underserved" and "rural" by using the definition of rural utilized by the ORHP Rural Health Grant programs and the definition of "underserved" established by HRSA's Office of Shortage Designation (OSD) in the Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr).

  4. Photovoltaics provide electricity to rural communities in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Almost a million rural households in the Visayas region of the Philippines have no electrical power. Solar Resources Inc of Wilmington, Massachusetts has entered into a joint venture with three Philippine companies to install and monitor 18 residential photovoltaic demonstration systems to provide electricity to rural families for lighting and radio or television. The joint venture plans to install 2,000 more systems over the next 16 months. Members of rural Philippine electric co-operatives were trained to provide regular maintenance and it is planned that several of the system components will be sourced or manufactured in the Philippines. Most of the system components will be rented to the Philippine families for a monthly fee. To promote self-maintenance, each family will own its system battery. (UK)

  5. Midwifery training in post-conflict Afghanistan: tensions between educational standards and rural community needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Ghulam Farooq; Hill, Peter S; Barss, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of students selected for midwifery education by three methods: community mobilization in rural Afghanistan, a regional examination by the Institute of Health Sciences (IHS), and the National University Entrance Examination (NUEE). A retrospective survey was conducted in January 2009 on academic records of 178 midwives trained at the IHS in Herat, including 147 graduates from 2003-08 and the cohort of 31 final-semester students graduating in March 2009. An interview survey of the 31 final semester students was also conducted. Outcome variables included knowledge, skills and employment status, stratified by method of selection. Individual attributes including completion of high school, marital status, age and urban/rural residence were also assessed. Data analysis used STATA version 2009. Significance was measured by appropriate statistical tests. Findings were verified by key informant interviews. Ninety-six per cent of midwifery graduates selected by communities were employed, compared with 74% chosen by the IHS and 82% by the NUEE. Sixty-three per cent of community-selected graduates were working in rural locations, compared with 43% recruited by IHS and 9% by the NUEE. While fewer midwifery graduates selected by communities had completed high school and their academic performance was slightly lower during training, there was no difference in their pass rates and acquisition of practical skills. Community mobilization for local selection of trainees achieved significantly higher employment levels of trained midwives in high-risk rural communities than usual selection methods, without compromising quality of skills.

  6. FOREST-BASED MEDICINAL PLANTS RENDERING THEIR SERVICES TO THE RURAL COMMUNITY OF ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratul Arya Baishya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the main biological resource areas from where reportedly 80% of the medicinal plants are collected by the rural communities of the state. Traditional folk medicines, mainly based on plants, occupy a significant position today, especially in the developing countries, where modern health care service is limited. Medicinal plants are gaining global importance owing to the fact that herbal drugs are cost-effective, easily available and most reportedly, with negligible side effects. Safe, effective and inexpensive indigenous remedies had been practiced by the people of both tribal and rural society of Assam from time immemorial. Therefore, the need of the hour is to harness this natural resource sustainably for the socio-economic development of the indigenous communities. Hence, a strategy for sustainable harvesting practice needs to be developed that would ensure preservation of the valuable medicinal plants in situ while addressing the needs of the rural communities. The present study is, thus, an attempt to highlight the common medicinal plants of forested region as used by the rural poor community for different kinds of treatment as the rural local healers usually practice for treatment of diseases in their locality.

  7. Art therapy: promoting wellbeing in rural and remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Art therapy encompasses both preventative and curative activities and aims to improve ways of engaging those who might be reticent in seeking more traditional forms of psychological support offered through 'talking therapies'. The Longreach base of the Royal Flying Doctor Service in Queensland provides mental health support to people living in rural and remote locations in central western Queensland and has been complemented since 2006 by the addition of a full-time art therapist. This paper provides an overview of art therapy and a description of this innovative approach to addressing mental health needs in a rural and remote setting.

  8. Effectiveness of the Rural Trauma Team Development Course for Educating Nurses and Other Health Care Providers at Rural Community Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Thein Hlaing; Hollister, Lisa; Scheumann, Christopher; Konger, Jennifer; Opoku, Dazar

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates (1) health care provider perception of the Rural Trauma Team Development Course (RTTDC); (2) improvement in acute trauma emergency care knowledge; and (3) early transfer of trauma patients from rural emergency departments (EDs) to a verified trauma center. A 1-day, 8-hour RTTDC was given to 101 nurses and other health care providers from nine rural community hospitals from 2011 to 2013. RTTDC participants completed questionnaires to address objectives (1) and (2). ED and trauma registry data were queried to achieve objective (3) for assessing reduction in ED time (EDT), from patient arrival to decision to transfer and ED length of stay (LOS). The RTTDC was positively perceived by health care providers (96.3% of them completed the program). Significant improvement in 13 of the 19 knowledge items was observed in nurses. Education intervention was an independent predictor in reducing EDT by 28 minutes and 95% confidence interval (CI) [-57, -0.1] at 6 months post-RTTDC, and 29 minutes and 95% CI [-53, -6] at 12 months post-RTTDC. Similar results were observed with ED LOS. The RTTDC is well-perceived as an education program. It improves acute trauma emergency care knowledge in rural health care providers. It promotes early transfer of severely injured patients to a higher level of care.

  9. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  10. Innovation technological energetics in rural communities. Case of study community of “Manantiales”, Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Olalde Font

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is framed in the analysis of impacts in the local development starting from the taking of decisions on projects of rural energy in Cuban communities that have as economic main activity the agricultural sector, illustrated the results of a case study where the technological most viable options are selected under the optics of the improvement of indicators of community resources. The methods and used materials are characteristic of a field work with application model are characterized for the taking of decisions in the energy area and their sources SURE, as geographical region the community isolated rural “Manantiales” linked to the agrarian sector in the republic of Cuba and the present period review in the thematic one approached. The main indicators are sketched in each resource of the rural community under the optics of the SURE in their version 3.0, as well the characterization of the prediction of the impacts at each technological option on the resources, is exhibited a mean of impacts and the classification of the technologies according to the level of achievements contribute to the indicators of community resources, obtaining as a result that the hydro energy technology is the most viable option with a value of 100 points in the scale from 0 to 100, followed by the GRID with 91.11 and of the photovoltaic systems based on silicon panels with 90.57, in this case all technologies contribute a significant level of achievements to the local community development.

  11. Unintended consequences of regulating drinking water in rural Canadian communities: examples from Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Megan; Castleden, Heather; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-09-01

    Studies that explore social capital and political will [corrected] in the context of safe drinking water provision in [corrected] Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect.

  12. Development of a Faith-Based Stress Management Intervention in a Rural African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie

    2017-01-01

    Background Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. Objectives To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. Methods The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). Results The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. Conclusions The faith-based “Trinity Life Management” stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress–distress–depression continuum. PMID:26548794

  13. Social identity and emotional climate in a rural community of Peru: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Espinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe how the social identity and the emotional climate relate to each other in a rural community, assuming that both constructs are psychological indicators of a healthy collective functioning and that they are somehow affected by the social and political situation of the in-group. For this purpose, a research was undertaken in a rural community of 200 households, where 80 villagers were surveyed. The results suggest that a climate of confidence plays a central role in the constitution of collective identification. They also show that, the greater the perception of this climate is, the more a positive collective self-stereotype, and a greater valuation of belonging to the community, predominate. On the other hand, a climate of low confidence weakens the identification with the community to the extent that it is associated to a lesser valuation and negative self-stereotypical beliefs regarding the community members.

  14. Getting Started: Initiating Critical Ethnography and Community-Based Action Research in a Program of Rural Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B. Averill

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural populations experience higher rates of illness, less access to health care resources, and lower rates of health insurance coverage than do urban populations. A need exists to identify and address the health care needs of rural communities and other isolated populations and to contextualize the findings in the larger rural health environment. Critical ethnography combined with community-based action research is a constructive approach for improving the health status of rural elders as well as other members of isolated communities. Detailed guidelines on how to initiate an ethnographic community-based action study, as shown through a study that explores the definitions of health, health care perceptions, and health care issues for rural elders in the southwestern United States, highlight the value of this type of research for the study of the health care issues of rural populations.

  15. Costs and outcome of assertive community treatment (ACT) in a rural area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi-experime......Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi...

  16. The intellectual legacy of Mary Neth's work on farm women and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterud, Grey

    2009-01-01

    Mary Neth's 1995 book, "Preserving the Family Farm: Women, Community, and the Foundations of Agribusiness in the Midwest, 1900-1940," made a major contribution to the analysis of the connections between gender and the political economy that shaped farm women's lives and fueled farmers' resistance to the transformation of rural life wrought by agribusiness. Focusing on the processes of negotiation between women and men in farming families and rural communities, Neth illuminated the relationship between women's work and their power. Tracing the dense networks that connected farm families, she also showed how cooperation in work generated and sustained radical farm movements.

  17. Community Interactive Processes and Rural Adolescents’ Educational Achievement: Investigating the Mediating Effects of Delinquency and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola A. Adedokun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper examines the effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement. Specifically, the paper explored the direct effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement and the indirect effects via self-esteem and delinquency. The method of structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a nationally representative panel study of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade. The results make a compelling case that communities are conduits for boosting self-esteem, facilitating normative behaviors and academic performance in rural adolescents.

  18. Knowledge of community care workers about key family practices in a rural community in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn Stellenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions by community care workers within the context of communitybased integrated management of childhood illness (CIMCI may have a positive effect on child health if the health workers have adequate knowledge about key family practices.Setting: The study was conducted in rural areas of the West Coast district in the Western Cape, South Africa.Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of community care workers about five of the 16 key family practices of CIMCI.Methods: A descriptive survey collected a self-administered questionnaire from 257 community care workers out of a possible total of 270 (95.2% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied.Results: Only 25 of the respondents (10% obtained a score higher than 70% on the knowledgebased items of the questionnaire. Less than 25% of respondents answered questions in these key areas correctly (pneumonia [17%], tuberculosis [13%], HIV/AIDS [9%] immunisation [3%] and recommendations for a child with fever [21%]. Statistically significant correlations were found between the total score a respondent achieved and the highest level of education obtained (p < 0.01, the level of in-service training (p < 0.01, attendance of a CIMCI five-day training course (p < 0.01, and completing a subsequent refresher course (p < 0.01.Conclusion: The knowledge of CCWs was inadequate to provide safe, quality CIMCI. CIMCI refresher courses should be offered annually to improve CCWs’ knowledge and the quality of care that they render. Regular update courses could contribute to building competence.

  19. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  20. Small Business Success in Rural Communities: Explaining the Sex Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sharon R.; Sapp, Stephen G.; Lee, Motoko Y.

    2001-01-01

    Supporting a "structural relational" view of small business success, data from 423 small business owners in Iowa suggest that links between owner characteristics, social relational processes, business structure, and success operate differently depending on urban-rural location and owner sex. Female owners had more professional training…

  1. Use of Modern Birth Control Methods Among Rural Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    the unknown effects, cost, spouse's disapproval, religious belief and inadequate information. For a better ... hommes plus que les femmes parce qu'ils prennent les décisions principales sur l'utilisation des MMCN. (Rev Afr ... African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. ... among the adult population, especially in the rural.

  2. Maryetta School: The Center of a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue describes Maryetta School, a rural pre-K-8 school in Stilwell, Oklahoma, with an enrollment of approximately 500 students, mostly American Indians of Cherokee descent. Although the area has a high poverty rate and virtually all the students are judged to be at risk, the school has an impressive array of programs and facilities and…

  3. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  4. Telemedicine for Rural and Underserved Communities of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    Health workers in rural health care serve most of the population in Nepal, but are isolated from specialist support and access to current medical information. Fortunately, the advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has unleashed new opportunities for the delivery of health ser...

  5. Small Business Success in Rural Communities: Explaining the Sex Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sharon R.; Sapp, Stephen G.; Lee, Motoko Y.

    2001-01-01

    Supporting a "structural relational" view of small business success, data from 423 small business owners in Iowa suggest that links between owner characteristics, social relational processes, business structure, and success operate differently depending on urban-rural location and owner sex. Female owners had more professional training…

  6. Rural Schools and Communities Getting Better Together: Building on Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Rachel B.

    2003-01-01

    Research reports from multiple studies in dozens of states have shown there are advantages to learning in small schools. To take advantage of the assets of rural schools and small-town survival, new state policy directions will be necessary in finance, facilities, teacher pay, preparation, and professional and curriculum development. (Contains 10…

  7. The Local Beneath the National and Global - Institutional Education, Credentialed Natural Resource Management (NRM) and Rural Community (Un) Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of strategies for national and global outcomes has in some instances left rural community resources and practices devalued and disturbed and rural people demoralised with the result that local community sustainability has been compromised. Formal education in Australia is about many things, but is rarely sympathetic towards…

  8. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  9. Attitude about mental illness of health care providers and community leaders in rural Haryana, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ramesh Salve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.

