WorldWideScience

Sample records for australian rodents conilurini

  1. Risky business: do native rodents use habitat and odor cues to manage predation risk in Australian deserts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E Spencer

    Full Text Available In open, arid environments with limited shelter there may be strong selection on small prey species to develop behaviors that facilitate predator avoidance. Here, we predicted that rodents should avoid predator odor and open habitats to reduce their probability of encounter with potential predators, and tested our predictions using a native Australian desert rodent, the spinifex hopping-mouse (Notomys alexis. We tested the foraging and movement responses of N. alexis to non-native predator (fox and cat odor, in sheltered and open macro- and microhabitats. Rodents did not respond to predator odor, perhaps reflecting the inconsistent selection pressure that is imposed on prey species in the desert environment due to the transience of predator-presence. However, they foraged primarily in the open and moved preferentially across open sand. The results suggest that N. alexis relies on escape rather than avoidance behavior when managing predation risk, with its bipedal movement probably allowing it to exploit open environments most effectively.

  2. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  3. Uus Multiphonic Rodent

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tartus tegutsenud eksperimentaal-rock-duo Opium Flirt Eestisse jäänud liige Erki Hõbe (paarimees Ervin Trofimov tegutseb Ungaris) annab välja oma teise sooloalbumi nime all Multiphonic Rodent, heliplaadi "Astral Dance" esitluskontsert toimub 5. veebruaril Tallinnas baaris Juuksur

  4. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  5. Correlates of Recent Declines of Rodents in Northern and Southern Australia: Habitat Structure Is Critical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Lawes

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in Australian rodents. We demonstrate that rodent declines have been greater in the south than in the tropical north, are strongly influenced by phylogeny, and are consistently greater for species inhabiting relatively open or sparsely vegetated habitat. Unlike in marsupials, where some species have much larger body size than rodents, body mass was not an important predictor of decline in rodents. All Australian rodent species are within the prey-size range of cats (throughout the continent and red foxes (in the south. Contrary to the hypothesis that mammal declines are related directly to ecosystem productivity (annual rainfall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances such as fire and grazing, which occur in non-rainforest habitats and remove cover used by rodents for shelter, nesting and foraging, increase predation risk. We agree with calls to introduce conservation management that limits the size and intensity of fires, increases fire patchiness and reduces grazing impacts at ecological scales appropriate for rodents. Controlling feral predators, even creating predator-free reserves in relatively sparsely-vegetated habitats, is urgently required to ensure the survival of rodent species, particularly in northern Australia where declines are not yet as severe as those in the south.

  6. The rodent ultrasound production mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L H

    1975-03-01

    Rodents produce two types of sounds, audible and ultrasonic, that differ markedly in physical structure. Studies of sound production in light gases show that whereas the audible cries appear to be produced, as in the case of most other mammals, by vibrating structures in the larynx, the ultrasonic cries are produced by a different mechanism, probably a whistle. 'Bird-call' whistles are shown to have all the properties of rodent ultrasonic cries and to mimic them in almost every detail. Thus it is concluded that rodents have two distinct sound production mechanisms, one for audible cries and one for ultrasonic cries.

  7. Virtual reality systems for rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurley, Kay; Ayaz, Aslı

    2017-02-01

    Over the last decade virtual reality (VR) setups for rodents have been developed and utilized to investigate the neural foundations of behavior. Such VR systems became very popular since they allow the use of state-of-the-art techniques to measure neural activity in behaving rodents that cannot be easily used with classical behavior setups. Here, we provide an overview of rodent VR technologies and review recent results from related research. We discuss commonalities and differences as well as merits and issues of different approaches. A special focus is given to experimental (behavioral) paradigms in use. Finally we comment on possible use cases that may further exploit the potential of VR in rodent research and hence inspire future studies.

  8. Australian energy statistics - Australian energy update 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, K.

    2005-06-15

    ABARE's energy statistics include comprehensive coverage of Australian energy consumption, by state, by industry and by fuel. Australian Energy Update 2005 provides an overview of recent trends and description of the full coverage of the dataset. There are 14 Australian energy statistical tables available as free downloads (product codes 13172 to 13185).

  9. Forecasting rodent outbreaks in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter

    1996-01-01

    1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys...... natalensis rats in Tanzania are significantly affected by the distribution of rainfall during the rainy season. 4. All previous rodent outbreaks in Tanzania were preceded by abundant rainfall early in the rainy season, i.e, towards the end of the year. 5. A flow chart is constructed to assess the likelihood...

  10. Convergent and Divergent Adaptations of Subterranean Rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Xiaodong

    Subterranean rodents comprise approximately 250 species that spend their entire lives in underground, unventilated tunnels, distributed along all continents except Australia and Antarctica. Subterranean rodents escape from predators and extreme climatic fluctuations in their underground habitats,...

  11. Guide to Commensal Rodent Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    in many detergents also fluoresce. For positive identification, place the suspect material on Urease Siom lhymol Blue test paper, moisten with water...are applied in a thin layer in protected rat and mouse r’unways, baitboxes, or tubes along walls. The powder is picked up by the rodents on their feet

  12. The Ethics of Rodent Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Brom, F.W.A.; Kijlstra, A.

    2008-01-01

    Because western societies generally see animals as objects of moral concern, demands have been made on the way they are treated, e.g. during animal experimentation. In the case of rodent pests, however, inhumane control methods are often applied. This inconsistency in the human-animal relationship

  13. A biometric approach to laboratory rodent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jens; Jacobson, Christina; Nilsson, Kenneth; Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn

    2007-03-01

    Individual identification of laboratory rodents typically involves invasive methods, such as tattoos, ear clips, and implanted transponders. Beyond the ethical dilemmas they may present, these methods may cause pain or distress that confounds research results. The authors describe a prototype device for biometric identification of laboratory rodents that would allow researchers to identify rodents without the complications of other methods. The device, which uses the rodent's ear blood vessel pattern as the identifier, is fast, automatic, noninvasive, and painless.

  14. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  15. Allometric disparity in rodent evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson LAB

    2013-01-01

    In this study, allometric trajectories for 51 rodent species, comprising equal representatives from each of the major clades (Ctenohystrica, Muroidea, Sciuridae), are compared in a multivariate morphospace (=allometric space) to quantify magnitudes of disparity in cranial growth. Variability in allometric trajectory patterns was compared to measures of adult disparity in each clade, and dietary habit among the examined species, which together encapsulated an ecomorphological breadth. Results ...

  16. Urban resident attitudes toward rodents, rodent control products, and environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...

  17. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  18. Thermoregulation of the subterranean rodent genus Bathyergus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermoregulation of the largest subterranean rodent, genus Bathyergus, comprising two species, B. suillus and B. janetta,occurring in mesic and semiarid habitats respectively, was investigated and compared with that of other subterranean rodents. Both species display low resting metabolic rates and low body ...

  19. Rodent Models for Metabolic Syndrome Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are widely used to mimic human diseases to improve understanding of the causes and progression of disease symptoms and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, together known as the metabolic syndrome, are causing increasing morbidity and mortality. To control these diseases, research in rodent models that closely mimic the changes in humans is essential. This review will examine the adequacy of the many rodent models of metabolic syndrome to mimic the causes and progression of the disease in humans. The primary criterion will be whether a rodent model initiates all of the signs, especially obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidney, primarily by diet since these are the diet-induced signs in humans with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the model that comes closest to fulfilling this criterion is the high carbohydrate, high fat-fed male rodent.

  20. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  1. Wild Rodent Ectoparasites Collected from Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Zarei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents play an important role as reservoir of some pathogens, and the host of some ectoparasites as well. These ectoparasites can transmit rodents’ pathogens to human or animals. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and infestation load of ectoparasites on rodents in Meshkin-Shahr District, northwestern Iran.Method: Rodents were captured using baited live traps in spring 2014 from Meshkin-Shahr District and were trans­ferred to the laboratory for identification to the species level. Their ectoparasites were collected, mounted and identi­fied.Results: Three rodent species including Meriones persicus (74%, Mus musculus (16.9% and Cricetulus migrato­rius (9% were identified. Among all rodents, 185 specimens (90.69% were infested with a total of 521 ectopara­sites. Overall, 10 arthropods species were collected, including fleas (97.6%, one mite (1.6% and one louse species (0.6% as follows: Xenopsylla nubica, X. astia, X. buxtoni, X. cheopis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, N. iranus, Cten­ocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus rettigismiti, Ornithonyssus sp and one species of genus Polyplax. The most prev­alent ectoparasites species was X. nubica (89%.Conclusion: Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla species. Monitoring of ectoparasites on infested rodents is very important for awareness and early warning towards control of arthropod-borne diseases.

  2. Tactile learning in rodents: Neurobiology and neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ayoobi, Fateme; Fatemi, Iman; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2016-02-15

    Animal models of learning and memory have been the subject of considerable research. Rodents such as mice and rats are nocturnal animals with poor vision, and their survival depends on their sense of touch. Recent reports have shown that whisker somatosensation is the main channel through which rodents collect and process environmental information. This review describes tactile learning in rodents from a neurobiological and neuropharmacological perspective, and how this is involved in memory-related processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rodent management: the man/environment interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Rodents which interact with man generally are regarded as undesirable. Attempts at eliminating such rodents by increasing predation (including traps, microbiological agents, toxicants) have been relatively unsuccessful. Management by environmental manipulation must be basic. This then can be supplemented with predation at critical points where public health, use practices, or imperfections in the system demand. Society mores, practices, and economic considerations also have significant impact on the management system

  4. The Australian synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  5. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  6. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  7. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues such ......-go’ principle at times conceptually overlaps with cosmopolitan ethics. However, it also bears the potential to hinder cosmopolitan practices. Ultimately national and cosmopolitan ethical frameworks have to be interrogated simultaneously when applied to micro-level interactions....

  8. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected pheno...

  9. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans

  10. Neurogenic inflammation in human and rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2001-01-01

    The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells.......The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...

  11. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Warren; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  12. Australian uranium industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, R K

    1976-04-01

    Various aspects of the Australian uranium industry are discussed including the prospecting, exploration and mining of uranium ores, world supply and demand, the price of uranium and the nuclear fuel cycle. The market for uranium and the future development of the industry are described.

  13. Australian uranium today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  14. Australian Film Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  15. Object Recognition Memory and the Rodent Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…

  16. BEHAVIOURAL STUDIES ON SOME RHODESIAN RODENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviour, . courtship, parental and juvenile behaviour and activity patterns. ... behavioural observations were facilitated by the development of a glass-fronted ~'double-storey" cage which ..... Adolescent siblings in both single sex and mixed groups ..... Wild rodents as Laboratory Animals and their contribution to medical.

  17. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.

  18. Dietary patterns of two herbivorous rodents: and Parotomys brantsii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency of occurrence of plant species in the diets were compared with availability of the plants in the rodents' habitats. Both rodents are generalist herbivores, eating plants species in proportion to the availability in their habitats. Dietary patterns, diversity of diet and degree of overlap between rodent's diets are a function ...

  19. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  20. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  1. Leptospira interrogans in Rodents from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Luis, Josué; Foronda, Pilar; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Feliu, Carlos; Alves, Joana; Gil, Horacio; Valladares, Basilio

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. In most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. This study was carried out in Santiago Island, Cape Verde, in 2012-2013. A total of 62 wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus domesticus) were analyzed. The lipL32 gene, present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp., was amplified by PCR, and 16 samples were positive (25.8%). In both rodent species, Leptospira interrogans was identified. The results show the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the three localities analyzed in Santiago. The presence of L. interrogans demonstrates a serious health risk for the population, since this species has been associated with the most severe form of leptospirosis, the Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage.

  2. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  3. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual

  4. Conditions for Australian consent to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This article contains the text of the statement by the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the House of Representatives, Noember 1980, on conditions for Australian consent to the reprocessing of nuclear material of Australian origin

  5. Population Divergence in Venom Bioactivities of Elapid Snake Pseudonaja textilis: Role of Procoagulant Proteins in Rapid Rodent Prey Incapacitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skejić, Jure; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at how toxic proteins in venoms of adult Australian eastern Brown snakes Pseudonaja textilis from South Australian and Queensland populations interact with physiological functions of the lab SD rat Rattus norvegicus. Circulatory collapse and incoagulable blood occurred instantly after injection of venom under the dorsal skin of anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats in an imitation of a P. textilis bite. Intravenous injection of purified P. textilis (Mackay, QLD) venom prothrombin activator proteins caused instant failure of circulation, testifying of high toxicity of these proteins and suggesting their role in rapid incapacitation of rodent prey. The hypothesis is further supported by circulatory collapse occurring instantly despite artificial respiration in envenomed rats and the finding of extremely high venom procoagulant potency in rat plasma. LC-MS and physiology assays revealed divergent venom composition and biological activity of South Australian (Barossa locality) and Queensland (Mackay locality) populations, which may be driven by selection for different prey. The Queensland venom of P. textilis was found to be more procoagulant and to exhibit predominately presynaptic neurotoxicity, while the South Australian venom contained diverse postsynaptic type II and III α-neurotoxins in addition to the presynaptic neurotoxins and caused significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. LC-MS analysis found evidence of multiple coagulation factor X-like proteins in P. textilis venoms, including a match to P. textilis coagulation factor X isoform 2, previously known to be expressed only in the liver. PMID:23691135

  6. Population divergence in venom bioactivities of elapid snake Pseudonaja textilis: role of procoagulant proteins in rapid rodent prey incapacitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Skejić

    Full Text Available This study looked at how toxic proteins in venoms of adult Australian eastern Brown snakes Pseudonaja textilis from South Australian and Queensland populations interact with physiological functions of the lab SD rat Rattus norvegicus. Circulatory collapse and incoagulable blood occurred instantly after injection of venom under the dorsal skin of anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats in an imitation of a P. textilis bite. Intravenous injection of purified P. textilis (Mackay, QLD venom prothrombin activator proteins caused instant failure of circulation, testifying of high toxicity of these proteins and suggesting their role in rapid incapacitation of rodent prey. The hypothesis is further supported by circulatory collapse occurring instantly despite artificial respiration in envenomed rats and the finding of extremely high venom procoagulant potency in rat plasma. LC-MS and physiology assays revealed divergent venom composition and biological activity of South Australian (Barossa locality and Queensland (Mackay locality populations, which may be driven by selection for different prey. The Queensland venom of P. textilis was found to be more procoagulant and to exhibit predominately presynaptic neurotoxicity, while the South Australian venom contained diverse postsynaptic type II and III α-neurotoxins in addition to the presynaptic neurotoxins and caused significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. LC-MS analysis found evidence of multiple coagulation factor X-like proteins in P. textilis venoms, including a match to P. textilis coagulation factor X isoform 2, previously known to be expressed only in the liver.

  7. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  8. A Survey of Zoonotic Pathogens Carried by Non-Indigenous Rodents at the Interface of the Wet Tropics of North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, S; Picard, J; Duffy, R; Constantinoiu, C; Gummow, B

    2017-02-01

    In 1964, Brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in Wooroonooran National Park (WNP), in Northern Queensland, Australia. Genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel Brucella species. This study attempted to reisolate this species of Brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to WNP and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. Seventy non-indigenous rodents were trapped [Mus musculus (52), Rattus rattus (17) and Rattus norvegicus (1)], euthanized and sampled on four properties adjacent to the WNP in July 2012. Organ pools were screened by culture for Salmonella, Leptospira and Brucella species, real-time PCR for Coxiella burnetii and conventional PCR for Leptospira. Collected ecto- and endo-parasites were identified using morphological criteria. The percentage of rodents carrying pathogens were Leptospira (40%), Salmonella choleraesuis ssp. arizonae (14.29%), ectoparasites (21.42%) and endoparasites (87%). Brucella and C. burnetii were not identified, and it was concluded that their prevalences were below 12%. Two rodent-specific helminthic species, namely Syphacia obvelata (2.86%) and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (85.71%), were identified. The most prevalent ectoparasites belonged to Laelaps spp. (41.17%) followed by Polyplax spp. (23.53%), Hoplopleura spp. (17.65%), Ixodes holocyclus (17.64%) and Stephanocircus harrisoni (5.88%), respectively. These ectoparasites, except S. harrisoni, are known to transmit zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. from rat to rat and could be transmitted to humans by other arthropods that bite humans. The high prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira species is of significant public health concern. This is the first known study of zoonotic agents carried by non-indigenous rodents living in the Australian wet-tropical forest interface. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  10. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  11. Australian nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerin, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Government considers that allegations made by the West German magazine - Der Spiegel in its January and February 1988 editions, flow from a lack of understanding of the complexities of international trade in nuclear materials, confusion between internal and international flag swaps and failure to comprehend the equivalence principle used in nuclear materials accounting. The Ministerial statement briefly outlines these issues and concludes that there is no evidence that any material subject to Australia's bilateral safeguards agreement has been diverted from peaceful uses or that Australia's safeguard requirements have been breached

  12. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Australian University International Student Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  14. Australians' use of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Sam G; Stafford-Bell, Martyn A; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of parents and intended parents and their current and planned behaviour in relation to surrogacy arrangements. Members of two Australian parenting support forums who were considering surrogacy or were currently or previously in a surrogacy arrangement were invited to complete an online survey during July 2013. Sociodemographic characteristics; proportions engaging in domestic uncompensated and overseas compensated arrangements; countries used; costs incurred; and impact on behaviour of state laws criminalising compensated surrogacy. Of 1135 potential participants, 312 (27%) commenced the survey. Of these, 24 did not fulfil inclusion criteria and 29 did not complete the survey. Eighty-nine respondents were considering surrogacy and 170 had commenced or completed surrogacy. Many respondents (53%) considered both overseas and domestic surrogacy. Among those who only considered one option, overseas surrogacy was considered significantly more often than domestic surrogacy (92% v 8%; P surrogacy were India and the United States, and average total estimated costs were $69 212 for India and $172 347 for the US. Barriers discouraging domestic surrogacy included concern that the surrogate might keep the child (75%), belief that it was too long and complicated a process (68%) and having no one of the right age or life stage to ask (61%). Few intended parents (9%) were deterred by state laws criminalising compensated surrogacy. Most Australian intended parents via surrogacy consider or use overseas compensated arrangements. Laws banning compensated surrogacy do not appear to deter those seeking surrogacy arrangements.

  15. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  16. Euthanasia using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, A M; Guedes, S R; Pereira, A M; Antunes, L M

    2016-08-01

    Several questions have been raised in recent years about the euthanasia of laboratory rodents. Euthanasia using inhaled agents is considered to be a suitable aesthetic method for use with a large number of animals simultaneously. Nevertheless, its aversive potential has been criticized in terms of animal welfare. The data available regarding the use of carbon dioxide (CO2), inhaled anaesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and enflurane), as well as carbon monoxide and inert gases are discussed throughout this review. Euthanasia of fetuses and neonates is also addressed. A table listing currently available information to ease access to data regarding euthanasia techniques using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents was compiled. Regarding better animal welfare, there is currently insufficient evidence to advocate banning or replacing CO2 in the euthanasia of rodents; however, there are hints that alternative gases are more humane. The exposure to a volatile anaesthetic gas before loss of consciousness has been proposed by some scientific studies to minimize distress; however, the impact of such a measure is not clear. Areas of inconsistency within the euthanasia literature have been highlighted recently and stem from insufficient knowledge, especially regarding the advantages of the administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane over CO2, or other methods, before loss of consciousness. Alternative methods to minimize distress may include the development of techniques aimed at inducing death in the home cage of animals. Scientific outcomes have to be considered before choosing the most suitable euthanasia method to obtain the best results and accomplish the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Simple, inexpensive computerized rodent activity meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R M; Karachunski, P I; Kellermann, S A; Conti-Fine, B M

    1995-10-01

    We describe two approaches for using obsolescent computers, either an IBM PC XT or an Apple Macintosh Plus, to accurately quantify spontaneous rodent activity, as revealed by continuous monitoring of the spontaneous usage of running activity wheels. Because such computers can commonly be obtained at little or no expense, and other commonly available materials and inexpensive parts can be used, these meters can be built quite economically. Construction of these meters requires no specialized electronics expertise, and their software requirements are simple. The computer interfaces are potentially of general interest, as they could also be used for monitoring a variety of events in a research setting.

  18. Harvesting behaviour of three central European rodents: Identifying the rodent pest in cereals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Tkadlec, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2011), s. 82-84 ISSN 0261-2194 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Apodemus sylvaticus * Apodemus uralensis * feeding behaviour * lab experiments * Microtus arvalis * rodent pest control Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.402, year: 2011

  19. The Australian synchrotron research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  20. Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  2. CRISPR Diversity in E. coli Isolates from Australian Animals, Humans and Environmental Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim S Sheludchenko

    Full Text Available Seventy four SNP genotypes and 54 E. coli genomes from kangaroo, Tasmanian devil, reptile, cattle, dog, horse, duck, bird, fish, rodent, human and environmental water sources were screened for the presence of the CRISPR 2.1 loci flanked by cas2 and iap genes. CRISPR 2.1 regions were found in 49% of the strains analysed. The majority of human E. coli isolates lacked the CRISPR 2.1 locus. We described 76 CRISPR 2.1 positive isolates originating from Australian animals and humans, which contained a total of 764 spacer sequences. CRISPR arrays demonstrated a long history of phage attacks especially in isolates from birds (up to 40 spacers. The most prevalent spacer (1.6% was an ancient spacer found mainly in human, horse, duck, rodent, reptile and environmental water sources. The sequence of this spacer matched the intestinal P7 phage and the pO111 plasmid of E. coli.

  3. Visual Landmarks Facilitate Rodent Spatial Navigation in Virtual Reality Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Isaac A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2012-01-01

    Because many different sensory modalities contribute to spatial learning in rodents, it has been difficult to determine whether spatial navigation can be guided solely by visual cues. Rodents moving within physical environments with visual cues engage a variety of nonvisual sensory systems that cannot be easily inhibited without lesioning brain…

  4. Population dynamics of Rodents and Insectivores in lowland tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The community structure of rodents and insectivores in the lowland tropical rainforest of Okomu National Park, Edo State, Nigeria was assessed using a combination of live-trapping and sighting techniques during the dry and wet seasons. Seventeen species (14 species of rodent, 3 species of insectivores) were captured, ...

  5. Early Eocene rodents (Mammalia) from the Subathu Formation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997a, b). Most of the rodents from this stratigraphic level have been referred to a rather diverse family Cha- pattimyidae ... Herein we describe a new early Eocene rodent assemblage .... thick zone of brownish red shales that occur as a ..... 1997b;. Plate 3, figure 31). ...... northwestern Pakistan and remarks on the collision.

  6. Ecology of rodents at an old quarry in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology of rodents at an old quarry in Zambia. E.N. Chidumayo. Livingstone Museum, Zambia. An old quarry, 2,5 hain size near Livingstone in southern. Zambia was kill- and live-trapped between September 1974 and December 1976 to determine ecological relations among. rodent species inhabiting it. Seven species ...

  7. Public Health and Rodents: A Game of Cat and Mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    Rodents are the most abundant order of living mammals, distributed on every continent except Antarctic and represent 43 % of all mammalian species. Beside causing food losses and infrastructural damage, rodents can harbour pathogens that may cause serious problems to human and animal health.

  8. Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Bonde, M.; Brom, F.W.A.; Endepols, S.; Jensen, A.N.; Leirs, H.; Lodal, J.; Singleton, G.R.; Pelz, H.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Kijlstra, A.

    2004-01-01

    From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production

  9. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  10. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  11. Foundations of Australian Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Laurel

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, Australia's leading economists were well versed in the nature of Australian agriculture but it was not until the 1930s and 1940s that scientists and economists alike realised there was an obvious need for trained agricultural economists. In this paper it is argued that the foundations of Australian agricultural economics were laid in the period immediately following the economic upheaval of the Great Depression and the Second World War. The formali...

  12. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  13. Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Mathilde; Tatard, Caroline; Chaval, Yannick; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which

  14. Testing the limits of Rodent Sperm Analysis: azoospermia in an otherwise healthy wild rodent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Thran, Brandolyn H; Willams, Keith J

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the sperm parameters of small rodents trapped at contaminated terrestrial sites and nearby habitat-matched noncontaminated locations, the patent-pending Rodent Sperm Analysis (RSA) method provides a direct health status appraisal for the maximally chemical-exposed mammalian ecological receptor in the wild. RSA outcomes have consistently allowed for as definitive determinations of receptor health as are possible at the present time, thereby streamlining the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process. Here, we describe the unanticipated discovery, at a contaminated US EPA Superfund National Priorities List site, of a population of Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), with a high percentage of adult males lacking sperm entirely (azoospermia). In light of the RSA method's role in streamlining ERAs and in bringing contaminated Superfund-type site investigations to closure, we consider the consequences of the discovery. The two matters specifically discussed are (1) the computation of a population's average sperm count where azoospermia is present and (2) the merits of the RSA method and its sperm parameter thresholds-for-effect when azoospermia is masked in an otherwise apparently healthy rodent population.

  15. A Community-Based Surveillance on Determinants of Rodent Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hua Pai

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodent infestation is an important factor in the transmission of infectious diseases of public health importance. From October to November 1998, surveillance stations were established in 110 boroughs of Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan. Boroughs were chosen by random sampling 10 boroughs from each of 11 districts (464 boroughs in the city. The extent of rodent infestation was determined by cage trapping. The possibility of applying a community-based control program was evaluated by investigating associated demographic and environmental factors as well as related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. A total of 90 rodents were trapped in 41% of the 110 boroughs. Using univariate analyses, 17 factors were significantly associated with rodent infestation. A lack of knowledge that rodent control relies on community cooperation was the most important factor among the seven variables associated with the extent of rodent infestation (OR 3.1 by logistic multiple regression. This revealed the importance of community cooperation in controlling rodent infestation. Moreover, improvement of environmental hygiene associated with garbage problems, such as cleanliness of storage rooms and closets, and the hygiene of empty space and resource recycling stations should not be ignored.

  16. Leptospira and rodents in Cambodia : environmental determinants of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, S.; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, K.; Chaval, Y.; Buchy, P.; Guillard, B.; Morand, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were ...

  17. The bioeconomics of controlling an African rodent pest species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skonhoft, Anders; Leirs, Herwig; Andreassen, Harry P

    2006-01-01

    The paper treats the economy of controlling an African pest rodent, the multimammate rat, causing major damage in maize production. An ecological population model is presented and used as a basis for the economic analyses carried out at the village level using data from Tanzania. This model...... incorporates both density-dependent and density-independent (stochastic) factors. Rodents are controlled by applying poison, and the costs are made up of the cost of poison plus the damage to maize production. We analyse how the present-value costs of maize production are affected by various rodent control...

  18. Australian national proton facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    important in children and other long-term survivors. When used with chemotherapy, the lower dose to normal tissue will reduce acute toxicity and the risk of second malignancies. It may also be possible to use a smaller number of radiotherapy fractions and thus reduce the total cost of treatment. With the development of more compact and reliable accelerators it is now possible to realistically plan for proton therapy in an Australian hospital. The Australian National Proton Project has been formed to look at the feasibility of such a facility, which would be primarily for patient treatment but would also be suitable for research and commercial applications. A detailed report will be produced early next year. This presentation will outline the planned facility that would have a combination of fixed and rotating beams with an energy range of 70-250 MeV. Such a centre would enable the conduct of randomised trials and a comparison with other radiotherapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. The beam would be available for physics, engineering and biological research

  19. Network Analysis of Rodent Transcriptomes in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Maya; Fogle, Homer; Costes, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Network analysis methods leverage prior knowledge of cellular systems and the statistical and conceptual relationships between analyte measurements to determine gene connectivity. Correlation and conditional metrics are used to infer a network topology and provide a systems-level context for cellular responses. Integration across multiple experimental conditions and omics domains can reveal the regulatory mechanisms that underlie gene expression. GeneLab has assembled rich multi-omic (transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and epitranscriptomics) datasets for multiple murine tissues from the Rodent Research 1 (RR-1) experiment. RR-1 assesses the impact of 37 days of spaceflight on gene expression across a variety of tissue types, such as adrenal glands, quadriceps, gastrocnemius, tibalius anterior, extensor digitorum longus, soleus, eye, and kidney. Network analysis is particularly useful for RR-1 -omics datasets because it reinforces subtle relationships that may be overlooked in isolated analyses and subdues confounding factors. Our objective is to use network analysis to determine potential target nodes for therapeutic intervention and identify similarities with existing disease models. Multiple network algorithms are used for a higher confidence consensus.

  20. Rodent models of adaptive decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Belcher, Annabelle M

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive decision making affords the animal the ability to respond quickly to changes in a dynamic environment: one in which attentional demands, cost or effort to procure the reward, and reward contingencies change frequently. The more flexible the organism is in adapting choice behavior, the more command and success the organism has in navigating its environment. Maladaptive decision making is at the heart of much neuropsychiatric disease, including addiction. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie normal, adaptive decision making helps achieve a better understanding of certain diseases that incorporate maladaptive decision making as a core feature. This chapter presents three general domains of methods that the experimenter can manipulate in animal decision-making tasks: attention, effort, and reward contingency. Here, we present detailed methods of rodent tasks frequently employed within these domains: the Attentional Set-Shift Task, Effortful T-maze Task, and Visual Discrimination Reversal Learning. These tasks all recruit regions within the frontal cortex and the striatum, and performance is heavily modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine, making these assays highly valid measures in the study of psychostimulant addiction.

  1. Navigating actions through the rodent parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Whitlock

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal cortex (PPC participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial versus motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 second in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys.

  2. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  4. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: A study of rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of toxoplasmosis in child-bearing women in rural Sudan is even higher ranging ... crops. Animal trapping. Live rodents and shrews were captured in cultivated ..... P., Hodný, Z. & Vondrová, M. (2011) Fatal attraction phenomenon in.

  5. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-05-04

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Garrett, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  7. Australian Journalists' Professional and Ethical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, John

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the first comprehensive national study of Australian journalists. Finds that Australian journalists are similar to their United States colleagues in distributions of age, sex, and socioeconomic background, but have less formal education. Shows that Australians have mixed professional and ethical values and are committed both to…

  8. Should there be an Australian Army Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    subscriptions, private donations , and the commercial sales of specialized merchandise. It also determined that a lifetime individual membership would be...following potential sources of income: individual subscriptions, corporate subscriptions, private donations , and the commercial sales of... Armoured Corps RAAF Royal Australian Air Force RAMSI Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands RAN Royal Australian Navy RAR Royal Australian

  9. An Australian view of the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. Introduction (principal Australian uranium deposits, possible Australian production, estimates of world-wide uranium resources and production, estimates of world-wide uranium requirements); Australian marketing policy; commercial considerations; uncertainties affecting the industry, including unnecessary and undesirable government involvement, and supply and demand. (U.K.)

  10. The bioeconomics of controlling an African rodent pest species

    OpenAIRE

    Skonhoft, Anders; Herwig, Leirs; Andreassen, Harry Peter; Mulungu, Loth S. A.; Stenseth, Nils Christian

    2006-01-01

    The paper treats the economy of controlling an African pest rodent, the multimammate rat, causing major damage in maize production. An ecological population model is presented and used as a basis for the economic analyses carried out at the village level using data from Tanzania. This model incorporates both density-dependent and density-independent (stochastic) factors. Rodents are controlled by applying poison, and the economic benefits depend on the income from maize production minus the c...

