WorldWideScience

Sample records for australian organizations

  1. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  2. The World's First and Newest Organic Magazines are Australian

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2009-01-01

    Australia was an early adopter and advocate for organic farming. The world's first farming organisation to adopt "organic" into its title was the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (1944-1955). The Society published the Organic Farming DIgest, starting in April 1946. The Organic Farming Digest was the first "organic" agriculture journal in the world to be published by an association. The Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society and the Organic Farming Digest both predat...

  3. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (Transitional Provisions) Act 1987 - No 4 of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act implements certain transitional provisions consequent to the enactment of the ANSTO Act 1987. The legislation provides for the continuation of the body corporate from its present form as the Australian Atomic Energy Commission to the new body corporate, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization. (NEA)

  4. Choosing organics: a path analysis of factors underlying the selection of organic food among Australian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Stewart; Lyons, Kristen; Lawrence, Geoffrey; Grice, Janet

    2004-10-01

    Path analysis of attitudinal, motivational, demographic and behavioural factors influencing food choice among Australian consumers who had consumed at least some organic food in the preceding 12 months showed that concern with the naturalness of food and the sensory and emotional experience of eating were the major determinants of increasing levels of organic consumption. Increasing consumption was also related to other 'green consumption' behaviours such as recycling and to lower levels of concern with convenience in the purchase and preparation of food. Most of these factors were, in turn, strongly affected by gender and the level of responsibility taken by respondents for food provisioning within their households, a responsibility dominated by women. Education had a slightly negative effect on the levels of concern for sensory and emotional appeal due to lower levels of education among women. Income, age, political and ecological values and willingness to pay a premium for safe and environmentally friendly foods all had extremely minor effects. PMID:15458800

  5. Mean organ weights of an Australian population of fetuses and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, L; Scurry, J; Mitropoulos, G; McTigue, C; Gross, J

    1990-04-01

    Charts of organ weights for an Australian population of fetuses and infants are presented. The organ-weight charts were compiled from 1337 stillbirths and liveborn babies whose gestational age ranged from 20 to 43 weeks, and who lived less than 72 h. Macerated stillbirths, multiple births and malformed organs were excluded. Pathological conditions aside from malformations were not excluded, leading to higher standard deviations compared with currently used charts. The organ weights are presented in two-week increments from 20 to 43 weeks' gestation as means, with standard deviations. PMID:2361065

  6. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Gillian A.; Carpenter, Julia G. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, GPO Box 461, Darwin, 0801 Northern Territory (Australia); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo}) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CR{sub wo} that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CR{sub wo} values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CR{sub wo} values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CR{sub wo} values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CR{sub wo} values for inclusion in the database

  7. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CRwo that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CRwo values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CRwo values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CRwo values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CRwo values for inclusion in the database. Australian-specific CRwo values will be

  8. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization Act 1987 - No 3 of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Act (ANSTO Act) is to establish a successor to the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) set up under the Atomic Energy Act 1953. The Act provides for a new Organization with functions which, according to Government policy, better reflect the directions in which Australia's principal research organization should tend in that area, namely realignment of AAEC activities away from work on the nuclear fuel cycle, towards greater emphasis on applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture, science, commerce, etc. ANSTO is prohibited from undertaking any R and D into the design and production of nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. (NEA)

  9. A national survey of trace organic contaminants in Australian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Philip D; Bartkow, Michael; Blockwell, Stephen J; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J; Lim, Richard; McDonald, James A; Nice, Helen; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Pettigrove, Vincent; Tremblay, Louis A; Warne, Michael St J; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2014-09-01

    Trace organic contaminant (TrOC) studies in Australia have, to date, focused on wastewater effluents, leaving a knowledge gap of their occurrence and risk in freshwater environments. This study measured 42 TrOCs including industrial compounds, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry at 73 river sites across Australia quarterly for 1 yr. Trace organic contaminants were found in 92% of samples, with a median of three compounds detected per sample (maximum 18). The five most commonly detected TrOCs were the pharmaceuticals salicylic acid (82%, maximum = 1530 ng/L), paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen; 45%, maximum = 7150 ng/L), and carbamazepine (27%, maximum = 682 ng/L), caffeine (65%, maximum = 3770 ng/L), and the flame retardant (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (44%, maximum = 184 ng/L). Pesticides were detected in 28% of the samples. To determine the risk posed by the detected TrOCs to the aquatic environment, hazard quotients were calculated by dividing the maximum concentration detected for each compound by the predicted no-effect concentrations. Three of the 42 compounds monitored (the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole and the herbicide simazine) had a hazard quotient >1, suggesting that they may be causing adverse effects at the most polluted sites. A further 10 compounds had hazard quotients >0.1, indicating a potential risk; these included four pharmaceuticals, three personal care products, and three pesticides. Most compounds had hazard quotients significantly <0.1. The number of TrOCs measured in this study was limited and further investigations are required to fully assess the risk posed by complex mixtures of TrOCs on exposed biota. PMID:25603256

  10. Estimating the Number of Organ Donors in Australian Hospitals—Implications for Monitoring Organ Donation Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pilcher, David; Gladkis, Laura; Arcia, Byron; Bailey, Michael; Cook, David; Cass, Yael; Opdam, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background The Australian DonateLife Audit captures information on all deaths which occur in emergency departments, intensive care units and in those recently discharged from intensive care unit. This information provides the opportunity to estimate the number of donors expected, given present consent rates and contemporary donation practices. This may then allow benchmarking of performance between hospitals and jurisdictions. Our aim was to develop a method to estimate the number of donors u...