  10. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context.

  11. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    OpenAIRE

    Odewumi Adegbija; Wendy Hoy; Zhiqiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, ...

  12. The Implementation of TTG Book Service Done By Community Library in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawit Muhammad Yusup

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of poverty in rural areas cannot be separated from the following aspects: poverty, lack of education facilities, low level of entrepreneurial skills, health, lack of learning facilities, population distribution, infrastructure and facilities are inadequate, access to information, and other aspects that are still limited. The Village Library and Community Library as part of the affordable infrastructure and learning facilities are, not yet available in every village. This study tried to introduce pilot models Appropriate Technology Implementation Services Book through Rural Libraries and the community library to a number of poor people in the village. The result could contribute in improving the skills of a number of rural poor in entrepreneurship-based reading. This service models can be applied in other similar villages.

  13. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in rural communities in Sudan: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, S K M; Bushara, S O E; Sulaiman, A A; Elmadhoun, W M Y; Ahmed, M H

    2015-05-19

    Undiagnosed diabetes constitutes a challenge for health providers, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance among adults in rural communities in River Nile State, north Sudan. In a cross-sectional community-based study, blood glucose, anthropometric, demographic and clinical history data were obtained from 1111 individuals from 35 villages. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 2.6% (29 individuals); glucose intolerance was detected in 1.3% (14 individuals). Classic symptoms (polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss) were present in around half of the participants but were not more prevalent in those with diabetes. Lower educational level, increasing age, hypertension and unexplained weight loss were significant risk factors for diabetes. Other variables (obesity, sex, occupation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) were not significant risk factors. There is a low prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and glucose intolerance in the rural population of River Nile State.

  14. Social Representations and Citizenship Practices in a Rural Community: A Strategic Communication Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Trimano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The community of Las Calles, located in Traslasierra Valley, in the westof CórdobaProvince, Argentina, is characterised by a unique combination of rural and touristiclife anda largeurban to rural migration movement. In this sense, a diversity of cultural groups and identities coexist in thiscommunity. These cultural groups are part of “culture” as a strategic arena for the understanding of the tensions that tear apart and reconcile the “being together”continuum.This paper analyses social representations and interactions among actors from emergingand existing cultures (hippies and paisas, respectively in this rural community, as well as the emergence of newcodesand citizenshippractices. Citizenship interactions and practices demand the review and redesign of the “current” sociocultural integration and management policies. Here is where strategic communication can and must contribute to the promotion of this community’s territorial and local development.

  15. WILDLIFE USE BY RURAL COMMUNITIES IN THE CATAZAJÁ - LA LIBERTAD WETLANDS, CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Yasminda García-Del Valle; María Consuelo Escobar-Ocampo; Romero-Berny, Emilio I.; Karina González-Bocanegra

    2011-01-01

    The use of wild vertebrates was analyzed for rural communities in Catazajá and La Libertad municipalities, Chiapas state. From interviews (n=190) and two workshops (January 2007-December 2008) applied to four communities (Playas, Punta Arena, Morelos and La Libertad), species, uses, sites and hunting seasons were recorder. A total of 24 species were recognized by local people as resources for food, sale, pet, craft and traditional medicine. Jicotea tortoise (Trachemys scripta), nine banded ar...

  16. Community Learning and Sustainability: Practice and Policy. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    There are clear signs that community learning is the way to a more sustainable future for Australian communities, especially rural ones. There are also indications that policymakers now recognize that the people who live in communities should play an important role in determining the future of their own communities. Policy must use the best…

  17. Building a community of practice in rural medical education: growing our own together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Randall L; Schmitz, David

    2017-01-01

    This article chronicles the rise, decline, and recent resurgence of rural training track residency programs (RTTs) in the USA over the past 30 years and the emergence of a healthy community of practice in rural medical education. This has occurred during a time in the USA when federal and state funding of graduate medical education has been relatively stagnant and the rules around finance and accreditation of rural programs have been challenging. Many of the early family residency programs developed in the 1970s included a curricular focus on rural practice. However, by the 1980s, these programs were not yet producing the desired numbers of rural physicians. In response, in 1986, Maudlin and others at the family medicine residency in Spokane developed the first 1-2 RTT in Colville, Washington. In the 1990s, and by 2000, early news of success led to a peak of 35 active programs. However, over the next decade these programs experienced significant hardship due to a lack of funding and a general decline in student interest in family medicine. By 2010, only 25 programs remained. In 2010, in an effort to sustain the 1-2 RTT as a national strategy in training physicians for rural practice, a federally funded consortium of individuals and programs established the RTT Technical Assistance program (RTT TA). Building on the pattern of peer support and collaboration set by earlier groups, the RTT TA consortium expanded the existing community of practice in rural medical education in support of RTTs. In-person meetings, peer consultation and visitation, coordinated efforts at student recruitment, and collaborative rural medical education research were all elements of the consortium's strategy. Rather than anchoring its efforts in medical schools or hospitals, this consortium engaged as partners a wider variety of stakeholders. This included physician educators still living and practicing in rural communities ('local experts'), rural medical educator peers, program directors

  18. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  19. Preparedness of South African deep rural SMMEs to deliver e-government services to local communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a research to assess the readiness of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) to deliver e-government services to deep rural communities through information dissemination by the SMMEs. This research was conducted as a case...

  20. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  1. Community well-being and growth status of indigenous school children in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Chavez, Guillermo Bali; Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between community well-being based on an index of marginalization and growth status of indigenous rural school children in Oaxaca. Heights and weights of a cross-sectional sample of 11,454 children, 6-14 years, from schools for indigenous rural children (escuelas albergue) in 158 municipios in Oaxaca were measured in 2007. Tertiles of an index of marginalization were used to classify the 158 municipios into three categories of community well-being: lowest (highest marginalization), low, and moderate (lowest marginalization). Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for age, relative isolation and population size, was used to compare body size of children by category of community well-being. Contributions of marginalization, isolation and population size to variation in body size were estimated with sex-specific linear regression. Children from municipios lowest in well-being were shorter and lighter than children from municipios low and moderate in well-being. Marginalization and relative isolation accounted for 23% (boys) and 21% (girls) of the variance in height and for 21% of the variance in weight of girls. Marginalization was the predictor of weight in boys (23%). Community well-being was reflected in the growth status of rural indigenous school children. Compromised growth status was consistent with poor health and nutritional conditions that were and are characteristic of rural areas in the state of Oaxaca. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance Assessment for California Teachers and English-Language Arts Candidates in a Rural Border Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the appropriateness of the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) as an instrument of assessing English-language arts (ELA) teacher candidates' effectiveness in a rural border community. Eight -candidates participated in the study. The findings call into question the adequacy of PACT to assess the candidates'…

  3. Negotiating the Roles of Community Member and Parent: Participation in Education in Rural Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Silva, Aliah

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes parents' perceptions of their role in supporting educational opportunities for their children, based on a qualitative study of parents and teachers in a rural community in Paraguay. The parents' views on participation are positioned within the context of the intended goals for parent participation outlined in Paraguayan…

  4. Farm Fair Voices, Space, History, the Middle Ground and "The Future" of Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, John

    2011-01-01

    This article is essentially written as two linked parts. The first part considers how space, spatiality and history can contribute to understanding and "doing something about" the sustainability of rural communities. This is done by extensive reference to Soja's (1989 & 1996) space and spatial theorising and selective perspectives of…

  5. Youth Exodus and Rural Communities: Valorising Learning for Choice--(SPERA Keynote 2009 Conference Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, R. John

    2009-01-01

    One of the common characteristics of rural communities globally, and especially those in the developed countries of the world, is the exodus of youth in search of "greener pastures." While this exodus of youth has been happening for centuries and has often been spurred along by fundamental changes in the way societies organise…

  6. Field Testing of a Small Water Purification System for Non-PRASA Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, rural communities typically do not have adequate water purification systems to sustain their life quality and residents are exposed to pathogens present in drinking water. In Puerto Rico (PR), approximately 4% of the population does not have access to drinking water provi...

  7. Using Inexpensive Technology and Multimedia to Improve Science Education in Rural Communities of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Sujaya

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an ongoing project that promotes science education in rural communities of western Nepal by using affordable technology. With the advent of inexpensive technology and multimedia resources, teaching materials for science education can be accessed with a much smaller budget than was previously possible. A preliminary survey…

  8. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Andrews (Rhys)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline rel

  9. Performance Assessment for California Teachers and English-Language Arts Candidates in a Rural Border Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the appropriateness of the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) as an instrument of assessing English-language arts (ELA) teacher candidates' effectiveness in a rural border community. Eight -candidates participated in the study. The findings call into question the adequacy of PACT to assess the…

  10. Rural Development in Northern Ireland: Policy Formulation in a Peripheral Region of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael R.; Greer, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews local, national, and European Community influences on the formation of "integrated" rural development policy in Northern Ireland. Suggests three key issues on the policy formation agenda: agricultural versus more diversified programs as the basis of development, implementation problems, and education and training needs. Contains 43…

  11. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  12. Exploring Culturally Specific Drug Resistance Strategies of Hawaiian Youth in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Po'a-Kekuawela, Ka'ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the drug resistance strategies of Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities in Hawai'i. Forty seven youth participated in 14 focus groups which focused on the social and environmental context of drug use for these youth. The findings indicated that there were 47 references to resistance strategies used in drug…

  13. Adolescent Drug Use in Three Small Rural Communities in the Rocky Mountain Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Differences were found among three small Rocky Mountain towns in both lifetime prevalence and frequency of occurrence of different types of drug users, indicating that small, rural communities are likely to develop idiosyncratic patterns of drug use. These differences were more evident among eighth-grade than among twelfth-grade students.…

  14. The College Transition for First-Year Students from Rural Oregon Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganss, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the lived experiences of 10 students entering college from rural Oregon communities. Using narrative inquiry, the author examines students' transition, common experiences, and enrollment barriers. Resulting themes include: (a) unexpected emotional and social transition, (b) motivations for enrolling, (c) lack of social and…

  15. Field Testing of a Small Water Purification System for Non-PRASA Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, rural communities typically do not have adequate water purification systems to sustain their life quality and residents are exposed to pathogens present in drinking water. In Puerto Rico (PR), approximately 4% of the population does not have access to drinking water provi...

  16. Risk and Resilience in Rural Communities: The Experiences of Immigrant Latina Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Tran, Steve P.; Wiley, Angela R.; Galarza-Heras, Maria; Lazarevic, Vanja

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants from Latin America are increasingly settling in rural U.S. communities that welcome them as workers but are often unprepared to address their needs and promote their well-being. Building on recent descriptive studies, we examined factors associated with individual and family well-being in a sample of 112 immigrant Latina mothers (mean…

  17. Rural communities in the Central African context : the Nkoya of Central Western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Nkoya is an ethnic and linguistic label applying to about 50,000 people inhabiting the wooded plateau of Central Western Zambia. The author discusses the valley as the effective rural community and the villages as the main constituent social units within the valley and finally indicates the place of

  18. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mandelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  19. Negotiating the Roles of Community Member and Parent: Participation in Education in Rural Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Silva, Aliah

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes parents' perceptions of their role in supporting educational opportunities for their children, based on a qualitative study of parents and teachers in a rural community in Paraguay. The parents' views on participation are positioned within the context of the intended goals for parent participation outlined in Paraguayan…

  20. The Learning Circle: A New Model of BSW Education for Alberta's Rural, Remote, and Aboriginal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, M. K.; Bastien, B.; Bodor, R.; Carriere, J.; Pelech, W.