  11. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  12. Ectoparasites of Rodents Captured in Hamedan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Zendehfili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents with a population greater than the entire population of other mammals on earth are the source of economic losses and health conflicts. One of the major health problems with the rodents is their role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in Hamedan City, Western Iran.Methods: The samples were collected by live traps during years 2012–2013. After transferring the samples to the Entomological Laboratory of Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, their ectoparasites were collected andidentified.Results: A total of 171 slides were prepared from 105 captured commensal rodents: Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus comprising three orders namely Mesostigmata: Hypoaspis (Laelaspis astronomica, Dermanyssius sp, Pachylaelapidae (male. Metastigmata: Rhipicephalus sp and Anoplura: Polyplax spinulosa were recovered in Hamedan City. Seventy (66.6% rodents were found infested with at least one species of ectoparasites.Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that ectoparasites infestation in commensal rodents of Hamedan city is high and more attention by local health authorities is needed to prevent zoonotic diseases.

  13. Template based rodent brain extraction and atlas mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Huang; Jiaqi Zhang; Zhiping Lin; Su Huang; Yuping Duan; Zhongkang Lu

    2016-08-01

    Accurate rodent brain extraction is the basic step for many translational studies using MR imaging. This paper presents a template based approach with multi-expert refinement to automatic rodent brain extraction. We first build the brain appearance model based on the learning exemplars. Together with the template matching, we encode the rodent brain position into the search space to reliably locate the rodent brain and estimate the rough segmentation. With the initial mask, a level-set segmentation and a mask-based template learning are implemented further to the brain region. The multi-expert fusion is used to generate a new mask. We finally combine the region growing based on the histogram distribution learning to delineate the final brain mask. A high-resolution rodent atlas is used to illustrate that the segmented low resolution anatomic image can be well mapped to the atlas. Tested on a public data set, all brains are located reliably and we achieve the mean Jaccard similarity score at 94.99% for brain segmentation, which is a statistically significant improvement compared to two other rodent brain extraction methods.

  14. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  15. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Makoto, E-mail: ema-makoto@aist.go.jp; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-15

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs. - Highlights: • We review the developmental toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). • Various developmental endpoints have been

  16. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  17. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig

    2017-10-23

    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  18. Australian Naturalism and Its Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Park Sun

    1997-01-01

    Details the ongoing debate between Australian naturalists and their critics since the publication of C.W. Evers and G. Lakomski's seminal book "Knowing Educational Administration." Examines critics' views in several categories: the coherence concept, coherentism criteria, the naturalistic fallacy, and questions concerning foundations and…

  19. Boomerang - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Garrett, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was one of seven major national research facilities funded by the Federal Government in December 1995. The program provides guaranteed access and travel funds for Australian scientists to conduct synchrotron radiation-based research at two overseas facilities - the Photon Factory at Tsukuba in Japan and the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National Laboratory in the US. The Federal Government also provided funding of $100K to carry out a Feasibility Study for an Australian-based facility. This has been completed and included a mission to a number of laboratories overseas that were or had recently constructed a facility that could be considered for Australia. Following the mission, consensus was achieved within the community for the specifications of a proposed Australian facility. The proposed facility, Boomerang, has an energy of 3 GeV, an emittance of 16 nm rad and will be equipped in the first phase with 9 instrument stations. Boomerang will be competitive in performance with other facilities currently under construction overseas. A detailed proposal has been submitted to the Federal Government for funding. No site has been specified in the proposal. The proposal was prepared within the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) following extensive consultation with industrial and scientific groups in all Australian states. Valuable contributions have been made by members of all the committees of the ASRP, the Australian synchrotron research community that works through the ASRP and the National Synchrotron Steering Committee. Important contributions have also been made by many industrial groups including consortia in Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. The input from the ANKA staff at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and, in particular. Professor Einfeld has been a critical component. The estimated capital cost of a no frills laboratory has been estimated to be $100M in 1999 dollars. The

  20. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control.

  1. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, Christopher M.; Koller, Claudia E.; Rodger, John C.; MacFarlane, Geoff R.

    2009-01-01

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  2. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Christopher M. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Centre for the Risk Management of Bushfires, Institute for Conservation Biology and Law, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Koller, Claudia E. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Rodger, John C. [Marsupial Research Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); MacFarlane, Geoff R., E-mail: geoff.macfarlane@newcastle.edu.au [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  3. Old World hantaviruses in rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans.

  4. Thieving rodents as substitute dispersers of megafaunal seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Hirsch, Ben T.; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other’s buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees. PMID:22802644

  5. Uranium: a notable Australian decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willheim, E

    1978-07-01

    Australia, with 20% of the world's known reserves, has legislated strict controls for the mining, milling, and export of its uranium deposits. Background information on the environmental inquiry preceding this legislation is reviewed, including a description of the Australian Environmental Protection Act and the Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry. A package of six bills implemented the Australian government's decisions on: (1) nuclear proliferation and safeguards, (2) mining in the Kakadu National Park wilderness area, (3) economic and social protection of the Aboriginal people, (4) nuclear waste disposal, (5) security from nuclear terrorism, and (6) environmental controls. The author concludes that the decision and implementing legislation were improved as a result of the public environmental inquiry technique.

  6. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  7. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  9. MR microscopy of the lung in small rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaya; Kubo, Shigeto; Kiryu, Shigeru; Gee, James; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how the mammalian respiratory system works and how it changes in disease states and under the influence of drugs is frequently pursued in model systems such as small rodents. These have many advantages, including being easily obtained in large numbers as purebred strains. Studies in small rodents are valuable for proof of concept studies and for increasing our knowledge about disease mechanisms. Since the recent developments in the generation of genetically designed animal models of disease, one needs the ability to assess morphology and function in in vivo systems. In this article, we first review previous reports regarding thoracic imaging. We then discuss approaches to take in making use of small rodents to increase MR microscopic sensitivity for these studies and to establish MR methods for clinically relevant lung imaging

  10. Can a native rodent species limit the invasive potential of a non-native rodent species in tropical agroforest habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Alexander M; Prescott, Colin V; Singleton, Grant R

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about native and non-native rodent species interactions in complex tropical agroecosystems. We hypothesised that the native non-pest rodent Rattus everetti may be competitively dominant over the invasive pest rodent Rattus tanezumi within agroforests. We tested this experimentally by using pulse removal for three consecutive months to reduce populations of R. everetti in agroforest habitat, and assessed over 6 months the response of R. tanezumi and other rodent species. Following removal, R. everetti individuals rapidly immigrated into removal sites. At the end of the study period, R. tanezumi were larger and there was a significant shift in their microhabitat use with respect to the use of ground vegetation cover following the perturbation of R. everetti. Irrespective of treatment, R. tanezumi selected microhabitat with less tree canopy cover, indicative of severely disturbed habitat, whereas R. everetti selected microhabitat with a dense canopy. Our results suggest that sustained habitat disturbance in agroforests favours R. tanezumi, while the regeneration of agroforests towards a more natural state would favour native species and may reduce pest pressure in adjacent crops. In addition, the rapid recolonisation of R. everetti suggests this species would be able to recover from non-target impacts of short-term rodent pest control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  12. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  13. Synanthropic rodents as possible reservoirs of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena eBlanco Crivelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC strains are worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for different cases of human disease including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Transmission of STEC to humans occurs through the consumption of food and water contaminated by faeces of carriers and by person-to-person contact.The objective of this study was twofold: (a to investigate whether synanthropic rodents are possible reservoirs of STEC in the urban area and (b whether a particular genus out of synanthropic rodent is the principal carrier of STEC.One hundred forty-five rodents were captured in Buenos Aires City. Screening for stx1/stx2 and rfbO157 was done by PCR from the confluence zone. STEC isolates were further characterized with biochemical tests by standard methods. Additional virulence factors (eae, ehxA and saa were also determined by PCR. Forty-one of the rodents were necropsied and sample of kidney and small and large intestine were taken for histopathological diagnosis. The samples sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and observed by light microscopy to evaluate the systemic involvement of these species in natural infections. STEC was isolated from seven out of twenty seven suspect animals at screening. The following genotypes were found in the STEC strains: stx1/stx2/ehxA (1, stx2 (4, stx2/ehxA (1, stx2/ehxA/eae (1. Neither gross nor microscopic lesions compatible with those produced by Shiga toxin were observed in the studied organs of necropsied rodents.The bivariate analysis including the hundred forty-five rodents data showed that the isolation of STEC is associated positively to Rattus genus. This synanthropic species may play a role in the transmissibility of the agent thus being a risk to the susceptible population. Their control should be included specifically in actions to dismiss the contamination of food and water by STEC in the urban area, as additional strategies for epidemiological control.

  14. Multiple infections of rodents with zoonotic pathogens in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-07-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans.

  15. Discovery of Novel Alphacoronaviruses in European Rodents and Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Tsoleridis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses.

  16. Stress, social behavior, and resilience: Insights from rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different social contexts. We consider variation between several different rodent species and make connections to research on humans and non-human primates. PMID:25562050

  17. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Safari; Soheila Mirshekary; Victoria Wise

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonst...

  18. Farmer survey in the hinterland of Kisangani (Democratic Republic of Congo) on rodent crop damage and rodent control techniques used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drazo, Nicaise Amundala; Kennis, Jan; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a survey on rodent crop damage among farmers in the hinterland of Kisangani (Democratic Republic of Congo). We studied the amount of crop damage, the rodent groups causing crop damage, the growth stages affected and the control techniques used. We conducted this survey in three...... municipalities using a standard questionnaire form translated into local languages, between November 2005 and June 2006 and during July 2007. We used the Quotas method and interviewed 70 households per municipality. Farmers indicated rodent groups implicated in crop damage on color photographs. Two types...... of survey techniques were used: individual and focus-group surveys. The sugar cane rat, Thryonomys sp. and Lemniscomys striatus caused most damage to crops, but inside granaries, Rattus rattus was the primary pest species eating stored food supplies and causing damage to stored goods. Cassava and maize were...

  19. A rodent malarial model of Plasmodium berghei for the development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rodent malarial model of Plasmodium berghei for the development of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistant malaria in mice. ... course approach with 125/6.25mg/kg S/P. The stability of resistance phenotypes, parasite pathogenic disposition and host leukocyte response were also investigated.

  20. seasonal population dynamics of rodents of mount chilalo, arsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: A study on seasonal population dynamics of rodents was carried out on Mount. Chilalo from .... vegetation growth, availability of food and water, and ... vegetation (3,300–4,200 masl) (Alemayehu. Mengistu, 1975; APEDO and ABRDP, 2004). The mountain is one of the Afrotropical biodiversity hotspots areas.

  1. Optimizing Cardiovascular Benefits of Exercise: A Review of Rodent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brittany; Moriguchi, Takeshi; Sumpio, Bauer

    2013-01-01

    Although research unanimously maintains that exercise can ward off cardiovascular disease (CVD), the optimal type, duration, intensity, and combination of forms are yet not clear. In our review of existing rodent-based studies on exercise and cardiovascular health, we attempt to find the optimal forms, intensities, and durations of exercise. Using Scopus and Medline, a literature review of English language comparative journal studies of cardiovascular benefits and exercise was performed. This review examines the existing literature on rodent models of aerobic, anaerobic, and power exercise and compares the benefits of various training forms, intensities, and durations. The rodent studies reviewed in this article correlate with reports on human subjects that suggest regular aerobic exercise can improve cardiac and vascular structure and function, as well as lipid profiles, and reduce the risk of CVD. Findings demonstrate an abundance of rodent-based aerobic studies, but a lack of anaerobic and power forms of exercise, as well as comparisons of these three components of exercise. Thus, further studies must be conducted to determine a truly optimal regimen for cardiovascular health. PMID:24436579

  2. Factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flea infection with the bacterium, Yersinia pestis is acquired from reservoirs which include several rodents and other small mammals. In areas that are endemic of plague, reservoirs of Y. pestis and various flea vectors are responsible for perpetuating existence of the disease. The objective of this cross sectional study was to ...

  3. Energetics and water relations ofN amib desert rodents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the possible effects of advective fog on the water balance of the .... Table 2 Energy balance of Namib desert rodents in the laboratory on a diet of air-dried bird seed and with, and with, ad lib water. .... responding mercury thermometer.

  4. The Revised Neurobehavioral Severity Scale (NSS-R) for Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Angela M; Barry, Erin S; Mountney, Andrea; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank; Grunberg, Neil E

    2016-04-08

    Motor and sensory deficits are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although rodent models provide valuable insight into the biological and functional outcomes of TBI, the success of translational research is critically dependent upon proper selection of sensitive, reliable, and reproducible assessments. Published literature includes various observational scales designed to evaluate post-injury functionality; however, the heterogeneity in TBI location, severity, and symptomology can complicate behavioral assessments. The importance of choosing behavioral outcomes that can be reliably and objectively quantified in an efficient manner is becoming increasingly important. The Revised Neurobehavioral Severity Scale (NSS-R) is a continuous series of specific, sensitive, and standardized observational tests that evaluate balance, motor coordination, and sensorimotor reflexes in rodents. The tasks follow a specific order designed to minimize interference: balance, landing, tail raise, dragging, righting reflex, ear reflex, eye reflex, sound reflex, tail pinch, and hindpaw pinch. The NSS-R has proven to be a reliable method differentiating brain-injured rodents from non-brain-injured rodents across many brain injury models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Reproducibility and replicability of rodent phenotyping in preclinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafkafi, Neri; Agassi, Joseph; Chesler, Elissa J.; Crabbe, John C.; Crusio, Wim E.; Eilam, David; Gerlai, Robert; Golani, Ilan; Gomez-Marin, Alex; Heller, Ruth; Iraqi, Fuad; Jaljuli, Iman; Karp, Natasha A.; Morgan, Hugh; Nicholson, George; Pfaff, Donald W.; Richter, S. Helene; Stark, Philip B.; Stiedl, Oliver; Stodden, Victoria; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Tucci, Valter; Valdar, William; Williams, Robert W.; Würbel, Hanno; Benjamini, Yoav

    The scientific community is increasingly concerned with the proportion of published “discoveries” that are not replicated in subsequent studies. The field of rodent behavioral phenotyping was one of the first to raise this concern, and to relate it to other methodological issues: the complex

  6. STATUS OF COMMENSAL RODENT -BORNE DISEASES RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents yang terdapat di rumah-rumah maupun di lapangan mempunyai peranan penting dalam penyebaran penyakit terhadap manusia dan binatang. Dalam tulisan ini disajikan peninjauan kembali literatur tentang penyakit-penyakit yang ditularkan oleh binatang, seperti : plague, scrub and murine typhus, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, angiostrongyliasis, yang biaya terdapat di Indonesia.

  7. Costs of rodent control in pine regeneration in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Cosens; David Tackle

    1950-01-01

    The control of seed-eating rodents, combined with the proper method of cutting and site preparation, appears essential to get the maximum results of natural seeding of pine. One method of control is by treating the area to be regenerated with lethal bait prior to seedfall. This note describes such a method and costs of treatment for the westside and eastside Sierran...

  8. Blood protozoan parasites of rodents in Jos, Plateau State, Nigerai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and thirty rodents, comprising nine different species caught from seven different locations in Jos, Nigeria, were examined for blood protozoan parasites, and 82(63.08%) were positive, with Plasmodium 63(48.46%), Trypanosoma 4(3.08%), Toxoplasma 6(4.62%), Babesia 7(5.38%) and Anaplasma 2(1.54%).

  9. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  10. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  11. Fossil Rodents from Curaçao and Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1959-01-01

    The fossil remains of rodents described in the present paper are from various localities. The large extinct musk rat Megalomys occurs in reddish-brown phosphatic “oolite” fillings of irregular cavities in a marine limestone found by Mr. P. H. DE BUISONJÉ in the north-western part of the Duivelsklip,

  12. Preliminary report of shrews and rodents in and around Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys during October 2004 and July 2005, in and around Lake Bogoria National Reserve, Kenya, collected evidence of nine rodent species, and one species of shrew. The diversity of small mammals live-trapped within a single habitat type was low compared to similar studies in Africa. The low diversity may be due to the ...

  13. Emmonsiosis of subterranean rodents (Bathyergidae, Spalacidae) in Africa and Israel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Burda, H.; Scharff, A.; Heth, G.; Nevo, E.; Šumbera, R.; Peško, Juraj; Zima, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2005), s. 691-697 ISSN 1369-3786 Grant - others:DAAD(DE) 323-PPP-sp Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : adiasporomycosis * rodents Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2005

  14. Rodent Research on the International Space Station - A Look Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, A. B.; Smithwick, M.; Wigley, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent Research on the International Space Station (ISS) is one of the highest priority science activities being supported by NASA and is planned for up to two flights per year. The first Rodent Research flight, Rodent Research-1 (RR-1) validates the hardware and basic science operations (dissections and tissue preservation). Subsequent flights will add new capabilities to support rodent research on the ISS. RR-1 will validate the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 30 days, video downlink to support animal health checks and scientific analysis, on-orbit dissections, sample preservation in RNA. Later and formalin, sample transfer from formalin to ethanol (hindlimbs), rapid cool-down and subsequent freezing at -80 of tissues and carcasses, sample return and recovery. RR-2, scheduled for SpX-6 (Winter 20142015) will add the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 60 days, RFID chip reader for individual animal identification, water refill and food replenishment, anesthesia and recovery, bone densitometry, blood collection (via cardiac puncture), blood separation via centrifugation, soft tissue fixation in formalin with transfer to ethanol, and delivery of injectable drugs that require frozen storage prior to use. Additional capabilities are also planned for future flights and these include but are not limited to male mice, live animal return, and the development of experiment unique equipment to support science requirements for principal investigators that are selected for flight. In addition to the hardware capabilities to support rodent research the Crew Office has implemented a training program in generic rodent skills for all USOS crew members during their pre-assignment training rotation. This class includes training in general animal handling, euthanasia, injections, and dissections. The dissection portion of this training focuses on the dissection of the spleen, liver, kidney with adrenals, brain, eyes, and hindlimbs. By achieving and

  15. Semi-Autonomous Rodent Habitat for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwood, J. S.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R.

    2018-01-01

    NASA has flown animals to space as part of trailblazing missions and to understand the biological responses to spaceflight. Mice traveled in the Lunar Module with the Apollo 17 astronauts and now mice are frequent research subjects in LEO on the ISS. The ISS rodent missions have focused on unravelling biological mechanisms, better understanding risks to astronaut health, and testing candidate countermeasures. A critical barrier for longer-duration animal missions is the need for humans-in-the-loop to perform animal husbandry and perform routine tasks during a mission. Using autonomous or telerobotic systems to alleviate some of these tasks would enable longer-duration missions to be performed at the Deep Space Gateway. Rodent missions performed using the Gateway as a platform could address a number of critical risks identified by the Human Research Program (HRP), as well as Space Biology Program questions identified by NRC Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space, (2011). HRP risk areas of potentially greatest relevance that the Gateway rodent missions can address include those related to visual impairment (VIIP) and radiation risks to central nervous system, cardiovascular disease, as well as countermeasure testing. Space Biology focus areas addressed by the Gateway rodent missions include mechanisms and combinatorial effects of microgravity and radiation. The objectives of the work proposed here are to 1) develop capability for semi-autonomous rodent research in cis-lunar orbit, 2) conduct key experiments for testing countermeasures against low gravity and space radiation. The hardware and operations system developed will enable experiments at least one month in duration, which potentially could be extended to one year in duration. To gain novel insights into the health risks to crew of deep space travel (i.e., exposure to space radiation), results obtained from Gateway flight rodents can be compared to ground control groups and separate groups

  16. The response of human and rodent cells to hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Pirro, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Inherent cellular radiosensitivity in vitro has been shown to be a good predictor of human tumor response in vivo. In contrast, the importance of the intrinsic thermosensitivity of normal and neoplastic human cells as a factor in the responsiveness of human tumors to adjuvant hyperthermia has never been analyzed systematically. A comparison of thermal sensitivity and thermo-radiosensitization in four rodent and eight human-derived cell lines was made in vitro. Arrhenius plots indicated that the rodent cells were more sensitive to heat killing than the human, and the break-point was 0.5 degrees C higher for the human than rodent cells. The relationship between thermal sensitivity and the interaction of heat with X rays at low doses was documented by thermal enhancement ratios (TER's). Cells received either a 1 hr exposure to 43 degrees C or a 20 minute treatment at 45 degrees C before exposure to 300 kVp X rays. Thermal enhancement ratios ranged from 1.0 to 2.7 for human cells heated at 43 degrees C and from 2.1 to 5.3 for heat exposures at 45 degrees C. Thermal enhancement ratios for rodent cells were generally 2 to 3 times higher than for human cells, because of the fact that the greater thermosensitivity of rodent cells results in a greater enhancement of radiation damage. Intrinsic thermosensitivity of human cells has relevance to the concept of thermal dose; intrinsic thermo-radiosensitization of a range of different tumor cells is useful in documenting the interactive effects of radiation combined with heat

  17. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  18. Testing the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Claire; Strotz, Luke; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2010-05-01

    In the wake of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, many countries have been forced to reassess the risk of tsunamis to their coasts. Australia, with relative tectonic stability, has previously been considered at low risk of tsunami inundation. Within written history, only small tsunamis have struck the Australian coast, causing little damage. However, a body of work has arisen that sheds doubt on this apparent low risk, with researchers suggesting that megatsunamis have affected the east Australian coast, in particular southern New South Wales. With proposed run-ups in excess of 100m, recurrence of such megatsunamis in the now densely populated New South Wales coastal region would be catastrophic. The disjunct between historical and geological records demands a thorough re-evaluation of New South Wales sites purported to contain evidence of megatsunamis. In addition, the unique set of diagnostic criteria previously used to identify Australian palaeotsunami deposits is distinctly different to criteria applied to paleotsunamis globally. To address these issues, four coastal lagoonal sites in southern New South Wales were identified for further investigation. In addition to paleotsunami investigation, these sites were selected to provide a geological record of significant events during the Holocene. Site selection was based on small accommodation space and a high preservation potential with back barrier depressions closed to the sea. A suite of diagnostic criteria developed over the past two decades to identify palaeotsunamis have been applied to cores extracted from these sites. Methods used include sedimentary description, grain size analysis, micropalaeontology, geochemistry and a variety of dating techniques such as radiocarbon and lead 210. Preliminary analysis of these results will be presented, with particular focus on sites where there is evidence that could indicate catastrophic saltwater inundation.

  19. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  20. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  1. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  2. Asian and Australian power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a 1995 Summer Meeting panel session summary on infrastructure, interconnections, and electricity exchanges in Asia and Australia. Panelists focused on the present and future state of the electric power sector, future expansion of Asian and Australian power systems, interconnections and power exchanges, cooperation, new capacity, direction of reforming the industry, interstate relations in the fuel and energy complex, and the impact of privatization on electric supply. They addressed electricity and energy issues in both developing and developed Asian countries and in Australia as seen by the United Nations (UN), the World Energy Council (WEC), The World Bank, Japan, Australia, India, China, East Russia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

  3. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  4. The Australian Skills Agenda: Productivity versus Credentialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenden, Dean

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the concept of improved skills recognition in Australian industry. Highlights include the role of industrial relations; the Australian vocational education and training system; recognition, industrial relations, and workplace change; career and training paths; credentials; and future prospects. (10 references) (LRW)

  5. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  6. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the

  7. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  8. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  9. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  10. Of mice and women: rodent models of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Marinho, Claudio R F; Staalsoe, Trine

    2010-01-01

    Pregnant women are at increased malaria risk. The infections are characterized by placental accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IEs) with adverse consequences for mother and baby. Placental IE sequestration in the intervillous space is mediated by variant surface antigens (VSAs) selectively...... expressed in placental malaria (PM) and specific for chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). In Plasmodium falciparum, these VSA(PM) appear largely synonymous with the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family variant VAR2CSA. As rodent malaria parasites do not possess PfEMP1 homologs......, the usefulness of experimental mouse PM models remains controversial. However, many features of murine and human PM are similar, including involvement of VSAs analogous to PfEMP1. It thus appears that rodent model studies can further the understanding of VSA-dependent malaria pathogenesis and immunity....

  11. Two new rodent models for actinide toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Jones, C.W.; Gardner, P.A.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.; Charrier, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), have tenacious and high retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution. Liver retention of Pu and Am in the grasshopper mouse is higher than liver retention in the deer mouse. Both of these rodents are relatively long-lived, breed well in captivity, and adapt suitably to laboratory conditions. It is suggested that these two species of mice, in which plutonium retention is high and prolonged in both the skeleton and liver, as it is in man, may be useful animal models for actinide toxicity studies

  12. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2011-11-01

    The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

  13. A glimpse on the pattern of rodent diversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri Fréderic; Hautier, Lionel; Dimitrov, Dimitar Stefanov

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Development of phylogenetic methods that do not rely on fossils for the study of evolutionary processes through time have revolutionized the field of evolutionary biology and resulted in an unprecedented expansion of our knowledge about the tree of life. These methods have helped to shed...... molecular works. A relaxed molecular clock dating approach provided a time framework for speciation events. We found that the Myomorpha clade shows a greater degree of variation in diversification rates than Sciuroidea, Caviomorpha, Castorimorpha and Anomaluromorpha. We identified a number of shifts...... imbalances and the time line we discuss the potential role of different diversification factors that might have shaped the rodents radiation. CONCLUSIONS:The present glimpse on the diversification pattern of rodents can be used for further comparative meta-analyses. Muroid lineages have a greater degree...

  14. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed.

  15. Hantavirus Immunology of Rodent Reservoirs: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  16. Methods for Dissecting Motivation and Related Psychological Processes in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    Motivational impairments are increasingly recognized as being critical to functional deficits and decreased quality of life in patients diagnosed with psychiatric disease. Accordingly, much preclinical research has focused on identifying psychological and neurobiological processes which underlie motivation . Inferring motivation from changes in overt behavioural responding in animal models, however, is complicated, and care must be taken to ensure that the observed change is accurately characterized as a change in motivation , and not due to some other, task-related process. This chapter discusses current methods for assessing motivation and related psychological processes in rodents. Using an example from work characterizing the motivational impairments in an animal model of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we highlight the importance of careful and rigorous experimental dissection of motivation and the related psychological processes when characterizing motivational deficits in rodent models . We suggest that such work is critical to the successful translation of preclinical findings to therapeutic benefits for patients.

  17. The response of the natriuretic peptide system to water deprivation in the desert rodent, Notomys alexis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimeier, Rachel A; Donald, John A

    2006-02-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are regulatory molecules that cause cGMP-mediated diuresis and natriuresis in mammals. Accordingly, it is interesting to consider their role in desert-adapted animals in which water is often limited. This study investigated the response of the natriuretic peptide (NP) system to varying periods of water deprivation (WD) in the Australian desert rodent species, Notomys alexis. It was hypothesised that the expression of the NP system will be down-regulated in water-deprived N. alexis compared to water-replete animals. The plasma levels of ANP were significantly reduced after 3 days of WD, but were unaffected by 7, 14 and 28 days of WD. Water deprivation for 3, 7, 14 days had a variable effect on the mRNA expression of ANP, CNP, NPR-A, NPR-B, and NPR-C, and a uniform down-regulation was not observed. However, after 28 days of WD, mRNA expression was similar to water-replete animals, except for NPR-A. Surprisingly, 7 and 14 days of WD caused an up-regulation in the ability of ANP to stimulate cGMP; this also occurred at 14 days for CNP. Taken together, the mRNA expression and peptide mediated guanylyl cyclase activity data after WD were in the opposite direction to what was predicted. Interestingly, after 28 days of WD, most parameters were similar to those of water-replete animals, which indicates that a down-regulation of the NP system is not part of the physiological response to an absence of free water in N. alexis.

  18. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  19. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.; Guimarães, Adriana G.; Santana, Marilia T. de; Araújo, Bruno E.S.; Moreira, Flávia V.; Bonjardim, Leonardo R.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Siqueira, Jullyana S.; Antoniolli, Ângelo R.; Botelho, Marco A.; Almeida, Jackson R. G. S.; Santos, Márcio R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Citral (CIT), which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis) and geranial (trans), is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT...

  20. The Need for Speed in Rodent Locomotion Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Batka, Richard J.; Brown, Todd J.; Mcmillan, Kathryn P.; Meadows, Rena M.; Jones, Kathryn J.; Haulcomb, Melissa M.

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion analysis is now widely used across many animal species to understand the motor defects in disease, functional recovery following neural injury, and the effectiveness of various treatments. More recently, rodent locomotion analysis has become an increasingly popular method in a diverse range of research. Speed is an inseparable aspect of locomotion that is still not fully understood, and its effects are often not properly incorporated while analyzing data. In this hybrid manuscript,...

  1. Transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, Philip J; Cunningham, Deirdre; Jarra, William; Lawton, Jennifer; Langhorne, Jean; Thompson, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi shares many features with human malaria species, including P. falciparum, and is the in vivo model of choice for many aspects of malaria research in the mammalian host, from sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes, to antigenic variation and host immunity and immunopathology. this protocol describes an optimized method for the transformation of mature blood-stage P.c. chabaudi and a description of a vector that targets efficient, sing...

  2. Population response of rodents to control with rodenticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. TCHABOVSKY

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We summarize theoretical approaches and practice of rodent pest control in Russia and former USSR during last 50 years. We review literature as well as original data to understand mechanisms of rodent populations recovery after chemical control campaigns in urban areas, agricultural lands and natural foci of plague. Laboratory and field experiments indicate that inherent individual variation in behavioural, physiological and life-history traits provides survival of heterogeneous mix of individuals in residual population with increased resistance to poisonous baits and high reproductive potential that leads to fast recovery of a population. In a series of field experiments with various rodent and lagomorph species (Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Meriones unguiculatus, M.meridianus, M.tamariscinus, Ochotona pallasii we have shown that patterns of recolonization of depopulated area and mechanisms of population recovery vary among species and depend on species-specific social organization. After control territorial and group-living species demonstrated an increase in mobility and affiliative and marking behaviour and a decrease in intraspecific aggression. The rate of recolonization of treated areas was high due to redistribution of survived individuals and immigration by neighbors. Population recovered to original level due to increased breeding performance and fecundity of both survived residents and immigrants. In contrast, socially-independent species exhibited minor changes in behaviour. Recolonization was mainly due to better survival and recruitment of youngs, so the rate of recolonization was low. Species-specificity of behavioural compensation mechanisms to control should be considered when developing ecologically based rodent management strategies.