  11. The Australian experiment: how primary health care organizations supported the evolution of a primary health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system. PMID:22403246

  12. Screening of organic and metal contaminants in Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) inhabiting an urbanised embayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Vijayasarathy, Soumini; Villa, C Alexander; Neugebauer, Frank; Meager, Justin J; Gaus, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    As a marine mammal species that inhabits shallow nearshore waters, humpback dolphins are likely exposed to a wide range of pollutants from adjacent land-based activities. Increased mortality rates of Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in waters off a major urbanised centre triggered investigations into the threats to these species, including their contaminant exposure. The present study utilised archived tissues from 6 stranded animals to screen for a range of pollutants (PCDD/Fs, PBDEs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PAHs, organotins, essential and non-essential elements) to inform future biopsy based biomonitoring strategies. Concentrations of PCBs and DDXs in blubber of some of these animals were remarkably high, at levels near or above toxicological thresholds associated with immune- and reproductive toxicity or population declines in other marine mammals. PBDEs, PAHs, HCB, organotins, 'drins' as well as other organic pesticides were not detected, or present at relatively low concentrations. Profiles of elements were similar in epidermis compared to other tissues, and apart from some exceptions (e.g. Fe, Cr, Co, Cu) their concentrations fell within 25th-75th percentiles of cetacean baselines in four of the five animals. Non-essential elements (Al, V, Pb, Ba, Ni, Cd) were notably elevated in one specimen which may have experienced poor health or nutritional status. These data provide a first insight into the contaminant status of a rare and poorly studied population inhabiting an urbanised area. The results highlight a need for future biomonitoring of live populations, and inform on priorities in the typically limited blubber and skin sample volumes obtained through biopsies. PMID:26945241

  13. Barriers to the routine collection of health outcome data in an Australian community care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancarrow SA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan A NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: For over a decade, organizations have attempted to include the measurement and reporting of health outcome data in contractual agreements between funders and health service providers, but few have succeeded. This research explores the utility of collecting health outcomes data that could be included in funding contracts for an Australian Community Care Organisation (CCO. An action-research methodology was used to trial the implementation of outcome measurement in six diverse projects within the CCO using a taxonomy of interventions based on the International Classification of Function. The findings from the six projects are presented as vignettes to illustrate the issues around the routine collection of health outcomes in each case. Data collection and analyses were structured around Donabedian's structure–process–outcome triad. Health outcomes are commonly defined as a change in health status that is attributable to an intervention. This definition assumes that a change in health status can be defined and measured objectively; the intervention can be defined; the change in health status is attributable to the intervention; and that the health outcomes data are accessible. This study found flaws with all of these assumptions that seriously undermine the ability of community-based organizations to introduce routine health outcome measurement. Challenges were identified across all stages of the Donabedian triad, including poor adherence to minimum dataset requirements; difficulties standardizing processes or defining interventions; low rates of use of outcome tools; lack of value of the tools to the service provider; difficulties defining or identifying the end point of an intervention; technical and ethical barriers to accessing data; a lack of standardized processes; and time lags for the collection of data. In no case was

  14. Efficient nitrogen recycling through sustainable use of organic wastes in agriculture - an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Landman, Michael; Collins, David; Walton, Katrina; Penney, Nancy; Pritchard, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The effective recycling of nutrients in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) domestic (e.g. source separated food waste), agricultural, and commercial and industrial (C&I) biowastes (e.g. food industry wastes, papermill sludge) for use on land, generally following treatment (e.g. composting, anaerobic digestion or thermal conversion technologies) as alternatives to conventional mineral fertilisers in Australia can have economic benefits, ensure food security, and close the nutrient loop. In excess of 75% of Australian agricultural soils have less than 1% organic matter (OM), and, with 40 million tonnes of solid waste per year potentially available as a source of OM, biowastes also build soil carbon (C) stocks that improve soil structure, fertility and productivity, and enhance soil ecosystem services. In recent years, the increasing cost of conventional mineral fertilisers, combined with changing weather patterns have placed additional pressure on regional and rural communities. Nitrogen (N) is generally the most limiting nutrient to crop production, and the high-energy required and GHGs associated with its manufacture mean that, additionally, it is critical to use N efficiently and recycle N resources where possible. Biosolids and biowastes have highly variable organic matter (OM) and nutrient contents, with N often present in a variety of forms only some of which are plant-available. The N value is further influenced by treatment process, storage and fundamental soil processes. The correct management of N in biowastes is essential to reduce environmental losses through leaching or runoff and negative impacts on drinking water sources and aquatic ecosystems. Gaseous N emissions also impact upon atmospheric quality and climate change. Despite the body of work to investigate N supply from biosolids, recent findings indicate that historic and current management of agricultural applications of N from biosolids and biowastes in Australia may still be inefficient leading

  15. Expanding social inclusion in community sports organizations: evidence from rural Australian Football clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Lionel Frost; Margaret Lightbody; Abdel Halabi

    2013-01-01

    Australian Football clubs have traditionally been seen as contributing social benefits to the rural communities in which they are embedded. Declining numbers of participants, both players and volunteers, suggest that this role may not be as strong today. Critical explorations of the extent to which football has driven social inclusion and exclusion in such environments emphasise a historic ‘masculine’ culture of drinking and violence that segregates and marginalises women and children. Le...

  16. An agenda to construct an improved understanding of Australian organic consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Lyons, Kristen; Winzar, Hume;

    2007-01-01

    Organic food is claimed to be one of the fastest growing food categories worldwide, with growth rates of 20-30%. There have been considerable research efforts globally seeking to understand the organic food consumer. To date, academic research has been unable to reach a consensus, and we remain...... incapable of adequately describing who buys and importantly why consumers choose to buy organic food products. The objective of this paper is to examine the merits of using an alternate method to better understand organic food consumers. It is proposed that the Best Worst scaling method be used...