    In 1998, a consortium including the University of Calgary (Alberta) and representatives from social service agencies and Native organizations developed a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) model for delivery in rural, remote, and Aboriginal communities. The model called for innovative course content that was culturally and geographically relevant to…

  1. Tourist preferences for ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park: A choice experiment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaminuka, P.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Selomane, A.O.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential for development of ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We determine preferences of tourists, according to origin and income levels, for ecotourism and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for three ecotourism a

  2. Detecting the changes in rural communities in Taiwan by applying multiphase segmentation on FORMOSA-2 satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yishuo

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural activities mainly occur in rural areas; recently, ecological conservation and biological diversity are being emphasized in rural communities to promote sustainable development for rural communities, especially for rural communities in Taiwan. Therefore, since 2005, many rural communities in Taiwan have compiled their own development strategies in order to create their own unique characteristics to attract people to visit and stay in rural communities. By implementing these strategies, young people can stay in their own rural communities and the rural communities are rejuvenated. However, some rural communities introduce artificial construction into the community such that the ecological and biological environments are significantly degraded. The strategies need to be efficiently monitored because up to 67 rural communities have proposed rejuvenation projects. In 2015, up to 440 rural communities were estimated to be involved in rural community rejuvenations. How to monitor the changes occurring in those rural communities participating in rural community rejuvenation such that ecological conservation and ecological diversity can be satisfied is an important issue in rural community management. Remote sensing provides an efficient and rapid method to achieve this issue. Segmentation plays a fundamental role in human perception. In this respect, segmentation can be used as the process of transforming the collection of pixels of an image into a group of regions or objects with meaning. This paper proposed an algorithm based on the multiphase approach to segment the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI, of the rural communities into several sub-regions, and to have the NDVI distribution in each sub-region be homogeneous. Those regions whose values of NDVI are close will be merged into the same class. In doing so, a complex NDVI map can be simplified into two groups: the high and low values of NDVI. The class with low NDVI values corresponds to those

  3. Community Essay: Developing a sustainable water-delivery system in rural El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Wing

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Engineers Without Borders-USA (EWB-USA consists of over 50 professional chapters throughout the country and over 100 student chapters at engineering universities. The goal of EWB-USA is to assist developing communities implement sustainable engineering projects that foster quality-of-life improvements while developing internationally responsible engineers and engineering students. An EWB-USA chapter at Oregon State University (EWB-OSU has focused efforts on designing a sustainable water system to provide clean water for two communities in El Salvador. The communities are located in remote and mountainous terrain and have little available data describing local resources. The health of the communities has suffered due to a lack of clean drinking water. Small teams from the EWB-OSU chapter have now twice visited the communities to collect data using global positioning system (GPS receivers. Financial support for travel costs has come from a variety of sources. The local community has helped field teams locate important resources and verify information to support the design process. Although considerable project progress has occurred, challenges have resulted from working in remote and rugged landscapes and also from land use and ownership considerations in the communities. We describe in this essay EWB-OSU activities to design and implement an engineering project to provide freshwater to rural communities in a remote, rural community.

  4. Community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onya Hans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol represents a major public health challenge in South Africa, however little is known about the correlates of alcohol use among rural adolescents. This article examines community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in a rural region of South Africa. Method A total of 1600 high school adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age participated in this study. Seven hundred and forty (46.3% were female and 795 (49.7% were male. Data on gender were missing for 65 students (4.0% of the sample. The age range was 11–29 years (mean age 16.4 years; Standard deviation = 2.79. A survey questionnaire on adolescent risk behavior that examined adolescents’ use of alcohol and various potential community influences on alcohol use was administered. Factor analysis was used to group community-level variables into factors. Multiple logistic regression techniques were then used to examine associations between these community factors and adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol. Results The factor analysis yielded five community-level factors that accounted for almost two-thirds of the variance in home-brewed alcohol use. These factors related to subjective adult norms around substance use in the community, negative opinions about one’s neighborhood, perceived levels of adult antisocial behavior in the community, community affirmations of adolescents, and perceived levels of crime and violence in the community (derelict neighborhood. In the logistic regression model, community affirmation was negatively associated with the use of home-brew, whereas higher scores on “derelict neighborhood” and “adult antisocial behavior” were associated with greater odds of drinking home-brew. Conclusion Findings highlight community influences on alcohol use among rural adolescents in South Africa. Feeling affirmed and valued by the broader community appears to protect adolescents against early alcohol use. In

  5. Teaching Disaster Preparedness to Rural Communities in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters are becoming more common around the world, and it is widely accepted that developing nations show the highest rates of vulnerability. It makes sense to focus preparedness and mitigation efforts in these countries. However, it is important to realize that different teaching styles are required for different cultures with varying education systems and classroom atmospheres. The pedagogical models we use in the US can't be directly exported. A realistic assessment of the situation seen during two years living and working in rural El Salvador is presented, along with methods used and lessons learned.

  6. Stated environmental preferences in a Romanian rural community

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik

    2004-01-01

    This article uses random utility theory to analyse the economic and environmental trade-offs at farm level in a Romanian rural area confronting water pollution on the basis of survey data. To underline the impact of socio-economic variables in the decision-making process at farm level as regards environmental choices, a binary logit model is estimated that includes socio-economic variables in addition to the attributes in the choice set. The study shows that heterogeneity in tastes is partial...

  7. Current Trends of the Linguistic and Cultural Values of the Greek Australian Community in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the perspectives of Greek origin people as regards their intention to maintain their ancestral culture within the Australian context of social values. This qualitative research study, influenced by Humanistic Sociology, analyses data collected through questionnaires from first and second generation parents and teachers of…

  8. Neighbourhood Effects and Community Spillovers in the Australian Youth Labour Market. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Dan; Green, Colin; Mangan, John

    Data taken primarily from the Australian Youth Survey were used to model unemployment as a function of personal characteristics, family structure, and neighborhood composition using binomial probit estimation techniques. The cross-sectional model developed indicated that significant neighborhood effects on unemployment outcomes exist in high- and…

  9. The Gender Balance of the Australian Space Research Community: A Snapshot From The 15th ASRC, 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, Jonathan; Cairns, Ann; Short, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the striking gender imbalance in the physical sciences has been a topic for much debate. National bodies and professional societies in the astronomical and space sciences are now taking active steps to understand and address this imbalance. In order to begin this process in the Australian Space Research community, we must first understand the current state of play. In this work, we therefore present a short 'snapshot' of the current gender balance in our community, as observed at the 15th Australian Space Research Conference. We find that, at this year's conference, male attendees outnumbered female attendees by a ratio of 3:1 (24% female). This gender balance was repeated in the distribution of conference talks and plenary presentations (25 and 22% female, respectively). Of the thirteen posters presented at the conference, twelve were presented by men (92%), a pattern repeated in the awards for the best student presentations (seven male recipients vs one female). The program and organising c...

  10. Australian survey of current practice and guideline use in adult cancer pain assessment and management: The community nurse perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jane L; Lovell, Melanie; Luckett, Tim; Agar, Meera; Green, Anna; Davidson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cancer pain remains a major public health concern. Despite effective treatments being available to manage the majority of cancer pain, this debilitating symptom is frequently under treated. As cancer has becomes a chronic disease a range of health professionals, including community nurses in Australia are increasingly caring for people living with cancer related pain. Yet, little is known about community nurses capacity to assess and manage cancer pain in accordance with best available evidence. This study aimed to: identify the barriers and facilitators to adult cancer pain assessment and management as perceived by Australian health professionals; identify if cancer pain guidelines are currently used; identify barriers and facilitators to guideline use; and establish the need for Australian cancer pain guidelines. This article reports on community nurses' perceptions of managing cancer pain in the community setting. A cross-sectional survey was administered online. Invitations were circulated via peak bodies and clinical leaders seeking the views and experiences of health professionals involved in caring for people living with cancer pain. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the quantitative data, and thematic content analysis were used to describe the qualitative data. Sixty-two community nurses responded to the survey, representing 29% of the total sample. These participants reported high levels of adherence to accepted cancer pain management practices in their workplace, with 71% nominating the Palliative Care Therapeutic Guideline V.3 as being most frequently used to manage community patients' cancer related pain. Key barriers to effective cancer pain management in the community were: difficulties accessing non-pharmacological interventions (89%), lack of coordination by multiple providers (89%), and impact of distance on ability to access pain-related services for patients (86%). A range of system, health professional and consumer barriers limit

  11. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-A Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural. The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther W. Dungumaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite

  13. Implementation of the Clinical Facilitation Model within an Australian rural setting: the role of the Clinical Facilitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Helena; Lea, Jacqueline

    2012-11-01

    Education providers globally use various models for undergraduate nurse clinical education. This paper presents the major findings of a research project conducted by a rural university in Australia that aimed to explore the Clinical Facilitation Model of undergraduate nursing education from a rural perspective. In particular how the Clinical Facilitators enacted their role within the rural environment and to identify any barriers to the provision of effective clinical learning during facilitated clinical experience within this context. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to explore the experiences of Clinical Facilitators. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with eight Clinical Facilitators. Data was analysed using thematic analysis and several themes emerged from the study. This paper will report two of the major findings which are based on how Clinical Facilitators enacted their role within the rural environment. Whilst this study has a rural focus the findings will add to the limited body of knowledge internationally regarding the Clinical Facilitation model used as a result of balancing educational needs of the student with the care needs of the patients in the current health policy climate. The findings will be useful for informing undergraduate curricula, and will assist faculty and health services in planning and implementation of models of clinical education that meet the needs of the student and that are specific to the rural environment. In addition, the findings will provide insight into strategies that the rural Clinical Facilitator can utilise to assist in fulfilling their teaching role.

  14. Rural local institutions and climate change adaptation in forest communities in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carolyn Peach Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveys and interviews were used to understand community resilience in forest-dependent communities facing climate change in Cameroon. Surveys of 232 individuals showed a diversity of formal and informal institutions that relate to most aspects of rural life. Although direct activities related to climate change adaptation were limited, the activities and density of membership in rural local institutions could increase the community's adaptive capacity. Twenty-six semistructured interviews were also conducted with representatives of diverse local institutions who had some responsibility for agriculture, forests, conservation, or development. Local governmental institutions had not received any information from the national level and were limited in their knowledge of how to help communities respond to climate change. Although limited in their direct action on climate change, local nongovernmental organizations and international institutions act as bridging institutions with rural communities and could facilitate sharing of knowledge and innovation, thereby fostering resilience. Planning for climate change adaptation in Cameroon needs to build the capacity of diverse local institutions and improve the relationships between local and national-level adaptation planning.

  15. Factors influencing the utilization of the public Internet terminal system in two rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coleman

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the factors that influence the use of the public Internet terminal (PIT system in the Taung and Ganyesa communities. The PIT system is placed in many post offices in these communities but the service is not adequately used by these rural community members. The overall objective of this study was to investigate, develop and recommend a solution for providing the rural communities of Taung and Gyanesa with a simple and effective way to access and utilize the PIT service and the information on it. A case study approach was used for the purpose of this study which gathered a number of findings, including lack of awareness of PIT services, lack of computer skills and confidence, and fear of technology. Other findings were the overloading of information on the PIT, use of language (not the mother tongue, and the slow response of the PIT system. The findings from this study led to some recommendations and a model for PIT use in rural communities.

  16. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    . A one-way ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significant association between the number of victim calls and the distance to the rape crisis center. The closer the residence of the victim was to the rape crisis center the more victim calls were registered. The study also examined what types of help......Little is known from research about barriers to seeking and receiving help following domestic violence, rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault in Denmark. This study examined possible regional differences in reporting rape and sexual assault in urban and rural communities in a large region...... in Denmark. It was hypothesized that there would be a lower representation of rape victims, measured by the number of calls, to a regional rape crisis center in the rural communities further away from the regional rape crisis center of Aarhus compared to the urban communities closer to the rape crisis center...

  17. DIAGNOSIS IMPORTANCE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL AGROFORESTAL IN PEASANT COMMUNITIES OF SIERRA DE HUAUTLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Uribe-Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Family agricultural is socioeconomically important in rural areas, but in Mexico, from the 80's this production system presents social stagnation. This type of agriculture presents a dynamic reality in the interests of each producer and limiting access to factors of production (land, labor and capital. In this investigation a methodology for analysis and diagnosis of production systems in rural areas, in two communities in the Country Sierra de Huautla Tepalcingo, Morelos, Mexico was applied. The proposal is based on an assessment of the environmental, historical, technological and socio-economic assessment of different productive activities for different types of units Family Production of the communities studied. The study showed that 40% of Family Production Units fail to exceed the threshold of survival and show impossibility capitalization medium and long term. So it is advisable to implement a model of local agricultural development to improve the socioeconomic conditions of Family Production Units of peasant communities.

  18. Exploring the social relations of Roma employability: The case of rural segregated communities in Romania

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    Loreni Elena Baciu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on a qualitative study of Roma employability in Romania. Being the largest ethnic minority group in Europe, the Roma population is the object of profound marginalization in most of the countries where they reside, by measures such as spatial segregation and exclusion from the formal labour market. This article focuses particularly on the Roma living in rural segregated communities. Inspired by institutional ethnography, the aim is to explore the social organization of rural Roma employability from the standpoint of the Roma themselves. The main obstacles to employment, as they are known and shared by our interviewees, are a lack of available jobs within reach, their own lack of education and a rejection by employers on the grounds of them being Roma. As the analyses show, these obstacles, and the individual’s experiences and knowledge about them, are shaped and maintained by extended translocal relations of administration and governance, thus making the rural Roma dependent on a precarious secondary labour market of low-paid day work for neighbouring farmers. The uncertainty of this work, and the organization and work of everyday life it implies for the people inhabiting these communities, further increases the distance to formal employment. It is this complex set of relations coordinating people’s doings that produce the employability of Roma inhabiting the rural segregated communities.

  19. The Livestock Roles in the Wellbeing of Rural Communities of Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maria Varela Bettencourt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste, highlighting the importance of animal production for the wellbeing and rural development, and relate the functions performed by livestock production with economic, social and cultural attributes of the communities. The data used in this study were collected in 2011 through a questionnaire survey in three rural communities in the district of Bobonaro, namely in a mountain area, an irrigation plain and a coastal zone, and were complemented with secondary data. Livestock production in Timor-Leste is predominantly familiar being chickens, pigs, goats, cattle, horses, buffaloes and sheep the main species. Beyond the economic function, each livestock species also performs social and cultural functions.