  3. Miniature wireless recording and stimulation system for rodent behavioural testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnell, R. C.; Dempster, J.; Pratt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Elucidation of neural activity underpinning rodent behaviour has traditionally been hampered by the use of tethered systems and human involvement. Furthermore the combination of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) and various neural recording modalities can lead to complex and time-consuming laboratory setups. For studies of this type, novel tools are required to drive forward this research. Approach. A miniature wireless system weighing 8.5 g (including battery) was developed for rodent use that combined multichannel DBS and local-field potential (LFP) recordings. Its performance was verified in a working memory task that involved 4-channel fronto-hippocampal LFP recording and bilateral constant-current fimbria-fornix DBS. The system was synchronised with video-tracking for extraction of LFP at discrete task phases, and DBS was activated intermittently at discrete phases of the task. Main results. In addition to having a fast set-up time, the system could reliably transmit continuous LFP at over 8 hours across 3-5 m distances. During the working memory task, LFP pertaining to discrete task phases was extracted and compared with well-known neural correlates of active exploratory behaviour in rodents. DBS could be wirelessly activated/deactivated at any part of the experiment during EEG recording and transmission, allowing for a seamless integration of this modality. Significance. The wireless system combines a small size with a level of robustness and versatility that can greatly simplify rodent behavioural experiments involving EEG recording and DBS. Designed for versatility and simplicity, the small size and low-cost of the system and its receiver allow for enhanced portability, fast experimental setup times, and pave the way for integration with more complex behaviour.

  4. Role of rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Meerburg, Dr BG; Kijlstra, Prof dr A

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are generally regarded as the most important food-borne pathogens in the world. Reduction or elimination of these pathogens in the first part of the food chain (on the farm) is important to prevent disease among consumers of animal products. In organic farming, elimination becomes more difficult, as food animals are allowed outdoors and have easy access to potential sources of hazardous pathogens. Whilst rodents are often associated by organic farmers with infr...

  5. Social memories in rodents: Methods, mechanisms and modulation by stress

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kooij MA; Sandi C.

    2011-01-01

    Intact social memory forms the basis of meaningful interactions between individuals. Many factors can modulate the quality of social memory, and these have been studied in detail in rodents. Social memory, however, cannot be considered a single entity. The term social memory reflects different processes, such as social recognition of a novel conspecific individual and social learning (or 'learning from others'). This review summarizes the findings obtained with behavioral paradigms that were ...

  6. Morphological evolution, ecological diversification and climate change in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, Sabrina; Michaux, Jacques; Schmidt, Daniela N; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Mein, Pierre; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Among rodents, the lineage from Progonomys hispanicus to Stephanomys documents a case of increasing size and dental specialization during an approximately 9 Myr time-interval. On the contrary, some contemporaneous generalist lineages like Apodemus show a limited morphological evolution. Dental shape can be related to diet and can be used to assess the ecological changes along the lineages. Consequently, size and shape of the first upper molar were measured in order to quantify the patterns of...

  7. Performance Analysis of Exam Gloves Used for Aseptic Rodent Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP–PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham ‘exertion’ activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP–PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP–PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  8. Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Nonmodel rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift; so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. Here we use high throughput sequencing to demonstrate genetic divergence in three isolated colonies of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) even though they were all established recently from the same source. We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly “outbred” colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. We conclude that genetic divergence in isolated colonies may play an important role in the “replication crisis.” In a more positive light, divergent rodent colonies represent an opportunity to leverage genetically distinct individuals in genetic crossing experiments. In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. PMID:29242387

  9. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries.

  11. Fire ignition during laser surgery in pet rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collarile Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser surgery is an attractive alternative to other means of section device in terms of tissue inflammation and interaction, which has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine. Although accidental ignition during laser surgeries is sporadically reported in human medical literature, to the authors’ knowledge this is the first report regarding laser-dependent fire ignition during surgery in veterinary medicine. Case presentation Two rodents, a 13-month old, 27-gram, male pet mouse (Mus musculus and a 1-year old, female Russian hamster (Phodopus sungorus, underwent surgical removal of masses with diode laser. During the surgical procedures fires ignited from the face masks. The mouse presented severe burns on the head and both forelimbs, it was hospitalized and approximately 2 months after surgery burns were resolved. The hamster presented severe burns on the face and the proximal regions of the body. At 72 hours from the accident the hamster was euthanized. Conclusion The present report suggests that fire ignition is a potential life-threatening complication of laser surgery in non-intubated rodents maintained under volatile anesthesia. High oxygen concentrations, the presence of combustible, and the narrowness of the surgical field with the face mask during laser surgery on rodents are risk factors for fire ignition.

  12. Two New Mylagaulid Rodents from the Early Miocene of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Lu

    Full Text Available Mylagaulid fossorial rodents are a common component of North American Miocene fossil faunas. However outside of North America, only three species are known from Asia. Here we report two new mylagaulids, Irtyshogaulus minor gen. et sp. nov. and Irtyshogaulus major gen. et sp. nov., recovered from early Miocene sediments in the Junggar Basin in northwestern China. The two new taxa are small-sized, high-crowned promylagauline rodents. Their lower molars possess high metastylid crests, small mesostylids, broad and posterolingually expanded labial inflections, and transversely extending metalophid IIs. The mesoconid is absent in both species. The anterior and posterior fossettids are large and equally developed. Their upper M1-2s possess a square occlusal surface with five deep fossettes. The two new taxa are distinguished from each other mainly by their size, the morphology of fossettes and fossettids, development of mesial and distal lophs, posterior reduction of M3, and the orientation of m2 hypolophid. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Irtyshogaulus and Lamugaulus (another early Miocene Asian mylagaulid are sister taxa. The two genera are nested among the North American promylagaulines, and share a common ancestor from North America, indicating early Miocene intercontinental dispersal within this clade of rodents.

  13. Sexual selection halts the relaxation of protamine 2 among rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lüke

    Full Text Available Sexual selection has been proposed as the driving force promoting the rapid evolutionary changes observed in some reproductive genes including protamines. We test this hypothesis in a group of rodents which show marked differences in the intensity of sexual selection. Levels of sperm competition were not associated with the evolutionary rates of protamine 1 but, contrary to expectations, were negatively related to the evolutionary rate of cleaved- and mature-protamine 2. Since both domains were found to be under relaxation, our findings reveal an unforeseen role of sexual selection: to halt the degree of degeneration that proteins within families may experience due to functional redundancy. The degree of relaxation of protamine 2 in this group of rodents is such that in some species it has become dysfunctional and it is not expressed in mature spermatozoa. In contrast, protamine 1 is functionally conserved but shows directed positive selection on specific sites which are functionally relevant such as DNA-anchoring domains and phosphorylation sites. We conclude that in rodents protamine 2 is under relaxation and that sexual selection removes deleterious mutations among species with high levels of sperm competition to maintain the protein functional and the spermatozoa competitive.

  14. The valproic acid-induced rodent model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Chiara; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction and by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. While autism has a strong genetic component, environmental factors including toxins, pesticides, infection and drugs are known to confer autism susceptibility, likely by inducing epigenetic changes. In particular, exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been demonstrated to increase the risk of autism in children. Furthermore, rodents prenatally exposed to this drug display behavioral phenotypes characteristics of the human condition. Indeed, in utero exposure of rodents to VPA represents a robust model of autism exhibiting face, construct and predictive validity. This model might better represent the many cases of idiopathic autism which are of environmental/epigenetic origins than do transgenic models carrying mutations in single autism-associated genes. The VPA model provides a valuable tool to investigate the neurobiology underlying autistic behavior and to screen for novel therapeutics. Here we review the VPA-induced rodent model of autism, highlighting its importance and reliability as an environmentally-induced animal model of autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  16. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  17. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  19. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.W.; Trahair, R.C.S.; Powell, R.J.; Walker, R.M.

    1985-08-01

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  20. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  1. Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J.S.; Wall, S.B.V.; Jenkins, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period.Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5–25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a

  2. A Field Study of Plague and Tularemia in Rodents, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Japoni-Nejad, Alireza; Esmaeili, Saber; Darvish, Jamshid; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadi, Ali; Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin; Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Pourhossein, Behzad; Ghasemi, Ahmad; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Kurdistan Province in Iran is a historical focus for plague and tularemia. This study aimed at assessing the current status of these two foci by studying their rodent reservoirs. Rodents were trapped and their ectoparasites were collected. The genus and species of both rodents and ectoparasites were determined. Serological analyses of rodent blood samples were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for plague and by standard tube agglutination assay for tularemia. Rodent spleen samples were subjected to bacterial culture, microscopic examination, and real-time PCR to search for active plague or tularemia infection. During this study, 245 rodents were trapped, of which the most abundant genera were Apodemus (40%), Mus (24.49%), and Meriones (12.65%). One hundred fifty-three fleas, 37 mites, and 54 ticks were collected on these rodents. The results of all direct and indirect tests were negative for plague. Serological tests were positive for tularemia in 4.8% of trapped rodents. This study is the first report on the presence of tularemia infection in rodents in Western Iran. Since Meriones persicus is a known reservoir for plague and tularemia, and this rodent carried plague and tularemia vectors in Marivan and Sanandaj districts, there is a real potential for the occurrence of these two diseases in this region.

  3. Australian Mining's product register 1990-91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Australian Minings' Product Register 1990-91 contains an industry review, resource assessment, mineral industry statistics, directory of exploration and mining companies, buyers guide and directory of consultants.

  4. Metaphyseal osteopathy in three Australian Kelpie siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, C M; Brain, P H; Dunn, A L

    2014-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Comparative growth performance of different Australian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative growth performance of different Australian provenances and local land ... and Ubiri in the West Usambara Mountains (WUM), North East Tanzania. ... with local land races for subsequent management as seed production stands.

  6. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  7. 1980 Australian coal conference. Conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Papers were presented under the following headings: supply and demand for coal; government policies - coal development; mining finance and taxation; Australian coal mining practices; research and development; infrastructure and transportation; legislation and safe working practices; and industrial relations.

  8. Career intentions of Australian physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers’ career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers’ work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the respondents wanted a change from their current PE teacher job and 39.8% were intending to leave PE teaching. The most frequent reasons for wanting to...

  9. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  10. Publishing and Australian literature : crisis, decline or transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  11. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  12. Effect of woodland patch size on rodent seed predation in a fragmented landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Loman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Predation on large woody plant seeds; chestnuts, acorns and sloe kernels, was studied in deciduous forests of two size classes: small woodlots (<1 ha and large woods (at least 25 ha in southern Sweden. Seeds used for the study were artificially distributed on the forest ground and seed predation measured as seed removal. Predation rate was similar in both types of woods. However, rodent density was higher in small woodlots and a correction for differences in rodent density showed that predation rate per individual rodent was higher in the large woods. This suggests that the small woodlots (including the border zone and their adjacent fields have more rodent food per area unit. A small woodlot cannot be considered a representative sample of a large continuous forest, even if the habitats appear similar. There was a strong effect of rodent density on seed predation rate. This suggests that rodents are major seed predators in this habitat.

  13. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  14. Helminth Infections of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Importance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    RANJBAR, Mohammad Javad; SARKARI, Bahador; MOWLAVI, Gholam Reza; SEIFOLLAHI, Zeinab; MOSHFE, Abdolali; ABDOLAHI KHABISI, Samaneh; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    AbstractBackground: Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasit...

  15. Research Note. Occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths in commensal rodents from Tabasco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cigarroa-Toledo N.; Santos-Martinez Y. De Los; Zaragoza-Vera C. V.; Garcia-Rodriguez M. M.; Baak-Baak C. M.; Machain-Williams C.; Garcia-Rejon J. E.; Panti-May J. A.; Torres-Chable O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of helminths in commensal rodents captured inside private residences in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. Trapping was performed at each house for three consecutive nights from October to December 2015. Fifty commensal rodents were captured: 23 Rattus norvegicus, 16 Mus musculus and 11 Rattus rattus. Rodents were transported alive to the laboratory and held in cages until they defecated. Feces were analyz...

  16. Tularemia and plague survey in rodents in an earthquake zone in southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes are one the most common natural disasters that lead to increased mortality and morbidity from transmissible diseases, partially because the rodents displaced by an earthquake can lead to an increased rate of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plague and tularemia in rodents in the earthquake zones in southeastern Iran. METHODS: In April 2013, a research team was dispatched to explore the possible presence of diseases in rodents displaced by a recent earthquake magnitude 7.7 around the cities of Khash and Saravan in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Rodents were trapped near and in the earthquake zone, in a location where an outbreak of tularemia was reported in 2007. Rodent serums were tested for a serological survey using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the 13 areas that were studied, nine rodents were caught over a total of 200 trap-days. Forty-eight fleas and 10 ticks were obtained from the rodents. The ticks were from the Hyalomma genus and the fleas were from the Xenopsylla genus. All the trapped rodents were Tatera indica. Serological results were negative for plague, but the serum agglutination test was positive for tularemia in one of the rodents. Tatera indica has never been previously documented to be involved in the transmission of tularemia. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of the plague cycle was found in the rodents of the area, but evidence was found of tularemia infection in rodents, as demonstrated by a positive serological test for tularemia in one rodent. PMID:26602769

  17. [11 C]Rhodamine-123: Synthesis and biodistribution in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Xiaofeng; Lu Shuiyu; Liow, Jeih-San; Morse, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Kacey B.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Innis, Robert B.; Pike, Victor W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Rhodamine-123 is a known substrate for the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We wished to assess whether rhodamine-123 might serve as a useful substrate for developing probes for imaging efflux transporters in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). For this purpose, we aimed to label rhodamine-123 with carbon-11 (t 1/2 = 20.4 min) and to study its biodistribution in rodents. Methods: [ 11 C]Rhodamine-123 was prepared by treating rhodamine-110 (desmethyl-rhodamine-123) with [ 11 C]methyl iodide. The biodistribution of this radiotracer was studied with PET in wild-type mice and rats, in efflux transporter knockout mice, in wild-type rats pretreated with DCPQ (an inhibitor of P-gp) or with cimetidine (an inhibitor of organic cation transporters; OCT), and in P-gp knockout mice pretreated with cimetidine. Unchanged radiotracer in forebrain, plasma and peripheral tissues was also measured ex vivo at 30 min after radiotracer administration to wild-type and efflux transporter knockout rodents. Results: [ 11 C]Rhodamine-123 was obtained in 4.4% decay-corrected radiochemical yield from cyclotron-produced [ 11 C]carbon dioxide. After intravenous administration of [ 11 C]rhodamine-123 to wild-type rodents, PET and ex vivo measurements showed radioactivity uptake was very low in brain, but relatively high in some other organs such as heart, and especially liver and kidney. Inhibition of P-gp increased uptake in brain, heart, kidney and liver, but only by up to twofold. Secretion of radioactivity from kidney was markedly reduced by OCT knockout or pretreatment with cimetidine. Conclusions: [ 11 C]Rhodamine-123 was unpromising as a PET probe for P-gp function and appears to be a strong substrate of OCT in kidney. Cimetidine appears effective for blocking OCT in kidney in vivo.

  18. Default-mode-like network activation in awake rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymin Upadhyay

    Full Text Available During wakefulness and in absence of performing tasks or sensory processing, the default-mode network (DMN, an intrinsic central nervous system (CNS network, is in an active state. Non-human primate and human CNS imaging studies have identified the DMN in these two species. Clinical imaging studies have shown that the pattern of activity within the DMN is often modulated in various disease states (e.g., Alzheimer's, schizophrenia or chronic pain. However, whether the DMN exists in awake rodents has not been characterized. The current data provides evidence that awake rodents also possess 'DMN-like' functional connectivity, but only subsequent to habituation to what is initially a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI environment as well as physical restraint. Specifically, the habituation process spanned across four separate scanning sessions (Day 2, 4, 6 and 8. At Day 8, significant (p<0.05 functional connectivity was observed amongst structures such as the anterior cingulate (seed region, retrosplenial, parietal, and hippocampal cortices. Prior to habituation (Day 2, functional connectivity was only detected (p<0.05 amongst CNS structures known to mediate anxiety (i.e., anterior cingulate (seed region, posterior hypothalamic area, amygdala and parabracial nucleus. In relating functional connectivity between cingulate-default-mode and cingulate-anxiety structures across Days 2-8, a significant inverse relationship (r = -0.65, p = 0.0004 was observed between these two functional interactions such that increased cingulate-DMN connectivity corresponded to decreased cingulate anxiety network connectivity. This investigation demonstrates that the cingulate is an important component of both the rodent DMN-like and anxiety networks.

  19. Sex differences in chronic stress effects on cognition in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, Victoria; Gomez, Juan; Beck, Kevin; Bowman, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress causes deleterious changes in physiological function in systems ranging from neural cells in culture to laboratory rodents, sub-human primates and humans. It is notable, however, that the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in males. In this review, we provide information about chronic stress effects on cognition in female rodents and contrast it with responses in male rodents. In general, females show cognitive resilience to chronic stressors which impair male cognitive function using spatial tasks including the radial arm maze, radial arm water maze, Morris water maze, Y-maze and object placement. Moreover, stress often enhances female performance in some of these cognitive tasks. Memory in females is not affected by stress in non-spatial memory tasks like recognition memory and temporal order recognition memory while males show impaired memory following stress. We discuss possible bases for these sex-dependent differences including the use of different strategies by the sexes to solve cognitive tasks. Whether the sex differences result from changes in non-mnemonic factors is also considered. Sex-dependent differences in alcohol and drug influences on stress responses are also described. Finally, the role of neurally derived estradiol in driving sex differences and providing resilience to stress in females is shown. The importance of determining the nature and extent of sex differences in stress responses is that such differences may provide vital information for understanding why some stress related diseases have different incidence rates between the sexes and for developing novel therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataract in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, B J; Tripathi, R C; Borisuth, N S; Dhaliwal, R; Dhaliwal, D

    1991-01-01

    Because the organogenesis and physiology of the lens are essentially similar in various mammals, an understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the formation of cataract in an animal model will enhance our knowledge of cataractogenesis in man. In this review, we summarize the background, etiology, and pathogenesis of cataracts that occur in rodents. The main advantages of using rodent mutants include the well-researched genetics of the animals and the comparative ease of breeding of large litters. Numerous rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataracts have been studied extensively. In mice, the models include the Cts strain, Fraser mouse, lens opacity gene (Lop) strain, Lop-2 and Lop-3 strains, Philly mouse, Nakano mouse, Nop strain, Deer mouse, Emory mouse, Swiss Webster strain, Balb/c-nct/nct mouse, and SAM-R/3 strain. The rat models include BUdR, ICR, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar rats, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the John Rapp inbred strain of Dahl salt-sensitive rat, as well as WBN/Kob, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS), and Brown-Norway rats. Other proposed models for the study of hereditary cataract include the degu and the guinea pig. Because of the ease of making clinical observations in vivo and the subsequent availability of the intact lens for laboratory analyses at different stages of cataract formation, these animals provide excellent models for clinicopathologic correlations, for monitoring of the natural history of the aging process and of metabolic defects, as well as for investigations on the effect of cataract-modulating agents and drugs, including the prospect of gene therapy.

  1. Ghrelin influences novelty seeking behavior in rodents and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Caroline; Shirazi, Rozita H; Näslund, Jakob; Vogel, Heike; Neuber, Corinna; Holm, Göran; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Eriksson, Elias; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries indicate an important role for ghrelin in drug and alcohol reward and an ability of ghrelin to regulate mesolimbic dopamine activity. The role of dopamine in novelty seeking, and the association between this trait and drug and alcohol abuse, led us to hypothesize that ghrelin may influence novelty seeking behavior. To test this possibility we applied several complementary rodent models of novelty seeking behavior, i.e. inescapable novelty-induced locomotor activity (NILA), novelty-induced place preference and novel object exploration, in rats subjected to acute ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor; GHSR) stimulation or blockade. Furthermore we assessed the possible association between polymorphisms in the genes encoding ghrelin and GHSR and novelty seeking behavior in humans. The rodent studies indicate an important role for ghrelin in a wide range of novelty seeking behaviors. Ghrelin-injected rats exhibited a higher preference for a novel environment and increased novel object exploration. Conversely, those with GHSR blockade drastically reduced their preference for a novel environment and displayed decreased NILA. Importantly, the mesolimbic ventral tegmental area selective GHSR blockade was sufficient to reduce the NILA response indicating that the mesolimbic GHSRs might play an important role in the observed novelty responses. Moreover, in untreated animals, a striking positive correlation between NILA and sucrose reward behavior was detected. Two GHSR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2948694 and rs495225, were significantly associated with the personality trait novelty seeking, as assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), in human subjects. This study provides the first evidence for a role of ghrelin in novelty seeking behavior in animals and humans, and also points to an association between food reward and novelty seeking in rodents.

  2. Patterns of orthopox virus wild rodent hosts in South Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essbauer, Sandra; Hartnack, Sonja; Misztela, Krystian; Kiessling-Tsalos, Judith; Bäumler, Walter; Pfeffer, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Although cowpox virus (CPXV) infections in a variety of dead-end hosts have been investigated in Germany for more than 50 years, data on species and geographical distribution of CPXV in reservoir hosts are sparse. Here we present the first comprehensive study of 825 rodents that have been collected in Bavaria, Southern Germany. In summary, six different rodent species (Apodemus flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola amphibius) were trapped at three main trapping sites and investigated using a serum neutralization test (SNT). Prevalence of orthopox virus (OPV)-neutralizing antibodies was (with exception of one trapping site) highest in bank voles, ranging from 24.5% to 42.4%; often with SNT titers > or =96. Two up to 25% of yellow-necked mice were OPV sero-positive, but wood mice only at one site with 5.5%. Up to 7.7% of common voles were found to be OPV seroreactive, while M. agrestis and A. amphibius only sporadically showed seroreactivity. Further analyses of a subset of 450 bank voles and yellow-necked mice trapped at one site over a 18-month period revealed that male yellow-necked mice and female gravid yellow-necked mice had significantly more OPV-neutralizing antibodies. Mean body weight and OPV-seroreactivity were significantly negatively associated in male A. flavicollis. This was not due to shorter body length or smaller body mass index, but previously OPV-infected male A. flavicollis had dramatically reduced mean kidney weights. Seroreactivity in female bank voles was positively related to lung weights. We also found that both male yellow-necked mice and male bank voles with positive SNT titers had higher infestation rates with ectoparasites. We here show for the first time that A. flavicollis beside M. glareolus is a hypothetic host for CPXV, and that there are big geographical and spatial variations concerning the seroprevalence in rodent populations in South Germany.

  3. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  4. Polycystic echinococcosis in Colombia: the larval cestodes in infected rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, G A; Guzman, V H; Wells, E A; Angel, D

    1979-07-01

    Described are the characteristics of the polycystic larval cestodes found in an endemic area of echinococcosis in the Easter Plains of Colombia and the tissue reaction evoked in infected rodents. Of 848 free-ranging animals examined, polycystic hydatids were found in 44/93 Cuniculus paca and 1/369 Proechimys sp. None of 20 Dasyprocta fuliginosa examined was infected, but hunters provided a heart with hydatid cysts and information about two additional animals with infected livers. Recognition of an endemic area of polycystic echinococcosis provides a means to investigate the life cycle of the parasites and to study the histogenesis of the larval cestodes in susceptible laboratory animals.

  5. Models and detection of spontaneous recurrent seizures in laboratory rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy, characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS, is a serious and common neurological disorder afflicting an estimated 1% of the population worldwide. Animal experiments, especially those utilizing small laboratory rodents, remain essential to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying epilepsy and to prevent, diagnose, and treat this disease. While much attention has been focused on epileptogenesis in animal models of epilepsy, there is little discussion on SRS, the hallmark of epilepsy. This is in part due to the technical difficulties of rigorous SRS detection. In this review, we comprehensively summarize both genetic and acquired models of SRS and discuss the methodology used to monitor and detect SRS in mice and rats.

  6. Nonhuman gamblers: lessons from rodents, primates, and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; De Petrillo, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico; Petrosino, Giancarlo; Ventricelli, Marialba; Zoratto, Francesca; Adriani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The search for neuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling in humans would benefit from investigating related phenomena also outside of our species. In this paper, we present a survey of studies in three widely different populations of agents, namely rodents, non-human primates, and robots. Each of these populations offers valuable and complementary insights on the topic, as the literature demonstrates. In addition, we highlight the deep and complex connections between relevant results across these different areas of research (i.e., cognitive and computational neuroscience, neuroethology, cognitive primatology, neuropsychiatry, evolutionary robotics), to make the case for a greater degree of methodological integration in future studies on pathological gambling. PMID:24574984

  7. Do farming practices influence population dynamics of rodents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massawe, A W; Rwamugira, W; Leirs, Herwig

    2007-01-01

    A capture-mark-recapture study was conducted in crop fields in Morogoro, Tanzania, to investigate how the population dynamics of multimammate field rats, Mastomys natalensis, was influenced by the commonly practised land preparation methods and cropping systems. Two land preparation methods (trac...... practices. In maize fields in Tanzania, the crop is most susceptible to damage by M. natalensis in the first 2 weeks after planting, and therefore, lower densities of rodents will result into lower crop damage in tractor ploughed fields....

  8. Catecholamines of the body tissues and radiosensitivity of rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayevskaya, V M; Zolotariova, N N [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Morfologii Zhivotnykh

    1975-01-01

    Various species of rodents are distinguished by their radiosensitivity (increasing): bank vole < Wistar rat < wild mouse < CC/sub 57/Br mouse < golden hamster < BALB mouse < guinea pig. There is a positive correlation between radiosensitivity of these species and catecholamines content in the adrenals, urea and blood; and negative correlation between radiosensitivity and adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations in liver and spleen cells. Presumable causes of this correlation, and the possibility of application of the index under study for predicting the organism radiosensitivity and forecasting the outcome of radiation damage are discussed.

  9. Catecholamines of the body tissues and radiosensitivity of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayevskaya, V.M.; Zolotariova, N.N.

    1975-01-01

    Various species of rodents are distinguished by their radiosensitivity (increasing): bank vole 57 Br mouse < golden hamster < BALB mouse < guinea pig. There is a positive correlation between radiosensitivity of these species and catecholamines content in the adrenals, urea and blood; and negative correlation between radiosensitivity and adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations in liver and spleen cells. Presumable causes of this correlation, and the possibility of application of the index under study for predicting the organism radiosensitivity and forecasting the outcome of radiation damage are discussed

  10. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  11. Introducing the Australian Uranium Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angwin, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument

  12. The water economy of South American desert rodents: from integrative to molecular physiological ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Gallardo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Rodents from arid and semi-arid habitats live under conditions where the spatial and temporal availability of free water is limited, or scarce, thus forcing these rodents to deal with the problem of water conservation. The response of rodents to unproductive desert environments and water deficits has been intensively investigated in many deserts of the world. However, current understanding of the cellular, systemic and organismal physiology of water economy relies heavily on short-term, laboratory-oriented experiments, which usually focus on responses at isolated levels of biological organization. In addition, studies in small South American mammals are scarce. Indeed xeric habitats have existed in South America for a long time and it is intriguing why present day South American desert rodents do not show the wide array of adaptive traits to desert life observed for rodents on other continents. Several authors have pointed out that South American desert rodents lack physiological and energetic specialization for energy and water conservation, hypothesizing that their success is based more on behavioral and ecological strategies. We review phenotypic flexibility and physiological diversity in water flux rate, urine osmolality, and expression of water channels in South American desert-dwelling rodents. As far as we know, this is the first review of integrative studies at cellular, systemic and organismal levels. Our main conclusion is that South American desert rodents possess structural as well as physiological systems for water conservation, which are as remarkable as those found in "classical" rodents inhabiting other desert areas of the world.

  13. The role of rodents in avian influenza outbreaks in poultry farms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkers, Francisca C; Blokhuis, Simon J; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Burt, Sara A

    2017-12-01

    Wild migratory birds are associated with global avian influenza virus (AIV) spread. Although direct contact with wild birds and contaminated fomites is unlikely in modern non-free range poultry farms applying biosecurity measures, AIV outbreaks still occur. This suggests involvement of other intermediate factors for virus transmission between wild birds and poultry. This review describes current evidence of the potential role of rodents in AIV transmission from wild birds to poultry and between poultry houses. Rodents can be abundant around poultry houses, share their habitat with waterfowl and can readily enter poultry houses. Survival of AIV from waterfowl in poultry house surroundings and on the coat of rodents suggests that rodents are likely to act as mechanical vector. AIVs can replicate in rodents without adaptation, resulting in high viral titres in lungs and nasal turbinates, virus presence in nasal washes and saliva, and transmission to naïve contact animals. Therefore, active AIV shedding by infected rodents may play a role in transmission to poultry. Further field and experimental studies are needed to provide evidence for a role of rodents in AIV epidemiology. Making poultry houses rodent-proof and the immediate surroundings unattractive for rodents are recommended as preventive measures against possible AIV introduction.

  14. Multiple Co-infections of Rodents with Hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Županc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found. PMID:22217170

  15. Specific diversity and morphological indices of muriform rodents in some areas of Semipalatinsk test range zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magda, I.N.; Chernykh, A.B.; Morozov, A.E.; Bushneva, I.A.; Ponyavkina, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    There were presented the results of the preliminary estimation of comparative specific diversity and morphological indices of muriform rodents inhabiting separate areas of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  16. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential ( n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) ( p Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  17. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy B Sirotin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5-10 Hz. During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, ’50 kHz’ were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5−10 Hz and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1-4 Hz. Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations.

  18. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  19. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G Cox

    Full Text Available The masticatory musculature of rodents has evolved to enable both gnawing at the incisors and chewing at the molars. In particular, the masseter muscle is highly specialised, having extended anteriorly to originate from the rostrum. All living rodents have achieved this masseteric expansion in one of three ways, known as the sciuromorph, hystricomorph and myomorph conditions. Here, we used finite element analysis (FEA to investigate the biomechanical implications of these three morphologies, in a squirrel, guinea pig and rat. In particular, we wished to determine whether each of the three morphologies is better adapted for either gnawing or chewing. Results show that squirrels are more efficient at muscle-bite force transmission during incisor gnawing than guinea pigs, and that guinea pigs are more efficient at molar chewing than squirrels. This matches the known diet of nuts and seeds that squirrels gnaw, and of grasses that guinea pigs grind down with their molars. Surprisingly, results also indicate that rats are more efficient as well as more versatile feeders than both the squirrel and guinea pig. There seems to be no compromise in biting efficiency to accommodate the wider range of foodstuffs and the more general feeding behaviour adopted by rats. Our results show that the morphology of the skull and masticatory muscles have allowed squirrels to specialise as gnawers and guinea pigs as chewers, but that rats are high-performance generalists, which helps explain their overwhelming success as a group.

  20. Studying autism in rodent models: reconciling endophenotypes with comorbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eArgyropoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients commonly exhibit a variety of comorbid traits including seizures, anxiety, aggressive behavior, gastrointestinal problems, motor deficits, abnormal sensory processing and sleep disturbances for which the cause is unknown. These features impact negatively on daily life and can exaggerate the effects of the core diagnostic traits (social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. Studying endophenotypes relevant to both core and comorbid features of ASD in rodent models can provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Here we review the characterization of endophenotypes in a selection of environmental, genetic and behavioural rodent models of ASD. In addition to exhibiting core ASD-like behaviours, each of these animal models display one or more endophenotypes relevant to comorbid features including altered sensory processing, seizure susceptibility, anxiety-like behaviour and disturbed motor functions, suggesting that these traits are indicators of altered biological pathways in ASD. However, the study of behaviours paralleling comorbid traits in animal models of ASD is an emerging field and further research is needed to assess altered gastrointestinal function, aggression and disorders of sleep onset across models. Future studies should include investigation of these endophenotypes in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of this complex disorder.