  17. Nature of organic carbon and nitrogen in physically protected organic matter of some Australian soils as revealed by solid-state 13 C and 15 N NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied for characterising the chemical nature of the remaining organic fraction. The 13C NMR spectroscopic comparison of the residues after UV photo-oxidation and the untreated bulk soils revealed a considerable increase in condensed aromatic structures in the residues for 4 of the 5 soils. This behaviour was recently shown to be typical for char-containing soils. In the sample where no char was detectable by NMR spectroscopy, the physically protected carbon consisted of functional groups similar to those observed for the organic matter of the bulk sample, although their relative proportions were altered. The solid-state 15N NMR spectrum from this sample revealed that some peptide structures were able to resist UV photo-oxidation, probably physically protected within the core of micro aggregates. Heterocyclic aromatic nitrogen was not detected in this spectrum, but pyrrolic nitrogen was found to comprise a major fraction of the residues after photo-oxidation of the <53 μm containing soils. Acid hydrolysis of these samples confirmed that some peptide-like material was still present. The identification of a considerable amount of aromatic carbon and nitrogen, assignable to charred material in 4 of the 5 investigated soils, supports previous observations that char largely comprises the inert or passive organic matter pool of many Australian soils. The influence of such material on the carbon and nitrogen dynamics in such soils, however, requires further research. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  18. Organic amendments enhance microbial diversity and abundance of functional genes in Australian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Food and cash crops play important roles in Australia's economy with black, grey and red clay soil, widely use for growing cotton, wheat, corn and other crops in rotation. While the majority of cotton growers use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers only in the form of agrochemicals, a few experiment with the addition of manure or composted plant material before planting. We hypothesized that the use of such organic amendments would enhance the soil microbial function through increased microbial diversity and abundance, thus contribute to improved soil sustainability. To test the hypothesis we collected soil samples from two cotton-growing farms in close geographical proximity and with mostly similar production practices other than one grower has been using composted plants as organic amendment and the second farmer uses only agrochemicals. We applied the Biolog Ecoplate system to study the metabolic signature of microbial communities and used qPCR to estimate the abundance of functional genes in the soil. The soil treated with organic amendments clearly showed higher metabolic activity of a more diverse range of carbon sources as well as higher abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. Since microbes undertake a large number of soil functions, the use of organic amendments can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural soils.

  19. The non-compliance of clinical guidelines for organ donation with Australian statute law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James

    2008-10-01

    Organ procurement is possible under statutes defining death as either irreversible cessation of all functions of the brain or irreversible cessation of the circulation, thus fulfilling the "dead donor rule". However, present practice does not conform strictly to these conditions. Clinical guidelines for the diagnosis of whole-brain death are equated, with coma, to absence of brain-stem reflexes which essentially means the absence of spontaneous respiration which is clinically interpreted as "dead enough" or "as good as dead" for the purpose. Moreover, Krommydas v Sydney West Area Health Service [2006] NSWSC 901 suggests public distrust of brain-stem reflexes as tests to diagnose whole-brain death. Mandatory adoption of a test of brain blood circulation, at present optional, would strengthen reliability of the diagnosis. Organ procurement is performed after cessation of the circulation following orchestrated withdrawal of futile life-support and is commenced when the heart fails to "auto-resuscitate" two minutes after it stops, rather than proven irreversible cessation. Ante-mortem procedures are performed on the donor to increase organ availability and viability but may contribute to or cause death. State and national ethical guidelines on this practice conflict and it appears proscribed under State guardianship legislation which requires actions in the best interests of the donor, not the recipient. Considerations should be given to organ procurement in situations where the donor is dying or in which survival is impossible. Simple abandonment of the "dead donor rule", however, is not feasible since organ procurement would be the direct cause of death. PMID:19010008

  20. The Influence of Forums and Multilevel Governance on the Climate Adaptation Practices of Australian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine E. Bates

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are few regulations and policies relating to climate change in Australia. Uncertainty about the timing, structure, and potential impact of proposed legislation such as a national carbon abatement scheme, is leading to planning delays across the country. To assist with these policy uncertainties, organizations can embed themselves in multilevel governance frameworks that inform, structure, and facilitate strategic development, planning, and action. As part of these networks, organizational representatives also engage in formal and informal forums, a type of interorganizational relationship, which can include industry task forces, policy development committees, interagency groups, and specific climate change committees. Forums constitute an additional level of governance that influences decision making. The patterns of relationships within these multilevel governance frameworks are examined in this paper, with a focus on the forum level of organizational cooperation. Specifically, we investigate the type of forums operating and their role in supporting organizational responses to climate change. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted in two study areas, the Swan Canning region of Western Australia and the Hunter / Central Coast region of New South Wales. The results indicate that organizations participate in a diverse range of forums. Further, forums appear to play a key role in the everyday business of organizations by enhancing their ability to plan and address a range of issues, including those associated with climate change. In addition the research highlights some of the barriers and drivers for the development and implementation of climate adaptation practices that emerge from forum discussions. For example, a lack of government guidance in interpreting climate change policy was described as a barrier yet access to the knowledge and expertise of participants was highlighted as a potential driver. The paper

  1. Organic compounds characteristics associated with heat-induced increases of water repellency in Australian eucalypt forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Ground surface heating during wildfires often leads to increased water repellency in soils. The effect of elevated soil temperature on water repellency has been investigated in many laboratory-based studies and temperature thresholds for increases in, and destruction of, water repellency have been established. However, little is known about the changes in organic compounds patterns and their chemical structure that associated with these changes. Here we report on the characterisation of the chemical changes of organic compounds associated with heat-induced increases in water repellency in Eucalypt soils of different repellency levels. Fires are very common in eucalypt forest environments and soils under eucalypt species exhibit one of the most severe repellency levels, providing an ideal study case. Three SE Australian eucalypt forest soils from different locations (two sands and one sandy loam) were heated in the laboratory for 10 min at 300° C. Laboratory heating resulted in extreme repellency in the three soils studied. Heated and unheated control samples were then extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with iso-propanol/ammonia mixture (IPA/NH3 95:5). Extraction led to the elimination of any water repellency present both in the original (heated) and the control samples. Organic compounds in the IPA/NH3 solvent were measured in extracts of increasing polarity in order to solubilise the residue. Before heating, the total solvent extracts from the soils with sandy texture were dominated by n-alkanols, terpenoids, C16 acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol and polar compounds such as glycerol, monosaccharides and glycosides. Fatty acids with chain length over C20 were detected in the sandy soils, while the soil of heavier texture (sandy loam) lacked longer than C20 fatty acids and had lower concentrations of alkanols (exceeding C26 chain lenght) and alkanes (C29, C31). Alkane patterns were characterized by the predominance of C21 - C31 homologues with a