  20. Community Residency Programme (CRP)--a tool for research and rural health training for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, H

    2002-12-01

    Rural health training is an important element in the training of medical students in the University of Malaya. There is a need for the undergraduates to be familiar with the rural health infrastructure and to understand the social and economic aspects of the rural poor. The objective of the training is to make the students understand the problems faced by the poor in the rural areas so that when they practice in rural health areas, after graduation, they will understand the problems of the rural poor. They will have the knowledge of the diseases in the rural areas and also understand the community and the environmental factors that contribute to the disease. The training lasts' for 4 weeks, one week for lectures on health survey, two weeks for the field trip and one week of data analysis and presentation of their findings to an expert panel. During the field trip the students are divided into groups and they go to different parts of the country. Each group will do a field survey to find out the socio-demography, environmental, economic, nutritional and health problems in the village. In addition to the survey they also do a research project on any topic. The students also do social work, visit places of public health interest like the water treatment plant, sewage disposal, factory visits and others. Apart from technical skills in statistics and epidemiology, various other managerial skills like leadership, teamwork, communications and public relations are also learnt during the training. In conclusion this rural health training is an important aspect of the medical students training as it imparts several skills to them that are needed as a doctor.

  1. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

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    Camelia MĂNESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a new concept whose opportunities are enhancing and diversifying economic activities, enhancing investments in the private sector, contributing to unemployment reduction, and last but not least improving the standard of living. To assure the development policies in economy, agriculture, forestry, tourism, regional planning, infrastructure, and education etc., it is needed to take into account the specific conditions of the rural regions, Romanian villages and to observe the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity. In this context, the paper aimed to point out the opportunities for the development of rural communities through regional development.

  2. Sense of place and linguistic practice in a rural Danish community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    This presentation sets out to explore the relationship between geographical orientation, everyday mobility and linguistic practice among young people in a rural area in Southern Denmark. The Danish speech community as a whole presents a case of rather extensive dialect levelling due to processes......” (cf. Johnstone 2010b). However, recent findings serve as a corrective to this general picture, as researchers from the project Language and Place in Urban and Rural Denmark have shown young people in Southern Jutland, more specifically in the village of Bylderup and surroundings, to speak the local...

  3. Thriving Together: Connecting Rural School Improvement and Community Development = Prosperando juntos: La conexion entre el mejoramiento de la escuela rural y el desarrollo comunitario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boethel, Martha

    Available in English or Spanish, this resource guide aims to help rural schools and communities learn ways of supporting each other so that both can thrive. Background information and basic tools are provided for starting a joint school-community development effort. Chapters contain: (1) outline of the guide and statement of beliefs about…

  4. The burden of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in rural communities in southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Okundia, Patrick Otamere

    2015-01-01

    The African region of the world is experiencing a double epidemic of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among adult residents of rural communities in southern Nigeria. A community based descriptive cross-sectional study. Adults aged 18 years and above residing in the rural communities who attended a free medical outreach programme were screened for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Of the 845 participants, 349 (41.3%) were aged 50-69 years, 263 (31.1%) were males, and 305 (36.1%) were farmers. Overweight and obesity were found in 184 (21.8%) and 90 (10.6%) of them respectively. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 37.6% (males 43.7%, females 35.1%, p = 0.018) while that of diabetes mellitus was 4.6% (males 1.9%, females 5.8%, p = 0.012). Predictors of hypertension were age ≥ 40 years (OR = 5.04, CI: 2.99 - 8.48), overweight/obesity (OR = 1.56, CI: 1.15 - 2.13) while females are less likely to develop hypertension (OR = 0.72, CI: 0.53 - 0.98). The significant predictor of diabetes mellitus was overweight/obesity (OR = 3.53, CI: 1.78 - 6.98). The rising prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus is assuming an epidemic level in rural communities in southern Nigeria. There is an urgent need for intensive health education and community surveillance programmes targeted at rural communities in order to achieve prevention and control of these non-communicable diseases in Nigeria.

  5. Determinants of Black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etowa, Josephine; Wiens, Juliana; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Clow, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    The On the Margins project investigated health status, health-care delivery, and use of health services among African-Canadian women residing in rural and remote regions of the province of Nova Scotia. A participatory action research approach provided a framework for the study. Triangulation of data-collection methods--interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires--formed the basis of data generation. A total of 237 in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted and coded verbatim. Atlas-ti data-management software was used to facilitate coding and analysis. Six themes emerged from the data: Black women's multiple roles, perceptions of health, experiences with the health-care system, factors affecting health, strategies for managing health, and envisioning solutions. The authors focus on 1 of these themes, factors affecting Black women's health, and discuss 3 subthemes: race and racism, poverty and unemployment, and access to health care.

  6. Evaluating potential renewable energy resources in Poultney, Vermont: A GIS-based approach to supporting rural community energy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, John; Letendre, Steven (Green Mountain College, One Brennan Circle, Poultney, VT 05764, US)

    2010-09-15

    The current electricity infrastructure in the United States relies on a centralized distribution network that carries a heavy carbon footprint and is susceptible to disruption and failure. Rural communities are more susceptible to longer term interruption and should strive towards a local distributed energy model. This transition will require municipalities to engage with and seek input from community stakeholders. This paper describes a possible model for supporting rural community energy projects using a Geographic Information System (GIS), which was used to develop an inventory of energy resource potential in a rural Vermont town for biomass, wind, and solar technologies. (author)

  7. The financial and economic feasibility of rural household biodigesters for poor communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael T; Goebel, Jessica Schroenn; Blignaut, James N

    2014-02-01

    Given the persistence of systemic poverty in, most notably, the rural parts of South Africa, the question is whether the use of biodigesters as a source of energy offers potential solutions to some of the difficulties and development needs faced by people in these areas. At the core, this translates into whether this technology would be financially and economically feasible for installation and use by rural households. Here we conduct both a financial and an economic cost-benefit analysis in one such community based on survey data from 120 households. Analysis of these data and supporting literature reveals that a biodigester is not a financially feasible investment for a rural household. Substantial economic benefits are, however, found to make a biodigester a worthwhile investment from a broader societal perspective. This is a compelling argument for further study and the consideration of government support in the light of broader economy-wide benefits.

  8. Community as classroom: teaching and learning public health in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, James; Behringer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Traditional models for public health professional education tend to be didactic, with brief, discrete practica appended. National reports of both practitioners and academicians have called for more competency-driven, interdisciplinary-focused, community-based, service-oriented, and experientially-guided learning for students across the curriculum. East Tennessee State University began its own curricular revisioning in health professions education nearly 2 decades ago with a grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, emphasizing competencies development through community-based learning in community-academic partnerships. This article describes 3 examples that grew from that initiative. In the first example, students in multiple classes delivered a longitudinal community-based employee wellness intervention for a rural county school district. BS public health students conducted needs assessments and prepared health education materials; MPH students conducted health assessments and worked with school wellness councils to deliver client-centered interventions; DrPH students supervised the project and provided feedback to the schools using participatory methods. In the second example, MPH students in a social-behavioral foundations course used experiential learning to investigate the region's elevated cancer mortality ranking. Following meetings with multiple community groups, students employed theoretical constructs to frame regional beliefs about cancer and presented findings to community leaders. One outcome was a 5-year community-based participatory research study of cancer in rural Appalachia. In the third example, MPH students in a health-consulting course assessed local African Americans' awareness of the university's health and education programs and perceptions of their community health issues. Students learned consultation methods by assisting at multiple regional African American community meetings to discover issues and interest that resulted in the

  9. Effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a single annual professional intervention for the prevention of childhood dental caries in a remote rural Indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Ratilal; Kroon, Jeroen; Tut, Ohnmar; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Jamieson, Lisa M; Wallace, Valda; Boase, Robyn; Fernando, Surani; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Scuffham, Paul A; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-08-29

    The aim of the study is to reduce the high prevalence of tooth decay in children in a remote, rural Indigenous community in Australia, by application of a single annual dental preventive intervention. The study seeks to (1) assess the effectiveness of an annual oral health preventive intervention in slowing the incidence of dental caries in children in this community, (2) identify the mediating role of known risk factors for dental caries and (3) assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the intervention. The intervention is novel in that most dental preventive interventions require regular re-application, which is not possible in resource constrained communities. While tooth decay is preventable, self-care and healthy habits are lacking in these communities, placing more emphasis on health services to deliver an effective dental preventive intervention. Importantly, the study will assess cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness for broader implementation across similar communities in Australia and internationally. There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of dental decay in these communities, by implementing effective, cost-effective, feasible and sustainable dental prevention programs. Expected outcomes of this study include improved oral and general health of children within the community; an understanding of the costs associated with the intervention provided, and its comparison with the costs of allowing new lesions to develop, with associated treatment costs. Findings should be generalisable to similar communities around the world. The research is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), registration number ACTRN12615000693527; date of registration: 3rd July 2015.

  10. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  11. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  12. Helping Rural Communities Manage Growth and Protect Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, C. Benjamin; Westa, Susan P.; Broderick, Stephen H.

    2007-01-01

    A learning needs assessment survey was conducted by the Green Valley Institute in the Quinebaug Shetucket National Heritage Corridor in Connecticut and Massachusetts. This survey was designed to assess educational interests, perceived knowledge, and importance relating to land use, community planning and design, and natural resources. Findings…

  13. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  14. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  15. Predictor Factors of Telecentres Outcome from the Users Perspectives in Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Badsar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in developing countries is considered as a fundamental strategy of community development. In this regard, the government of Malaysia and developing agencies considered telecentres as a tool for providing the potential and benefits of ICTs for rural and remote community in order to make value and offer equal ICT access to all Malaysians and to transform Malaysia into a value based Knowledge Society by the year 2020. However, the lack of success and sustainability is a common problem for telecentre projects that cause increasing necessity for paying more consideration to extract lessons learned of projects, with particular attention to factors influence telecentre outcomes which is the aim of this study. Approach: the main purpose of this study was to define the predictor factors of telecentres outcomes from users perception in rural communities in Malaysia. A cross sectional survey method was employed in the study and data were collected from 360 respondents who were randomly selected from the Pusat Internet Desa (PID and Medan InfoDesa (MID centers. For the purpose of analysis, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM by AMOS software was used. Result: The results of the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM analyses show that individual characteristics, telecentres characteristics, information characteristics and leadership competency variables had significant contribution toward the prediction of telecentre outcome. Also the results showed that the information characteristic variable had better contribution toward the prediction of telecentre outcomes in rural community. Conclusion: based on highest contribution of the information characteristics among investigated factors, it could be concluded that any efforts must be made to improve service quality and provide relevant content to respondent needs in local language. Thus, access to local and relevant content can play a critical role in

  16. Rural Student Entrepreneurs: Linking Commerce and Community. (Benefits)[Squared]: The Exponential Results of Linking School Improvement and Community Development, Issue Number Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boethel, Martha

    In many rural areas, both communities and schools are threatened by decreasing population and changing economic conditions. To boost both the local economy and student achievement, a growing number of rural schools are turning to entrepreneurial education. In school entrepreneurship programs, students create small businesses under the guidance of…

  17. An approach for the evaluation of rural governance in Cameroon: are community forests really forests for the communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaire NKENGFACK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the traditionalexploitation of timber, in a community framework, to the respect of governanceprinciples in actions for the fight against poverty in some rural communities inCameroon. In 1990, the government of Cameroon adopted laws on the freedomof association that authorised teaming up for the search of possibilities for abetter economic welfare of populations. It is in line with this that in 1994, a newforest law which authorises willing communities to organise themselves andrequest the government to grant them a portion of the national forest of thepublic domain to be managed by them and for their personal interest. Also, andwith the help of the international community, Cameroon elaborated in 1998 itsfirst poverty reduction strategy paper that encouraged amongst others,community actions in the search of solutions to the economic crisis that strokethe country. Through the application of a logit model to the responses collectedthrough a survey carried out on a sample of 200 individuals of the East regionof Cameroon, it was noticed that timber exploitation in a community frameworkdoes not necessarily lead to the strengthening of the links of belonging to acommon community, and to the equitable redistribution of revenues from theexploitation of the community forest.