  1. Morphology captures diet and locomotor types in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde Arregoitia, Luis D; Fisher, Diana O; Schweizer, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the functional meaning of morphological features, we need to relate what we know about morphology and ecology in a meaningful, quantitative framework. Closely related species usually share more phenotypic features than distant ones, but close relatives do not necessarily have the same ecologies. Rodents are the most diverse group of living mammals, with impressive ecomorphological diversification. We used museum collections and ecological literature to gather data on morphology, diet and locomotion for 208 species of rodents from different bioregions to investigate how morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness are associated with ecology. After considering differences in body size and shared evolutionary history, we find that unrelated species with similar ecologies can be characterized by a well-defined suite of morphological features. Our results validate the hypothesized ecological relevance of the chosen traits. These cranial, dental and external (e.g. ears) characters predicted diet and locomotion and showed consistent differences among species with different feeding and substrate use strategies. We conclude that when ecological characters do not show strong phylogenetic patterns, we cannot simply assume that close relatives are ecologically similar. Museum specimens are valuable records of species' phenotypes and with the characters proposed here, morphology can reflect functional similarity, an important component of community ecology and macroevolution.

  2. The Need for Speed in Rodent Locomotion Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batka, Richard J.; Brown, Todd J.; Mcmillan, Kathryn P.; Meadows, Rena M.; Jones, Kathryn J.; Haulcomb, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion analysis is now widely used across many animal species to understand the motor defects in disease, functional recovery following neural injury, and the effectiveness of various treatments. More recently, rodent locomotion analysis has become an increasingly popular method in a diverse range of research. Speed is an inseparable aspect of locomotion that is still not fully understood, and its effects are often not properly incorporated while analyzing data. In this hybrid manuscript, we accomplish three things: (1) review the interaction between speed and locomotion variables in rodent studies, (2) comprehensively analyze the relationship between speed and 162 locomotion variables in a group of 16 wild-type mice using the CatWalk gait analysis system, and (3) develop and test a statistical method in which locomotion variables are analyzed and reported in the context of speed. Notable results include the following: (1) over 90% of variables, reported by CatWalk, were dependent on speed with an average R2 value of 0.624, (2) most variables were related to speed in a nonlinear manner, (3) current methods of controlling for speed are insufficient, and (4) the linear mixed model is an appropriate and effective statistical method for locomotion analyses that is inclusive of speed-dependent relationships. Given the pervasive dependency of locomotion variables on speed, we maintain that valid conclusions from locomotion analyses cannot be made unless they are analyzed and reported within the context of speed. PMID:24890845

  3. Conspecific Interactions in Adult Laboratory Rodents: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; de Jong, Trynke R

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between adult conspecifics, including sexual behaviors, affiliation, and aggression are crucial for the well-being, survival, and reproduction of mammals. This holds true for any mammalian species, but certainly for humans: An inability to optimally navigate the social system can have a strong negative impact on physical and mental health. Translational rodent models have been used for decades to unravel the neural pathways and substrates involved in normal and abnormal conspecific interactions. Researchers in the field of translational social neuroscience face a double challenge: Not only do they need to pay considerable attention to the behavioral ecology of their model species or their ancestors, they also have to expect a relatively large variability in behavior and adjust their experimental design accordingly. In this chapter, we will lay out traditional and novel rodent models and paradigms to study sexual, affiliative, and aggressive interactions among adult conspecifics. We will discuss the merits and main findings and briefly consider the most promising novel directions. Finally, we review the modulatory involvement of two major players in mammal social interaction: the central oxytocin and vasopressin system.

  4. New Insights from Rodent Models of Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Rodent models of fatty liver disease are essential research tools that provide a window into disease pathogenesis and a testing ground for prevention and treatment. Models come in many varieties involving dietary and genetic manipulations, and sometimes both. High-energy diets that induce obesity do not uniformly cause fatty liver disease; this has prompted close scrutiny of specific macronutrients and nutrient combinations to determine which have the greatest potential for hepatotoxicity. At the same time, diets that do not cause obesity or the metabolic syndrome but do cause severe steatohepatitis have been exploited to study factors important to progressive liver injury, including cell death, oxidative stress, and immune activation. Rodents with a genetic predisposition to overeating offer yet another model in which to explore the evolution of fatty liver disease. In some animals that overeat, steatohepatitis can develop even without resorting to a high-energy diet. Importantly, these models and others have been used to document that aerobic exercise can prevent or reduce fatty liver disease. This review focuses primarily on lessons learned about steatohepatitis from manipulations of diet and eating behavior. Numerous additional insights about hepatic lipid metabolism, which have been gained from genetically engineered mice, are also mentioned. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 535–550. PMID:21126212

  5. Causal evidence between monsoon and evolution of rhizomyine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Wan, Shiming; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-03-11

    The modern Asian monsoonal systems are currently believed to have originated around the end of the Oligocene following a crucial step of uplift of the Tibetan-Himalayan highlands. Although monsoon possibly drove the evolution of many mammal lineages during the Neogene, no evidence thereof has been provided so far. We examined the evolutionary history of a clade of rodents, the Rhizomyinae, in conjunction with our current knowledge of monsoon fluctuations over time. The macroevolutionary dynamics of rhizomyines were analyzed within a well-constrained phylogenetic framework coupled with biogeographic and evolutionary rate studies. The evolutionary novelties developed by these rodents were surveyed in parallel with the fluctuations of the Indian monsoon so as to evaluate synchroneity and postulate causal relationships. We showed the existence of three drops in biodiversity during the evolution of rhizomyines, all of which reflected elevated extinction rates. Our results demonstrated linkage of monsoon variations with the evolution and biogeography of rhizomyines. Paradoxically, the evolution of rhizomyines was accelerated during the phases of weakening of the monsoons, not of strengthening, most probably because at those intervals forest habitats declined, which triggered extinction and progressive specialization toward a burrowing existence.

  6. Holocene vegetation history from fossil rodent middens near Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C.A.; Betancourt, J.L.; Rylander, K.A.; Roque, J.; Tovar, O.; Zeballos, H.; Linares, E.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16??S), provide an ???9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central AndesAtacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Nin??o Southern Oscillation modes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  7. A Practical Guide to Rodent Islet Isolation and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Jeffrey D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic islets of Langerhans secrete hormones that are vital to the regulation of blood glucose and are, therefore, a key focus of diabetes research. Purifying viable and functional islets from the pancreas for study is an intricate process. This review highlights the key elements involved with mouse and rat islet isolation, including choices of collagenase, the collagenase digestion process, purification of islets using a density gradient, and islet culture conditions. In addition, this paper reviews commonly used techniques for assessing islet viability and function, including visual assessment, fluorescent markers of cell death, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and intracellular calcium measurements. A detailed protocol is also included that describes a common method for rodent islet isolation that our laboratory uses to obtain viable and functional mouse islets for in vitro study of islet function, beta-cell physiology, and in vivo rodent islet transplantation. The purpose of this review is to serve as a resource and foundation for successfully procuring and purifying high-quality islets for research purposes.

  8. Spatial memory tasks in rodents: what do they model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellini, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of spatial learning and memory in rodents is commonly used to investigate the mechanisms underlying certain forms of human cognition and to model their dysfunction in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Proper interpretation of rodent behavior in terms of spatial memory and as a model of human cognitive functions is only possible if various navigation strategies and factors controlling the performance of the animal in a spatial task are taken into consideration. The aim of this review is to describe the experimental approaches that are being used for the study of spatial memory in rats and mice and the way that they can be interpreted in terms of general memory functions. After an introduction to the classification of memory into various categories and respective underlying neuroanatomical substrates, I explain the concept of spatial memory and its measurement in rats and mice by analysis of their navigation strategies. Subsequently, I describe the most common paradigms for spatial memory assessment with specific focus on methodological issues relevant for the correct interpretation of the results in terms of cognitive function. Finally, I present recent advances in the use of spatial memory tasks to investigate episodic-like memory in mice.

  9. Evaluating rodent motor functions: Which tests to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Jahanshahi, Ali; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven

    2017-12-01

    Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI. The current review describes and evaluates motor tests that fall into three categories: Tests to evaluate fine motor skills and grip strength, tests for gait and inter-limb coordination and neurological deficit scores. In this review, we share our thoughts on standardized data presentation to increase data comparability between studies. We also critically evaluate current methods and provide recommendations for choosing the best behavioral test for a new research line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hure, Alexis; Young, Anne; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare

    2009-06-01

    To investigate and report the diet quality of young Australian women by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status was defined as pregnant (n 606), trying to conceive (n 454), had a baby in the last 12 months (n 829) and other (n 5597). The Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies was used to calculate diet quality using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) methodology. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. A population-based cohort participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). A nationally representative sample of Australian women, aged 25 to 30 years, who completed Survey 3 of the ALSWH. The 7486 women with biologically plausible energy intake estimates, defined as >4.5 but food group accounted for this small difference. Across all pregnancy categories there were important nutrients that did not meet the current nationally recommended levels of intake, including dietary folate and fibre. Women do not appear to consume a wider variety of nutritious foods when planning to become pregnant or during pregnancy. Many young Australian women are failing to meet key nutrient targets as nationally recommended.

  11. Advances in Rodent Research Missions on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Ronca, A.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Gong, C.; Stube, K.; Pletcher, D.; Wigley, C.; Beegle, J.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A research platform for rodent experiment on the ISS is a valuable tool for advancing biomedical research in space. Capabilities offered by the Rodent Research project developed at NASA Ames Research Center can support experiments of much longer duration on the ISS than previous experiments performed on the Space Shuttle. NASAs Rodent Research (RR)-1 mission was completed successfully and achieved a number of objectives, including validation of flight hardware, on-orbit operations, and science capabilities as well as support of a CASIS-sponsored experiment (Novartis) on muscle atrophy. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on the Space-X (SpX) 4 Dragon vehicle, and thrived for up to 37 days in microgravity. Daily health checks of the mice were performed during the mission via downlinked video; all flight animals were healthy and displayed normal behavior, and higher levels of physical activity compared to ground controls. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that Flight and Ground Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions indicative of healthy animals. The animals were euthanized on-orbit and select tissues were collected from some of the mice on orbit to assess the long-term sample storage capabilities of the ISS. In general, the data obtained from the flight mice were comparable to those from the three groups of control mice (baseline, vivarium and ground controls, which were housed in flight hardware), showing that the ISS has adequate capability to support long-duration rodent experiments. The team recovered 35 tissues from 40 RR-1 frozen carcasses, yielding 3300 aliquots of tissues to distribute to the scientific community in the U.S., including NASAs GeneLab project and scientists via Space Biology's Biospecimen Sharing Program Ames Life Science Data Archive. Tissues also were distributed to Russian research colleagues at the Institute for

  12. Rodent-borne diseases and their public health importance in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Rabiee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are reservoirs and hosts for several zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, and leishmaniasis. Rapid development of industry and agriculture, as well as climate change throughout the globe, has led to change or increase in occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. Considering the distribution of rodents throughout Iran, the aim of this review is to assess the risk of rodent-borne diseases in Iran.We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scientific Information Database (SID, and Magiran databases up to September 2016 to obtain articles reporting occurrence of rodent-borne diseases in Iran and extract information from them. Out of 70 known rodent-borne diseases, 34 were reported in Iran: 17 (50% parasitic diseases, 13 (38% bacterial diseases, and 4 (12% viral diseases. Twenty-one out of 34 diseases were reported from both humans and rodents. Among the diseases reported in the rodents of Iran, plague, leishmaniasis, and hymenolepiasis were the most frequent. The most infected rodents were Rattus norvegicus (16 diseases, Mus musculus (14 diseases, Rattus rattus (13 diseases, Meriones persicus (7 diseases, Apodemus spp. (5 diseases, Tatera indica (4 diseases, Meriones libycus (3 diseases, Rhombomys opimus (3 diseases, Cricetulus migratorius (3 diseases, and Nesokia indica (2 diseases.The results of this review indicate the importance of rodent-borne diseases in Iran. Considering notable diversity of rodents and their extensive distribution throughout the country, it is crucial to pay more attention to their role in spreading infectious diseases for better control of the diseases.

  13. Rodent-borne diseases and their public health importance in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Siahsarvie, Roohollah; Kryštufek, Boris; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Background Rodents are reservoirs and hosts for several zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, and leishmaniasis. Rapid development of industry and agriculture, as well as climate change throughout the globe, has led to change or increase in occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. Considering the distribution of rodents throughout Iran, the aim of this review is to assess the risk of rodent-borne diseases in Iran. Methodology/Principal finding We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scientific Information Database (SID), and Magiran databases up to September 2016 to obtain articles reporting occurrence of rodent-borne diseases in Iran and extract information from them. Out of 70 known rodent-borne diseases, 34 were reported in Iran: 17 (50%) parasitic diseases, 13 (38%) bacterial diseases, and 4 (12%) viral diseases. Twenty-one out of 34 diseases were reported from both humans and rodents. Among the diseases reported in the rodents of Iran, plague, leishmaniasis, and hymenolepiasis were the most frequent. The most infected rodents were Rattus norvegicus (16 diseases), Mus musculus (14 diseases), Rattus rattus (13 diseases), Meriones persicus (7 diseases), Apodemus spp. (5 diseases), Tatera indica (4 diseases), Meriones libycus (3 diseases), Rhombomys opimus (3 diseases), Cricetulus migratorius (3 diseases), and Nesokia indica (2 diseases). Conclusions/Significance The results of this review indicate the importance of rodent-borne diseases in Iran. Considering notable diversity of rodents and their extensive distribution throughout the country, it is crucial to pay more attention to their role in spreading infectious diseases for better control of the diseases. PMID:29672510

  14. The Australian National Proton Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.; Rozenfeld, A.; Bishop, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Protons have been used in the treatment of cancer since 1954 and over 30,000 patients have been treated around the world. Their precise dose distribution allows the treatment of small tumours in critical locations such as the base of skull and orbit and is an alternative to stereotactic radiotherapy in other sites. With the development of hospital-based systems in the 1990's, common tumours such as prostate, breast and lung cancer can now also be treated using simple techniques. The therapeutic ratio is improved as the dose to the tumour can be increased while sparing normal tissues. The well defined high dose region and low integral dose compared with photon treatments is a particular advantage in children and other situations where long-term survival is expected and when used in combination with chemotherapy. In January 2002, the NSW Health Department initiated a Feasibility Study for an Australian National Proton Facility. This Study will address the complex medical, scientific, engineering, commercial and legal issues required to design and build a proton facility in Australia. The Facility will be mainly designed for patient treatment but will also provide facilities for biological, physical and engineering research. The proposed facility will have a combination of fixed and rotating beams with an energy range of 70-250 MeV. Such a centre will enable the conduct of randomised clinical trials and a comparison with other radiotherapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Cost-utility comparisons with other medical treatments will also be made and further facilities developed if the expected benefit is confirmed. When patients are not being treated, the beam will be available for commercial and research purposes. This presentation will summarize the progress of the Study and discuss the important issues that need to be resolved before the Facility is approved and constructed

  15. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  16. Water metabolism in Australian marsupials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, I.D.

    1982-01-01

    Several studies are discussed in which tritiated water (TOH) has been used to investigate water metabolism in Australian marsupials, particularly arid-zone species. Equilibration of injected TOH in large kangaroos was slower than in smaller marsupials and similar to that in ruminants and camels, presumably because of the high gut water space of all large forestomach fermenters. Loss of TOH in urine, faeces and insensible water during equilibration was also similar to that in ruminants. Total body water (TBW) was similar whether estimated by equilibration or extrapolation. TBW of small marsupial species (16 g to 6.5 kg body weight) was usually in the range found for small eutherian mammals (56 to 68% of body weight). However, in the larger kangaroos TBW ranged from 73 to 78% of body weight, possibly due to the low body fat content and the high ratio of gut contents to total body weight of kangaroos. In general, the water turnover rate of marsupials is about 30% below that of eutherians; this has been related to their lower metabolic rate. Nevertheless, significant differences in water turnover have been found between some species. It has been suggested that there may be a correlation between the water turnover rates measured under ad libitum water availability and the aridity of the animal's habitat. However, this is not always so; differences in behaviour and in the water content of the natural diet explain why some marsupials with high ad libitum water turnovers can survive in desert environments. The physiological state of the animals (e.g. lactation) has also been shown to affect water turnover, both in the laboratory and in the field. (author)

  17. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  18. Australian minerals industry 1985-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The performance of the Australian mineral industry in 1985-86 was again adversely affected by low commodity prices and tight market conditions. This is shown in a survey conducted by chartered accountants Coopers and Lybrand and published by the Australian Mining Industry Council (AMIC). In a preface to the report, the president of AMIC (Sir Bruce Watson) said: In just 10 years the minerals industry has emerged as Australia's major exporter, accounting for over 40% of total Australian exports of goods. This preeminent ranking has depended on a significant investment effort, and in the creation of a very large asset base. Financing this investment, and achieving the cash flow necessary to service it, are enormous tasks.

  19. Medical radioisotope production - the Australian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian government, through its instrumentality, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), owns and operates a 10-MW Dido-class research reactor at Lucas Heights on the southern outskirts of Sydney. This is the only operating nuclear reactor in Australia. It was built in 1958 and has a maximum flux of 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s. ANSTO also jointly owns and operates a 30-MeV IBA negative ion cyclotron at Camperdown in central Sydney, which began operation in 1992. ANSTO is predominantly a research organization; however, radioisotopes are commercially produced through Australian Radioisotopes (ARI), an ANSTO business entity. Seventy-four people are employed by ARI, which is a vertically integrated organization, i.e., everything from target preparation to sale of products is undertaken.

  20. Australian coal - on top down under

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    Australian coal exports have risen to record levels of 102mt in 1987. Whilst the industry is characterised by impressive export tonnages and high quality product, these assets do not always indicate real returns for the coal exporter when faced with today's competitive international market. The Australian coal industry has initiated large scale cost reduction and rationalisation programmes to offset losses in revenue, accompanied by the construction of sophisticated, efficient loading facilities. The article examines some of the reasons behind continued success by exporters in the international market, before going on to consider the longer term outlook for the Australian ndustry as a whole. A historical perspective is described, tracing the development of the coal industry from early exploratory development to the highly-tuned industry of today. 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  1. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  2. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  3. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  4. Crossing borders: extraterritorial application of Australian directors’ duties

    OpenAIRE

    McKeown, Peter Julian Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Australian corporations operate in an increasingly international environment. It has intuitive appeal that Australian law should regulate the conduct of directors of Australian corporations even if it occurs outside Australia. This however can create tension with the competing rights of the foreign state in whose territory this conduct occurs to regulate such conduct. This thesis examines two questions. Firstly, does Australian law governing directors’ duties in fact apply to activities of a ...

  5. Potential for Australian involvement in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D. J.; Collins, G. A.; Hole, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Fusion, the process that powers the sun and stars, offers a solution to the world's long-term energy needs: providing large scale energy production with zero greenhouse gas emissions, short-lived radio-active waste compared to conventional nuclear fission cycles, and a virtually limitless supply of fuel. Almost three decades of fusion research has produced spectacular progress. Present-day experiments have a power gain ratio of approximately 1 (ratio of power out to power in), with a power output in the 10's of megawatts. The world's next major fusion experiment, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will be a pre-prototype power plant. Since announcement of the ITER site in June 2005, the ITER project, has gained momentum and political support. Despite Australia's foundation role in the field of fusion science, through the pioneering work of Sir Mark Oliphant, and significant contributions to the international fusion program over the succeeding years, Australia is not involved in the ITER project. In this talk, the activities of a recently formed consortium of scientists and engineers, the Australian ITER Forum will be outlined. The Forum is drawn from five Universities, ANSTO (the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and AINSE (the Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering), and seeks to promote fusion energy in the Australian community and negotiate a role for Australia in the ITER project. As part of this activity, the Australian government recently funded a workshop that discussed the ways and means of engaging Australia in ITER. The workshop brought the research, industrial, government and general public communities, together with the ITER partners, and forged an opportunity for ITER engagement; with scientific, industrial, and energy security rewards for Australia. We will report on the emerging scope for Australian involvement

  6. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-02-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. An early warning system for IPM-based rodent control in smallholder farming systems in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwanjabe, Patrick S.; Leirs, Herwig

    1997-01-01

    numbers increased faster. Where abundant short rains were a normal condition returning every year, such effect was not clear. A method to assess rodent damage to germinating seedlings was found to be robust and can be used for monitoring rodent problems. Using this assessment technique, we showed...

  8. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MOHEBALI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius.Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117, M. musculus (n=63 and C. migratorius (n=24 were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively.Results: About 121(59.3% of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%, Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%, Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%, Giardia muris 19(9.3%, Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%, Isospora spp. 4(2% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5% were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31% out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method.Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans.

  9. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae) in Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabiholah; Khanaliha, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOTAVALLI-HAGHI, Afsaneh; DAVOODI, Jaber; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; TARIGHI, Fathemeh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius. Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117), M. musculus (n=63) and C. migratorius (n=24) were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively. Results: About 121(59.3%) of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%), Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%), Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%), Giardia muris 19(9.3%), Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%), Isospora spp. 4(2%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5%) were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31%) out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method. Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans. PMID:28979348

  10. an ecological study on rodents of natural vegetation and farm lands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    habitat association of rodents was conducted in Siltie natural vegetation and nearby farmlands ... In each habitat type, one representative grid was selected for live trapping. In addition, rodents were also snap- trapped from these habitats. A total of 562 captures was made .... into seeds, leaves, roots, earthworms and arthro-.

  11. A test of five mechanisms of species coexistence between rodents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A test of five mechanisms of species coexistence between rodents in a southern African savanna. M.R. Perrin, B.P. Kotler. Abstract. The operation of five different mechanisms of species coexistence in a community of rodents was examined in a semi-arid Kalahari savanna in southern Africa. The two most common species ...

  12. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  13. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research relations.......This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...

  14. Australian uranium wants to stay at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this issue a battle of purchase of Australian WMC Company - minor of nickel, copper and uranium. Domestic company BHB Hilton will probably win this battle. This company offers 7.3 billion USD for WMC. Australian company offers approximately in 800 million USD more than Swiss competitor Xstrata. WMC controls more than one third of worldwide known uranium deposits in its mine Olympic Dam. WMC is the fifth largest producer of nickel in the world. United company should be the second in the world in copper mining after Chile Codelco and the third in aluminium mining after Russian company Norilsk Nickel and Canadian Inco

  15. Regulation of online pharmacy: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Paul

    2003-02-01

    This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.

  16. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  17. Strengthening health promotion in Australian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K J; Deeds, S; Siebel, R; Allen, J

    1997-01-01

    The Australian workplace has emerged as an important venue for influencing the health of employees through regulations and behaviour change programs. Recent surveys have highlighted a growth in this activity but the effectiveness of these programs in changing unhealthy work practices and policies is questionable. The need for strengthening programs by stronger designs and evaluation, and addressing organisational factors and employee participation in planning and implementation processes is documented. Efforts in that direction in Queensland are cited, Building on these existing foundations, redirecting existing resources, and building intersectoral cooperation in public-private partnerships hold a creative, exemplary vision of the future for Australian workplace programming.

  18. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Youngho; Hasegawa, Bruce H; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Nuki, Yoshitsugu

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) remains a critical diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular disease, and the advent of specialized systems for imaging rodents has extended these techniques to small animal models of these diseases. We therefore have evaluated in vivo methods of imaging rat models of hemorrhagic stroke using a high resolution compact computed tomography ('microCT') system (FLEX(tm) X-O(tm), Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, CA). For all in vivo studies, the head of the anesthetized rat was secured in a custom immobilization device for microCT imaging with 512 projections over 2 min at 60 kVp and 0.530 mA (I tube x t/rotation = 63.6 mAs). First, imaging without iodinated contrast was performed (a) to differentiate the effect of contrast agent in contrast-enhanced CT and (b) to examine the effectiveness of the immobilization device between two time points of CT acquisitions. Then, contrast-enhanced CT was performed with continuous administration of iopromide (300 mgI ml -1 at 1.2 ml min -1 ) to visualize aneurysms and other vascular formations in the carotid and cerebral arteries that may precede subarachnoid hemorrhage. The accuracy of registration between the noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images with the immobilization device was compared against the images aligned with normalized mutual information using FMRIB's linear image registration tool (FLIRT). Translations and rotations were examined between the FLIRT-aligned noncontrast CT image and the nonaligned noncontrast CT image. These two data sets demonstrated translational and rotational differences of less than 0.5 voxel (∼85 μm) and 0.5 deg., respectively. Noncontrast CT demonstrated a very small volume (0.1 ml) of femoral arterial blood introduced surgically into the rodent brain. Continuous administration of iopromide during the CT acquisition produced consistent vascular contrast in the reconstructed CT images. As a result, carotid arteries and major cerebral blood vessels

  19. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Youngho; Hasegawa, Bruce H [Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Hashimoto, Tomoki; Nuki, Yoshitsugu [Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: youngho.seo@radiology.ucsf.edu

    2008-04-07

    Computed tomography (CT) remains a critical diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular disease, and the advent of specialized systems for imaging rodents has extended these techniques to small animal models of these diseases. We therefore have evaluated in vivo methods of imaging rat models of hemorrhagic stroke using a high resolution compact computed tomography ('microCT') system (FLEX(tm) X-O(tm), Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, CA). For all in vivo studies, the head of the anesthetized rat was secured in a custom immobilization device for microCT imaging with 512 projections over 2 min at 60 kVp and 0.530 mA (I{sub tube} x t/rotation = 63.6 mAs). First, imaging without iodinated contrast was performed (a) to differentiate the effect of contrast agent in contrast-enhanced CT and (b) to examine the effectiveness of the immobilization device between two time points of CT acquisitions. Then, contrast-enhanced CT was performed with continuous administration of iopromide (300 mgI ml{sup -1} at 1.2 ml min{sup -1}) to visualize aneurysms and other vascular formations in the carotid and cerebral arteries that may precede subarachnoid hemorrhage. The accuracy of registration between the noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images with the immobilization device was compared against the images aligned with normalized mutual information using FMRIB's linear image registration tool (FLIRT). Translations and rotations were examined between the FLIRT-aligned noncontrast CT image and the nonaligned noncontrast CT image. These two data sets demonstrated translational and rotational differences of less than 0.5 voxel ({approx}85 {mu}m) and 0.5 deg., respectively. Noncontrast CT demonstrated a very small volume (0.1 ml) of femoral arterial blood introduced surgically into the rodent brain. Continuous administration of iopromide during the CT acquisition produced consistent vascular contrast in the reconstructed CT images. As a result, carotid

  20. Neurobiology of rodent self-grooming and its value for translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Stewart, Adam Michael; Song, Cai; Berridge, Kent C; Graybiel, Ann M; Fentress, John C

    2016-01-01

    Self-grooming is a complex innate behaviour with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern and is one of the most frequently performed behavioural activities in rodents. In this Review, we discuss the neurobiology of rodent self-grooming, and we highlight studies of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders--including models of autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder--that have assessed self-grooming phenotypes. We suggest that rodent self-grooming may be a useful measure of repetitive behaviour in such models, and therefore of value to translational psychiatry. Assessment of rodent self-grooming may also be useful for understanding the neural circuits that are involved in complex sequential patterns of action.

  1. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  2. Helminth Infections of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Importance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Javad; Sarkari, Bahador; Mowlavi, Gholam Reza; Seifollahi, Zeinab; Moshfe, Abdolali; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh; Mobedi, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasite. The gastrointestinal tract was removed and their contents were evaluated for larva or adult worms. Trichinella larvae in the rodents' muscles were investigated by both digestion and pathological methods. Twenty-eight (53.8%) of the trapped rodents were male. The rodents were including 25 (48.1%) Meriones persicus , 1(1.9%) Calomyscus bailwardi , 1 (1.9%) Arvicola terresterris , 7 (13.5%) Rattus rattus , 8 (15.4%) R. norvegicus , and 10 (19.2%) Apodemus sylvaticus . Of them, 38 (73.0%) were infected with at least one helminth. Collected rodents were infected with Hymenolepis diminuta (50%), Hymenolepis nana fraterna (28.8%), Skrjabinotaenia sp. (15.4%), Anoplocephalidae sp. (15.4%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (5.8%), Trichuris muris (36.5%), Aspiculuris tetraptera (15.4%), Syphacia sp. (5.7%), Rictularia sp. (15.4%), Trichostrongylus sp. (3.8%), and Gongylonema sp. (3.8%). M. persicus was the most (84%) infected rodent, yet the differences between rodent genus and helminth infectivity were not statistically significant ( P >0.05). The rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district are infected with different helminths infections that some of them are recognized as threat to human health.

  3. Behavioral effects of developmental methylmercury drinking water exposure in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B; Farina, Marcelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Rocha, Joao B T; Aschner, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can have long-lasting consequences likely arising from impaired developmental processes, the outcome of which has been exposed in several longitudinal studies of affected populations. Given the large number of newborns at an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with in utero MeHg exposure, it is important to study neurobehavioral alterations using ecologically valid and physiologically relevant models. This review highlights the benefits of using the MeHg drinking water exposure paradigm and outlines behavioral outcomes arising from this procedure in rodents. Combination treatments that exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg-induced effects, and possible molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Philip J; Cunningham, Deirdre; Jarra, William; Lawton, Jennifer; Langhorne, Jean; Thompson, Joanne

    2011-04-01

    The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi shares many features with human malaria species, including P. falciparum, and is the in vivo model of choice for many aspects of malaria research in the mammalian host, from sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes, to antigenic variation and host immunity and immunopathology. This protocol describes an optimized method for the transformation of mature blood-stage P.c. chabaudi and a description of a vector that targets efficient, single crossover integration into the P.c. chabaudi genome. Transformed lines are reproducibly generated and selected within 14-20 d, and show stable long-term protein expression even in the absence of drug selection. This protocol, therefore, provides the scientific community with a robust and reproducible method to generate transformed P.c. chabaudi parasites expressing fluorescent, bioluminescent and model antigens that can be used in vivo to dissect many of the fundamental principles of malaria infection.

  5. Rodent communities in the sub-polar Ural mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdyugin, K. I.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of the rodent communities in the Sub-polar Urals is analysed. This part of the range, between 64° and 66°N, includes the highest peaks, is very scarcely settled and has been rarely studied. However, the area is interesting for biogeography, being a border zone separating European and Siberian lowland faunas. Comparison of results with those from expeditions undertaken in 1927 and in 1972, allows to evaluate changing trends in the local rodent communities, and to relate these trends to changes in the environmental conditions. The results help to emphasize the barrier role played by Sub-polar Urals for the species of rodents inhabiting both sides of the range, and also show the shifting of southern rodent forms northwards, or the moving upwards of other lowland species. This could be seen as an additional evidence of current climate warming trends.