  2. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  3. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  4. Powdered activated carbon coupled with enhanced coagulation for natural organic matter removal and disinfection by-product control: application in a Western Australian water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ina; Joll, Cynthia; Heitz, Anna

    2011-04-01

    The removal of organic precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), i.e. natural organic matter (NOM), prior to disinfection and distribution is considered as the most effective approach to minimise the formation of DBPs. This study investigated the impact of the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to an enhanced coagulation treatment process at an existing water treatment plant on the efficiency of NOM removal, the disinfection behaviour of the treated water, and the water quality in the distribution system. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the efficacy of plant-scale application of PAC combined with enhanced coagulation on an Australian source water. As a result of the PAC addition, the removal of NOM improved by 70%, which led to a significant reduction (80-95%) in the formation of DBPs. The water quality in the distribution system also improved, indicated by lower concentrations of DBPs in the distribution system and better maintenance of disinfectant residual at the extremities of the distribution system. The efficacy of the PAC treatment for NOM removal was shown to be a function of the characteristics of the NOM and the quality of the source water, as well as the PAC dose. PAC treatment did not have the capacity to remove bromide ion, resulting in the formation of more brominated DBPs. Since brominated DBPs have been found to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, their preferential formation upon PAC addition must be considered, especially in source waters containing high concentrations of bromide. PMID:21353285

  5. Reassessing supplier reputation in international trade coordination – a German and Australian perspective of global organic food networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernzen, Amelie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties are especially high among importing firms and for products with sensitive and ‘critical’ quality characteristics in a societal context, such as food. While much recent literature on this issue has focused on the implementation of standards and certification systems, I argue that reputation also plays an important role for trading firms in mitigating uncertainties across large distances. Reputation may or may not reflect reality and is based on public (e.g. media and networked (from individuals information. This article draws on Convention Theory in a case study based on qualitative interviews among organic food importers to Germany and Australia. I first show that the degree of their public exposure implies specific risks and strongly influences importers’ coordination strategy. I then go on to examine how, in these firms’ supplier relations and risk management, not only the reputation of (potential suppliers counts, but also the reputation of supplier countries and institutional systems such as standards and certification bodies. Intensive involvement and first-hand experience with certifiers and suppliers in exporting countries can, in some cases, cause firms to challenge their existing beliefs. I conclude that a good reputation is still essential for (improving market access, even when basic prerequisites such as legally mandatory certification are fulfilled.

  6. Australian and Japanese Value Stereotypes: A two Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey N. Soutar; Richard Grainger; Pamela Hedges

    1999-01-01

    Australians and Japanese working in Australian and Japanese organizations in both countries were involved in a research project that estimated stereotypical views of national culture. Respondents rated the importance of cultural values in Australia and Japan using the List of Values (LOV) instrument. The results of a discriminant analysis suggested that potentially detrimental misunderstandings about their respective cultures may exist between Australians and Japanese engaged in mutual intern...

  7. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jepsen

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  8. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  9. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  10. Australian G20 Presidency

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei G. Sakharov; Andrei V. Shelepov; Elizaveta A. Safonkina; Mark R. Rakhmangulov

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Australian presidency took place against the backdrop of multiple challenges in both global economy and international politics, with Ukrainian crisis, Syrian conflict, Islamic State, and Ebola. Thus, despite being an economic forum, the G20 could not avoid addressing these issues, with discussions taking place during the bilateral meetings and on the sidelines of the forum. The article attempts to analyze the Australian G20 Presidency within a functional paradigm, assessing G20 perfo...

  11. 23rd June 2010 - Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization Chief Executive Officer A. Paterson signing a Joint Statement of Intent and the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; in the ATLAS visitor centre and control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    23rd June 2010 - Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization Chief Executive Officer A. Paterson signing a Joint Statement of Intent and the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; in the ATLAS visitor centre and control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  12. Australian clinical guidelines for radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Health Protection Committee oversees national health protection priorities in: communicable disease outbreaks; chemical, biological or radiological incidents; mass casualty incidents; and deployment of Australian health teams overseas. The Australian Clinical Guidelines for a Radiological Event to complement existing national guidelines on chemical agents, anthrax, and smallpox. Other prompts included the need to revise the ARPANSA Guidance Manual, Medical Management of Individuals Involved in Radiation Accidents, 2000, and the requirement for specific therapeutic information regarding the indications and use of radiological decorporation agents held as part of the National Medical Stockpile. Matters identified by clinicians requiring specific guidance included: basic understanding of radiation; an approach to dose assessment; specific thresholds for initiating decorporation and other therapy; the role of gastric lavage, as contemporary practice considers this ineffective for other toxicological indications. rationale for, and detailed description of pulmonary lavage; advice on prenatal exposure to radiation; protocols for biodosimetry and other laboratory analysis. The objective was to produce a plain language guidance document for Australian clinicians on the diagnosis and management of radiation injury. It was to be based on evaluation of existing Australian documents, a literature review and consultation of appropriate specialists. Content areas included human health effects of radiation, scenario-based risk assessment and risk management, pre-hospital and hospital systems of care, management of specific injury types, radionuclide pathophysiology and decorporation protocols, biodosimetry options, individual psychological support 'and public health information, and Australian responsibilities under the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network, of the World Health Organization. The range of resources utilised in preparing the

  13. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  14. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  15. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  16. The Australian synchrotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron to be built at Monash University, is a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring. It is scheduled to be fully operational in 2007. In this paper we describe the accelerator systems that lie at the heart of the facility, and describe the spectral characteristics of the 'light' - ranging from infra-red to hard x-rays - that will be provided from bend magnets, undulators, and wigglers

  17. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  18. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF B2B E-COMMERCE IN AUSTRALIAN HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Lin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the health care industry, the adoption and implementation of business-to-business (B2B electronic commerce (e-commerce systems can lead to many benefits, such as an increased accessibility to providers, reduction in supply chain and inventory costs, and reduced medical errors. However, despite high expectations for realizing the benefits of B2B e-commerce in health care, its adoption remains poorly understood and is a relatively under-researched area. Although B2B e-commerce provides these organizations a wealth of new opportunities and ways of doing business, it also presents a series of challenges. Hence, the case study approach was utilized (1 to identify B2B e-commerce adoption and implementation critical constraint-minimization factors for organizations within the health care industry; and (2 to develop a framework to manage these critical constraint-minimization factors. A key contribution of the paper is to propose a framework in which critical constraint-minimization factors faced by health care organizations undertaking B2B e-commerce activities can be identified, examined, and managed.