  18. On the front line of primary health care: the profile of community health workers in rural Quechua communities in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumaran Adriana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe the profile of community health workers – health promoters, traditional birth attendants and traditional healers – in rural Quechua communities from Ayacucho, Peru. Methods Basic quantitative and qualitative information was gathered as part of a community health project implemented between 1997 and 2002 in 40 Andean communities with information from questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions. Results The majority of current community health workers are men with limited education who are primarily Quechua speakers undertaking their work on a voluntary basis. Health promoters are mostly young, male, high school graduates. There exists a high drop-out rate among these workers. In contrast, traditional healers and traditional birth attendants possess an almost diametrically opposite profile in terms of age, education and drop-out rates, though males still predominate. At the community level the health promoters are the most visible community health workers. Conclusion It is very important to consider and to be aware of the profile of community health workers in order to provide appropriate alternatives when working with these groups as well as with the indigenous population, particularly in terms of culture, language and gender issues.

  19. The creation of management systems for funding priorities in wastewater project in rural communities in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, M; Hajrasoliha, M; Meemari, G; Fahiminia, M; Talebi, M; Kohansal, M

    2008-01-01

    For sustainable development an integrated cost-effective approach focused on the goal of health and environmental protection is necessary. In Iran more than 22 million people live in rural communities. A little more than 92% of the rural population in Iran have access to safe drinking water supply, but only less than 0.2% have sanitary wastewater disposal system. Groundwater is the main resource of water supply in rural communities in Iran and contaminated or untreated groundwater can be the major reason for waterborne diseases outbreak and wastewater discharge is the main cause of groundwater contamination. In new strategy in Iran's wastewater company, the importance of wastewater treatment is equal to water treatment in rural communities and the main goal in this section is providing sanitary wastewater disposal system for 8% of rural areas until 2010 and 30% until 2020. One of the most important limitations for establishment of wastewater disposal system is the limitation of governmental funds. For this reason, a national program was performed for ranking of rural communities with the goal of improving the funding effectiveness in wastewater management in rural communities. Many important criteria were considered for determination of priorities, these criteria include: population, population density, water consumption and wastewater generation, wastes disposal systems at present, environmental and health risks, agricultural and industrial wastewater, social conditions specially public participation, investment simplicity and type of living (seasonal or permanent). For collection of information about rural community, according to the criteria, a questionnaire was designed with 40 quantified questions. Questionnaires completed for all rural areas with more than 400 people population (more than 77% of rural population of the country). Completed questionnaires were analyzed with specific software for ranking of villages according to above mentioned criteria. Right

  20. Responding to rural health needs through community participation: addressing the concerns of children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Vivienne; Ervin, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    A small rural health service undertook a major needs analysis in 2008 to identify gaps in service delivery and duplication of services. This exercise was intended to inform strategic direction but the result was consumer and community consultation and outcomes that far exceeded everyone's expectations. Organisations often pay lip service to the concept of community participation and consultation and the importance of consumer involvement. Turning this rhetoric into action is challenging and requires dedicated staff, organisational support and momentum for it to occur. The project described resulted in targeted, purposeful action regarding community engagement, and the findings and outcomes are reflective of this. The unexpected findings required an organisational shift, which was embraced by the health service and resulted in collaborative partnerships with consumers and organisations that are proving beneficial to the entire community and outlying areas. Few organisations would demonstrate the willingness to accommodate such change, or undertake a needs analysis that is chiefly community driven.

  1. A systematic review of studies evaluating Australian indigenous community development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Mieke; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Stephens, Anne; Calabria, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Community development is a health promotion approach identified as having great potential to improve Indigenous health, because of its potential for extensive community participation. There has been no systematic examination of the extent of community participation in community develo

  2. Young adults’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural tourism community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Möller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many rural areas, in Sweden and worldwide, experience population decline where the young leave for education and work in urban areas. Employment has declined in several rural industries, such as agriculture, forestry, and fishing, while growing in other industries are often located in urban areas. Politicians and organizations have put much hope in tourism as a tool of rural development, but can tourism help reverse the rural out-migration trend among young adults? This paper explores how tourism affects young inhabitants’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural area in Sweden, the ski resort of Sälen. Students from the 1993–1995 elementary school graduating classes were interviewed about their migration history, childhood, and view of and ties to Sälen. The respondents experience that tourism contributes to a more vital community incorporating influences from elsewhere, but without eliminating the positive aspects of rural life. The regular flow of people – tourists, seasonal workers, and entrepreneurs – passing through Sälen presents opportunities to extend one’s social network that are widely appreciated by respondents. The high in and out mobility constitutes a key part of Sälen’s character. Contributions from tourism – such as employment, entertainment, leisure, and opportunities to forge new social relationships – are available during the adult transition, the life phase when rural areas are often perceived as least attractive. Even though out-migration occurs in Sälen, and some respondents still find Sälen too small, tourism has clearly increased the available opportunities and contributed significantly to making Sälen more attractive to young adults.

  3. The Role of Community Colleges in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Urban and Rural Differences in Workforce Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrevey, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the question of whether or not the gap between rural and urban workforce outcomes is reduced with investment in human capital and training conducted by community colleges. In this study, rural and urban differences in employment rate, employment retention, and wage gain after receiving training were…

  4. The determinants of the willingness-to-pay for community-based prepayment scheme in rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Makaudze, Ephias; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

    2011-09-01

    In rural Cameroon, many people have no access to quality healthcare services. This is largely attributed to lack of private out-of-pocket payment to finance healthcare services. A community-based prepayment health insurance scheme may be implemented to improve healthcare access in rural areas. This study examines the determinants of willingness-to-pay for a community-based prepayment healthcare system using a contingent valuation method conducted in rural Cameroon. To mitigate potential hypothetical bias, a consequential script is introduced in the questionnaire. The results indicate age, religion, profession, knowledge of community-based health insurance, awareness of usual practice in rural areas, involvement in association and disposable income are the key determinants of willingness to pay for a prepayment health scheme. On average, willingness to pay for the scheme by rural households is 1011 CFA francs/person/month (2.15 US dollars). The results underlie two important implications: first, there is substantial demand for a community healthcare prepayment scheme by rural poor households in Cameroon; second, rural households are averse to health shocks and hence they are willing to sacrifice monthly premium payments to protect themselves (and their households) from unforeseen health-related risks. If government could engage in social marketing strategies such as mass media campaigns and awareness, this could prove vital for encouraging participation by the rural poor in healthcare prepayment scheme in Cameroon.

  5. Rural Community-Dwelling Elders' Reports of Access to Care: Are There Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic White Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Tyrone F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer reports can provide useful information about the dimensions of access in need of improvement for particular population subgroups. To determine if there are Hispanic versus non- Hispanic white disparities in rural elders' reports of their health care access. A telephone survey was conducted among 2,097 rural community-dwelling elders in…

  6. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  7. Community participation and childhood immunization coverage: A comparative study of rural and urban communities of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamawei Itimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization coverage rates in Nigeria have remained very poor, in spite of numerous programs and strategies, specifically designed to improve coverage. This study was to assess the possible effects of greater community participation on immunization coverage, by comparing the immunization coverage in a rural community with a functional community health committee, with an urban community, with no distinct community structure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Ondewari, a rural, riverine community, in Bayelsa State; and Yenagoa, the capital of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria; using a cross-sectional, comparative study design. The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, administered on female head of households in both communities, with under-five children; and used to collect information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, the immunization status of children in the household below the age of 2 years, and reasons for none and incomplete immunization. Results: A total of 288 respondents were studied in the rural community, while 270 respondents were studied in the urban center. The respondents in the urban center were significantly younger (P<0.01, better educated (P<0.001, and had fewer number of children (P<0.01. The immunization status of children in the rural community was significantly better than those in the urban community (P<0.000. Only 11.46% of the children in the rural community were not immunized, compared to 47.04% in the urban community. However, the dropout rate in the rural community was much higher; with a DPT dropout rate of 77.34%, compared to 12.39% in the urban community. Most of the reasons given in the urban community for the incomplete immunization were linked lack of motivation, and include relocation (11.34% and the adverse rumor about childhood immunization (17.23%, while the reasons in the rural community were mostly health

  8. New Approaches to Revitalise Rural Economies and Communities – Reflections of a Policy Analyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Janet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Looking ahead, rural Europe faces significant challenges. Some of these are long-term and will require major adaptation, such as climate change, increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the ageing indigenous population. Others are medium-term and subject to political uncertainty, such as economic stagnation and unemployment, pressures from in-migration, and constrained public finances. Markets appear likely to continue to encourage conventional farm modernisation and capitalization, but these may increase, rather than resolve, rural problems and tensions. Seen through an ecological lens, conventional patterns of development decrease rural social, environmental and economic resilience, and yet this is becoming increasingly important. New approaches are needed which can work with global and local processes to maintain rural diversity, quality and community: key factors in resilience-building. Interesting tactics may involve increasing local capacity to act, stimulating new local products, services and markets and new forms of pluri-activity. Business profitability and productivity will remain central, but can be realised in a variety of unconventional ways. Some examples and approaches are briefly presented and some general lessons identified for the new Rural Development Policy and Programmes, 2014–2020.

  9. Dynamics of Community Participation, Student Achievement and School Management: The Case of Primary Schools in a Rural Area of Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    School management in many sub-Saharan African countries has been enhanced through community participation in an attempt to improve education quality. This study uses field research in a rural district of Malawi to assess how community and parent participation differs between schools, the intentions of communities and parents when carrying out…

  10. Can E- Commerce Enable Marketing in an African Rural Women's Community Based Development Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Rhodes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested by various sources (Worldbank, 2000; Cypher, 1997 that investment in infrastructure and modern technologies such as ITC's may break down some of the barriers of access such as physical remoteness for poor rural communities. However there is little existing research that examines this sce-nario at the micro level. This paper uses a case study- the Rural Women's Association (RWA of Sek-huhkuneland, Northern Province, South Africa to examine if E- commerce can enable access to markets in an impoverished, under resourced rural location. This paper has five parts: Part 1 consists of the background and rationale for this study, Part 2 focuses on the education, business acumen and gender issues. Part 3 discusses the current market environment. Part 4 discusses possible business models that can integrate e-commerce in its implementation. Part 5 provides the research questions and the method-ology for this study. The final discussion in this study provides us with a viable e-commerce model that could be used in a rural setting and could provide greater economic development for this community.

  11. Women's perception of partner violence in a rural Igbo community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilika, Amobi Linus

    2005-12-01

    Partner violence is a serious public health problem affecting mostly women. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of rural Igbo women of Nigeria of intimate partner violence. Information was elicited using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Women of childbearing age were selected from the various women age grades in Ozubulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Findings revealed that the women generally condone and are complacent with intimate partner violence, perceiving it as cultural and religious norms. The women felt that reprimands, beating and forced sex affecting their physical, mental and reproductive wellbeing are normal in marriage. They did not support reporting such cases to the police or divorcing the man, they would rather prefer reporting to family members. They felt that exiting the marriage would not gain the support of family members. They also expressed fear for the uncertainty in re-marrying, means of livelihood after re-marriage, social stigmatisation, and concern for their children. Socio-cultural norms and structures favour partner violence in Anambra State of Nigeria. There is a need for advocacy and concerted action that will involve the educational, health, civil and religious sectors of the society to evolve sustainable structures that will empower women and provide support to enable victims to react appropriately to violence.

  12. Stroke in rural coastal Ecuador: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Santamaría, Milton; Zambrano, Mauricio; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Pow-Chon-Long, Freddy; Del Brutto, Victor J; Ochoa, Elio; Valdiviezo, Elsy; Santibáñez, Rocío

    2014-04-01

    Stroke will be South America's next epidemic. Therefore, information on stroke particularities in the region will help to overcome its impact burden. We evaluated prevalence, pattern of sub-types, and pathogenic mechanisms underlying stroke in Atahualpa, a village representative of rural coastal Ecuador. In a three-phase epidemiologic study, suspected cases were detected by a door-to-door survey (Phase I). Then, neurologists evaluated suspected cases and randomly selected negative persons (Phase II), and confirmed patients underwent complementary exams (Phase III). We found 20 stroke patients (mean age 70 years, 60% men) among 642 persons aged ≥40 years. Stroke prevalence was 31.15‰ that increased with age. Most patients had sub-cortical infarctions associated with leukoaraiosis or microbleeds. Hypertensive arteriolopathy was the most likely mechanism underlying strokes (55% patients). Intracranial arterial lesions were found in 47% cases. Extracranial atherosclerotic lesions or cardiac sources of emboli were not found in any case. Comparison of our findings with a previous survey performed in the same village showed an alarming increase in stroke prevalence (from 14.08‰ in 2003 to 31.15‰ in 2012, P = 0.03).