    [fr]
    On analyse la répartition des communautés de rongeurs dans les Durais Subpolaires, une section de la chaîne comprise entre les 64° et les 66° de latitude N. Cette partie est très peu peuplée, elle possède les pics les plus hauts de la chaîne et a été rarement étudiée. Il s'agit d'une région intéressante, car c'est la frontière entre les plaines européennes et les plaines orientales de la Sibérie. En comparant les observations effectuées en 1927 et en 1972 avec celles des dernières années, on peut voir les tendances de changement des groupements de rongeurs de la région, et les interpréter en fonction des changements dans l'environnement. Les résultats permettent de mieux comprendre le rôle de barrière qui jouent les Durais Subpolaires pour les espèces de rongeurs situées d'un coté et d'autre de la chaîne. Aussi, ils permettent de verifier le déplacement vers le nord deformes méridionales et l'élévation en altitude d'autres, ce qui pourrait être vu comme une preuve additionnelle de la tendance au réchauffement global.
    [es]
    Se

  6. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  7. Nonhuman gamblers: lessons from rodents, primates, and robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio ePaglieri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The search for neuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling in humans would benefit from investigating related phenomena also outside of our species. In this paper, we present a survey of studies in three widely different populations of agents, namely rodents, non-human primates, and robots. Each of these populations offer valuable and complementary insights on the topic, as the literature demonstrates. In addition, we highlight the deep and complex connections between relevant results across these different areas of research (i.e., cognitive and computational neuroscience, neuroethology, cognitive primatology, neuropsychiatry, evolutionary robotics, to make the case for a greater degree of methodological integration in future studies on pathological gambling.

  8. Odor supported place cell model and goal navigation in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Tamosiunaite, Minija; Ainge, James

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with rodents demonstrate that visual cues play an important role in the control of hippocampal place cells and spatial navigation. Nevertheless, rats may also rely on auditory, olfactory and somatosensory stimuli for orientation. It is also known that rats can track odors or self......-generated scent marks to find a food source. Here we model odor supported place cells by using a simple feed-forward network and analyze the impact of olfactory cues on place cell formation and spatial navigation. The obtained place cells are used to solve a goal navigation task by a novel mechanism based on self......-marking by odor patches combined with a Q-learning algorithm. We also analyze the impact of place cell remapping on goal directed behavior when switching between two environments. We emphasize the importance of olfactory cues in place cell formation and show that the utility of environmental and self...

  9. Modelling the emergence of rodent filial huddling from physiological huddling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stuart P.

    2017-11-01

    Huddling behaviour in neonatal rodents reduces the metabolic costs of physiological thermoregulation. However, animals continue to huddle into adulthood, at ambient temperatures where they are able to sustain a basal metabolism in isolation from the huddle. This `filial huddling' in older animals is known to be guided by olfactory rather than thermal cues. The present study aimed to test whether thermally rewarding contacts between young mice, experienced when thermogenesis in brown adipose fat tissue (BAT) is highest, could give rise to olfactory preferences that persist as filial huddling interactions in adults. To this end, a simple model was constructed to fit existing data on the development of mouse thermal physiology and behaviour. The form of the model that emerged yields a remarkable explanation for filial huddling; associative learning maintains huddling into adulthood via processes that reduce thermodynamic entropy from BAT metabolism and increase information about social ordering among littermates.

  10. Identification of rodent homologs of hepatitis C virus and pegiviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Scheel, Troels K H

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV or GB virus C) are globally distributed and infect 2 to 5% of the human population. The lack of tractable-animal models for these viruses, in particular for HCV, has hampered the study of infection, transmission, virulence, immunity...... into the origins of human infections and enhances our ability to study their pathogenesis and explore preventive and therapeutic interventions. Horses are the only reported host of nonprimate homologs of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we report the discovery of HCV-like viruses in wild rodents. The majority of HCV...... of small-animal models for HCV, the most common infectious cause of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatitis B virus, and help to explore the health relevance of the highly prevalent human pegiviruses....

  11. Morphological evolution, ecological diversification and climate change in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Sabrina; Michaux, Jacques; Schmidt, Daniela N; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Mein, Pierre; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2005-03-22

    Among rodents, the lineage from Progonomys hispanicus to Stephanomys documents a case of increasing size and dental specialization during an approximately 9 Myr time-interval. On the contrary, some contemporaneous generalist lineages like Apodemus show a limited morphological evolution. Dental shape can be related to diet and can be used to assess the ecological changes along the lineages. Consequently, size and shape of the first upper molar were measured in order to quantify the patterns of morphological evolution along both lineages and compare them to environmental trends. Climatic changes do not have a direct influence on evolution, but they open new ecological opportunities by changing vegetation and allow the evolution of a specialist like Stephanomys. On the other hand, environmental changes are not dramatic enough to destroy the habitat of a long-term generalist like Apodemus. Hence, our results exemplify a case of an influence of climate on the evolution of specialist species, although a generalist species may persist without change.

  12. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP as neurotransmitters. PACAP is useful for the study of central ipRGC projections because, in the retina, it is found exclusively within melanopsin cells. Little is known about the central projections of ipRGCs in diurnal species. Here, we first characterized these cells in the retina of the diurnal Nile grass rat using immunohistochemistry (IHC. The same basic subtypes of melanopsin cells that have been described in other mammals were present, but nearly 25% of them were displaced, primarily in its superior region. PACAP was present in 87.7% of all melanopsin cells, while 97.4% of PACAP cells contained melanopsin. We then investigated central projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, pretectum and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed with injections of cholera toxin subunit β coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 in one eye and Alexa Flour 594 in the other, combined with IHC staining of PACAP. These studies also revealed that the ventral and dorsal LGN and the caudal olivary pretectal nucleus receive less innervation from ipRGCs than that reported in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical.

  14. Arctic Small Rodents Have Diverse Diets and Flexible Food Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva M Soininen

    Full Text Available The ecology of small rodent food selection is poorly understood, as mammalian herbivore food selection theory has mainly been developed by studying ungulates. Especially, the effect of food availability on food selection in natural habitats where a range of food items are available is unknown. We studied diets and selectivity of grey-sided voles (Myodes rufocanus and tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus, key herbivores in European tundra ecosystems, using DNA metabarcoding, a novel method enabling taxonomically detailed diet studies. In order to cover the range of food availabilities present in the wild, we employed a large-scale study design for sampling data on food availability and vole diets. Both vole species had ingested a range of plant species and selected particularly forbs and grasses. Grey-sided voles also selected ericoid shrubs and tundra voles willows. Availability of a food item rarely affected its utilization directly, although seasonal changes of diets and selection suggest that these are positively correlated with availability. Moreover, diets and selectivity were affected by availability of alternative food items. These results show that the focal sub-arctic voles have diverse diets and flexible food preferences and rarely compensate low availability of a food item with increased searching effort. Diet diversity itself is likely to be an important trait and has previously been underrated owing to methodological constraints. We suggest that the roles of alternative food item availability and search time limitations for small rodent feeding ecology should be investigated.Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF, Vascular plants. Available at: http://nhm2.uio.no/paf/, accessed 15.6.2012.

  15. Osseointegration of biochemically modified implants in an osteoporosis rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Stadlinger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of implant surface modifications on osseointegration in an osteoporotic rodent model. Sandblasted, acid-etched titanium implants were either used directly (control or were further modified by surface conditioning with NaOH or by coating with one of the following active agents: collagen/chondroitin sulphate, simvastatin, or zoledronic acid. Control and modified implants were inserted into the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomised (OVX osteoporotic rats (n = 32/group. In addition, aged oestrogen competent animals received either control or NaOH conditioned implants. Animals were sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. The excised tibiae were utilised for biomechanical and morphometric readouts (n = 8/group/readout. Biomechanical testing revealed at both time points dramatically reduced osseointegration in the tibia of oestrogen deprived osteoporotic animals compared to intact controls irrespective of NaOH exposure. Consistently, histomorphometric and microCT analyses demonstrated diminished bone-implant contact (BIC, peri-implant bone area (BA, bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV and bone-mineral density (BMD in OVX animals. Surface coating with collagen/chondroitin sulphate had no detectable impact on osseointegration. Interestingly, statin coating resulted in a transient increase in BIC 2 weeks post-implantation; which, however, did not correspond to improvement of biomechanical readouts. Local exposure to zoledronic acid increased BIC, BA, BV/TV and BMD at 4 weeks. Yet this translated only into a non-significant improvement of biomechanical properties. In conclusion, this study presents a rodent model mimicking severely osteoporotic bone. Contrary to the other bioactive agents, locally released zoledronic acid had a positive impact on osseointegration albeit to a lesser extent than reported in less challenging models.

  16. A Community Standard: Equivalency of Healthcare in Australian Immigration Detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    The Australian government has long maintained that the standard of healthcare provided in its immigration detention centres is broadly comparable with health services available within the Australian community. Drawing on the literature from prison healthcare, this article examines (1) whether the principle of equivalency is being applied in Australian immigration detention and (2) whether this standard of care is achievable given Australia's current policies. This article argues that the principle of equivalency is not being applied and that this standard of health and healthcare will remain unachievable in Australian immigration detention without significant reform. Alternate approaches to addressing the well documented issues related to health and healthcare in Australian immigration detention are discussed.

  17. Australian Geography and the Corporate Management Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes the intrusion into Australian higher education of the corporate management model. Considers the implications of this mechanization for geography instruction. Notes centralizing tendencies and merger policies with the corresponding market imperatives of efficiency and accountability. Argues that this produces employable manpower but does…

  18. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  19. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  20. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  1. Australian coal year book 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1984-01-01

    The first edition of this new publication provides comprehensive data on the Australian coal industry. Apart from a mine directory which lists technical details for each mine, other subjects include; coal export facilities; annual coal statistics; buyers guide; suppliers directory; addresses of relevant organizations and an index of coal mine owners.

  2. Contributions to Indo-Australian Herpetology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1934-01-01

    A complete account of all the reptiles then known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago was published by De Rooij in 1915 and 1917. Since this time several new species have been described, while others have been suppressed or revived. Also the problem of geographical variation begins to

  3. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  4. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  5. Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films. Greg McCarthy. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  6. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  7. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  8. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  9. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  10. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  11. Australian clinical dosimetry service at ARPANSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Abel; Williams, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Earlier this year, the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council accepted the Federal Government's offer to fund the establishment and operation for 3 years of an Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS). The service will be located within the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in Yallambie, Victoria and will commence operation at the beginning of 20II. The purpose of the ACDS is to make available independent checks and auditing services to all Australian radiotherapy services. These services will range form postal audits to site visits, and include treatment dose assessments using phantoms (Level III audits). There will be a Clinical Advisory Group to oversee the development of the service, so the ACPSEM and other professional groups will playa key role in developing the ACDS. In consultation with radiotherapy facilities, the ACDS will establish an Audit Panel which will be made up of local staff to assist with on site work and minimise travel costs. The results of all measurements made by the ACDS will be confi dential: only de-identified data would be publicly reported. The service will be free to participating facilities in the first 3 years. An independent review will be conducted in the third year to determine the ongoing arrangements for the service.

  12. Australian contribution to the science of radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, B.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has made numerous major contributions to the science of radioastronomy and played a leading role in its early development. The history of the Australian effort is reviewed, from this early seminal work until the present day when contributions continue at an important level

  13. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  14. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  15. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  16. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  17. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  18. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  19. School Libraries Empowering Learning: The Australian Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes school libraries in Australia. Highlights include the title of teacher librarian and their education; the history of the role of school libraries in Australian education; empowerment; information skills and benchmarks; national standards for school libraries; information literacy; learning outcomes; evidence-based practice; digital…

  20. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  1. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  2. Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild rodents in an area of endemic canine hepatozoonosis in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Magro, Natalia Mizuhira; da Silva, Maria Regina Lucas; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Calabuig, Cecilia Irene Pérez; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2016-07-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne parasite that occurs worldwide. In rural areas of Brazil, H. canis vectors remain unknown, which has led to speculation about alternative routes of transmission. Small rodents can play a role in the transmission (via predation) of Hepatozoon americanum, which led us to question whether predation might be an alternative mode of transmission for H. canis. Thus, this study investigated whether Hepatozoon spp. are present in wild small rodents in forest fragments that surround rural areas in Botucatu County, São Paulo, Brazil, where canine hepatozoonosis is endemic. The study included blood samples from 158 dogs, which were screened by microscopy and molecular analysis. Blood samples and tissues from 67 rodents were obtained for histopathology and molecular detection. The prevalence of H. canis was high (66.45%) in dogs from rural areas of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The molecular analysis showed that wild rodent species in Brazil were infected with Hepatozoon spp. other than H. canis. Therefore, although the hypothesis that sylvatic rodents act as reservoirs for H. canis was not supported, the presence of monozoic cysts in the rodents suggests that, in addition to intermediate hosts, wild small rodents in Brazil might act as paratenic hosts of Hepatozoon spp. because they harbor infective stages for intermediate host predators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Research Note. Occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths in commensal rodents from Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigarroa-Toledo N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of helminths in commensal rodents captured inside private residences in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. Trapping was performed at each house for three consecutive nights from October to December 2015. Fifty commensal rodents were captured: 23 Rattus norvegicus, 16 Mus musculus and 11 Rattus rattus. Rodents were transported alive to the laboratory and held in cages until they defecated. Feces were analyzed for helminth eggs using the Sheather’s flotation technique. The overall prevalence of helminths in rodents was 60 %: R. norvegicus was more likely to be parasitized (87.0 % than R. rattus (63.6 % and M. musculus (18.8 %. Eggs from at least 13 species of helminths were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis nana, Moniliformis moniliformis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Heterakis spumosa, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Syphacia obvelata, Syphacia muris, Toxocara sp., Trichosomoides crassicauda, and Trichuris muris. This is the first study to report the presence of H. polygyrus, S. ratti and T. crassicauda in commensal rodents in Mexico. In conclusion, our results suggest that helminths commonly infect commensal rodents in Villahermosa and therefore rodents present a health risk to inhabitants in this region.

  4. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Domestic cats and dogs create a landscape of fear for pest rodents around rural homesteads.

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    Themb'alilahlwa A M Mahlaba

    Full Text Available Using domestic predators such as cats to control rodent pest problems around farms and homesteads is common across the world. However, practical scientific evidence on the impact of such biological control in agricultural settings is often lacking. We tested whether the presence of domestic cats and/or dogs in rural homesteads would affect the foraging behaviour of pest rodents. We estimated giving up densities (GUDs from established feeding patches and estimated relative rodent activity using tracking tiles at 40 homesteads across four agricultural communities. We found that the presence of cats and dogs at the same homestead significantly reduced activity and increased GUDs (i.e. increased perception of foraging cost of pest rodent species. However, if only cats or dogs alone were present at the homestead there was no observed difference in rodent foraging activity in comparison to homesteads with no cats or dogs. Our results suggest that pest rodent activity can be discouraged through the presence of domestic predators. When different types of predator are present together they likely create a heightened landscape of fear for foraging rodents.

  6. Helminth Infections of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Importance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad RANJBAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasite. The gastrointestinal tract was removed and their contents were evaluated for larva or adult worms. Trichinella larvae in the rodents’ muscles were investigated by both digestion and pathological methods.Results: Twenty-eight (53.8% of the trapped rodents were male. The rodents were including 25 (48.1% Meriones persicus, 1(1.9% Calomyscus bailwardi, 1 (1.9% Arvicola terresterris, 7 (13.5% Rattus rattus, 8 (15.4% R. norvegicus, and 10 (19.2% Apodemus sylvaticus. Of them, 38 (73.0% were infected with at least one helminth. Collected rodents were infected with Hymenolepis diminuta (50%, Hymenolepis nana fraterna (28.8%, Skrjabinotaenia sp. (15.4%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (15.4%, Cysticercus fasciolaris (5.8%, Trichuris muris (36.5%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (15.4%, Syphacia sp. (5.7%, Rictularia sp. (15.4%, Trichostrongylus sp. (3.8%, and Gongylonema sp. (3.8%. M. persicus was the most (84% infected rodent, yet the differences between rodent genus and helminth infectivity were not statistically significant (P>0.05.Conclusion: The rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district are infected with different helminths infections that some of them are recognized as threat to human health.

  7. Public health implications of changing rodent importation patterns— United States, 1999–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W.; Sinclair, Julie R.; Schroeder, Betsy A.; Galland, G. Gale; Marano, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Summary The United States imports a large volume of live wild and domestic animal species; these animals pose a demonstrated risk for introduction of zoonotic diseases. Rodents are imported for multiple purposes, including scientific research, zoo exhibits, and the pet trade. Current U.S. public health regulatory restrictions specific to rodent importation pertain only to those of African origin. To understand the impacts of these regulations and the potential public health risks of international rodent trade to the United States, we evaluated live rodent import records during 1999 –2013 by shipment volume and geographic origin, source (e.g., wild -caught versus captive-or commercially bred), intended purpose, and rodent taxonomy. Live rodent imports increased from 2,737 animals during 1999 to 173,761 animals during 2013. Increases in both the number and size of shipments contributed to this trend. The proportion of wild-captured imports declined from 75% during 1999 to guinea pigs, and hamsters arriving from other countries in North America were predominant taxa underlying this trend . After 2003, African-origin imports became sporadic events under the federal permit process. These patterns suggest development of large -scale captive rodent breeding markets abroad for commercial sale in the United States. While the shift from wild-captured imports alleviates many conservation concerns and risks for novel disease emergence, such consolidated sourcing might elevate exposure risks for zoonotic diseases associated with high-density rodent breeding(e.g. , lymphocytic choriomeningitis or salmonellosis). A responsive border health system must periodically re-evaluate importation regulations in conjunction with key stakeholders to ensure a balance between the economic benefits of rodent trade against the potential public health risks. PMID:26245515

  8. Public Health Implications of Changing Rodent Importation Patterns - United States, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, E W; Sinclair, J R; Schroeder, B A; Galland, G G; Marano, N

    2017-04-01

    The United States imports a large volume of live wild and domestic animal species; these animals pose a demonstrated risk for introduction of zoonotic diseases. Rodents are imported for multiple purposes, including scientific research, zoo exhibits and the pet trade. Current U.S. public health regulatory restrictions specific to rodent importation pertain only to those of African origin. To understand the impacts of these regulations and the potential public health risks of international rodent trade to the United States, we evaluated live rodent import records during 1999-2013 by shipment volume and geographic origin, source (e.g. wild-caught versus captive- or commercially bred), intended purpose and rodent taxonomy. Live rodent imports increased from 2737 animals during 1999 to 173 761 animals during 2013. Increases in both the number and size of shipments contributed to this trend. The proportion of wild-captured imports declined from 75% during 1999 to guinea pigs and hamsters arriving from other countries in North America were predominant taxa underlying this trend. After 2003, African-origin imports became sporadic events under the federal permit process. These patterns suggest development of large-scale captive rodent breeding markets abroad for commercial sale in the United States. While the shift from wild-captured imports alleviates many conservation concerns and risks for novel disease emergence, such consolidated sourcing might elevate exposure risks for zoonotic diseases associated with high-density rodent breeding (e.g. lymphocytic choriomeningitis or salmonellosis). A responsive border health system must periodically re-evaluate importation regulations in conjunction with key stakeholders to ensure a balance between the economic benefits of rodent trade against the potential public health risks. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Taxonomical studies of ticks infesting wild rodents from Asir Province in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

    2008-04-01

    Ticks infesting rodents in Asir Province, which is about 3000 meter above sea level, were surveyed in Wadi Dalaghan and Wadi Bin Hachbal. They were examined from September to December 2006, where ten local life baited traps were distributed for 3 days each month. The rodents were Acomys c. dimitatus (20), Meriones rex (19) & one Gerbillus cheesmani. Fifty three nymphs were dropped off from the rodents in the laboratory 3 to 12 days post-trapping. Forty eight nymphs were reared to adults for identification and 5 ones died. The reared ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus. The medical and veterinary importance was discussed.

  10. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroy, Renaud; Boisgard, Raphaël; Comtat, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new...... method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together...

  11. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  12. Identification of collected ectoparasites of rodents in the west of Khuzestan Province (Ahvaz and Hovizeh, southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Rahdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine possible parasitic arthropods fauna in certain rodent species in the west of Khuzestan Province including Ahvaz and its suburb and suburb of Hovizeh, southwest of Iran. Methods: In the current study Sherman live traps were used to catch the rodents. The rodents were identified using Iranian keys of rodents. The ectoparasites were picked up in different ways from bodies of the anesthetized rodents and stored in 70% ethanol to preserve and identified using international keys. Results: In the present study 3 species and 4 genera of ectoparasites and 4 species of rodents were identified. Conclusions: It is important to explain that the great ectoparasite biodiversity in the west of Khuzestan, with small sampling of rodents, described a high risk factor to transmit the different infectious diseases among domestic animals and humans.

  13. Impaired fear extinction in adolescent rodents: Behavioural and neural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D; Bisby, Madelyne A; Richardson, Rick

    2016-11-01

    Despite adolescence being a developmental window of vulnerability, up until very recently there were surprisingly few studies on fear extinction during this period. Here we summarise the recent work in this area, focusing on the unique behavioural and neural characteristics of fear extinction in adolescent rodents, and humans where relevant. A prominent hypothesis posits that anxiety disorders peak during late childhood/adolescence due to the non-linear maturation of the fear inhibition neural circuitry. We discuss evidence that impaired extinction retention in adolescence is due to subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala mediating fear inhibition being underactive while other subregions that mediate fear expression are overactive. We also review work on various interventions and surprising circumstances which enhance fear extinction in adolescence. This latter work revealed that the neural correlates of extinction in adolescence are different to that in younger and older animals even when extinction retention is not impaired. This growing body of work highlights that adolescence is a unique period of development for fear inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliable critical sized defect rodent model for cleft palate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nesrine Z; Doschak, Michael R; Major, Paul W; Talwar, Reena

    2014-12-01

    Suitable animal models are necessary to test the efficacy of new bone grafting therapies in cleft palate surgery. Rodent models of cleft palate are available but have limitations. This study compared and modified mid-palate cleft (MPC) and alveolar cleft (AC) models to determine the most reliable and reproducible model for bone grafting studies. Published MPC model (9 × 5 × 3 mm(3)) lacked sufficient information for tested rats. Our initial studies utilizing AC model (7 × 4 × 3 mm(3)) in 8 and 16 weeks old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats revealed injury to adjacent structures. After comparing anteroposterior and transverse maxillary dimensions in 16 weeks old SD and Wistar rats, virtual planning was performed to modify MPC and AC defects dimensions, taking the adjacent structures into consideration. Modified MPC (7 × 2.5 × 1 mm(3)) and AC (5 × 2.5 × 1 mm(3)) defects were employed in 16 weeks old Wistar rats and healing was monitored by micro-computed tomography and histology. Maxillary dimensions in SD and Wistar rats were not significantly different. Preoperative virtual planning enhanced postoperative surgical outcomes. Bone healing occurred at defect margin leaving central bone void confirming the critical size nature of the modified MPC and AC defects. Presented modifications for MPC and AC models created clinically relevant and reproducible defects. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel approach to scavenging anesthetic gases in rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Jeffrey C; Krageschmidt, Dale A; Blanco, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal procedures using gas anesthetics may amass elevated waste gas concentrations in operating rooms if controls are not implemented for capturing and removing the vapors. Area sampling using an infrared analyzer indicated isoflurane concentrations likely to exceed occupational exposure guidelines. Our study showed environmental concentrations of oxygen as high as 40% and isoflurane concentrations >100 ppm when no controls or merely passive controls were utilized. These extraneous isoflurane emissions were determined to be originating from the pre-procedural induction process as well as the gas delivery nose cone. A novel waste gas collection cylinder was designed to enclose the gas delivery nose cone and animal head during the administration of anesthetic gases. The vented cylinder utilized a house vacuum to remove the waste anesthetic gases from the surgical field. A commercially available induction chamber designed to be actively and externally exhausted was used to lower concentrations during the induction process. With implementation of local exhaust ventilation controls, waste anesthetic gas concentrations decreased to below recommended occupational exposure levels. In vitro (sham) testing compared favorably to in vivo measurements validating the reduction capability of active ventilation during rodent anesthetic administration. In vivo isoflurane reductions for the induction chamber emissions, the operating room, and the surgeon's breathing zone were 95%, 60%, and 53%, respectively. The same measurements for an in vitro procedure were 98%, 84%, and 87%, respectively.

  16. Parasitocenoses in productional rodent breeds in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Borkovcová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to monitor the occurrence of most common parasites of rodents in 13 commercial and hobby breeds. Most often detected protozoans belonged to genera Giardia, Eimeria and Cryptosporidium, tapeworms Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta, nematods Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera and mites Ornithonyssus bacoti, Laelaps hilaris and Notoedres muris. Diseases broke out mainly during summer months. In animals with clinical signs of illnesses there was an expectation of pa­ra­si­te presence, and most of them were nematods – 80%, tapeworms – 45.2%, protozoans – 41.1% and ectoparasites – 22%. Samples of animals without clinical signs of illnesses contained nematods – 16%, tapeworms – 11%, coccidians – 6% and ectoparasites – 0%. Besides evaluation of all samples, breeding conditions were evaluated as well. Consequently plan was made to remove the causes of parasitoses for each monitored breed. Most dangerous parasites were coccidians of the genus Cryp­tos­po­ri­dium, which caused high mortality of the young animals. In Czech Republic high percent of breeds are contaminated with parasites, however, there is little experience in how to deal with these illnesses. Results are weak and low-quality breeds, especially of mice and common rats. Important protection is buying animals from well-known and verified breed with no signs of illness and also regular control of excrement samples.

  17. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  18. Reproducibility and replicability of rodent phenotyping in preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkafi, Neri; Agassi, Joseph; Chesler, Elissa J; Crabbe, John C; Crusio, Wim E; Eilam, David; Gerlai, Robert; Golani, Ilan; Gomez-Marin, Alex; Heller, Ruth; Iraqi, Fuad; Jaljuli, Iman; Karp, Natasha A; Morgan, Hugh; Nicholson, George; Pfaff, Donald W; Richter, S Helene; Stark, Philip B; Stiedl, Oliver; Stodden, Victoria; Tarantino, Lisa M; Tucci, Valter; Valdar, William; Williams, Robert W; Würbel, Hanno; Benjamini, Yoav

    2018-04-01

    The scientific community is increasingly concerned with the proportion of published "discoveries" that are not replicated in subsequent studies. The field of rodent behavioral phenotyping was one of the first to raise this concern, and to relate it to other methodological issues: the complex interaction between genotype and environment; the definitions of behavioral constructs; and the use of laboratory mice and rats as model species for investigating human health and disease mechanisms. In January 2015, researchers from various disciplines gathered at Tel Aviv University to discuss these issues. The general consensus was that the issue is prevalent and of concern, and should be addressed at the statistical, methodological and policy levels, but is not so severe as to call into question the validity and the usefulness of model organisms as a whole. Well-organized community efforts, coupled with improved data and metadata sharing, have a key role in identifying specific problems and promoting effective solutions. Replicability is closely related to validity, may affect generalizability and translation of findings, and has important ethical implications. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of rodents as models of human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F Vandamme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in molecular biology have significantly increased the understanding of the biology of different diseases. However, these discoveries have not yet been fully translated into improved treatments for patients with diseases such as cancers. One of the factors limiting the translation of knowledge from preclinical studies to the clinic has been the limitations of in vivo diseases models. In this brief review, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of rodent models that have been developed to simulate human pathologies, focusing in models that employ xenografts and genetic modification. Within the framework of genetically engineered mouse (GEM models, we will review some of the current genetic strategies for modeling diseases in the mouse and the preclinical studies that have already been undertaken. We will also discuss how recent improvements in imaging technologies may increase the information derived from using these GEMs during early assessments of potential therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that one of the values of using a mouse model is the very rapid turnover rate of the animal, going through the process of birth to death in a very short timeframe relative to that of larger mammalian species.

  20. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  2. Nicotine Vapor Method to Induce Nicotine Dependence in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallupi, Marsida; George, Olivier

    2017-07-05

    Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke. The device is designed to be an alternative to conventional cigarettes that emits vaporized nicotine inhaled by the user. This report describes a procedure to vaporize nicotine in the air to produce blood nicotine levels in rodents that are clinically relevant to those that are observed in humans and produce dependence. We also describe how to construct the apparatus to deliver nicotine vapor in a stable, reliable, and consistent manner, as well as how to analyze air for nicotine content. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Validating excised rodent lungs for functional hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M L Lilburn

    Full Text Available Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp (129Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp (129Xe. Straightforward hp (129Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp (129Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp (129Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies.

  4. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  5. Traumatic brain injury–Modeling neuropsychiatric symptoms in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oz eMalkesman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year in the United States, approximately 1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI. Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal rumination. Although partially associated with the site and severity of injury, the biological mechanisms associated with many of these symptoms—and why some patients experience differing assortments of persistent maladies—are largely unknown. The use of animal models is a promising strategy for elucidation of the mechanisms of impairment and treatment, and learning, memory, sensory and motor tests have widespread utility in rodent models of TBI and psychopharmacology. Comparatively, behavioral tests for the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptomatology are rarely employed in animal models of TBI and, as determined in this review, the results have been inconsistent. Animal behavioral studies contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which TBI is associated with neurobehavioral symptoms and offer a powerful means for pre-clinical treatment validation. Therefore, further exploration of the utility of animal behavioral tests for the study of injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for the alleviation of emotional symptoms are relevant and essential.

  6. Australian bat lyssavirus: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joshua R; McCall, Bradley J; Hutchinson, Penny; Powell, Jodie; Vaska, Vikram L; Nourse, Clare

    2014-12-11

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection in humans is rare but fatal, with no proven effective therapy. ABLV infection can be prevented by administration of a post-exposure prophylaxis regimen of human rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine. All Australian bats (flying foxes and microbats) should be considered to be carrying ABLV unless proven otherwise. Any bat-related injury (bite, scratch or mucosal exposure to bat saliva or neural tissue) should be notified immediately to the relevant public health unit - no matter how small the injury or how long ago it occurred. Human-to-human transmission of ABLV has not been reported but is theoretically possible. Standard infection control precautions should be employed when managing patients with suspected or confirmed ABLV infection.

  7. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records the development and performance of the industry during the calendar year 1986. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1, 'General Review', after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole. Part 2, 'Commodity Review', covers individual mineral commodities and commodity groups including brown coal, black coal and peat. Part 3, 'Mining Census', tabulates statistics extracted from the Mining Census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the Manufacturing Census. Part 4, tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by the State departments of mines and their equivalents. The commodity review of black coal has been abstracted separately.

  8. Accelerators for the Australian environment and heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1999-01-01

    Australian researchers have access to a variety of natural systems where records of the Earth's past environment have been stored. These archives include sediment cores, Antarctic ice, Tasmanian pine trees, rock surfaces, corals, etc. Each of these media contain information on past environmental conditions but the records must be carefully deciphered and compared with one-another. The AMS analysis of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides is essential for providing absolute time scales for these natural archives. Other analytical methods based on high-energy ion interactions are well suited to characterise environmental and archaeological samples with high sensitivity. The use of ANSTO's accelerators in research programs related to the environment in the Australian region is reviewed

  9. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  10. Australian Industry Development Corporation annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    AIDC is a statutory corporation wholly owned and guaranteed by the Commonwealth of Australia. Its objects are to promote Australian industry and Australian ownership in industry. The corporation is a financial enterprise operating on commercial principles. It is engaged in the business of borrowing money, making loans and making equity investments. It also provides related financial advisory and other services, including lead management of syndicated project financings. This annual report looks at the highlights of 1983/84; a five year summary of operations; lists the Board of Directors; some executives; includes a Directors report on development finance, industry and funds management; a management structure; statistical tables; executives and a 22 page financial statement.