  19. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  20. NPT review conference: Australian statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains the text of statement delivered by the leader of the Australian delegation to the Second Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in Geneva on August 14, 1980. An outline is given of Australian policy regarding nuclear weapons proliferation

  1. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required. PMID:23679334

  2. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) is a joint venture between the Australian mining industry through the Australian Mineral Industries Research Association Ltd. (AMIRA) and three of the organizations working most actively in this area in Australia: CSIRO Minesite Rehabilitation Research Program; University of Queensland Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation; and Curtin University Mulga Research Centre. The ACMRR was established in July 1993 to provide a national framework to conduct Strategic Research into minesite rehabilitation. It is an industry led and funded initiative. The Goals of the Centre include: to conduct strategic research into minesite rehabilitation to provide sustainable environmental solutions which are acceptable to industry, government and the community; to be recognized as a center of excellence undertaking commissioned research on minesite rehabilitation in an independent and thorough manner; to provide scientific and technological foundations to facilitate industry and government in setting acceptable standards; to act as networking and communications focus; and to enhance education and training in minesite rehabilitation. Strategic Research Programs in: Water Systems--downstream surface and groundwater quality; Land--the long-term behavior and stability of constructed landforms; Ecosystems--the long-term sustainability of constructed landforms; Waste--the long-term treatment and disposal of waste products; will allow the ACMRR to achieve these goals through specific research projects in these areas, developed with industry sponsors. This paper will discuss their progress to date, research projects underway, and plans for the future

  3. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System),...

  4. Rural Telework: Case Studies from the Australian Outback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lyn; Daws, Leonie; Pini, Barbara; Wood, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of rural teleworking in an Australian government department and a community organization found that a key constraint is lack of telecommunications and services infrastructure. Teleworkers had differing views of working in isolation, depending on the nature of work roles, attitudes toward technology, and personal life experiences.…

  5. Australian Curriculum Reform II: Health and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    It is implied by governing organizations that Australia is presently experiencing its first national curriculum reform, when as the title suggests it is the second. However, until now Australian states and territories have been responsible for the education curriculum delivered within schools. The present national curriculum reform promises one…

  6. An Australian Sense of Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Burney

    2009-01-01

    Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.

  7. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    STEWART, D.

    2004-01-01

    Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the be...

  8. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  9. Prospects for Australian uranium exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the focus of this paper is Australian uranium exports, the status of other energy minerals is also discussed briefly. The size of its uranium resources has given Australia the opportunity to become a major exporter; however, it is estimated that any major long-term expansion of uranium production hinges on favourable market conditions and on major changes in the Australian government's policy towards the industry. 4 tabs., ill

  10. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  11. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  12. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  13. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  14. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  15. Strategies for Washing Australian Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, W.L.A.; Swanson, A.R. [Downer EDI Engineering Projects Pty. Ltd. QCC, East Maitland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This article represents a distillation of QCC's experience over the last 20 years in developing coal-washing circuits to optimize coal recoveries for a wide range of Australian coals. The article will look at typical washabilities and product types to capture the general washing requirements. The major processing equipment will be reviewed as to their typical usage in the Australian context. From this background the processing circuits and strategies commonly used will be discussed for the relevant coal types, including hard coking coal, semi-hard coking coal, PCI, export thermal, and domestic thermal coal from the major producing regions in NSW and Queensland.

  16. Australian uranium and the election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international and national complexities of the situation in Australia over the question of mining of the country's large and rich uranium deposits are explored with especial reference to the pending general election. The present position is ironical since access to low cost uranium would give a welcome boost to the nuclear industry which is enthusiastically supported by the Australian prime minister and his colleagues yet the Australian government is unable to promote mining as rapidly as it would like because of the international commitments it has made to provide a justification for its policy. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear techniques in Australian animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the production of domestic animals is frequently depressed by the climatic and ecological conditions. These negative effects can be overcome to a great extent by improved methods of animal and land management. In animal research, nuclear techniques are playing an important role in the study of different aspects of nutrition, metabolism, reproduction and health of domestic animals. In response to the need expressed by Member States for more information on these techniques, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA's Division of Technical Assistance organized a study tour to Australia, a country which has developed considerable expertise in agricultural and animal research. The purpose of the study tour was to enable veterinary and animal scientists and administrators from developing countries in Asia and the Far East to observe at first hand the ways in which animal production, particularly meat, milk and wool, can be increased in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fourteen senior scientists and research directors from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand) participated. The counterpart organizations in Australia were the Australian Development Assistance Agency (ADAA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The chief programmer and co-ordinator of the study tour was John E. Vercoe, officer-in-charge of CSIRO's Tropical Cattle Research Centre in Rockhampton, and a former IAEA staff member. The tour was financed by the United Nations Development Programme. The participants visited research facilities of universities, national and state laboratories and commercial cattle producers. The tour started at Sydney and proceeded north along the east coast of Australia to Townsville. On the way, major stops were made in Armidale, Grafton, Wollongbar, Brisbane and Rockhampton. In Rockhampton, a

  18. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  19. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  20. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  1. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science. PMID:25870041

  2. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  3. How safe is Australian Radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many incidents and near-incidents are known to occur in Australian radiation oncology departments. The vast majority of incidents are minor in nature; however a small percentage represent major threats to good patient care, administrative structures and public confidence. A small but regular number of incidents result in ad-hoc local and/or State committees of inquiry or Tort actions and inevitably have substantial personal and departmental repercussions. Apart from some local databases on treatment delivery incidents maintained by radiation therapists, no systematic data collection or analysis of treatment incidents exists for radiation oncology in Australia. This paper argues the case for a prospective, systematic approach to the recording and analysis of treatment-related incidents and near incidents. Major barriers to such a scheme, including fear of litigation, misuse of information and lack of understanding on the nature of an incident are discussed. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  4. Research Output of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Abbot; Hristos Doucouliagos

    2003-01-01

    Research plays an important role in underpinning a country’s economic and social life. Universities are at the centre of the research and human capital generating process. The aim of this paper is to explore the links between research output, research income, academic and non-academic labour and some of the characteristics of Australian universities. The results indicate that research income, academic staff and post-graduates are all positively associated with research output. There are notic...