  13. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jawidzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

  14. Seroprevalence of Sparganosis in Rural Communities of Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavana, Nicholas; Sonaimuthu, Parthasarathy; Kasanga, Christopher; Kassuku, Ayub; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Fong, Mun Yik; Khan, Mohammad Behram; Mahmud, Rohela; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the seroprevalence of sparganosis and its relationship with sociodemographic factors in northern Tanzania have been assessed. A total of 216 serum samples from two rural districts, Monduli and Babati, were tested for sparganosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of anti-sparganum IgG antibodies was 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1–68.9) in all age groups. There were significant associations between district (relative risk [RR] = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.42–2.69), education (RR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.15–1.70), and pet ownership with seropositivity (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02–2.16) based on univariate analysis. However, only the district was significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.89–9.32) in binary logistic regression analysis. Providing health education to people residing in sparganosis-endemic areas is likely to improve the efficacy of preventative measures and reduce human disease burden. PMID:27481059

  15. Rural and remote Australian general practice nurses' sources of evidence for knowledge translation: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Field, John; Cant, Robyn

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores nurses' sources of knowledge for evidence-based practice, comparing rural/remote, urban and regional participants. A cross-sectional survey of practice nurses in the state of Victoria was conducted in 2008. The instrument used was the Developing Evidence-based Practice Questionnaire - Au, distributed to a convenience sample of nurses with response of 590 (33%). Survey data were stratified by geographical location for this exploratory report. The sample was representative of practice nurses, with half employed in either regional or rural and remote areas. Rural and remote nurses were less qualified in nursing than urban nurses. However, rural, remote and regional nurses were significantly less likely to apply experiential knowledge as evidence and were more likely to source knowledge from clinical nurse specialists or nurse practitioners, local audit reports or articles in research and medical journals. Nurses in each work category reported in-service training, conferences and information shared by colleagues as important in developing their knowledge for practice. According to participants, evidence-based practice would be promoted by allocation of work time, education and training in research skills, and improved access to resources. Rural and remote practice nurses prioritised the development of their skills in sourcing and appraising evidence for practice as a strategy to facilitate knowledge translation at the point of care. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2011 The Joanna Briggs Institute.

  16. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing...

  17. Rural Communities Communicating: The Emergence of Two-Way Interactive Video in Southwestern, Rural, Small Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael; And Others

    In three southwestern states, grassroots movements of citizens, educators, and local businesses developed and implemented two-way interactive television projects in their schools and communities. A descriptive multiple case study design was used to examine six project sites in New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. Research questions were categorized in…

  18. Evaluation of a pilot healthy eating intervention in restaurants and food stores of a rural community: a randomized community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Riggall, Ann Josie; Meinen, Amy M; Malecki, Kristen; Escaron, Anne L; Hall, Bev; Menzies, Anne; Garske, Gary; Nieto, F Javier; Nitzke, Susan

    2015-02-12

    Research suggests that the food environment influences individual eating practices. To date, little is known about effective interventions to improve the food environment of restaurants and food stores and promote healthy eating in rural communities. We tested "Waupaca Eating Smart " (WES), a pilot intervention to improve the food environment and promote healthy eating in restaurants and supermarkets of a rural community. WES focused on labeling, promoting, and increasing the availability of healthy foods. We conducted a randomized community trial, with two Midwestern U.S. communities randomly assigned to serve as intervention or control site. We collected process and outcome data using baseline and posttest owner and customer surveys and direct observation methods. The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation and organize the results. Seven of nine restaurants and two of three food stores invited to participate in WES adopted the intervention. On a 0-4 scale, the average level of satisfaction with WES was 3.14 (SD=0.69) for restaurant managers and 3 (SD=0.0) for store managers. On average, 6.3 (SD=1.1) out of 10 possible intervention activities were implemented in restaurants and 9.0 (SD=0.0) out of 12 possible activities were implemented in food stores. One month after the end of the pilot implementation period, 5.4 (SD=1.6) and 7.5 (SD=0.7) activities were still in place at restaurants and food stores, respectively. The intervention reached 60% of customers in participating food outlets. Restaurant food environment scores improved from 13.4 to 24.1 (p customer behaviors were observed after a 10-month implementation period. The intervention achieved high levels of reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance, suggesting the feasibility and acceptability of restaurant-and food store-based interventions in rural communities. Pilot outcome data indicated very modest levels of effectiveness, but additional research adequately powered to test the impact

  19. Pilot study to evaluate children with hearing aids through PEACH and TEACH in a rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingamdenne Paul Emerson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate the use of functional measures in hearing aid benefit assessment of children (n = 60 in a rural community. Children with age ranging from 6 months to 15 years with moderately severe to profound hearing loss were evaluated. They were evaluated by functional measures PEACH and TEACH which were translated into local language (Tamil. The relationship between PEACH and TEACH was calculated using SPSS and Chi-square tests. It was found that PEACH and TEACH questionnaires can be easily administered in the rural community and gives a quantitative measure of the effect of amplification. It gave caregivers a motivation to take an active part in the rehabilitation. This model of using functional evaluation tools to evaluate the suitability and effectiveness of amplification can be applied in children in developing countries.

  20. Integrative Processes in the Romanian Contemporary Rural. The Impact of Advisory Community Councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena UNGURU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has the purpose to identify several ways to improve social services in rural areas from Romania, especially from Iasi County. In this article we focused our attention on the views of members of Advisory Community Councils from Iasi County, in order to highlight their perspectives in improving the social services developed in the researched areas.This article was developed during the research “Supervision of Social Services from rural areas of the county of Iasi”; the research was made on behalf of Lumen Research Centre in Humanistic Science and of “Supervision and Social Planning “Master Program, from “AI Cuza” University Iasi. The research frameworks are more complex than this exposure, that’s why we limited the analysis in this article on the perceptions of members of Advisory Community Councils to modern social services and their supervision.

  1. Evaluating the potential of automated telephony systems in rural communities: Field assessment for project Lwazi of HLT Meraka

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe sociological fieldwork conducted in the autumn of 2008 in two rural communities of South Africa. Tshidilamalomo, in North West Province, and Kgautswane, in Limpopo Province. The goal of the fieldwork was to evaluate...

  2. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  3. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations.

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    Shi Ying

    Full Text Available Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random.

  4. 'It's about the smoke, not the smoker': messages that motivate rural communities to support smoke-free policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2014-02-01

    Rural residents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco advertising and tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many rural communities. There is a need for effective health messages to counter the pro-tobacco culture in these communities. To determine relevant cultural themes and key message features that affect receptivity to pro-health advertisements among rural residents, 11 exploratory focus groups and surveys with community advocates (N = 82) in three rural Kentucky counties were conducted. Participants reviewed and rated a collection of print media advertisements and branding materials used by rural communities to promote smoke-free policies. Findings reveal that negative emotional tone, loss framing, appeals to religiosity, and shifting focus away from smokers are effective strategies with rural audiences. Potential pitfalls were identified. Attacks on smokers may not be a useful strategy. Health risk messages reinforced beliefs of secondhand smoke harm but some argued that the messages needed to appeal to smokers and emphasize health hazards to smokers, rather than to non-smokers only. Messages describing ineffectiveness of smoking sections were understood but participants felt they were only relevant for restaurants and not all public spaces. Emphasis on religiosity and social norms shows promise as a culturally sensitive approach to promoting smoke-free environments in rural communities.

  5. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in a rural community in southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seremi Henrietta Ibadin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPACR has been advocated as a strategy to overcome costly delays in decision making to seek skilled attendance at delivery, which in turn contribute significantly to maternal mortality from obstetric causes. Objective: This study assessed the determinants of BPACR among pregnant women in a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done in Anegbette, a rural community in Etsako Central Local Government Area of Edo State. A house-to-house survey was carried out to identify pregnant women and all eligible women in the study area were included in the study. Results: A total of 277 pregnant women participated in the study. The mean age of respondents was 28.7±5.8 years. Less than half, 134 (48.4% of the respondents were well prepared while 143 (51.6% were poorly prepared. After adjustment for the effect of confounding using binary logistic regression analysis, educational level (OR = 0.653, 95% CI = 0.330 – 0.956, occupation (OR = 0.384, 95% CI = 0,148 – 0.990 and utilization of antenatal care (OR = 3.407, 95% CI = 1.830 – 5.074 were significant predictors of BPACR. Conclusion: Birth preparedness and complication readiness was poor among women in the rural community. In order to improve maternal health among rural women in Nigeria, government and donor agency funding for safe motherhood programmes should focus on female empowerment and encourage community participation towards promotion of maternal health.

  6. Biocultural Design: A New Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Development in Rural Indigenous and Local Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Iain J. Davidson-Hunt; Katherine L. Turner; Mead, Aroha Te Pareake; Cabrera-Lopez, Juanita; Bolton, Richard; Idrobo, C. Julián; Miretski, Inna; Morrison, Alli; James P. Robson

    2012-01-01

    New approaches for sustainable development in rural indigenous and local communities have emerged that are rooted in their distinct cultural identities and claims for greater control over land, development and identity. One such approach is that of biocultural heritage, which emerged out of work to document biocultural diversity undertaken in part by members of the Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). CEE...

  7. Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Child Care Centers within Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jaime S; Contreras, Dawn; Gold, Abby; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Although some researchers have examined nutrition and physical activity policies within urban child care centers, little is known about the potentially unique needs of rural communities. Child care centers serving preschool children located within low-income rural communities (n = 29) from seven states (Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) were assessed to determine current nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices and policies. As part of a large-scale childhood obesity prevention project, the Community Healthy Living Index's previously validated Early Childhood Program Assessment Tool was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to identify high-priority areas. Healthy People 2020 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' recommendations for nutrition and PA policies in child care centers were used as benchmarks. Reports of not fully implementing (nutrition-related policies or practices within rural early child care centers were identified. Centers not consistently serving a variety of fruits (48%), vegetables (45%), whole grains (41%), limiting saturated fat intake (31%), implementing healthy celebration guidelines (41%), involving children in mealtime (62%), and referring families to nutrition assistance programs (24%) were identified. More than one third of centers also had limited structured PA opportunities. Although eligible, only 48% of the centers participated in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Overall, centers lacked parental outreach, staff training, and funding/resources to support nutrition and PA. These results provide insight into where child care centers within low-income, rural communities may need assistance to help prevent childhood obesity.

  8. The Prevalence Of Hypertension And Its Associated Risk Factors In Two Rural Communities In Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Syer Ree Tee; Xin Yun Teoh; Wan Abdul Rahman Wan Mohd Aiman; Ahmad Aiful; Calvin Siu Yee Har; Zi Fu Tan; Abdul Rashid Khan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is estimated to cause4.5% of the global disease burden. The prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia is 32.2%.Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in two rural communities in Penang, Malaysia.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among all consenting residents aged 18 years and above from two villages in Penang. Besides the baseline demographic information, blood pressure was measured using a manual sphygmoma...

  9. Physical and Mental Health Problems of the Elderly in a Rural Community of Sepang, Selangor

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of aging population is increasing not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries like Malaysia. The aim of this study was: (1) to determine the prevalence of physical and mental health problems, and (2) to determine the association of these health problems with socio demographic factors among the elderly in a rural community in Sepang, Selangor. A cross sectional study design was used. Five out of nine villages were selected via random sampling. The elderly i...

  10. Diabetes and Other Disorders of Glycemia in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gouws, Eleanor; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and associated risk factors in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using the 1998 World Health Organization criteria for disorders of glycemia. RESULTS—Of 1,300 subjects...

  11. Feasibility and effectiveness of two community based HIV testing models in rural Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility (population reached, costs) and effectiveness (positivity rates, linkage to care) of two strategies of community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in rural Swaziland. Methods Strategies used were mobile HTC (MHTC) and home-based HTC (HBHTC). Information on age, sex, previous testing and HIV results was obtained from routine HTC records. A consecutive series of individuals testing HIV-positive were followed up for 6 months from the test date to asse...

  12. Residual Barriers for Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services: Community Perceptions From Rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Zahid; Zaidi, Shehla; Riaz, Atif

    2015-11-03

    Low utilization of maternal and child care services in rural areas has constrained Pakistan from meeting targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. This study explores community barriers in accessing Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in ten remote rural districts of Pakistan. It further presents how the barriers differ across a range of MCH services, and also whether the presence of Community Health Workers (CHWs) reduces client barriers. Qualitative methods were used involving altogether sixty focus group discussions with mothers, their spouses and community health workers. Low awareness, formidable distances, expense, and poorly functional services were the main barriers reported, while cultural and religious restrictions were lesser reported. For preventive services including antenatal care (ANC), facility deliveries, postnatal care (PNC), childhood immunization and family planning, the main barrier was low awareness. Conversely, formidable distances and poorly functional services were the main reported constraints in the event of maternal complications and acute child illnesses. The study also found that clients residing in areas served by CHWs had better awareness only of ANC and family planning, while other MCH services were overlooked by the health worker program. The paper highlights that traditional policy emphasis on health facility infrastructure expansion is not likely to address poor utilization rates in remote rural areas. Preventive MCH services require concerted attention to building community awareness, task shifting from facility to community for services provision, and re-energization of CHW program. For maternal and child emergencies there is strong community demand to utilize health facilities, but this will require catalytic support for transport networks and functional health care centers.