  11. Rodent Research-1 (RR1) NASA Validation Flight: Mouse liver transcriptomic proteomic and epigenomic data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RR-1 is a validation flight to evaluate the hardware operational and science capabilities of the Rodent Research Project on the ISS. RNA DNA and protein were...

  12. Accelerated cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Sandra; Aalbers, Marlien W.; Rijkers, Kim; Lagiere, Melanie; Bogaarts, Jan G.; Blokland, Arjan; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Hoogland, Govert; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive impairment is frequently observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is hypothesized that cumulative seizure exposure causes accelerated cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. We investigated the influence of seizure frequency on cognitive decline in a rodent

  13. Studies into abnormal aggression in humans and rodents: Methodological and translational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Jozsef

    2017-05-01

    Here we review the principles based on which aggression is rendered abnormal in humans and laboratory rodents, and comparatively overview the main methodological approaches based on which this behavior is studied in the two categories of subjects. It appears that the discriminating property of abnormal aggression is rule breaking, which renders aggression dysfunctional from the point of view of the perpetrator. We show that rodent models of abnormal aggression were created by the translation of human conditions into rodent equivalents, and discuss how findings obtained with such models may be "translated back" to human conditions when the mechanisms underlying aggression and its possibilities of treatment are investigated. We suggest that the complementary nature of human and rodent research approaches invite a more intense cross-talk between the two sides of aggression research than the one presently observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits trigeminal nociception in a rodent model of episodic migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan L. Hawkins

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion:. Our findings demonstrate that nVNS inhibits mechanical nociception and represses expression of proteins associated with peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal neurons in a novel rodent model of episodic migraine.

  15. Rodent Research-1 (RR1) NASA Validation Flight: Mouse soleus muscle transcriptomic and epigenomic data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA s Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the...

  16. Rodent Research-1 (RR1) NASA Validation Flight: Mouse kidney transcriptomic proteomic and epigenomic data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA s Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the...

  17. Rodent Research-1 (RR1) NASA Validation Flight: Mouse quadriceps muscle transcriptomic proteomic and epigenomic data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA s Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the...

  18. Rodent Research-1 (RR1) NASA Validation Flight: Mouse gastrocnemius muscle transcriptomic proteomic and epigenomic data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA s Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the...

  19. Rodent Research-1 (RR1) NASA Validation Flight: Mouse eye transcriptomic and epigenomic data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA s Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the...

  20. Rodent Research-1 (RR1) NASA Validation Flight: Mouse adrenal gland transcriptomic proteomic and epigenomic data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA s Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the...

  1. Neurobiological basis of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment : A review of rodent research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seigers, Riejanne; Fardell, Joanna E.

    For some cancer survivors chemotherapy treatment is associated with lasting cognitive impairment, long after treatment cessation. Several candidate mechanisms have been suggested, yet clinical research has been unable to clearly tease apart these hypotheses. Rodent research has allowed a systematic

  2. Gut morpbology of tbe Otomyine rodents: an arid-mesic comparison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-06-15

    Jun 15, 1998 ... Despite the broad similarity in the gross gastro-intestinal anatomy between the speCies ... Present address: Department of Physiology, University of the Western ..... on growth and renal performance of juvenile Namib rodents.

  3. Establishment of a general NAFLD scoring system for rodent models and comparison to human liver pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, W.; Menke, A.L.; Driessen, A.; Koek, G.H.; Lindeman, J.H.; Stoop, R.; Havekes, L.M.; Kleemann., R.; Hoek, A.M. van den

    2014-01-01

    Results: The criteria macrovesicular steatosis, microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis were generally applicable to rodent NAFLD. The inter-observer reproducibility (evaluated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient) between the ten observers was high

  4. Verification of natural infection of peridomestic rodents by PCV2 on commercial swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Albanno Leonard Braz Campos; Bulos, Luiz Henrique Silva; Onofre, Thiago Souza; de Paula Gabardo, Michelle; de Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Guedes, Roberto Maurício Carvalho; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2013-06-01

    The porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2) is the main agent responsible for porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Few studies have been done regarding PCV2 infection in other species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of PCV2 infection in the peridomestic rodent species Mus musculus and Rattus rattus on commercial pig farms in Brazil. Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated PCV2 in the spleen, lung and kidney. Viral DNA was detected in tissues by nested PCR assay. Partial sequences of PCV2 genomes detected in the rodents had strong identity with gene sequences of PCV2 isolates from pigs. These results show that the studied peridomestic rodent species can be naturally infected by PCV2. However, further studies are needed to confirm PCV2 transmission from rodents to pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  6. Do Momentum Strategies Work?: - Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Drew; Madhu Veeraraghavan; Min Ye

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the profitability of momentum investment strategy and the predictive power of trading volume for equities listed in the Australian Stock Exchange. Recent research finds that momentum and trading volume appear to predict subsequent returns in U.S. market and past volume helps to reconcile intermediate-horizon “under reaction” and long-horizon “overreaction” effects. However, bulk of the evidence on this important relationship between past returns and future returns is l...

  7. Australian coal exports - threat to market share

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, P

    1989-10-01

    Australian coal exports fell 3% for the fiscal year ending June 1989, but at just under 100mt, they make Australia the world's leading coal exporter. Figures for production, consumption and exports are given. Industrial and structural changes within the industry are discussed. It is concluded that the industry and unions must improve structures and communication if potential production and exports are to be achieved. 2 figs.

  8. Inventories in the Australian business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This Economics Research Note examines inventories in the business cycle for Australia covering the period since the mid 1980s. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) defines inventories as all materials etc., work in progress and finished goods owned by a business, whether held at locations of the business or elsewhere. These items are usually held by businesses in anticipation of a product’s sale. Inventory investment is counted as an additional contribution to gross domestic product (...

  9. The Australian synchrotron - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.; Jackson, A.; Seaborne, G.; Hobbs, R.; Garrett, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises progress with the development of the Australian Synchrotron. The facility is based on the Boomerang Storage Ring which has a DBA structure with 14 superperiods. The design objective was to achieve a low emittance in a relatively compact circumference that had an excellent dynamic aperture and was obust with respect to potential construction aberrations. The potential suite of beamline and instrument stations is discussed and some examples are given

  10. Hybrid origins of Australian honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman , Nadine C.; Harpur , Brock A.; Lim , Julianne; Rinderer , Thomas E.; Allsopp , Michael H.; Zayed , Amro; Oldroyd , Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Abstract With increased globalisation and homogenisation, the maintenance of genetic integrity in local populations of agriculturally important species is of increasing concern. The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) provides an interesting perspective as it is both managed and wild, with a large native range and much larger introduced range. We employed a newly created 95 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) test to characterise the genetic ancestry of the Australian c...

  11. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological

  12. Exploring the professional values of Australian physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Alejandra; Stupans, Ieva; Scutter, Sheila; King, Sharron

    2013-03-01

    A profession's values guide daily practice and professional behaviours. They clarify what professionalism means to a profession, by providing insight into the values that members of the profession aim to uphold and profess. There has been limited research into the values of the Australian physiotherapy profession, and as such, the values that guide practice and constitute professionalism are not explicit. This study aimed to make a preliminary identification of the values of the profession, by exploring the shared professional values of 14 Australian physiotherapists. This study was guided by a qualitative approach and constructivist paradigm. Purposive sampling was employed to identify physiotherapists who could contribute rich information to the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using an inductive data analysis method. The emerging professional values formed three main themes. The first theme, 'the patient and the patient-therapist partnership', incorporated values such as having patient trust and working collaboratively with patients. The theme labelled 'physiotherapy knowledge, skills and practice' included the values of having an evidence base and respecting professional boundaries. The last theme, 'altruistic values', was inclusive of values such as honesty, empathy and caring. The values that emerged went beyond philanthropic values, to values that guided every day practice, professional relationships and the responsibilities of being a professional. The results contribute to research orientated towards identifying the values of the profession and in doing so, clarifying what professionalism means to the Australian physiotherapy profession. Differences between the values identified by the American Physical Therapy Association and the study reported in this paper highlight the importance of identifying the values of the profession within the Australian context. In terms of practice implications, physiotherapists may be prompted to

  13. 13th Australian tunnelling conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'Engineering in a changing environment'. Topics covered include Australian tunnelling projects, design and development of ground support, tunnelling, international projects, fire and life safety, mining projects, risk management in tunnelling, and tunnel boring machine tunnelling. Papers of particular interest to the coal industry are: improving roadway development in underground coal mine (G. Lewis and G. Gibson), and polymer-based alternative to steel mesh for coal mine strata reinforcement (C. Lukey and others).

  14. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records development and performance of the Australian mineral industry during the calendar year 1984. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1. 'general review' after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy, prices, exploration expenditure, investment, income tax, royalties, structural data, wages and salaries, industrial disputes, and government assistance, legislation, and controls. Part 2. 'commodity review' covers individual mineral commodity groups, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3, 'mining census', tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by state departments of mines and their equivalents. Listed in appendices are: principal mineral producers; ore buyers and mineral dealers; government mining services; analytical laboratories; state mines departments and equivalents; industry, professional and development organisations and associations, etc; summary of mineral royalties payable in the states and territories; and summary of income tax provisions and federal government levies.

  15. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatic Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne; Wheeler, Amanda J; Larcombe, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, is associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, breathing difficulties, and migraine headaches. This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians ( n  = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Nationally, 55.6% of asthmatics, and 23.9% of non-asthmatics, report adverse health effects after exposure to fragranced products. Specifically, 24.0% of asthmatics report an asthma attack. Moreover, 18.2% of asthmatics lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Over 20% of asthmatics are unable to access public places and restrooms that use air fresheners. Exposure to fragranced products is associated with health problems, some potentially serious, in an estimated 2.2 million asthmatic adult Australians. Asthmatics were proportionately more affected than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio 3.98; 95% confidence interval 3.01-5.24). Most asthmatics would prefer workplaces, healthcare facilities, and environments that are fragrance-free, which could help reduce adverse effects.

  16. The Beginnings of Australian Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented. This chapter is a direct reprint of the following research paper: Sullivan, W., 2005. The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8, 11-32.

  17. Reporting on cyclist crashes in Australian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Aboss, Ahmad; Montgomery, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    To assess information on cyclist crashes reported in Australian newspapers. The Factiva news archive was searched for articles on cyclist crashes published in major Australian newspapers between 2010 and 2013. Information on the circumstances of cyclist crashes were extracted and coded. A total of 160 cyclist crashes were covered by 198 newspaper articles, with 44% of crashes resulting in cyclist fatalities. Crashes reported by more than one newspaper were more likely to involve public figures or protracted court cases. Individual characteristics of cyclists as well as the location of the crash were reported for more than 80% of crashes. The road user at fault was reported for more than half of crashes. In contrast, information on helmet use, alcohol and cycling lanes was mentioned for only about 10% of crashes. Fewer than one in five articles mentioned prevention strategies including education campaigns, legislative and infrastructure changes. Australian newspapers tend to focus on the most dramatic and more 'newsworthy' aspects of cyclist crashes. Cycling advocates need to work with journalists to improve the quality of this coverage. Better communication between cycling advocates and journalists is likely to have a positive impact on the safety and the uptake of cycling in the community. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  19. Exposure to radon in Australian tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Lyons, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) produced guidelines and recommendations dealing with workplace exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. An intervention level of 1000 Bq m -3 has been proposed. Australia has over 40 tourist caves, under the management of the various State Departments or private groups. The limited data available on radon levels in Australian caves would suggest that some of these caves may be in excess of the proposed intervention level, thus presenting a potential health risk for the cave guides. This paper summarises the current information on radon in Australian caves and describes the proposed methodologies to be used for a Worksafe Australia-funded survey of radon levels in Tourist caves within Australia. This survey is to be carried out jointly by researchers at the Australian Radiation Laboratory, University of Auckland and the University of Sydney, during 1994 and 1995. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Australian health professionals' health website recommendation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Wayne T

    2011-08-01

    This study was concerned with indentifying motivations and trends associated with a health website recommendation from eight of Australia's major health professions to the health consumer. Health professions included in this study are: psychiatrists, general practitioners, social workers, dietitians, chiropractors, physiotherapists, optometrists and pharmacists. An online survey (www.limesurvey.org) was developed from a common set of questions negotiated between all eight health professions. Survey questions were constructed in an attempt to identify participants' reasons for or against recommending a health website to a patient. A 5-point scale (not, slightly, neutral, moderately, strongly) to measure influence was used throughout the question set. This study indicates that Australian general practitioners (GPs) were the highest Australian health professionals to undertake a health website recommendation (86%), followed by psychiatrists (80%), with the lowest being physiotherapists (42%) and optometrists (33%). A profile of the Australian health professional who recommends a health website is identified as male, aged above 50 years, has had more than 10 years experience, works in a major city, is in private practice and has patient numbers exceeding 500 in a 12-month period (2009). Recommendations from this study include the need to develop mechanisms that identify high-quality online medical information and the development and implementation of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) courses which up-skill health professionals concerning the recommendation of health websites for health care delivery.

  1. Outlook for the Australian coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A shortage of bituminous coal is now being witnessed on the world market, which stems from an increase in demand for it. The prices for bituminous coal, which have been increasing since 1988, will continue to rise in 1990. World coal production in 1989/1990 has been estimated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources at 3,370 million tons, which is 50 million tons more than in the preceding year. Australian experts predict a doubling in world demand for coal by 2025. Many Australian coal mining companies, counting on the increased demand in the future, are taking measures to consolidate production and strengthen their financial base in order to accelerate development of new fields or expand production at existing mines. It is expected that the highest rates of growth in demand will be for power coal. Because of increased world production of steel the demand for coking coal will also rise, but the rates of growth will be much lower than for power coal

  2. Perspective of Australian uncooled IR sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development in Australia of resistance bolometer technology and associated uncooled infrared sensors. A summary is given of research achievements, with the aim of placing in historic perspective Australian work in comparison with overseas research and development. Extensive research in this field was carried out at the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), Salisbury, South Australia, in collaboration with the Australian microelectronic and electro-optic industries, with supporting research in Australian universities. The DSTO research has a history covering five decades, commencing with simple thin film bolometers employed in radiometric sensors, followed by protracted R&D culminating in development of micromachined focal plane detector arrays for non-imaging sensors and lightweight thermal imagers. DSTO currently maintains a microbolometer processing capability for the purposes of research collaboration and support for commercial initiatives based on patented technology. Expertise in microbolometer design, performance and processing technology has transferred to Electro-optic Sensor Design (EOSD) through a licensing agreement. Contemporary development will be described.

  3. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) is a joint venture between the Australian mining industry through the Australian Mineral Industries Research Association Ltd. (AMIRA) and three of the organizations working most actively in this area in Australia: CSIRO Minesite Rehabilitation Research Program; University of Queensland Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation; and Curtin University Mulga Research Centre. The ACMRR was established in July 1993 to provide a national framework to conduct Strategic Research into minesite rehabilitation. It is an industry led and funded initiative. The Goals of the Centre include: to conduct strategic research into minesite rehabilitation to provide sustainable environmental solutions which are acceptable to industry, government and the community; to be recognized as a center of excellence undertaking commissioned research on minesite rehabilitation in an independent and thorough manner; to provide scientific and technological foundations to facilitate industry and government in setting acceptable standards; to act as networking and communications focus; and to enhance education and training in minesite rehabilitation. Strategic Research Programs in: Water Systems--downstream surface and groundwater quality; Land--the long-term behavior and stability of constructed landforms; Ecosystems--the long-term sustainability of constructed landforms; Waste--the long-term treatment and disposal of waste products; will allow the ACMRR to achieve these goals through specific research projects in these areas, developed with industry sponsors. This paper will discuss their progress to date, research projects underway, and plans for the future

  4. The need to implement the landscape of fear within rodent pest management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijger, Inge M; Belmain, Steven R; Singleton, Grant R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter Wg; Meerburg, Bastiaan G

    2017-12-01

    Current reactive pest management methods have serious drawbacks such as the heavy reliance on chemicals, emerging genetic rodenticide resistance and high secondary exposure risks. Rodent control needs to be based on pest species ecology and ethology to facilitate the development of ecologically based rodent management (EBRM). An important aspect of EBRM is a strong understanding of rodent pest species ecology, behaviour and spatiotemporal factors. Gaining insight into the behaviour of pest species is a key aspect of EBRM. The landscape of fear (LOF) is a mapping of the spatial variation in the foraging cost arising from the risk of predation, and reflects the levels of fear a prey species perceives at different locations within its home range. In practice, the LOF maps habitat use as a result of perceived fear, which shows where bait or traps are most likely to be encountered and used by rodents. Several studies have linked perceived predation risk of foraging animals with quitting-harvest rates or giving-up densities (GUDs). GUDs have been used to reflect foraging behaviour strategies of predator avoidance, but to our knowledge very few papers have directly used GUDs in relation to pest management strategies. An opportunity for rodent control strategies lies in the integration of the LOF of rodents in EBRM methodologies. Rodent management could be more efficient and effective by concentrating on those areas where rodents perceive the least levels of predation risk. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Indirect effects of rodents on arthropods in a Scandinavian boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Malá, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Rodents in boreal forest are an important component of food webs. Their role as drivers of the boreal forest ecosystem is debated. As herbivores they affect plant communities and alter qualities of plants. Consequently availability of food resources for other herbivorous species is altered. In my thesis I studied whether rodents indirectly influence communities of arthropods via plant resources. It is assumed that phytophagous arthropods respond to changes in plant resources by different feed...

  6. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Krücken

    Full Text Available Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1 and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element in brain and ascarids (ITS-2 in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8, Toxocara cati (4 and Parascaris sp. (1 were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to

  7. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, Jürgen; Blümke, Julia; Maaz, Denny; Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Antolová, Daniela; Schaper, Roland; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1) and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element) in brain and ascarids (ITS-2) in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented) had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8), Toxocara cati (4) and Parascaris sp. (1) were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to estimate the health

  8. The Upper Miocene rodents from the Pezinok in the Danube Basin, Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Joniak

    2016-01-01

    Rodent assemblages are described from two sampled sites at the Pezinok clay pit in the Danube Basin. Although these assemblages contain material poor in specimens, the following eleven rodent taxa are distinguished and described: Progonomys hispanicus, Kowalskia sp., Microtocricetus molassicus, Anomalomys gaillardi, Graphiurops austriacus, Paraglirulus sp., Eomyops catalaunicus, Keramidomys sp., Spermophilinus sp., Albanensia sp. and Euroxenomys minutum. The co-occurrence of very primitive Pr...

  9. Adaptation for rodent pollination in Leucospermum arenarium (Proteaceae) despite rapid pollen loss during grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Michael; Pauw, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Plants are adapted for rodent pollination in diverse and intricate ways. This study explores an extraordinary example of these adaptations in the pincushion Leucospermum arenarium (Proteaceae) from South Africa. Live trapping and differential exclusion experiments were used to test the role of rodents versus birds and insects as pollinators. To explore the adaptive significance of geoflory, inflorescences were raised above ground level and seed production was compared. Captive rodents and flowers with artificial stigmas were used to test the effect of grooming on the rate of pollen loss. Microscopy, nectar composition analysis and manipulative experiments were used to investigate the bizarre nectar production and transport system. Differential exclusion of rodents, birds and insects demonstrated the importance of rodents in promoting seed production. Live trapping revealed that hairy-footed gerbils, Gerbillurus paeba, and striped field mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, both carried L. arenarium pollen on their forehead and rostrum, but much larger quantities ended up in faeces as a result of grooming. Terrarium experiments showed that grooming exponentially diminished the pollen loads that they carried. The nectar of L. arenarium was found to be unusually viscous and to be presented in a novel location on the petal tips, where rodents could access it without destroying the flowers. Nectar was produced inside the perianth, but was translocated to the petal tips via capillary ducts. In common with many other rodent-pollinated plants, the flowers are presented at ground level, but when raised to higher positions seed production was not reduced, indicating that selection through female function does not drive the evolution of geoflory. Despite the apparent cost of pollen lost to grooming, L. arenarium has evolved remarkable adaptations for rodent pollination and provides the first case of this pollination system in the genus.

  10. Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other beddin...

  11. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  12. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  13. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  14. Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran

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    Kourosh ARZAMANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents are an important source of zoonotic diseases for human. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of rodents with intestinal helminths in North Khorasan Province, Iran.Methods: One hundred and thirteen rodents were collected using different collection methods such as kill and live traps, digging of their burrow, filling of their hiding places with water and hand net during 2011-2013. Their alimentary canals were removed in the laboratory and helminths were determined in the department of parasitology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Results: Thirteen species of helminths parasites were found in 13 species of rodents, including Aspiculuris tetraptera, Hymenolepis diminuta, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Protospirura Seurat, Rictolaria ratti, Skrjabinitaenia lobata, Streptopharagus kuntzi, Syphacia obvelata, Taenia taeniaeformis, Trichuris muris, Cysticercus fasciolaris, Acanthocephal. spp and Trichuris spp. Some of them were reported for the first time in new host in Iran. S. obvelata and A. tetraptera were the most frequent parasites and P. Seurat, R. ratti and C. fasciolaris were found only in one rodent.Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the intestinal parasites in rodents in this area. Among different species identified, some of helminths were reported in new host.

  15. Hypericum perforatum as a cognitive enhancer in rodents: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Eliezer, Daniel; Yechiam, Eldad

    2016-01-01

    Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H. perforatum versus placebo on memory indices of task performance. All analyses were based on weighting different studies according to their inverse variance. Thirteen independent studies (published 2000–2014) involving 20 experimental comparisons met our inclusion criteria. The results showed a large positive effect of H. perforatum on cognitive performance for intact, healthy rodents (d = 1.11), though a larger effect emerged for stress-impaired rodents (d = 3.10 for restraint stress). The positive effect on intact rodents was observed in tasks assessing reference memory as well as working memory, and was not moderated by the type of memory or motivation (appetitive versus aversive). Thus, while primarily considered as a medication for depression, H. perforatum shows considerable nootropic potential in rodents. PMID:27762349

  16. Temporal and Spatial Characterization of Gait Pattern in Rodents as an Animal model of Cerebrovascular Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison D Cucarián

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal experimentation is crucial for the advance in the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and their application on both clinical diagnosis and neuro-rehabilitation. Particularly, rodent brain lesion is commonly used in the modeling of locomotor, somatosensory and cognitive symptoms. The automated rodent gait analysis has been proposed as a tool for studying locomotor and sensory abilities and its use includes the identification of functional alterations, structural adaptations as well as neuro-rehabilitation mechanisms. From that standpoint, the effectiveness of many therapeutic intervention (i.e. physical exercises has been documented in rodents and humans. The translation from experimental data to clinical conditions requires the continuous collaboration and feedback between researchers and health clinicians looking for the selection of the best rehabilitation protocols obtained from animal research. Here we will show some locomotor alterations, the traditional methods used to assess motor dysfunction and gait abnormalities in rodent models with stroke. The aim of this review is to show some motor deficiencies and some methods used to establish gait disturbances in rodents with cerebrovascular lesion. The review included the search of defined terms (MeSH in PychINFO, Medline and Web of Science, between January 2000 and January 2017. Qualitative and narrative reports, dissertations, end course works and conference resumes were discarded. The review focuses on some clinical signs, their effects on rodent locomotor activity, some methodologies used to create lesion and to study motor function, some assessment methods and some translational aspects.

  17. A higher-taxon approach to rodent conservation priorities for the 21st century

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    Amori, G.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Although rodents are not considered among the most threatened mammals, there is ample historical evidence concerning the vulnerability to extinction of several rodent phylogenetic lineages. Owing to the high number of species, poor taxonomy and the lack of detailed information on population status, the assessment of threat status according to IUCN criteria has still to be considered arbitrary in some cases. Public appreciation is scarce and tends to overlook the ecological role and conservation problems of an order representing about 41 percent of mammalian species. We provide an overview of the most relevant information concerning the conservation status of rodents at the genus, subfamily, and family level. For species¿poor taxa, the importance of distinct populations is highlighted and a splitter approach in taxonomy is adopted. Considering present constraints, strategies for the conservation of rodent diversity must rely mainly on higher taxon and hot-spot approaches. A clear understanding of phyletic relationships among difficult groups -such as Rattus, for instance- is an urgent goal. Even if rodent taxonomy is still unstable, high taxon approach is amply justified from a conservation standpoint as it offers a more subtle overview of the world terrestrial biodiversity than that offered by large mammals. Of the circa 451 living rodent genera, 126 (27,9 %, representing 168 living species, deserve conservation attention according to the present study. About 76 % of genera at risk are monotypic, confirming the danger of losing a considerable amount of phylogenetic distinctiveness.

  18. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

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    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  19. Serological Survey of Zoonotic Viruses in Invasive and Native Commensal Rodents in Senegal, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, Christophe A; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Henttonen, Heikki; Sironen, Tarja; Brouat, Carine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. Such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. Here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the circulation of potentially zoonotic viruses in both invasive (Mus musculus domesticus and Rattus rattus) and native (Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys natalensis) murine rodent populations in Senegal (West Africa). Of the 672 rodents tested, we reported 22 seropositive tests for Hantavirus, Orthopoxvirus, and Mammarenavirus genera, and no evidence of viral coinfection. This study is the first to report serological detection of Orthopoxvirus in rodents from Senegal, Mammarenavirus in R. rattus from Africa, and Hantavirus in M. m. domesticus and in M. erythroleucus. Further specific identification of the viral agents highlighted here is urgently needed for crucial public health concerns.

  20. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

  1. Wild Rodents as Experimental Intermediate Hosts of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909

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    Julieta Machado Paçô

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 specimens of Cavia porcellus (guinea pig, 5 Dasyprocta agouti (agouti, and 22 Calomys callosus (vesper mice were inoculated with infective eggs of Lagochilascaris minor. The inoculum was prepared with embryonated eggs and orally administered to each individual animal through an esophagus probe. In parallel, 100 specimens of Felis catus domesticus were individually fed with 55-70 nodules containing 3rd-stage larvae encysted in tissues of infected rodents. Animals were examined and necropsied at different time intervals. The migration and encystment of L3 larva was observed in viscera, skeletal muscle, adipose and subcutaneous tissues from all rodents. Adult worms localized at abscesses in the cervical region, rhino, and oropharynx were recovered from domestic cats inoculated with infected rodent tissues. Through this study we can conclude that: (1 wild rodents act as intermediate hosts, characterizing this ascarid heteroxenic cycle; (2 in natural conditions rodents could possibly act as either intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts of Lagochilascaris minor; (3 despite the occurrence of an auto-infecting cycle, in prime-infection of felines (definite hosts the cycle is only completed when intermediate hosts are provided; and (4 in the wild, rodents could serve as a source of infection for humans as they are frequently used as food in regions with the highest incidence of human lagochilascariasis.

  2. Study of hantavirus infection in captive breed colonies of wild rodents

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    RC Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild sigmondontine rodents are known to be the reservoir of several serotypes of New World hantaviruses. The mechanism of viral transmission is by aerosol inhalation of the excreta from infected rodents. Considering that the captive breed colonies of various wild mammals may present a potencial risk for hantaviral transmission, we examined 85 speciemens of Thrichomys spp. (Echimyidae and 17 speciemens of Nectomys squamipes (Sigmodontinae from our colony for the presence of hantavirus infections. Blood samples were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Andes nucleocapsid antigen using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Additionally, serum samples from workers previously exposed to wild rodents, in the laboratories where the study was conducted, were also tested by ELISA to investigate prevalence of anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. All blood samples were negative for hantavirus antibodies. Although these results suggest that those rodent's colonies are hantavirus free, the work emphasizes the need for hantavirus serological monitoring in wild colonized rodents and secure handling potentially infected rodents as important biosafety measures.

  3. Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzamani, Kourosh; Salehi, Mitra; Mobedi, Iraj; Adinezade, Amir; Hasanpour, Hamid; Alavinia, Mohammad; Darvish, Jamshid; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are an important source of zoonotic diseases for human. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of rodents with intestinal helminths in North Khorasan Province, Iran. One hundred and thirteen rodents were collected using different collection methods such as kill and live traps, digging of their burrow, filling of their hiding places with water and hand net during 2011-2013. Their alimentary canals were removed in the laboratory and helminths were determined in the department of parasitology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Thirteen species of helminths parasites were found in 13 species of rodents, including Aspiculuris tetraptera, Hymenolepis diminuta, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Protospirura Seurat, Rictolaria ratti, Skrjabinitaenia lobata, Streptopharagus kuntzi, Syphacia obvelata, Taenia taeniaeformis, Trichuris muris, Cysticercus fasciolaris, Acanthocephal. spp and Trichuris spp . Some of them were reported for the first time in new host in Iran. S. obvelata and A. tetraptera were the most frequent parasites and P. Seurat, R. ratti and C. fasciolaris were found only in one rodent. This is the first study to investigate the intestinal parasites in rodents in this area. Among different species identified, some of helminths were reported in new host.

  4. Zoonotic pathogens in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil: Bartonella and Coxiella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Tatiana; Ferreira, Michelle Santos; Guterres, Alexandro; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Gonçalves, Jonathan; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-04-01

    Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1.5% (2/131) of rodents. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 4.6% (6/131) of the wild animals, 17.6% of the rodents harbored Bartonella spp. No cases of Rickettsia were identified. Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella vinsonii were the species found on the wild mammals. This report is the first to note C. burnetii, B. doshiae and B. vinsonii natural infections in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil. Our work highlights the potential risk of transmission to humans, since most of the infected specimens belong to generalist species that live near human dwellings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CAUSALITY OF WEATHER CONDITIONS IN AUSTRALIAN STOCK EQUITY RETURNS

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Vlady; Ekrem Tufan; Bahattin Hamarat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates causality of weather and its impact on the The S&P/ASX All Australian 200 Index has been selected as a proxy for the Australian capital market. The index consists exclusively of Australian domiciled companies. Following previous research in behaviour finance in the area of environmental psychology, the data set covers temperature, quality temperature, wet bulb temperature, quality wet bulb temperature, humidity, pressure and vapour pressure variables. The data set is a...

  6. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Bambang Yudi

    2005-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  7. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  8. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  9. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  10. The peculiarities of the masticator muscles in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spataru

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research concerning masticatory musculature in squirrel, muskrat and rabbit, take into account the emphasizing and morphofunctional interpretation of the osteomuscular particularities involved in the prehension and mastication processes. The development of the coronoid process on the muskrat and squirrel demonstrates the growing of the force when raising the mandible by increasing the action force attached to the temporal muscle, with insertion on the coronoid process. In comparison with that, in the case of rabbits, both the coronoid process and the temporal muscle are reduced. From a philogenetic point of view, it has been found that the species that have the articular condyle lowered at or under the level of the dental tables (carnivores present a greater pressure force between the dental tables. Analyzing this aspect of the rodents taken into discussion, we noticed the lowering of the articular condyle up to the inferior molars' plane, in the case of squirrels and muskrats, but through obliquity, namely through cranial caudal and dorsoventral movement. This peculiarity is emphasized through the analysis of the angle formed by the axis of the mandible recurved branch (passing through the mandibular condyle with the axis of the horizontal branch of the mandible, where it was noticed that along with the increase in the angle formed by the two axes, which becomes an obtuse 160 degree angle on the squirrel and 130 degrees on the muskrat, there is also a lowering of the articular condyle up to the molar level, while in the case of carnivores, the lowering of the condyle is done without the modification of the angle between the two axes, which measures approximately 90 degrees.