  5. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  6. Educational Research: The State of Sweden and the Australian 2.2 World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss Lindblad, Rita; Lindblad, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Current tendencies in educational research in Sweden are presented and compared to Australia. We here refer to; organization of research, research allocation, publication patterns, and assessments of research qualities. Different trajectories of educational research were identified, where Australian research was organized as a field of study,…

  7. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    OpenAIRE

    Richard White

    2012-01-01

    Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fadin...

  8. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  9. Strategic Human Resource Management and the Australian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen MANNING

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between human resources and performance in firms in the private sector is well documented. What is less clear is whether the move towards managerialism that has taken place within the Australian public sector during the last twenty years has brought with it some of the features of the relationships between Human Resource Management (HRM and performance experienced within the private sector. The research begins with a review of the literature. In particular the conceptual thinking surrounding the connection between HRM and performance within private sector organizations is explored. Issues of concern are the direction of the relationship between HRM and performance and definitional questions as to the nature and level of HRM to be investigated and the measurement of performance. These conceptual issues are also debated within the context of a public sector and particularly the Australian environment. An outcome of this task is the specification of a set of appropriate parameters for a study of these linkages within Australian public sector organizations.

  10. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  11. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become in...... considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  12. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  13. Recent developments in the Australian housing market

    OpenAIRE

    James Bond

    2003-01-01

    Housing plays an important role in Australia’s economic growth and in the welfare of Australians. This article examines developments in the Australian housing market over recent years. It argues that investors have played an increasingly important role in the housing market for both detached houses and apartments.

  14. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  15. A global history of Australian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brett M

    2011-01-01

    Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in a variety of climates and ecological conditions. Five non-biological factors largely determined the success of these attempts to grow Australian trees: the abundance or paucity of natural forests, state power, the amount of scientific research directed to planting Australian trees, the cost of labor, and the ability to utilize hardwood timbers and bark. This paper compares the use of Australian trees in Australia, India, and South Africa to demonstrate that biology was not the determining factor in the long-term success of many Australian genera and species. PMID:20665086

  16. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  17. The Australian Synchrotron Project - Update

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Australian Synchrotron - a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring is under construction at a site in the Metropolitan District of Melbourne. Building preparation started on a "green-field" site in September 2003 and staff moved in to their new offices in February 2005. Installation of the technical equipment started in April 2005 with all accelerator contracts expected to be completed before April 2006. Storage Ring commissioning with beam will start in June 2006, and project completion is scheduled for March 2007. In this paper we present an overview of the facility and discuss progress to date in meeting this very aggressive schedule.

  18. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  19. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  20. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  1. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  2. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  3. An Australian perspective on developing standards and ensuring compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Australia is a federation of states and territories, each with their own parliament and animal-welfare laws. Australian animal-welfare legislation imposes a "duty of care" on people responsible for the care and well-being of animals under their management. In the livestock sector, this responsibility is mirrored by the ongoing development of standards, guidelines, and codes of practice to assist people to understand their responsibilities and to meet expectations concerning animal welfare. The Australian Animal Welfare Strategy (AAWS) is the national animal-welfare policy blueprint for sustainable improvements in animal welfare, and one of its key goals is to achieve greater consistency in the development, implementation, and enforcement of animal-welfare standards. Standards, guidelines, and model codes also inform the development of contemporary, evidence-based quality assurance programs for individual livestock industries and provide the basis for competency-based training programs for animal handlers. Australian standards have been developed for pigs and land transport of livestock, and work is progressing on national standards for cattle, sheep, horses, zoo animals, dogs, and cats. Other achievements include the development of requirements for the care and use of animals in research and teaching, guidelines for the welfare of aquatic animals, and codes of practice for the humane killing of pest animals. State and territory governments are developing a framework for consistent regulation and compliance in consultation with industries and welfare organizations. PMID:20378873

  4. E-Business Developmental Issues in the Australian Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Singh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses e-business developmental issues in the Australian Food industry that were identified from a research project funded by the Australian Research Council. Data was gathered from interviews with 11 food organisations in the year 2000, most of which can be classified as ‘bricks and clicks’. These 11 companies were traditional businesses that had adopted e-business as a new way of doing business. The findings of the paper highlight the fact that the B2B is the predominant e-business model in the Australian Food Industry, EDI is an important foundation technology platform for developing B2B e-business, e-procurement was an important reason for adopting B2B e-business and improved supply chain management was the most important achievement from E-Business for these organizations. It also highlighted the fact e-business developed in-house with an IT department managed e-business sites better than those that outsourced the development.