  13. The application of a biometric identification technique for linking community and hospital data in rural Ghana

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    Eliezer Ofori Odei-Lartey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reliability of counts for estimating population dynamics and disease burdens in communities depends on the availability of a common unique identifier for matching general population data with health facility data. Biometric data has been explored as a feasible common identifier between the health data and sociocultural data of resident members in rural communities within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System located in the central part of Ghana. Objective: Our goal was to assess the feasibility of using fingerprint identification to link community data and hospital data in a rural African setting. Design: A combination of biometrics and other personal identification techniques were used to identify individual's resident within a surveillance population seeking care in two district hospitals. Visits from resident individuals were successfully recorded and categorized by the success of the techniques applied during identification. The successes of visits that involved identification by fingerprint were further examined by age. Results: A total of 27,662 hospital visits were linked to resident individuals. Over 85% of those visits were successfully identified using at least one identification method. Over 65% were successfully identified and linked using their fingerprints. Supervisory support from the hospital administration was critical in integrating this identification system into its routine activities. No concerns were expressed by community members about the fingerprint registration and identification processes. Conclusions: Fingerprint identification should be combined with other methods to be feasible in identifying community members in African rural settings. This can be enhanced in communities with some basic Demographic Surveillance System or census information.

  14. Hydro-acoustic remote sensing of benthic biological communities on the shallow South East Australian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Alex; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Burq, Shoaib; Reston, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Information regarding the composition and extent of benthic habitats on the South East Australian continental shelf is limited. In this habitat mapping study, multibeam echosounder (MBES) data are integrated with precisely geo-referenced video ground-truth data to quantify benthic biotic communities at Cape Nelson, Victoria, Australia. Using an automated decision tree classification approach, 5 representative biotic groups defined from video analysis were related to hydro-acoustically derived variables in the Cape Nelson survey area. Using a combination of multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and derivative products produced highest overall accuracy (87%) and kappa statistic (0.83). This study demonstrates that decision tree classifiers are capable of integrating variable data types for mapping distributions of benthic biological assemblages, which are important in maintaining biodiversity and other system services in the marine environment.

  15. Body weight, body image, and eating behaviours: relationships with ethnicity and acculturation in a community sample of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Kenardy, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on body weight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered.

  16. PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES IN RURAL SCHOOLS: A COMMUNITY MISSION OF THE EXECUTIVE

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    Lorena del Rosario Piñero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study consisted of valuing the productive activities for rural schools from the community mission that the executive exercises in the educational context of the Parish Ana Maria Campos, municipality Elevated place, condition Zulia. The study was considered to be descriptive, to such effects his basic action consisted of the valuation of elements considered like fundamental to identify the productive activities in rural schools from the community mission of the executive. The design of the investigation is not experimental, of field, transactional with a methodology qualitative and quantitative of dominant quantitative approach carried out in the educational context of the communities El Mecocal, El Crespo, El Rodeo, La Quebrada y el Kilometro 42. The population was constituted by teachers, parents and rural representatives to whom an instrument applied comprising questionnaire of 15 questions type Likert and 5 questions opened of triple version, validated in his content by 10 experts whose results were valued for categories and processed statistically across percentage tests. Between the conclusions there was demonstrated that the pedagogic practices are based basically on the approximation of executives and teachers by prevalence in knowing the expectations of learning of the pupils, the performance of the executives is estimated by good disposition by the teachers and the productive projects are realized across the education of the theoretical contents in the classroom of classes.

  17. Program of active aging in a rural Mexican community: a qualitative approach

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    Mendoza-Núñez Víctor

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is one of the key elements in the promotion of a thorough paradigm for active aging. The aim of this study is to analyze factors that contribute the empowerment of older adults in a rural Mexican community and, thus, promote active aging. Methods The study was conducted in a rural Mexican community (Valle del Mezquital, based on an action-research paradigm. One hundred and fifty-five elderly subjects with elementary school education participated in a formal training program promoting gerontological development and health education. Participants in turn became coordinators of mutual-help groups (gerontological nucleus in Mexico. In-depth interviews were carried out to assess the empowerment after training for active aging. Results It was found that there was an increasing feeling of empowerment, creativity and self-fulfillment among participants. Among the main factors that positively influenced training of the elderly toward active aging were the teaching of gerontology topics themselves; besides, their motivation, the self-esteem, the increased undertaking of responsibility, the feeling of belonging to the group, and the sharing of information based on personal experience and on gerontological knowledge. Conclusion The main factors that contribute to empowerment of older adults in a rural Mexican community for participate in active aging programs are the training and teaching of gerontology topics themselves; besides, their interest, experience and involvement.

  18. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Studies demonstrate that people’s food and physical activity (PA environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents’ food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD = 61 (14 (N=95. On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking. Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions.

  19. Attitude and Entrepreneurial Intention Among Rural Community: the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition

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    Dahalan Norziani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been well documented to have an economic and social implication for the nation to increase income. Most of developing countries give further consideration to include entrepreneurship as an agenda to help the poor to increase the living standard. In fact, entrepreneurship offers various business opportunities for rural communities to achieve better quality of life. However, the crucial part of doing business is to recognize business opportunity. Entrepreneurship and opportunity are two terms that complement each other. Opportunity recognition enables the entrepreneur to identify a good idea and transform it into a business concept. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between attitude (attitude toward money, attitude toward start-up and entrepreneurial intention. This paper also intends to understand the role of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition as a mediator between attitude and entrepreneurial intention. The aim of this research is to support training providers, to identify input for entrepreneurial training, specifically developing business concepts among rural community. From the practical perspective, it might help the government to understand the necessity to encourage entrepreneurial movement among rural community as to ensure business ideas flow. This research employed the quantitative method of data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to 500 local populations according to districts and villages. The findings of this study showed that both attitude (attitude toward money, attitude toward start-up influence entrepreneurial intention. The relationship between attitude toward start-up and entrepreneurial intention was mediated by opportunity recognition.

  20. Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Toro Graciela I

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterborne disease is a major risk for small water supplies in rural settings. This study was done to assess the impact of an educational intervention designed to improve water quality and estimate the contribution of water to the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in poor rural communities in Puerto Rico a two-part study was undertaken. Methods An educational intervention was delivered to communities relying on community water supplies. This intervention consisted of student operators and administrators supervising and assisting community members who voluntarily "operate" these systems. These voluntary operators had no previous training and were principally concerned with seeing that some water was delivered. The quality of that water was not something they either understood or addressed. The impact of this intervention was measured through water sampling for standard bacteriological indicators and a frank pathogen. In addition, face-to-face epidemiological studies designed to determine the base-line occurrence of diarrhoeal disease in the communities were conducted. Some 15 months after the intervention a further epidemiological study was conducted in both the intervention communities and in control communities that had not received any intervention. Results Diarrhoeal illness rates over a four week period prior to the intervention were 3.5%. Salmonella was isolated from all of 5 distributed samples prior to intervention and from only 2 of 12 samples after the intervention. In the 15 months follow-up study, illness rates were lower in the intervention compared to control communities (2.5% vs 3.6%% (RR = 0.70, 95%CI 0.43, 1.15, though this was not statistically significant. However, in the final Poisson regression model living in an intervention system (RR = 0.318; 95%CI 0.137 - 0.739 and owning a dog (RR = 0.597, 95%CI 0.145 - 0.962 was negatively associated with illness. Whilst size of system (RR = 1.006, 95%CI 1.001 - 1

  1. Adapting participatory design to design information system with rural Ethiopian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    and methods are contextualized to a given settings. To this end, we discuss the implication of considering local (rural community) culture of participation practices, and propose a procedure to be followed in the early phases of information system development process. Finally we argue that, such adaption......Most of the Information and Communication Technology for Development initiatives introduced to communities in developing countries fails to deliver its promises due to the lack of intended beneficiary involvement. Participatory Design assumes to be effective as long as its nature of participations...

  2. A community engaged dental curriculum: a rural Indigenous outplacement programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menaka A. Abuzar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods. The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0. They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8. Conclusions. This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions.

  3. Brokering Community Engagement: Proactive Strategies for Supporting Indigenous Australians with Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jan Maree; Hunt, Glenn E; Cleary, Michelle; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2016-12-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of mental health employees working with Indigenous clients living with mental illness. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers to identify strategies they adopt to facilitate community engagement with Indigenous clients. Using a thematic analysis approach, 'Brokering community engagement' was the umbrella theme from which two subthemes related to community engagement for the service and clients emerged (1) enabling connections -community and family; and (2) recovery and reconnecting with community. Participant insights enabled a deeper understanding of the role of community in the recovery process for Indigenous clients and highlight the importance of community engagement as a primary, yet multifaceted strategy used by mental health workers in the communities they serve.

  4. Extreme Heat and Health: Perspectives from Health Service Providers in Rural and Remote Communities in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Saniotis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the challenges for rural communities and health services in Australia, climate change and increasing extreme heat are emerging as additional stressors. Effective public health responses to extreme heat require an understanding of the impact on health and well-being, and the risk or protective factors within communities. This study draws on lived experiences to explore these issues in eleven rural and remote communities across South Australia, framing these within a socio-ecological model. Semi-structured interviews with health service providers (n = 13, and a thematic analysis of these data, has identified particular challenges for rural communities and their health services during extreme heat. The findings draw attention to the social impacts of extreme heat in rural communities, the protective factors (independence, social support, education, community safety, and challenges for adaptation (vulnerabilities, infrastructure, community demographics, housing and local industries. With temperatures increasing across South Australia, there is a need for local planning and low-cost strategies to address heat-exacerbating factors in rural communities, to minimise the impact of extreme heat in the future.

  5. GEODESIGN AND SIMULATION OF TWO AUSTRALIAN COMMUNITIES 2016–2050: WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD ARE THEY SUSTAINABLE OR NOT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the ability of visualization and simulation techniques to aid, and simulate current and future directions in coastal planning. Two communities examined are the coastal city of Hobsons Bay on Port Phillip Bay within the Melbourne metropolitan region and the coastal rural town of Apollo Bay, in Australia, are interrogated through a progression of projections and simulated forecasts from 2014 to 2050. The purpose is to comprehend their growth risks as it relates to their coastal edges and land use planning mechanisms in addressing these changes. The analysis uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS associated with planning application software, and the paper offers recommendations in progressing this inquiry.

  6. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

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    Angelo Jonas Imperiale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how community resilience can be effectively included and assessed in local development efforts. We argue that social impact assessment (SIA can and should play a key role in assessing regional development strategies and proposals and in building community resilience. We present the SIA Framework for Action as a tool to enhance policies, plans, programs, and projects and to assist in attaining appropriate social development outcomes, including community resilience. We demonstrate the value of the framework by discussing its application in a development project in rural Italy—the restoration of the Tratturo Magno, an ancient path used by shepherds and flocks for transhumance over centuries. The project, Vie e Civiltà della Transumanza, patrimonio dell'Umanità (Routes and Civilization of Transhumance World Heritage, inter alia, sought to promote rural tourism by restoring parts of the Tratturo Magno in the area damaged by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.

  7. Integrated Flood Risk Assessment of Rural Communities in the Oti River Basin, West Africa

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    Kossi Komi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage in West Africa has increased appreciably during the last two decades. Poor communities are more at risk due to the vulnerability of their livelihoods, especially in rural areas where access to services and infrastructures is limited. The aim of this paper is to identify the main factors that contribute to flood risk of rural communities in the Oti River Basin, Togo. A community-based disaster risk index model is applied. The analyses use primary data collected through questionnaires during fieldwork, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method, population and housing census data and flood hazard mapping of the study area. The results showed a moderate level of flood risk despite a high level of hazard and vulnerability for all investigated communities. In addition, the results suggest that decreasing vulnerability through creation of new income-generating opportunities and increasing capacity of communities to manage their own flood risk should be paramount in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. The results of this work contribute to the understanding of flood risk and can be used to identify, assess, and compare flood-prone areas, as well as simulating the impacts of flood management measures in the Oti River Basin.

  8. Primary health care in rural Malawi - a qualitative assessment exploring the relevance of the community-directed interventions approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makaula, Peter; Bloch, Paul; Banda, Hastings T.

    2012-01-01

    is still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) and community-directed interventions (CDI) are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated...... with PHC. The CDI approach has successfully been used to improve the delivery of interventions in areas that have previously used CDTi. However, little is known about the added value of community participation in areas without prior experience with CDTi. This study aimed at assessing PHC in two rural...

  9. Global and local-scale variation in bacterial community structure of snow from the Swiss and Australian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlin, Tina; Ferrari, Belinda; Power, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Seasonally, snow environments cover up to 50% of the land's surface, yet the microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning within snow, particularly from alpine regions are not well described. This study explores the bacterial diversity in snow using next-generation sequencing technology. Our data expand the global inventory of snow microbiomes by focusing on two understudied regions, the Swiss Alps and the Australian Alps. A total biomass similar to cell numbers in polar snow was detected, with 5.2 to 10.5 × 10(3) cells mL(-1) of snow. We found that microbial community structure of surface snow varied by country and site and along the altitudinal range (alpine and sub-alpine). The bacterial communities present were diverse, spanning 25 distinct phyla, but the six phyla Proteobacteria (Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria), Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes, accounted for 72%-98% of the total relative abundance. Taxa such as Acidobacteriaceae and Methylocystaceae, associated with cold soils, may be part of the atmospherically sourced snow community, while families like Sphingomonadaceae were detected in every snow sample and are likely part of the common snow biome.