  11. Chronic fluoxetine treatment increases daytime melatonin synthesis in the rodent

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    Gillian W Reierson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Gillian W Reierson, Claudio A Mastronardi, Julio Licinio, Ma-Li WongCenter on Pharmacogenomics, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Circadian rhythm disturbances can occur as part of the clinical symptoms of major depressive disorder and have been found to resolve with antidepressant therapy. The pineal gland is relevant to circadian rhythms as it secretes the hormone melatonin following activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signaling cascade and of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT, the rate-limiting enzyme for its synthesis. Cyclic AMP is synthesized by adenylate cyclases (AC and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs. Little is known about the contribution of the PDE system to antidepressant-induced alterations in pineal cAMP signaling and melatonin synthesis. In the present study we used enzyme immunoassay to measure plasma melatonin levels and pineal cAMP levels and as well as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure pineal expression of PDE, AC, and AA-NAT genes in rats chronically treated with the prototypic antidepressant fluoxetine. We found elevated melatonin synthesis with increased pineal AA-NAT gene expression and daytime plasma melatonin levels and downregulated cAMP signaling with increased PDE and unchanged AC pineal gene expression, and decreased content of pineal cAMP. We conclude that chronic fluoxetine treatment increases daytime plasma melatonin and pineal AA-NAT gene expression despite downregulated pineal cAMP signaling in the rodent.Keywords: antidepressant, melatonin, pineal, nucleotides, cyclic, phosphodiesterase, rat

  12. STRESS INDUCED OBESITY: LESSONS FROM RODENT MODELS OF STRESS

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    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress is defined as the behavioral and physiological responses generated in the face of, or in anticipation of, a perceived threat. The stress response involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system and recruitment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. When an organism encounters a stressor (social, physical, etc., these endogenous stress systems are stimulated in order to generate a fight-or-flight response, and manage the stressful situation. As such, an organism is forced to liberate energy resources in attempt to meet the energetic demands posed by the stressor. A change in the energy homeostatic balance is thus required to exploit an appropriate resource and deliver useable energy to the target muscles and tissues involved in the stress response. Acutely, this change in energy homeostasis and the liberation of energy is considered advantageous, as it is required for the survival of the organism. However, when an organism is subjected to a prolonged stressor, as is the case during chronic stress, a continuous irregularity in energy homeostasis is considered detrimental and may lead to the development of metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. This concept has been studied extensively using animal models, and the neurobiological underpinnings of stress induced metabolic disorders are beginning to surface. However, different animal models of stress continue to produce divergent metabolic phenotypes wherein some animals become anorexic and loose body mass while others increase food intake and body mass and become vulnerable to the development of metabolic disturbances. It remains unclear exactly what factors associated with stress models can be used to predict the metabolic outcome of the organism. This review will explore a variety of rodent stress models and discuss the elements that influence the metabolic outcome in order to further our understanding of stress

  13. Expensive Brains: “Brainy” Rodents have Higher Metabolic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, Raúl; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2011-01-01

    Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution of traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass (BM) varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006). Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species BM is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of BM for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of BM) and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur. PMID:21811456

  14. Sperm competition, sperm numbers and sperm quality in muroid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Montoto, Laura; Magaña, Concepción; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Crespo, Cristina; Luque-Larena, Juan José; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-03-25

    Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b) energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass), showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An "overall sperm quality" parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance) was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic and

  15. (-)-α-Bisabolol reduces orofacial nociceptive behavior in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luana Torres; Duailibe, Mariana Araújo Braz; Pessoa, Luciana Moura; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; Vieira-Neto, Antonio Eufrásio; de Vasconcellos Abdon, Ana Paula; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the anti-nociceptive effect of oral and topical administration of (-)-α-bisabolol (BISA) in rodent models of formalin- or cinnamaldehyde-induced orofacial pain and to explore the inhibitory mechanisms involved. Orofacial pain was induced by injecting 1.5% formalin into the upper lip of mice (20 μL) or into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats (50 μL). In another experiment, orofacial pain was induced with cinnamaldehyde (13.2 μg/lip). Nociceptive behavior was proxied by time (s) spent rubbing the injected area and by the incidence of head flinching. BISA (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg p.o. or 50, 100, or 200 mg/mL topical) or vehicle was administered 60 min before pain induction. The two formulations (lotion and syrup) were compared with regard to efficacy. The effect of BISA remained after incorporation into the formulations, and nociceptive behavior decreased significantly in all tests. The high binding affinity observed for BISA and TRPA1 in the molecular docking study was supported by in vivo experiments in which HC-030031 (a TRPA1 receptor antagonist) attenuated pain in a manner qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that of BISA. Blockers of opioid receptors, NO synthesis, and K + ATP channels did not affect orofacial pain, nor inhibit the effect of BISA. In conclusion, BISA had a significant anti-nociceptive effect on orofacial pain. The effect may in part be due to TRPA1 antagonism. The fact that the effect of BISA remained after incorporation into oral and topical formulations suggests that the compound may be a useful adjuvant in the treatment of orofacial pain.

  16. Tick parasites of rodents in Romania: host preferences, community structure and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Sándor, Attila D; Magdaş, Cristian; Oltean, Miruna; Györke, Adriana; Matei, Ioana A; Ionică, Angela; D'Amico, Gianluca; Cozma, Vasile; Gherman, Călin M

    2012-11-21

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of Europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. Most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. However, there are certain Ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. Rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vectors and competent reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Micromammal-tick associations have been poorly studied in Romania, and our manuscript shows the results of a large scale study on tick infestation epidemiology in rodents from Romania. Rodents were caught using snap-traps in a variety of habitats in Romania, between May 2010 and November 2011. Ticks were individually collected from these rodents and identified to species and development stage. Frequency, mean intensity, prevalence and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the EpiInfo 2000 software. A p value of Romania for the presence of ticks. Each collected tick was identified to species level and the following epidemiological parameters were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance. The total number of ticks collected from rodents was 483, with eight species identified: Ixodes ricinus, I. redikorzevi, I. apronophorus, I. trianguliceps, I. laguri, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis sulcata. The overall prevalence of tick infestation was 29.55%, with a mean intensity of 3.86 and a mean abundance of 1.14. Only two polyspecific infestations were found: I. ricinus + I. redikorzevi and I. ricinus + D. marginatus. Our study showed a relatively high diversity of ticks parasitizing rodents in Romania. The most common tick in rodents was I. ricinus, followed by I. redikorzevi. Certain rodents seem to host a significantly higher number of tick species than others, the

  17. Protozoan Parasites of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Significance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran

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    Zeinab Seifollahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. Wild rodents are reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, babesiosis, and leishmaniasis. The current study aimed to assess the protozoan infection of rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods. A total of 52 rodents were collected from different parts of Boyer-Ahmad district, in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, using Sherman live traps. Each rodent was anesthetized with ether, according to the ethics of working with animals, and was dissected. Samples were taken from various tissues and stool samples were collected from the contents of the colon and small intestines. Moreover, 2 to 5 mL of blood was taken from each of the rodents and the sera were examined for anti-Leishmania antibodies, by ELISA, or anti-T. gondii antibodies, by modified agglutination test (MAT. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of each rodent and PCR was used to identify the DNA of T. gondii. Results. Of the 52 stool samples of rodents studied by parasitological methods, intestinal protozoa infection was seen in 28 cases (53.8%. From 52 rodents, 19 (36.5% were infected with Trichomonas, 10 (19.2% with Giardia muris, and 11 (21.2% with Entamoeba spp. Also, 10 cases (19.2% were infected with Blastocystis, 3 (5.8% were infected with Chilomastix, 7 (13.5% were infected with Endolimax, 1 (1.9% was infected with Retortamonas, 3 (5.77% were infected with T. gondii, and 6 (11.54% were infected with Trypanosoma lewisi. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in the sera of 5 (9.61% cases. Results of the molecular study showed T. gondii infection in 3 (5.77% of the rodents. Findings of this study showed that rodents in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwestern Iran, are infected with several blood and intestinal parasites; some of them might be potential risks to residents and domestic animals in the region.

  18. Responses of nocturnal rodents to shrub encroachment in Banni grasslands, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadevan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Shrub encroachment is one of the greatest threats to grasslands globally. These woodlands can strongly influence the behaviour of small mammals adapted to more open habitats, which rely on high visibility for early detection of predators. In semi-arid grasslands, rodents are considered keystone species. Although shrub encroachment is known to negatively affect rodent assemblages, its impact on the foraging behaviour of rodents, which is known to vary in response to risky situations, is unknown. Understanding whether shrub encroachment alters such antipredator behaviour is important as antipredator behaviour can alter the distribution, abundance and ultimately, survival of prey species. In this study, I explored the effects of shrub encroachment on the foraging behaviour of nocturnal rodent communities in the Banni grasslands, India. I examined foraging behaviour, quantified using the giving-up density (GUD) framework and the number of rodent crossings around food patches, in two habitats that differed in the extent of shrub encroachment. Under the GUD framework, the amount of food left behind by a forager in a food patch reflects the costs of feeding at the patch. Higher GUDs imply higher foraging costs. I also investigated how removal of an invasive woody plant, Prosopis juliflora would affect foraging behaviour of nocturnal rodents. High shrub encroachment was associated with higher foraging costs (higher GUDs) and lower activity than the sparsely wooded habitat, likely due to low visibility in the densely wooded habitat. The dense habitat also supported a higher richness and relative abundance of generalist rodents than the sparse habitat, likely due to the increased heterogeneity of the habitat. The tree removal experiment revealed that rodents had lower GUDs (i.e., low foraging costs) after the event of tree cutting. This may be due to the reduction of cover in the habitat, leading to higher visibility and lower predation risk. My results suggest that shrub

  19. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa-A Review of Confounders and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Totta; Torelli, Francesca; Klotz, Christian; Pedersen, Amy B; Seeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Rodents, in particular Mus musculus , have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents) that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.

  20. Rough-legged buzzards, Arctic foxes and red foxes in a tundra ecosystem without rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pokrovsky

    Full Text Available Small rodents with multi-annual population cycles strongly influence the dynamics of food webs, and in particular predator-prey interactions, across most of the tundra biome. Rodents are however absent from some arctic islands, and studies on performance of arctic predators under such circumstances may be very instructive since rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in a warming Arctic. Here we document for the first time how three normally rodent-dependent predator species-rough-legged buzzard, arctic fox and red fox - perform in a low-arctic ecosystem with no rodents. During six years (in 2006-2008 and 2011-2013 we studied diet and breeding performance of these predators in the rodent-free Kolguev Island in Arctic Russia. The rough-legged buzzards, previously known to be a small rodent specialist, have only during the last two decades become established on Kolguev Island. The buzzards successfully breed on the island at stable low density, but with high productivity based on goslings and willow ptarmigan as their main prey - altogether representing a novel ecological situation for this species. Breeding density of arctic fox varied from year to year, but with stable productivity based on mainly geese as prey. The density dynamic of the arctic fox appeared to be correlated with the date of spring arrival of the geese. Red foxes breed regularly on the island but in very low numbers that appear to have been unchanged over a long period - a situation that resemble what has been recently documented from Arctic America. Our study suggests that the three predators found breeding on Kolguev Island possess capacities for shifting to changing circumstances in low-arctic ecosystem as long as other small - medium sized terrestrial herbivores are present in good numbers.

  1. Vision in laboratory rodents-Tools to measure it and implications for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Henri; Tanila, Heikki

    2017-07-29

    Mice and rats are nocturnal mammals and their vision is specialized for detection of motion and contrast in dim light conditions. These species possess a large proportion of UV-sensitive cones in their retinas and the majority of their optic nerve axons target superior colliculus rather than visual cortex. Therefore, it was a widely held belief that laboratory rodents hardly utilize vision during day-time behavior. This dogma is being questioned as accumulating evidence suggests that laboratory rodents are able to perform complex visual functions, such as perceiving subjective contours, and that declined vision may affect their performance in many behavioral tasks. For instance, genetic engineering may have unexpected consequences on vision as mouse models of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases have declined visual function. Rodent vision can be tested in numerous ways using operant training or reflex-based behavioral tasks, or alternatively using electrophysiological recordings. In this article, we will first provide a summary of visual system and explain its characteristics unique to rodents. Then, we present well-established techniques to test rodent vision, with an emphasis on pattern vision: visual water test, optomotor reflex test, pattern electroretinography and pattern visual evoked potentials. Finally, we highlight the importance of visual phenotyping in rodents. As the number of genetically engineered rodent models and volume of behavioral testing increase simultaneously, the possibility of visual dysfunctions needs to be addressed. Neglect in this matter potentially leads to crude biases in the field of neuroscience and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence and distribution of Giardia species in wild rodents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Yosra A; Spierling, Nastasja G; Schmidt, Sabrina; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Reil, Daniela; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer G; Aebischer, Toni; Klotz, Christian

    2018-03-27

    Giardiasis is an important gastrointestinal parasitic disease in humans and other mammals caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. This species complex is represented by genetically distinct groups (assemblages A-H) with varying zoonotic potential and host preferences. Wild rodents can harbor potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B, and the rodent-specific assemblage G. Other Giardia spp. found in these animals are Giardia muris and Giardia microti. For the latter, only limited information on genetic typing is available. It has been speculated that wild rodents might represent an important reservoir for parasites causing human giardiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Giardia spp. and assemblage types in wild rodents from different study sites in Germany. Screening of 577 wild rodents of the genera Apodemus, Microtus and Myodes, sampled at eleven study sites in Germany, revealed a high overall Giardia prevalence. Giardia species determination at the SSU rDNA gene locus revealed that Apodemus mice, depending on species, were predominantly infected with one of two distinct G. muris sequence types. Giardia microti was the predominant parasite species found in voles of the genera Microtus and Myodes. Only a few animals were positive for potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis. Subtyping at the beta-giardin (bg) and glutamine dehydrogenase (gdh) genes strongly supported the existence of different phylogenetic subgroups of G. microti that are preferentially harbored by distinct host species. The present study highlights the preference of G. muris for Apodemus, and G. microti for Microtus and Myodes hosts and argues for a very low prevalence of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in wild rodents in Germany. It also provides evidence that G. muris and G. microti subdivide into several phylogenetically distinguishable subgroups, each of which appears to be preferentially harbored by species of a particular rodent host genus

  3. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

    2014-09-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area.

  4. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa—A Review of Confounders and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totta Ehret

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.

  5. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  7. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  8. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Automotive Repairs and Service Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the automotive repairs and service trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: motor mechanic, automotive electrician, and panel beater. The…

  9. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  10. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25 were found in 8.6% (13/151 of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48 of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus, and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  11. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  12. Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2010-10-01

    Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.

  13. Influencing Safety in Australian Agriculture and Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain-Rigg, Kristin E; Franklin, Richard C; King, Jemma C; Lower, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Improving the health and safety of those working in Australian agriculture and fishery industries is a recognized priority area for preventative activities. With Australian agricultural industries being among the nation's most dangerous workplaces, there is a need for action. While there are currently known solutions, their implementation is limited. Influential agents, i.e., people who can influence others, are important for helping engender action to enact solutions into practice. This study examines agents that influence safety behavior either negatively (barriers) or positively (facilitators), in the Australian agriculture and fishery industries. Focus groups were conducted with producers and industry representatives. Thematic analysis identified barriers and facilitators to improve health and safety. These were assessed against the Socioecological Model, which considers the various, and often intersecting, human (intrapersonal, i.e. values and attitudes, peers, familial, and cultural) factors influencing safety behavior. Seven categories of human influences were identified: self, peers, family, intergenerational change, industry agents, government agents, and other. Peers (including direct managers) and family were seen to be direct influencers. Individuals signal to others that safety is valued and important. This is reinforced by experience, skill, attitudes, and behavior. Safety practice knowledge acquisition occurred via the family unit, specific training, industry, or knowledge transfer between industries. Government influence predominately focused on legislation and while the source of this influence is distant, it does influence behavior. There is a need to support comprehensive programs. These should include strengthening relationships via peer-to-peer networking, sharing information about safety initiatives, appropriate legislation, and enhancing leadership of all influencers with regard to safety.

  14. Hot rock energy projects : Australian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, B.A.; Malavazos, M. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States); Hill, A.J.; Coda, J. [Primary Industries and Resources South Australia, Adelaide (Australia)]|[Australian Geothermal Energy Group, Adelaide (Australia); Budd, A.R.; Holgate, F.L. [Australian Geothermal Energy Group, Adelaide (Australia)]|[Geoscience Australia, Adelaide (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    The Australia Geothermal Energy Group is an alliance of companies, government agencies and research organizations with an interest in promoting geothermal energy use. Hot rocks (HR) geothermal energy is a valued addition to the portfolio of safe, secure and competitive energy supplies because it offers the potential of inexhaustible geothermal heat energy with zero emissions. Australia's vast HR resources have attracted global interest and government support for HR projects, which call upon integrated expertise from the petroleum minerals and power industries. Funding from the Australian government is aimed at reducing critical, sector-wide uncertainties and equates to nearly 25 per cent of the cost of the private sector's field efforts to date. A national HR resource assessment and a road-map for the commercialization of Australian HR plays will be published in 2008 to help in the decision making process by portfolio managers. The challenges and prospects for HR projects in Australia were presented. It has been estimated that converting only 1 per cent of Australia's crustal energy from depths of 5 km and 150 degrees C to electricity would supply 26,000 years of Australia's 2005 primary power use. The factors that distinguish Australian HR resources include abundant radioactive granites and areas of recent volcanic activity; and, Australia is converging with Indonesia on a plate scale resulting in common, naturally occurring subhorizontally fractured basement rocks that are susceptible to hydraulic fracture stimulation. Most projects are focused on HR to develop enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS) to fuel binary power plants. Approximately 80 percent of these projects are located in South Australia. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  16. Persistence Characteristics of Australian Rainfall Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Ian; Hope, Pandora

    1997-05-01

    Using 79 years (1913-1991) of Australian monthly precipitation data we examined the nature of the persistence of rainfall anomalies. Analyses were performed for four climate regions covering the country, as well as for the entire Australian continent. We show that rainfall over these regions has high temporal variability and that annual rainfall amounts over all five sectors vary in phase and are, with the exception of the north-west region, significantly correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). These relationships were particularly strong during the spring season.It is demonstrated that Australian rainfall exhibits statistically significant persistence on monthly, seasonal, and (to a limited extent) annual time-scales, up to lags of 3 months and one season and 1 year. The persistence showed strong seasonal dependence, with each of the five regions showing memory out to 4 or 5 months from winter and spring. Many aspects of climate in the Australasian region are known to have undergone considerable changes about 1950. We show this to be true for persistence also; its characteristics identified for the entire record were present during the 1951--1980 period, but virtually disappeared in the previous 30-year period.Much of the seasonal distribution of rainfall persistence on monthly time-scales, particularly in the east, is due to the influence of the SOI. However, most of the persistence identified in winter and spring in the north-west is independent of the ENSO phenomenon.Rainfall anomalies following extreme dry and wet months, seasons and years (lowest and highest two deciles) persisted more than would be expected by chance. For monthly extreme events this was more marked in the winter semester for the wet events, except in the south-east region. In general, less persistence was found for the extreme seasons. Although the persistence of dry years was less than would have been expected by chance, the wet years appear to display persistence.

  17. Epidemiological distribution of rodents as potent reservoirs for infectious diseases in the provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Esfandiari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain. The aim of this study is to assess the geographical distribution of rodents in three provinces of northern part of Iran as reservoir of potential endemic infectious diseases. Rodents in 10 major parts of each of the three provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran were collected and a total of 404 rodents were trapped alive. They were determined by the key characteristics such as gender, genus, species, different locations and topological situation. Statistical analysis was performed to characterize the study sample and to correlate all variables and parameters. The distribution frequencies of three, five and six genera of rodents were identified in Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan provinces respectively. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents in the three provinces were identified as Rattus (R. norvegicus (67.3%, R. rattus (13.6%, Apodemus sylvaticus (13.9%, Arvicola (1%, Mus musculus (0.3%, Nesokia indica (2.5%, Cricetulus migrates (0.7% and Rhombomys opimus (0.7%. The results of this study determined the geographic distribution of the rodents in the three northern provinces of Iran. It is indicated the association of various distribution and diversity of rodents with provincial location. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents was recognized in the above three provinces geographical locations. This study confirms epidemiological distribution of

  18. Innovation in Australian technology 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Innovations arising from Australian research and development are reported. Two categories of submission are defined: those which are in production or use and those which have reached prototype design or pilot plant stage and appear to be of value. Innovations in the field of nuclear science are: a radon analyser, uranium tails management, technetium-99m generator, enrichment of uranium by gas ultracentrifuge, programmable radiometric assay monitor, a borehole core analyser, intrinsic germanium detector for uranium borehole logging, underground operations at a uranium mine, neutron moisture meter and apparatus for the determination of deuterium in water at natural levels. Names to whom requests for further information should be addressed are included.

  19. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  20. Health of Australian atomic test personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly summarises the results of a survey of the health of Australian personnel who took part in the U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1952 and 1957. The study identified indications of radiation exposure among participants and examined their health in relation to the answers they gave. For example, the study compared the health of those participants who said they cleaned up radioactive areas after tests with the health of those who said they had not. There was no excess of disease or death for any disease group studied in those members of the workforce who had film badge evidence of exposure to radiation

  1. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  2. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  3. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Nunan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated for distance education in university teaching and learning in Australia.

  4. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  5. Teaching evolution in the Australian classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzo, Les

    A summary of the key issues of controversy encountered by science teachers in Australian classrooms. Evolution, cloning and gene manipulation, fertility control, artificial intelligence, irradiation of food, the use of nuclear energy, radiation from powerlines are some of the topics discussed and debated in classrooms. What are some of the difficulties encountered by teachers when students ask questions that raise moral dilemmas and challenges entrenched beliefs and views of the world. What are some of the teaching strategies used that deal with these difficulties.

  6. Fires in the Australian Capital Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The height and extent of billowing smoke plumes from bushfires near Canberra, the Australian capital, are illustrated by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on January 18, 2003. Never before had fires of this magnitude come so close to Australia's capital. Four people lost their lives and over 500 homes were destroyed, mostly in the southwestern suburbs. Australia's famous Mount Stromlo Observatory, located immediately west of the city, was also incinerated by the fires.The top panel portrays a natural-color view from MISR's nadir camera, in which the eastern portion of the Australian Capital Territory is located south of a pale, ephemeral lake in the upper left-hand corner (Lake George). Several smoke plumes originate within the eastern part of the Australian Capital Territory, while the major plumes originate to the west of the image area. The Australian Capital Territory and much of New South Wales are completely obscured by the smoke, which is driven by fierce westerly winds and extends eastward to the coast and over the Pacific Ocean.The lower panel provides a stereoscopically retrieved height field of the clouds and smoke plumes. The greenish areas indicate where smoke plumes extend several kilometers above a bank of patchy stratus clouds below. A few high clouds appear near the bottom of the image. Wind retrievals were excluded from this image in order to generate a smooth and continuous field. Although relative height variations are well-represented here, the inclusion of wind retrievals for this scene reduces the actual cloud height results by 1 to 2 kilometers. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown as dark gray.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuouslyand every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 16421. The

  7. Disability: a voice in Australian bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Christopher

    2003-06-01

    The rise of research and advocacy over the years to establish a disability voice in Australia with regard to bioethical issues is explored. This includes an analysis of some of the political processes and engagement in mainstream bioethical debate. An understanding of the politics of rejected knowledge is vital in understanding the muted disability voices in Australian bioethics and public policy. It is also suggested that the voices of those who are marginalised or oppressed in society, such as people with disability, have particular contribution to make in fostering critical bioethics.

  8. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Wallis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin’s model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  9. Motivation and Performance of Older Australian Academics: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Len; Peter, Hollis

    A pilot study of the Australian higher education system was conducted to determine the following: (1) whether department heads follow a client-centered, diagnostic/prescriptive model as developed by the Australian Committee of Directors and Principals in Advanced Education (ACDP), and if not, which process is used; (2) which developmental…

  10. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  11. Echolocation click source parameters of Australian snubfin dolphins (Orcaella heinsohni)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Freitas, Mafalda; Smith, Joshua N; Jensen, Frants H

    2018-01-01

    The Australian snubfin dolphin (Orcaella heinsohni) is endemic to Australian waters, yet little is known about its abundance and habitat use. To investigate the feasibility of Passive Acoustic Monitoring for snubfin dolphins, biosonar clicks were recorded in Cygnet Bay, Australia, using a four-el...

  12. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  13. Competing Issues in Australian Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…

  14. Policy-Making for Australian Schooling: The New Corporate Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob

    1991-01-01

    The corporate federalism concept illustrates the way a national approach to policy development for Australian schooling has been utilized by the Hawke Labor government. Negotiated consensus at the Australian Education Council has been used to arrive at these policies and to circumvent politically the constitutional and financial realities of…

  15. Greek-Australians: A Question of Survival in Multicultural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that Australians from different ethnic backgrounds are not a threat to cohesion as long as they share the overarching values which are reflected in Australia's democracy, economic system, legal institutions, and in Engish as the common language of communication. Discusses the Greek-Australian tradition of family life. (SED)

  16. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  17. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1987-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region. (author)

  18. Ethics Education in Australian Preservice Teacher Programs: A Hidden Imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.; Maxwell, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the current approach to ethics education in accredited Australian pre-service teacher programs. Methods included a manual calendar search of ethics related subjects required in teacher programs using a sample of 24 Australian universities and a survey of 26 university representatives. Findings show a paucity of…

  19. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  20. Australian English-Language Textbooks: The Gender Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jackie F. K.; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and extent of gender stereotyping, both linguistic and pictorial, in a set of 10 Australian English-language textbooks for intermediate learners. In order to determine how accurately the books reflect the status of women in contemporary Australian society a content and linguistic analysis was conducted, focusing on,…

  1. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  2. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  3. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  4. Climate change and the possible health effects on older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniotis, Arthur; Irvine, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is an important issue for Australia. Climate change research forecasts that Australia will experience accelerated warming due to anthrogenic activities. Australia's aging society will face special challenges that demand current attention. This paper discusses two issues in relation to climate change and older Australians: first, pharmacology and autoregulation; and second, mental health among older Australians.

  5. Australian Catholic Schools Today: School Identity and Leadership Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhart, Helga; Lamb, Janeen T.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenge of faith leadership in Catholic schools. In particular, it reviews Australian research that has aimed to understand how principals conceptualize and enact their role as faith leaders. Consistent with American research, Australian research found that principals saw themselves as playing a leadership role in the…

  6. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  7. Australian Bat Lyssavirus in a child: the first reported case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joshua R; Nourse, Clare; Vaska, Vikram L; Calvert, Sophie; Northill, Judith A; McCall, Brad; Mattke, Adrian C

    2014-04-01

    Human infection with Australian Bat Lyssavirus is extremely rare and has not previously been reported in a child. We describe a fatal case of Australian Bat Lyssavirus in an 8-year-old child, and review the literature pertaining to the diagnosis and management of lyssavirus infection with consideration of its applicability to this emerging strain.

  8. Depicting the Italo-Australian migrant experience down under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giorgio Mangiamele is widely regarded as the most significant first-generation Italo-Australian filmmaker of the post-war period. Indeed, as many critics have affirmed, Mangiamele's films of the fifties and sixties are fundamental for an accurate reading of Australian cinema 'in terms of its multiple representations of the ...

  9. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  10. All Things Being Equal: Observing Australian Individual Academic Workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula; Steel, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of greater gender equity within Australian universities is a significant issue for both the quality and the strength of Australian higher education. This paper contributes to our knowledge of academic workloads, observing individual workloads in business faculties. A multiple case study method was employed to observe individual…

  11. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  12. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1987-04-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology (ASNT) was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region

  13. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  14. Effects of HZE irradiation on chemical neurotransmission in rodent hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Mayumi

    Space radiation represents a significant risk to the CNS (central nervous system) during space missions. Most harmful are the HZE (high mass, highly charged (Z), high energy) particles, e.g. 56Fe, which possess high ionizing ability, dense energy deposition pattern, and high penetrance. Accumulating evidence suggests that radiation has significant impact on cognitive functions. In ground-base experiments, HZE radiation induces pronounced deficits in hippocampus dependent learning and memory in rodents. However, the mechanisms underlying these impairments are mostly unknown. Exposure to HZE radiation elevates the level of oxidation, resulting in cell loss, tissue damage and functional deficits through direct ionization and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). When hippocampal slices were exposed to ROS, neuronal excitability was reduced. My preliminary results showed enhanced radio-vulnerability of the hippocampus and reduction in basal and depolarization-evoked [3H]-norepinephrine release after HZE exposure. These results raised the possibility that HZE radiation deteriorates cognitive function through radiation-induced impairments in hippocampal chemical neurotransmission, the hypothesis of this dissertation. In Aim 1 I have focused on the effects of HZE radiation on release of major neurotransmitter systems in the hippocampus. I have further extended my research on the levels of receptors of these systems in Aim 2. In Aim 3, I have studied the level of oxidation in membranes of my samples. My research reveals that HZE radiation significantly reduces hyperosmotic sucrose evoked [3H]-glutamate and [14C]-GABA release both three and six months post irradiation. The same radiation regimen also significantly enhances oxidative stress as indicated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus, suggesting that increased levels of lipid peroxidation may play a role in reduction of neurotransmitter release. HZE radiation also significantly reduces

  15. Calodium (Capillaria hepaticum (Nematoda, Capillariidae in insular small rodent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugmyrin Sergey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on the distribution of the nematode Calodium hepaticum (Bancroft 1893 Moravec 1982 (syn.: Capillaria hepatica, Hepaticola hepatica on the islands of Kizhi Archipelago are reported (N 62°00'; E 35°12'. Samples were collected on 18 islands and the mainland part of the Kizhi skerries region in the period from August 2005 till 2014. The method of partial helminthological dissection was applied to 346 specimens of rodents belonging to two species – the bank vole Myodes glareolus Schreber 1780 (301 spm. and the field vole Microtus agrestis Linnaeus 1761 (45 spm.. The prevalence and the abundance index of nematode were 16.6% and 1.1 in M. glareolus and 11.1%; 0.3 in M. agrestis, respectively. The highest prevalence and abundance of C. hepaticum were detected in mature voles. No sex-related differences were found. C. hepaticum was present in 12 of 19 sampling sites. On the islands where the sample number (host individuals was over 15, the highest prevalence and abundance values were 57% and 5.8 spm., respectively. Significant positive coefficients of correlation (Spearman’s and Pearson’s ones between nematode numbers and characteristics of the island were found in the pair «Prevalence – degree of isolation» (0.48 and 0.49. Single-factor analysis of variance showed that the size of the island had some effect on the nematode invasion prevalence and abundance. However, no significant regression relationship between the prevalence and abundance of nematodes and characteristics of an island was revealed by multivariate regression analysis (multiple regression: the coefficient of determination of the regression equation R2 < 0.3, and the regression coefficients were insignificant The reasons for high abundance of C. hepaticum in northern insular ecosystems are discussed. Possible key factors for the stable vitality of the parasite populations are: 1 favourable hydrothermal conditions of the soil in the shore (littoral zone; 2 the

  16. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  17. LATE PLEISTOCENE RODENTS (MAMMALIA: RODENTIA FROM THE BARANICA CAVE NEAR KNJAZEVAC (EASTERN SERBIA: SYSTEMATICS AND PALAEOECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARINA BOGICEVIC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Baranica is a cave in the Balkan mountain range in the eastern part of Serbia. It contains four layers of sediments of Quaternary age. The Upper Pleistocene deposits (layers 2-4 have yielded a rich and diverse assemblage of vertebrate fauna, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small and large mammals. In this work, preliminary results of a study of the rodent fauna from the Upper Pleistocene deposits of the Baranica Cave (Knjazevac, eastern Serbia are presented. The fossil material comes from the 1995 archaeological excavation. The remains of 10 rodent species are described herein: Spermophilus cf. citelloides, Castor fiber, Sicista subtilis, Cricetulus migratorius, Cricetus cricetus, Mesocricetus newtoni, Apodemus ex gr. sylvaticus-flavicollis, Spalax leucodon, Dryomys nitedula, and Muscardinus avellanarius. Along with eight vole species, this makes altogether 18 species of rodents found in this locality. Both layers 2 and 4 (layer 3 is very poor in fossils have yielded a rodent fauna typical for the cold periods of the Late Pleistocene on the Balkan Peninsula, with a prevalence of open and steppe inhabitants, but some forest dwellers were also present. The assemblages from these layers are similar, but there are some differences in the composition of the fauna, which may indicate a slight shift towards drier conditions. They have also been compared to rodent associations from some Serbian and Bulgarian localities of the same age and their similarities and differences are discussed. SHORT NOTE-NOTA BREVE

  18. Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development across species. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307

  19. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in rodents from northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Suzán, Gerardo; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-12-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in wild rodents from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 489 rodents belonging to 14 species were surveyed in four areas. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 50.1% of rodent samples (245/489). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 83.3% per rodent species, with no significant difference between sites except for Cynomys ludovicianus. Phylogenetic analyses of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of the Bartonella isolates revealed 23 genetic variants (15 novel and 8 previously described), clustering into five phylogroups. Three phylogroups were associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, and B. washoensis, respectively. The other two phylogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. The genetic variants and phylogenetic groups exhibited a high degree of host specificity, mainly at the genus and family levels. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in wild rodents from Mexico. Considering that some variants found in this study are associated with Bartonella species that have been reported as zoonotic, more investigations are needed to further understand the ecology of Bartonella species in Mexican wildlife and their implications for human health.