  5. The determinants of fertility among Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, G

    1981-06-01

    This paper concerns the determinants of fertility of precontact Australian Aborigine women. Emphasis is placed on social organization as well as the physical environment and considerations of adaptation. The key to understanding the fertility of Australian Aborigines is the structural tension evident in male-female relations. Ethnographic data on hunter-gatherers fertility indicate a low fertility rate, e.g. 4.7-5.2 live births/woman for the Kung. Traditional Aboriginal physiological fertility was also low if infant mortality is separated from infertility. Past studies of population and transition theory in pre-contact situations have attributed increase in population to reduction in mortality. This paper suggests that there must have been an increase in the birth rate. Factors affecting ovulation, conception, and parturition are examined for traditional Aboriginal populations. Ovulation is affected by nutrition, lactation, and introcision. Lack of body fat in women causes anovulation due to insufficent energy reserves. Increased fertility appears to be a greatly reduced energy expenditure and an increased carbohydrate intake leading to a build up of body weight. Pre-contact Aboriginal fertility was low because of a low caloric intake and a high energy expenditure. Prolonged lactation does not seem to cause birth spacing. The actual length of time after parturition appears to be an independent cause of reduced prolactin, and of reestablishment of ovulation. Stress and anxiety are factors which could reduce fertility by causing anovulation in women and/or reduced sperm counts in men. Contraception is affected by coital frequency and male fertility. Aboriginal coital frequency may have been affected by the lack of privacy and competition of a co-wife. Gestation is affected by spontaneous abortion, sterility, and foetal wastage. Harsh conditions of traditional Aborigines may have affected their ability to conceive. Voluntary controls on fertility for Aborigines

  6. Labelling Issues of Organic and GM Foods in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie)

    2004-01-01

    Growth in the demand for organic foods has been phenomenal in the past decade both on Australia and overseas because organic production is seen to be beneficial to both human health and the environment. In general, organic products commend a price premium over conventional products. Since organic attributes cannot be verified easily and there is no control over the use of the word "organic" in the Australian market, the organic label has been subject to abuse. Over ten years, the Australian o...

  7. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  8. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  9. Characterisation of episodic aerosol types over the Australian continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Qin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification of Australian continental aerosol types resulting from episodes of enhanced source activity, such as smoke plumes and dust outbreaks, is carried out via cluster analysis of optical properties obtained from inversion of sky radiance distributions at Australian aerosol ground stations using data obtained over the last decade. The cluster analysis distinguishes four significant classes, which are identified on the basis of their optical properties and provenance as determined by satellite imagery and back-trajectory analysis. The four classes are identified respectively as aged smoke, fresh smoke, coarse dust and a super-absorptive aerosol. While the first three classes show similarities with comparable aerosol types identified elsewhere, the super-absorptive aerosol has no obvious foreign prototype. The class identified as coarse dust shows a prominent depression in single scattering albedo in the blue spectral region due to absorption by hematite, which is shown to be more abundant in central Australian dust relative to the "dust belt"of the Northern Hemisphere. The super-absorptive class is distinctive in view of its very low single scattering albedo (~0.7 at 500 nm and variable enhanced absorption at 440 nm. The strong absorption by this aerosol requires a high black carbon content while the enhanced blue-band absorption may derive from organic compounds emitted during the burning of specific vegetation types. This aerosol exerts a positive radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (TOA, with a large deposition of energy in the atmosphere per unit aerosol optical depth. This contrasts to the other three classes where the TOA forcing is negative. Optical properties of the four types will be used to improve the representation of Australian continental aerosol in climate models, and to enhance the accuracy of satellite-based aerosol retrievals over Australia.

  10. Characterisation of episodic aerosol types over the Australian continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Qin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Classification of Australian continental aerosol types resulting from episodes of enhanced source activity, such as smoke plumes and dust outbreaks, is carried out via cluster analysis of microphysical properties obtained from inversion of sky radiance distributions at Australian aerosol ground stations using data obtained over the last decade. The cluster analysis distinguishes four significant classes, which are identified on the basis of their optical properties and provenance as determined by satellite imagery and back-trajectory analysis. The four classes are identified respectively as aged smoke, fresh smoke, coarse dust and a super-absorptive aerosol. While the first three classes show similarities with comparable aerosol types identified elsewhere, the super-absorptive aerosol has no obvious foreign prototype. The class identified as coarse dust shows a prominent depression in single scattering albedo in the blue spectral region due to absorption by hematite, which is shown to be more abundant in central Australian dust relative to the "dust belt" of the Northern Hemisphere. The super-absorptive class is distinctive in view of its very low single scattering albedo (~0.7 at 500 nm and variable enhanced absorption at 440 nm. The strong absorption by this aerosol requires a high black carbon content while the enhanced blue-band absorption may derive from organic compounds emitted during the burning of specific vegetation types. This aerosol exerts a positive radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (TOA, with a large deposition of energy in the atmosphere per unit aerosol optical depth. This contrasts to the other three classes where the TOA forcing is negative. Optical properties of the four types will be used to improve the representation of Australian continental aerosol in climate models, and to enhance the accuracy of satellite-based aerosol retrievals over Australia.

  11. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  12. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  13. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  14. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  16. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    OpenAIRE

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  17. Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-25

    Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438±23, 287±03, and 283±18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56±05, 92±10, 82±06 and 172±24 μg kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 μg kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice. PMID:24892387

  18. Bibliography of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch. Up to December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Alison, Comp.

    This bibliography is primarily a listing of works by current or former members of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch (SIL-AAIB), but also lists works by non SIL-AAIB members that are included in publications edited and/or published by the organization. Unpublished works are not included, with the…

  19. Some Determinants of Classroom Psychosocial Environment in Australian Catholic High Schools: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated some determinants of classroom environment in Australian Catholic high schools. The Catholic School Classroom Environment Questionnaire (CSCEQ) was used to assess 7 dimensions of the classroom psychosocial environment: student affiliation, interactions, cooperation, task orientation, order and organization,…

  20. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  1. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  2. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  3. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  4. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  5. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  6. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    George Athanasopoulos; Rob J Hyndman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  7. Ownership of Australian Equities and Corporate Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Black; Joshua Kirkwood

    2010-01-01

    Australian financial and non-financial companies tap capital markets – particularly equity and bond markets – to source funds from households, foreign investors and domestic institutional investors. Foreign investors supply around half of these funds, with institutional investors providing most of the remainder; households’ direct holdings are comparatively modest. During the financial crisis, foreign investors’ appetite for Australian assets remained strong, underpinned by the streng...

  8. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  9. The Changing Political Economy of Australian Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins

    1994-01-01

    The Australian labour market is undergoing fundamental change, following economic restructuring and industrial relations and vocational education reform. This article outlines the recent evidence relating to unequal outcomes for immigrants from non English-speaking background and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian labour market. It then argues that, rather than meritocratic, these outcomes are partially the result of racial discrimination. The paper then considers the so...