  10. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia.

  11. What is safe and clean water in rural Bolivian communities? A preliminary investigation of heavy metal contamination in rural community water systems in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, M.; Guido, Z.; Borella, P.; Ketron, T.

    2009-12-01

    A proliferation of potable water systems utilizing groundwater is currently underway in the Lake Titicaca region of the Bolivian Altiplano. With the aid of national and international organizations, rural communities are developing groundwater sources because the region’s surface water is highly contaminated with waterborne pathogens—the primary factor contributing to high child mortality rates in developing nations. According to UNICEF, 86 percent of Bolivian families have access to “improved” water systems, which predominantly take the form of deep groundwater wells or contained natural springs. While the water systems have worked well to reduce pathogens in drinking water systems that cause illnesses such as dysentery, the water is rarely tested for heavy metal contamination, such as arsenic and lead. While bacteria analysis is essential, it is not the only component of healthy drinking water. Testing for heavy metals is especially important in the Bolivian Altiplano because abundant volcanic deposits and massive sulfide deposits suggest that in some areas it is likely that the water contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, Terra Resource Development International, A California-based 502(c)3 nonprofit organization, partnered with Stanford University, the Technical University of Bolivia, and the Bolivian Geologic and Mining Survey to collect water samples in 36 rural community situated in four watersheds feeding into Lake Titicaca. Water was collected from shallow, hand dug wells, deep groundwater wells, springs, and small rivers in the Tiwanku, Laja, Batallas, Achacachi watersheds and were analyzed for inorganic contaminants. Samples were analyzed at Stanford’s Environmental Measurements Facility using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrometer for major ions and heavy metals. Results will help determine which, if any, community water systems are at risk of heavy metal contamination, where more comprehensive sampling is

  12. Prevalence of intellectual disability and comorbid mental illness in an Australian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul; Chant, David; Edwards, Niki; Townsend, Clare; Waghorn, Geoff

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to bring to light the high prevalence of Australians affected by intellectual disability and comorbid serious mental illnesses. Results from a broad scale study are used to explore the reasons for this regularly overlooked phenomenon. This study was based on secondary analysis of data collected in the national 'Disability, Ageing and Carers Survey, 1998'. The analysed data consisted of an Australian wide sample of 42 664 individuals living at home or in cared accommodation. Classification of intellectual disability and comorbid psychosis, anxiety and depressive disorder was based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The prevalence of intellectual disability in the sampled population was 1.25%. Of these people 1.3% had a psychotic disorder, 8% had a depressive disorder and 14% had an anxiety disorder that had been present for at least 6 months and was of such severity that it too was disabling. Findings indicate that people with intellectual disability are at high risk of developing comorbid serious mental illness. Dual diagnosis is however, often overlooked due to difficulties associated with establishing a diagnosis of a mental disorder in people with an intellectual disability, a problem which is heightened when the individual's capacity to participate in a clinical assessment is limited.

  13. Community perceptions of a rural medical school: a pilot qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school. Methods: An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An independent researcher external to the medical school conducted the interviews using a topic guide. Audio recordings were not made, but detailed notes including verbatim statements were recorded. At least two research team members analyzed interview records for emergent themes. Human research ethics approval was obtained. Results: Twelve interviews were conducted. Participants offered rich imaginings on the role of the school and expectations and opportunities for students. Most participants expressed strong and positive views, especially in addressing long-term health workforce issues. It was considered important that students live, mix, and study in the community. Some participants had very clear ideas about the need of the school to address specified needs, such as indigenous health, obesity, aging, drug and alcohol problems, teenage pregnancy, ethnic diversity, and working with people of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study has initiated a dialogue with potential

  14. An unceasing problem: soil-transmitted helminthiases in rural Malaysian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Atiya, A S; Lim, Y A L; Mahdy, A K Mohammed; Ariffin, W A Wan; Abdullah, H Che; Surin, Johari

    2007-11-01

    Despite great development in socioeconomic status throughout 50 years of independence, Malaysia is still plagued with soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). STH continue to have a significant impact on public health particularly in rural communities. In order to determine the prevalence of STH among rural Orang Asli children and to investigate the possible risk factors affecting the pattern of this prevalence, fecal samples were collected from 292 Orang Asli primary schoolchildren (145 males and 147 females) age 7-12 years, from Pos Betau, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. The samples were examined by Kato-Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Socioeconomic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infections were 67.8, 95.5 and 13.4%, respectively. Twenty-nine point eight percent of the children had heavy trichuriasis, while 22.3% had heavy ascariasis. Sixty-seven point seven percent of the children had mixed infections. Age > 10 years (p = 0.016), no toilet in the house (p = 0.012), working mother (p = 0.040), low household income (p = 0.033), and large family size (p = 0.028) were identified as risk factors for ascariasis. Logistic regression confirmed low income, no toilet in the house and working mother as significant risk factors for ascariasis. The prevalence of STH is still very high in rural Malaysian communities. STH may also contribute to other health problems such as micronutrient deficiencies, protein-energy malnutrition and poor educational achievement. Public health personnel need to reassess current control measures and identify innovative and integrated ways in order to reduce STH significantly in rural communities.

  15. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Dhliwayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis in urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe and to assess public awareness of the disease. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to the serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona of Leptospira interrogans using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical chemistry was performed on all seropositive and selected seronegative sera to screen for hepatic and renal insufficiency. A questionnaire- based survey was conducted in Harare to assess dog owners’ awareness of leptospirosis and other zoonoses. Overall, 15.6% of sera samples tested (39 out of 250; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.0% – 20.2% were positive for leptospiral antibodies. A significantly higher (p < 0.05 seroprevalence was recorded in urban dogs than in rural dogs (25% vs. 11.2%. No significant difference in seroprevalence was observed amongst dogs from different rural communities or between sexes of dogs. There was a significant association between seropositivity and hepatic and/or renal insufficiency (p < 0.01, with dogs having hepatic and/or renal insufficiency being approximately twice as likely to be seropositive (relative risk = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.3–3.0. Of the dog owners, 78.8% (119/151 were aware of zoonoses. Except for rabies (92.4%, awareness of leptospirosis (5.0% and other zoonoses amongst these owners was low. This study showed that leptospirosis was present and represented a risk to dogs from urban Harare and the selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Availing training programmes for dog owners would be beneficial in improving disease control and reducing the public health risk of pet zoonoses.

  16. Sustainable development and energy solutions : small, rural communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, D. [Energy Solutions Centre, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Yukon's isolation from major markets has resulted in a heavy reliance on imported services and finished goods. The absence of pipelines or integrated transmission systems has left energy sources stranded and underdeveloped. Despite the fact that the Yukon has an abundance of water resources suitable for hydroelectricity, plus significant coal, gas and oil reserves, and viable wind regimes, all refined fossil fuels are imported. Economic development in the past 30 years has resulted in energy deficient building stock and an electrical system that is designed around large industrial customers. The closure of mining properties has resulted in an oversupply of hydroelectricity, leaving the fixed costs to be assumed by other ratepayers. The paper presents a series of slides depicting the legacy of poor development during the Klondike Gold Rush when buildings were quickly constructed without regard for the extreme climate, permafrost or geology. Poor development continued with houses built in the early 1970s in the mining community of Faro. Despite stricter building codes, some designs still fail to account for the northern climate. National chains are major culprits for not addressing the challenges of the northern environment. These chains tend to replicate the same design for their buildings, and use the same energy source regardless of the local climate. The Green Power Initiative (GPI) promotes the development of small-scale renewable energy such as wind and micro-hydro projects to reduce the use of expensive diesel-generated electricity. The paper described the tangible results that have been produced by the wind development component of the GPI. The Energy Solution Centre is also promoting the wider use of photovoltaic systems for hot water heating to offset the use of imported fossil fuels. The Yukon is also addressing the stranded surplus of hydroelectricity by building new transmission lines to communities dependent on fossil fuel power. The construction

  17. Traditional Male Circumcision In A Rural Community In Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid A K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circumcision though not mentioned inthe Quran is believed to be a compulsory practiceamong the Muslims. In Malaysia, although there areseveral methods of circumcision available andtraditional circumcision is still popular.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in asmall fishing village of Kedah to study the methods ofcircumcision available to the villagers. This wasfollowed with an in-depth interview conducted with‘Tok Mudim’, a practitioner of traditional method ofcircumcision.Results: Forty three of the eligible 71 subjectsparticipated in the study giving the response rate as60.5%. The most common age for circumcision was9 years old. Despite private clinics being the mostcommon place of circumcisions, there was an increasingnumber of boys going to the ‘Tok Mudim’ forcircumcision. A Mass Circumcision Ceremony istraditionally practiced. The ‘Tok Mudim’ described theprocedure in detail and was of the opinion that thereason traditional method is still popular was because ofthe fear of injections and impotency among the parents.Most common complication faced by the ‘Tok Mudim’was bleeding and infection.Discussion and Conclusion: Till the community shiftsentirely to using modern medicine, there is a need tointegrate traditional practitioners into the system.Training the ‘Tok Mudim’ to use modern instrumentsand aseptic techniques should be considered.

  18. Robust E-Health Communication Architecture for Rural Communities in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Idachaba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of access to quality healthcare and the lack of sufficient manpower, especially doctors, in rural areas is a major healthcare challenge faced by dwellers in rural communities in most developing countries. The intervention of governments, which range from the introduction of training programs aimed at producing health workers from schools of health technology and nursing to the recalling and deployment of retired nurses to rural areas, has still not been able to generate the desired improvement in healthcare delivery, as outbreaks of epidemics are still being reported in such areas. This work presents an E-Health architecture which utilizes low cost sensors and communication devices to link the doctors in the urban areas with the patients in rural areas enabling doctors-patients interaction. The system enables accurate and timely diagnosis of the patients and facilitates proper treatment plans. It also incorporates an epidemic alert which enables the tracking of diseases and the early detection and control of epidemics.

  19. Service providers' experiences of using a telehealth network 12 months after digitisation of a large Australian rural mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Schrader, Geoffrey

    2016-10-01

    Despite evidence of benefits of telehealth networks in increasing access to, or providing, previously unavailable mental health services, care providers still prefer traditional approaches. For psychiatric assessment, digital technology can offer improvements over analog systems for the technical and, subsequently, the social quality of provider-client interaction. This is in turn expected to support greater provider uptake and enhanced patient benefits. Within the framework of Innovation Diffusion Theory, to study service providers' experiences of an existing regional telehealth network for mental health care practice twelve months after digitisation in order to identify the benefits of digital telehealth over an analog system for mental health care purposes in rural Australia. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with over 40 service providers from June to September 2013 in South Australia, ranging from the metropolitan central operations to health providers located up to 600km away in rural and remote areas of the same state. Participants included rural mental health teams, directors of nursing at rural hospitals, metropolitan-based psychiatrists and registrars, the metropolitan-based mental health team dedicated to rural provider support, rural GPs, administrative staff, and the executive group of the state rural health department. Fieldwork was conducted 12 months after the analog system was digitised. The interview and focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis, focusing on three key areas of innovation diffusion theory: relative advantage, technical complexity and technical compatibility. Five themes with 11 sub-themes were identified: (1) "Existing Uses", with three sub-themes: current mental health use, use by GPs, and use for staff support; (2) "Relative Advantage", with four sub-themes: improved technical quality, improved clinical practice, time and cost benefits for providers, and improved patient care; (3) "Technical

  20. Community Participation and Barriers in Rural Tourism: A Case Study in Kiulu, Sabah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velnisa Paimin N. F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation on local community participation and barriers in rural tourism. It identifies two sides of community participation in tourism as identified by Timothy [5], which are; the benefits point of view and from the decision making process perspective. It also identifies the communities’ barriers in engaging in tourism and uses Tosun’s [18] approach in examining the barriers. A total of eighty-three questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from seven villages in Kiulu, Sabah, Malaysia. Respondents involved in tourism were mainly engaged as river guides, homestay operators and Tagal participants. Their involvement in the decision making process were limited to attending meetings and giving ideas and opinions only. The main barriers to participate in tourism were related to their limited knowledge about tourism, lack of capital, unable to communicate well in English, lack of information about tourism development in Kiulu, and limited incentives or support from the government for tourism development. The findings have significant implication to community participation in tourism especially in rural settings. More efforts should be made to ensure many more communities participate in tourism so as to share the benefits of tourism.