  20. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans.

  1. Spontaneous expression of magnetic compass orientation in an epigeic rodent: the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveriusová, Ludmila; Němec, Pavel; Pavelková, Zuzana; Sedláček, František

    2014-07-01

    Magnetoreception has been convincingly demonstrated in only a few mammalian species. Among rodents, magnetic compass orientation has been documented in four species of subterranean mole rats and two epigeic (i.e. active above ground) species—the Siberian hamster and the C57BL/6J mouse. The mole rats use the magnetic field azimuth to determine compass heading; their directional preference is spontaneous and unimodal, and their magnetic compass is magnetite-mediated. By contrast, the primary component of orientation response is learned in the hamster and the mouse, but both species also exhibit a weak spontaneous bimodal preference in the natural magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic compass of wild epigeic rodents features the same functional properties as that of laboratory rodents, we investigated magnetic compass orientation in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Cricetidae, Rodentia). The voles exhibited a robust spontaneous bimodal directional preference, i.e. built nests and slept preferentially along the north-south axis, and deflected their directional preference according to a shift in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Thus, bimodal, axially symmetrical directional choice seems to be a common feature shared by epigeic rodents. However, spontaneous directional preference in the bank vole appeared to be more pronounced than that reported in the hamster and the mouse. These findings suggest that bank voles are well suited for future studies investigating the adaptive significance and mechanisms of magnetic orientation in epigeic rodents.

  2. Comparison of food hoarding of two sympatric rodent species under interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Lei; Ji, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ji-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Competition can greatly affect the food hoarding strategies of rodents and the fate of seeds hoarded. In order to understand the influence of interspecific competition on food caching behavior of sympatric rodents, we investigated food hoarding patterns of two sympatric rodent species, buff-breasted rat (Rattus flavipectus) and Chinese white-bellied rat (Niviventor confucianus), and compared their responses and adjustment in hoarding behavior under interspecific competition. The results showed that: (1) the buff-breasted rat larder hoarded seeds only, while Chinese white-bellied rat hoarded seeds in both larder and scatter forms; (2) two species of rodents both larder hoarded more seeds when competitors were present; and (3) the Chinese white-bellied rats adjusted their seed hoarding from scatter to larder when competitors were introduced, which reduced the seed availability. Therefore, we concluded that rodents would adjust their food hoarding strategy when interspecific competitors were present, and this may produce a different effect on the fate of seeds and the recruitment of plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Dare nuclear energy with the Australian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    Australian authorities have been traditionally opposed to nuclear energy. The interdiction to build nuclear power plants in the Australian states without the approval of the federal authority was even officially written in the environment code in 1999. Today coal provides 75% of the electricity needs of Australia. Because of climate warming, things are changing, the Australian government is now considering the possibility of using nuclear energy and a site located in southern Australian has been selected for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. In this context the Australian Nuclear Association (ANA) is developing an ambitious program for the promotion of all the applications of nuclear energy through the organisation of conferences and meetings with various experts of nuclear industry. The aim is to make the public aware of the assets of nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  4. Some Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Great Australian Bight in the collection of the South Australian Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanette E

    2018-04-16

    This report adds to knowledge of the shelf hydroid fauna of the Great Australian Bight. Hydroids were collected by the South Australian Museum and Department of Primary Industries of South Australia (PIRSA). Well known species are annotated, poorly known species are redescribed and four new species are described.

  5. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  6. Monitoring Diffuse Impacts: Australian Tourism Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken; Buckley

    2000-04-01

    / The scientific quality of monitoring for diffuse environmental impacts has rarely been quantified. This paper presents an analysis of all formal environmental monitoring programs for Australian tourism developments over a 15-year period from 1980 to 1995. The tourism sector provides a good test bed for this study because tourism developments are (1) often adjacent to or even within conservation reserves and other relatively undisturbed natural environments, and (2) often clustered, with resulting cumulative impacts that require detection at an early stage. Here we analyze the precision and reliability with which monitoring programs as actually implemented can detect diffuse environmental impacts against natural variation. Of 175 Australian tourism developments subject to EIA from 1980 to 1993 inclusive, only 13 were subject to formal monitoring. Only 44 individual parameters, in total, were monitored for all these developments together. No baseline monitoring was conducted for nine of the 44 parameters. For the remaining 35, only one was monitored for a full year. Before, after, control, impact, paired sampling (BACIP) monitoring designs were used for 24 of the 44 parameters, and power analysis in 10. The scientific quality of monitoring was significantly better for developments subject to control by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA). The key factor appears to be the way in which GBRMPA uses external referees and manages external consultants. The GBRMPA model merits wider adoption.

  7. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  8. Biobank classification in an Australian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting.

  9. Healthcare and complicity in Australian immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Australian immigration detention has received persistent criticism since its introduction almost 25 years ago. With the recent introduction of offshore processing, these criticisms have intensified. Riots, violence, self-harm, abuse and devastating mental health outcomes are all now well documented, along with a number of deaths. Clinicians have played a central role working in these environments, faced with the overarching issue of delivering healthcare while facilitating an abusive and harmful system. Since the re-introduction of offshore processing a number of authors have begun to discuss the possibility of a boycott. While taking such action may lead to change, further discussion is needed, not only in relation to the impact of a boycott, but whether it is possible for clinicians to engage with this system in more productive, ethical ways. This article utilises a framework proposed by Lepora and Goodin (On complicity and compromise, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013) that provides a structured approach to examine complicity and seeks to explore how clinicians have engaged with Australian immigration detention and ultimately whether they should continue to do so.

  10. Hidden biases in Australian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaepfer, August

    2009-01-01

    The challenges in developing technology for the capture and storage of CO 2 from coal, oil and gas power generation, as well as those associated with the storage of nuclear waste, are widely regarded as solvable. According to proponents of clean coal, oil and gas technologies, as well as the proponents of nuclear technology, it is only a matter of time and resources to find a solution to their waste problems. Similarly, the Australian Government argues that our main efforts need to be concentrated on clean coal technologies, as well as considering the nuclear option. However, when it comes to the challenges associated with renewable energy technologies, like intermittency of wind generated grid power, storage of electricity from renewable energy and so on, there seems to be an attitude amongst Australian energy planners that these challenges represent insurmountable technical and financial problems, and will, at least in the short to medium term, prevent them from becoming a viable alternative to coal, oil, gas and uranium based energy technologies. (author)

  11. The potential for an Australian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.

    1982-06-01

    The production of uranium and its part upgrading to enriched uranium for export could be equivalent to 20-25 per cent of Australia's future export income from coal. Australia could be supplying 15,000 tonnes U/yr. and enrichment services of 2.5 million SWU/yr. by 2000. The principles of nuclear energy, nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle are described and the relationship between nuclear power and the requirements for uranium and the other steps in the fuel cycle is discussed. Estimates are given of the future world supply-demand balance for each step in the fuel cycle. A survey is made of world uranium resources and fuel cycle upgrading facilities. The costs of production and pricing are assessed in relation to the potential for an Australian industry. Comments are made on the possibility that Australia could provide the repository for both low-level radioactive waste from small countries and the bulk of the world's high level waste. The impact of a uranium industry on the Australian economy is discussed

  12. The napping behaviour of Australian university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lovato

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported sleep and napping behaviour of Australian university students and the relationship between napping and daytime functioning. A sample of 280 university first-year psychology students (median age  = 19.00 years completed a 6-item napping behaviour questionnaire, a 12-item Daytime Feelings and Functioning Scale, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results indicated that 53.6% of students reported napping with 34% napping at least 1-2 times per week, and 17% napping three or more occasions per week. Long naps, those over 30 minutes, were taken by 77% of the napping students. Sixty-one percent of students reported they took long naps during the post-lunch dip period, from 2-4 pm. Students who nap at least once per week reported significantly more problems organizing their thoughts, gaining motivation, concentrating, and finishing tasks than students who did not nap. Students who napped also felt significantly more sleepy and depressed when compared to students who did not nap. The results also indicated that nap frequency increased with daytime sleepiness. The majority of students (51% reported sleeping 6-7 hours per night or less. Overall, the results from this study suggest that among this population of Australian first-year university students habitual napping is common and may be used in an attempt to compensate for the detrimental effects of excessive sleepiness.

  13. The napping behaviour of Australian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported sleep and napping behaviour of Australian university students and the relationship between napping and daytime functioning. A sample of 280 university first-year psychology students (median age  = 19.00 years) completed a 6-item napping behaviour questionnaire, a 12-item Daytime Feelings and Functioning Scale, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results indicated that 53.6% of students reported napping with 34% napping at least 1-2 times per week, and 17% napping three or more occasions per week. Long naps, those over 30 minutes, were taken by 77% of the napping students. Sixty-one percent of students reported they took long naps during the post-lunch dip period, from 2-4 pm. Students who nap at least once per week reported significantly more problems organizing their thoughts, gaining motivation, concentrating, and finishing tasks than students who did not nap. Students who napped also felt significantly more sleepy and depressed when compared to students who did not nap. The results also indicated that nap frequency increased with daytime sleepiness. The majority of students (51%) reported sleeping 6-7 hours per night or less. Overall, the results from this study suggest that among this population of Australian first-year university students habitual napping is common and may be used in an attempt to compensate for the detrimental effects of excessive sleepiness.

  14. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

    2014-10-10

    In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  16. A macroecological glance at the structure of late Miocene rodent assemblages from Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Ana Rosa Gómez; Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles; Fernández, Manuel Hernández

    2014-10-01

    Deep-time perspectives in macroecology are essential with regard to understanding the impact of climate forcing on faunal communities. Using late Miocene rodent faunas (12 to 5 Ma) from two different biogeographical provinces from southwestern Europe, we asked whether the waxing and waning of faunas with dissimilar ecological affinities tracked climate in different ways. The latest middle Miocene featured a fauna dominated by dormice with forest and mixed-habitat affinities. This group declined towards the Upper Miocene. Rodent taxa with the highest values of richness at the beginning of the Upper Miocene are generalists in the southern province and specialists of forested habitats in the northern province. Finally, we identified a third, increasingly significant group of rodents linked to open landscapes towards the end of the Miocene. These three broad ecological groups showed differential responses to a complex set of interconnected circumstances, including the biogeographic structure of the study area and climatic changes throughout time.

  17. Comparing strategies for controlling an African pest rodent: an empirically based theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Leirs, Herwig; Mercelis, Saskia

    2001-01-01

    of rats. Control measures affecting survival as well as reproduction were considered.4. The model showed that control measures reducing survival will only have long-term effects on population size if they are also applied when rodent densities are low. Control measures applied only when rodent densities...... are high will not have persistent effects, even at high mortality rates.5. The model demonstrated that control measures reducing reproduction are likely to prevent Mastomys outbreaks, but will keep densities low over a long period only when the contraceptive effect is strong (> 75% reduction).6. Provided...... in particular cause major economic losses in Africa through damage to crops. Attempts to develop dynamic population models for this and other pest rodents are ongoing. 2. Demographic estimates from a capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study in Tanzania were used to parameterize a population model for this species...

  18. The in vivo rodent test systems for assessment of carcinogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Jan-Willem; Spindler, Per

    2002-01-01

    A Drug Information Association (DIA) workshop was held in May 2001 to discuss the outcome of the International Life Sciences Institute-Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (ILSI-HESI) project on alternative models for carcinogenicity assessment such as the P53(+/-) and XPA(+/-) knockout...... mouse models, the RasH2 and Tg.AC transgenic mouse models, and the neonatal mouse model. The "ICH Guideline S1B on Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals" advocates that carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals, when needed, might be carried out choosing one 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study...... (rat) plus one other study that supplements the 2-year study and providing additional information that is not readily available from the 2-year study: either (1) a short- or medium-term in vivo rodent test system or (2) a 2-year carcinogenicity study in a second rodent species (mouse). Another topic...

  19. Differential responses of Miocene rodent metacommunities to global climatic changes were mediated by environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Cantalapiedra, Juan L; Domingo, M Soledad; Domingo, Laura; Menéndez, Iris; Flynn, Lawrence J; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2018-02-06

    The study of how long-term changes affect metacommunities is a relevant topic, that involves the evaluation of connections among biological assemblages across different spatio-temporal scales, in order to fully understand links between global changes and macroevolutionary patterns. We applied multivariate statistical analyses and diversity tests using a large data matrix of rodent fossil sites in order to analyse long-term faunal changes. Late Miocene rodent faunas from southwestern Europe were classified into metacommunities, presumably sharing ecological affinities, which followed temporal and environmental non-random assembly and disassembly patterns. Metacommunity dynamics of these faunas were driven by environmental changes associated with temperature variability, but there was also some influence from the aridity shifts described for this region during the late Miocene. Additionally, while variations in the structure of rodent assemblages were directly influenced by global climatic changes in the southern province, the northern sites showed a pattern of climatic influence mediated by diversity-dependent processes.

  20. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato(Ixodidae in synantropic rodents in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Tavares Winkel

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, is responsible for maintaining and transmitting various pathogens, both in animals and human beings, and it is of great sanitary importance. This communication reports the first occurrence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato parasitizing Rattus norvegicus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and it is also the first record of this tick species parasitizing Rattus rattus in Brazil. The rodents were captured from the port area, located in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We collected 6 larvae of this tick species from 2 male R. rattus individuals, and 3 larvae from 2 female R. norvegicus individuals; parasitized specimens of both rodent species were captured from different sites within the experimental area. This record broadens the number of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato hosts in urban areas, indicating the need for continued monitoring on population density for both R. sanguineus and synanthropic rodents.

  1. Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rafael A.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.; Hjelle, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33°S) to Aysén (46°S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30°S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting ≤0.6% seropositivity. We sequenced partial ANDV small (S) segment RNA from 6 HCPS patients and 32 rodents of four different species collected throughout the known range of hantavirus infection in Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single

  2. The Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the Causal Agent of Chagas Disease, in Texas Rodent Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Adriana; Guerra, Trina; Maikis, Troy J; Milholland, Matthew T; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Forstner, Michael R J; Hahn, Dittmar

    2017-03-01

    Rodent species were assessed as potential hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, from five sites throughout Texas in sylvan and disturbed habitats. A total of 592 rodents were captured, resulting in a wide taxonomic representation of 11 genera and 15 species. Heart samples of 543 individuals were successfully analyzed by SybrGreen-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a 166 bp fragment of satellite DNA of T. cruzi. Eight rodents representing six species from six genera and two families were infected with T. cruzi. This is the first report of T. cruzi in the pygmy mouse (Baiomys taylori) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) for the USA. All infected rodents were from the southernmost site (Las Palomas Wildlife Management Area). No differences in pathogen prevalence existed between disturbed habitats (5 of 131 tested; 3.8%) and sylvan habitats (3 of 40 tested; 7.5%). Most positives (n = 6, 16% prevalence) were detected in late winter with single positives in both spring (3% prevalence) and fall (1% prevalence). Additionally, 30 Triatoma insects were collected opportunistically from sites in central Texas. Fifty percent of these insects, i.e., 13 T. gerstaeckeri (68%), and two T. lecticularia (100%) were positive for T. cruzi. Comparative sequence analyses of 18S rRNA of samples provided identical results with respect to detection of the presence or absence of T. cruzi and assigned T. cruzi from rodents collected in late winter to lineage TcI. T. cruzi from Triatoma sp. and rodents from subsequent collections in spring and fall were different, however, and could not be assigned to other lineages with certainty.

  3. Prevalence of Leishmania species in rodents: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Masoud; Khademvatan, Shahram; Majidiani, Hamidreza; Khalkhali, Hamidreza; Hedayati-Rad, Faezeh; Khashaveh, Shahla; Mohammadzadeh, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Leishmaniasis are diverse group of diseases caused by numerous species of genus Leishmania. Herein we have contrived a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of Leishmania species in rodents of Iran. For this purpose, following the general methodology recommended for systematic reviews and meta-analysis, six English databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Ovid, Web of Science and Google Scholar) and four Persian databases (Magiran, SID, Iran Doc and Iran Medex) were explored during January 1995 till June 2015. Papers were selected based on 8 pre-defined inclusion criteria. During the years, a total number of 4485 different rodents were captured; among which 1291 cases were Leishmania positive. The calculated weighted prevalence of Leishmania species in rodents was 23% (95% CI=18-28). Given geographical zones of Iran, the highest and lowest prevalence rate was belonged to North 50% (95% CI=40-61) and West 11% (95% CI=5-17), respectively. Rhombomys opimus (1766), Meriones lybicus (1258) and Tatera indica (488) were the three most abundant captured rodents, while the highest prevalence of Leishmania species was observed in Nesokia indica 48% (95% CI=42-54) and followed by R. opimus 39% (95% CI=30-47). Egger's regression test was performed to detect publication bias, which revealed it may not have a significant influence on overall weighted prevalence estimate (P=0.317). Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between overall prevalence with sample size (P=0.1) and year of publication (P=0.7). The results showed remarkable prevalence of Leishmania species in rodent reservoirs. In future, adopting a suitable strategy for control and combat with rodents is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lawsonia intracellularis in the feces of wild rodents and stray cats captured around equine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2017-08-11

    Proliferative enteropathy is a global enteric disease of particular importance in pigs. The causative bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis, has a wide range of susceptible host species. Recently, L. intracellularis has been recognized as an etiologic agent of an emerging enteric disease in foals called equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). The presence of L. intracellularis in nonruminant wildlife has raised questions regarding the role of these species in EPE transmission. This study investigated exposure to L. intracellularis in wild rodents and feral cats from eight farms with confirmed EPE. Serum (42) and fecal (40) samples from resident foals and fecal samples (131), intestinal mucosa tissues (14), and mesenteric lymph nodes (14) from wild and feral animals were collected for the evaluation of the farm status and the molecular detection of L. intracellularis following the diagnosis of EPE in index cases. Fresh feces from wild rodents and feral cats were collected from the ground while walking the premises or after trapping the animals using live traps. A total of 3 brown rats, 7 house mice, 1 striped field mouse, 2 grey red-backed voles, and 3 feral cats showed evidence of prior exposure to L. intracellularis. Our data add to increasing evidence demonstrating the potential for L. intracellularis transmission and infection in wild rodents and feral cats and provide possible evidence of interspecies transmission. The exposure of wild rodents and feral cats provides potential evidence for the spillover of L. intracellularis to wildlife species and raises the question of spillback to horses. Additionally, these animals may represent an indicator of environmental exposure or may be actively involved in the transmission of L. intracellularis to foals by acting as potential reservoir/amplifier hosts. This study is the first to demonstrate the magnitude of L. intracellularis shedding in the feces of wild rodents and feral cats and to indicate the significant

  5. Food habits of rodents inhabiting arid and semi-arid ecosystems of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Parmenter, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe seasonal dietary composition for 15 species of rodents collected in all major habitats on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (Socorro County) in central New Mexico. A comprehensive literature review of food habits for these species from throughout their distribution also is provided. We collected rodents in the field during winter, spring and late summer in 1998 from six communities: riparian cottonwood forest; piñon-juniper woodland; juniper-oak savanna; mesquite savanna; short-grass steppe; and Chihuahuan Desert scrubland. Rodents included Spermophilus spilosoma (Spotted Ground Squirrel), Perognathus flavescens (Plains Pocket Mouse), Perognathus flavus (Silky Pocket Mouse), Dipodomys merriami (Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys ordii (Ord’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys spectabilis (Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat), Reithrodontomys megalotis (Western Harvest Mouse), Peromyscus boylii (Brush Mouse), Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus Mouse), Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse), Peromyscus truei (Piñon Mouse), Onychomys arenicola (Mearn’s Grasshopper Mouse), Onychomys leucogaster (Northern Grasshopper Mouse), Neotoma albigula/leucodon (White-throated Woodrats), and Neotoma micropus (Southern Plains Woodrat). We collected stomach contents of all species, and cheek-pouch contents of heteromyids, and quantified them in the laboratory. We determined seasonal diets in each habitat by calculating mean percentage volumes of seeds, arthropods and green vegetation (plant leaves and stems) for each species of rodent. Seeds consumed by each rodent were identified to genus, and often species, and quantified by frequency counts. Comparisons of diets between and among species of rodents, seasons, and ecosystems were also examined. We provide an appendix of all plant taxa documented.

  6. Phylogeographic Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Patients, Rodents and Ticks in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajs, Luka; Durmiši, Emina; Knap, Nataša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a patient. PMID

  7. A model of Leptospirosis infection in an African rodent to determine risk to humans: Seasonal fluctuations and the impact of rodent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, J; Davis, S; Leirs, Herwig

    2006-01-01

    Human leptospirosis (Leptospira spp. infection) is aworldwide public health problem that is of greatest concern for humid tropical and subtropical regions. The magnitude of the problem in these areas is larger because of the climatic and environmental conditions the bacterium face outside...... their hosts but also because of the frequency of contacts between people and sources of infection. Rodents are thought to play the most important role in the transmission of human leptospirosis. We here model the dynamics of infection in an African rodent (Mastomys natalensis) that is thought...... to be the principal source of infection in parts of Tanzania. Our model, representing the climatic conditions in central Tanzania, suggests a strong seasonality in the force of infection on humans with a peak in the abundance of infectious mice between January and April in agricultural environments. In urban areas...

  8. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  9. A new form of rodent placentation in the relict species, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia Diatomyidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, A C; Jones, C J P

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Laotian rock rat is a relict species in a sister group relationship to hystricognath rodents (Hystricognathi). We asked whether there were similarities in placentation that might reflect this relationship or differences that might cast light on the evolution of Hystricognathi....... METHODS: We examined the reproductive tract of nonpregnant (n = 5), early (n = 3) and mid to late gestation (n = 2) females. Selected characters were mapped to a phylogenetic tree to examine their evolution in rodents. RESULTS: The chorionic placenta was discoid and labyrinthine with a spongy zone...

  10. [Identification of wild rodents as hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricencis in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff-Teixeira, C; de Avila-Pires, F D; Machado, R de C; Camillo-Coura, L; Lenzi, H L

    1990-01-01

    Increasing number of human cases of abdominal angiostrongyliasis has been diagnosed in the south of Brazil. The main definitive host of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in Central America is the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) that does not occur in South America, except in the north of Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Rodents were captured in the endemic area in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and definitive hosts were identified for the first time in Brazil: Oryzomys nigripes and Oryzomys ratticeps. O. nigripes is a small wild rodent and it appears to be the main definitive host of A. costaricensis in the highlands of RS, Brazil's southernmost State.

  11. Measuring Motivation and Reward-Related Decision Making in the Rodent Operant Touchscreen System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher J; Phillips, Benjamin U; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2016-01-04

    This unit is designed to facilitate implementation of the fixed and progressive ratio paradigms and the effort-related choice task in the rodent touchscreen apparatus to permit direct measurement of motivation and reward-related decision making in this equipment. These protocols have been optimized for use in the mouse and reliably yield stable performance levels that can be enhanced or suppressed by systemic pharmacological manipulation. Instructions are also provided for the adjustment of task parameters to permit use in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease. These tasks expand the utility of the rodent touchscreen apparatus beyond the currently available battery of cognitive assessment paradigms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Sensing through friction: the biomechanics of texture perception in rodents and primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrégeas, Georges; Boubenec, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Rodents and primates possess an exquisite tactile sensitivity, which allows them to extract a wealth of information about their immediate environment. They can distinguish subtle differences in surface roughness through tactile exploration in a much more precise way than they can do visually. In both sensory systems, tactile information is contained in the sequence of deformation of the tactile organ--the facial hair for rodents (the whiskers), the digital skin for primates -- elicited by active rubbing on the probed surface (Figure 8.1). These deformations, registered by mechanosensitive neurons located in inner tissues, are processed by the central nervous system to produce a sensory representation of the surface...

  13. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S B; Langroo, R; Peggie, J R [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R G [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J M [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  15. Playing With Antidepressants: Perspectives From Indian Australians and Anglo-Australians Living With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Antoniades, Josefine

    2017-11-01

    Patient perspectives were explored on the meaning and experience of antidepressant use by applying Johan Huizinga's theory of play to interviews from Indian Australians and Anglo-Australians diagnosed with depression. Through the analysis, the centrality of Huizinga's "magic circle" emerged, that is, defining the boundaries within which one could safely play. Consumption of antidepressants involved learning, breaking, and modulating rules of the game of adherence, then forging a new "magic circle." In these games, there were playful elements including experimentation, improvisation, absorption, and experiential learning. This application of Huizinga's theory in relation to antidepressant use is a novel approach in the literature on medication non/adherence. This application not only opens a new theoretical line of inquiry but also shows that antidepressant non/adherence is not a static practice but dynamic and changing, revealing critical insights around participant's agency, capabilities, desires, and notions of selfhood with regard to managing their depression and conceptualizing their recovery.

  16. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hassam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

  17. Slovenia as a locale in contemporary Australian verse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the writer Patrick White had worked on his novels for a short while also at Lake Bled in Slovenia at Hotel "Toplice", just like Agatha Christie did at Lake Bohinj, Slovenia has only recently come to feature in mainstream Australian literature, more precisely in contemporary Australian poetry. It should be stressed that Slovenia is thus no longer present only in Slovene migrant poetry written in Australia as has so far been the case: it entered the major contemporary Australian anthologies. This testifies to the fact that Slovenia no longer belongs to the uncharted part of Central Europe on the geographical and consequently also on the Australian literary map. Rather than that Slovenia increasingly makes part of an average Australian 'Grand Tour' travel itinerary in Europe; it has thus become present in the Australian cultural consciousness. In this light two recent Australian poems with Slovenia as a literary locale are discussed, Andrew Taylor's "Morning in Ljubljana" I and Susan Hampton's poem "Yugoslav Story".

  18. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  19. The Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P.; Muhlhaus, H.; Lister, G.; Dyskin, A.; Place, D.; Appelbe, B.; Nimmervoll, N.; Abramson, D.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical simulation of the physics and dynamics of the entire earth system offers an outstanding opportunity for advancing earth system science and technology but represents a major challenge due to the range of scales and physical processes involved, as well as the magnitude of the software engineering effort required. However, new simulation and computer technologies are bringing this objective within reach. Under a special competitive national funding scheme to establish new Major National Research Facilities (MNRF), the Australian government together with a consortium of Universities and research institutions have funded construction of the Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator (ACcESS). The Simulator or computational virtual earth will provide the research infrastructure to the Australian earth systems science community required for simulations of dynamical earth processes at scales ranging from microscopic to global. It will consist of thematic supercomputer infrastructure and an earth systems simulation software system. The Simulator models and software will be constructed over a five year period by a multi-disciplinary team of computational scientists, mathematicians, earth scientists, civil engineers and software engineers. The construction team will integrate numerical simulation models (3D discrete elements/lattice solid model, particle-in-cell large deformation finite-element method, stress reconstruction models, multi-scale continuum models etc) with geophysical, geological and tectonic models, through advanced software engineering and visualization technologies. When fully constructed, the Simulator aims to provide the software and hardware infrastructure needed to model solid earth phenomena including global scale dynamics and mineralisation processes, crustal scale processes including plate tectonics, mountain building, interacting fault system dynamics, and micro-scale processes that control the geological, physical and dynamic

  20. Growth charts for Australian children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofts, Louise; Das, Sandeep; Collins, Felicity; Burton, Karen L O

    2017-08-01

    Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder, the most common genetic cause of short stature in humans. Reference curves for head circumference, weight, height, and BMI are needed in clinical practice but none exist for the Australian population. This study aimed to produce head circumference, height, weight, and BMI reference percentile curves for Australian children and adolescents with achondroplasia. Measurements of head circumference, height and weight taken at clinical visits were retrospectively extracted from the electronic medical record. Age was corrected for prematurity. Patients were excluded from head circumference analysis if they had significant neurosurgical complications and from the weight and BMI analysis when they had a clinical diagnosis of overweight. Measurements were available on 138 individuals (69 males and 69 females) taken between 1970 and 2015, with over 50% collected since 2005. A total of 3,352 data points were available. The LMS method was used to produce growth charts with estimated centiles (10, 25, 50, 75, and 90th) separately for males and females. For females birth weight was 3 kg (2.5-3.5 kg), birth length 48 cm (44-50 cm) and head circumference 37.5 cm (36-39 cm), adult height was 125 cm (116-132 cm), weight 42 kg (34-54 kg), and head circumference 58 cm (55.5-60.5 cm) all 50th centile (10-90th). For males birth weight was 3.5 kg (3-4 kg), length 49 cm (46-52 cm) and head circumference 38.5 cm (36-41 cm), adult height was 134 cm (125-141 cm), weight 41 kg (24.5-57 kg) and head circumference 61 cm (58-64 cm). The curves are similar to previously published reference data from the USA and have expected population wide variation from curves from an Argentinian population. Despite limitations of our curves for adolescents (12 years and older) due to data paucity, these Australian growth charts for children and adolescents with achondroplasia will be a useful reference in clinical