  10. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  11. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn++, indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  13. Socially responsible genetic research with descendants of the First Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy

  14. Price Premiums for Organic Food from Australia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Australian consumers (N=221) were surveyed to establish their valuations of food, based on provenance, organic status and eco-labelling. For Chinese produce "Organic" attracted a 6.4% premium, and "Certified Organic" a 11.6% premium. This compares to Australian produce which attracted a 7.9% premium for "Organic", and a 16.5% premium for "Certified Organic". For Chinese produce "Natural" added a 1.7% premium and "Eco" a 2.9% premium, compared to Australian produce which added a 2.6% premium f...

  15. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  16. New Public Management Ideals, Accounting and Performance Management within an Australian Government Services Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Zahirul Hoque

    2005-01-01

    A paper sets out to explore how far has "New Public Management" (NPM) evolved within an Australian government services agency. NPM is placing government organizations on a competitive footing where they had a monopoly in their operations. The exploratory findings indicate that the subject organization was involved in considerable changes to its organizational structure, budgeting and performance appraisal systems. Further, they suggest that NPM ideals played a significant role in promoting "n...

  17. Introducing the Australian Uranium Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument

  18. The Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Shane; Robinson, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The 20-MW Australian Replacement Research Reactor represents possibly the greatest single research infrastructure investment in Australia's history. Construction of the facility has commenced, following award of the construction contract in July 2000, and the construction licence in April 2002. The project includes a large state-of-the-art liquid deuterium cold-neutron source and supermirror guides feeding a large modern guide hall, in which most of the instruments are placed. Alongside the guide hall, there is good provision of laboratory, office and space for support activities. While the facility has "space" for up to 18 instruments, the project has funding for an initial set of 8 instruments, which will be ready when the reactor is fully operational in July 2006. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere, and our goal is to be in the top 3 such facilities worldwide. Staff to lead the design effort and man these instruments have been hired on the international market from leading overseas facilities, and from within Australia, and 7 out of 8 instruments have been specified and costed. At present the instrumentation project carries 10contingency. An extensive dialogue has taken place with the domestic user community and our international peers, via various means including a series of workshops over the last 2 years covering all 8 instruments, emerging areas of application like biology and the earth sciences, and computing infrastructure for the instruments.

  19. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  20. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists - an Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kreshnik Hoti; Jeffery Hughes; Bruce Sunderland

    2011-01-01

    Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professional practice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australian pharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-counter medications. This review aims to identify Australian studies involving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing. Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacist prescribing were identified and considered in the context of its implementation internationally. Australian studies have mainly focused on the attitudes of com...

  1. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  2. Water metabolism in Australian marsupials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies are discussed in which tritiated water (TOH) has been used to investigate water metabolism in Australian marsupials, particularly arid-zone species. Equilibration of injected TOH in large kangaroos was slower than in smaller marsupials and similar to that in ruminants and camels, presumably because of the high gut water space of all large forestomach fermenters. Loss of TOH in urine, faeces and insensible water during equilibration was also similar to that in ruminants. Total body water (TBW) was similar whether estimated by equilibration or extrapolation. TBW of small marsupial species (16 g to 6.5 kg body weight) was usually in the range found for small eutherian mammals (56 to 68% of body weight). However, in the larger kangaroos TBW ranged from 73 to 78% of body weight, possibly due to the low body fat content and the high ratio of gut contents to total body weight of kangaroos. In general, the water turnover rate of marsupials is about 30% below that of eutherians; this has been related to their lower metabolic rate. Nevertheless, significant differences in water turnover have been found between some species. It has been suggested that there may be a correlation between the water turnover rates measured under ad libitum water availability and the aridity of the animal's habitat. However, this is not always so; differences in behaviour and in the water content of the natural diet explain why some marsupials with high ad libitum water turnovers can survive in desert environments. The physiological state of the animals (e.g. lactation) has also been shown to affect water turnover, both in the laboratory and in the field. (author)

  3. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  4. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  5. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  6. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  7. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  8. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  9. Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ANSTO Environment is playing a pioneering role in developing new methods for monitoring adherence to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. Working with the IAEA Department of Safeguards, new analytical procedures have been developed to assist with their environmental monitoring programme. Signatures of nuclear activities, in the form of trace amounts of radioisotopes in environmental samples, can be used to identify undeclared nuclear facilities or undeclared activities at declared facilities. At ANSTO we have developed the use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of 236U in environmental samples. 236U is a sensitive indicator of irradiated uranium. AMS is also used to detect the long- lived fission product 129I at extremely low levels. The presence of 129I can be a signature of reprocessing. ANSTO performs analyses of these radioisotopes as an accredited member of the IAEA Safeguards network of analytical laboratories. Australian soldiers on duty in the Gulf risk possible exposure to depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is the uranium that is left after most of the radioactive isotopes are removed for nuclear fuel. Due to its high density, it is the ideal material for use in armour-piercing ammunition and in armour for fighting vehicles. However, like any heavy metal, it is toxic in high doses. Depleted uranium enters the body through inhalation of the dust- like particles, ingestion of contaminated food or through wounds. At ANSTO, a sensitive analytical technique based on isotope dilution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect depleted uranium in urine samples. By addition of known quantities of 236U (isotope dilution) to the urine samples and measuring the relative abundances of different isotopes (236U, 235U and 238U) of uranium by ICP-MS, we are able to quantify (quantification limit of 20 ng/L) and distinguish between natural and depleted uranium. In Australia, there are legislative limits on the

  10. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...... be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research...

  11. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  12. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  13. Website Usability and Cultural Dimensions in Malaysian and Australian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanariah Jano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which web sites in Malaysian and Australian universities comply with usability guidelines of theU.S Department of Health and Human Services was analysed. In order to discover the reasons some websitescomply with more guidelines on certain features than others, cultural dimensions in relation to usability of eachcountry were also analysed. Content analysis was employed to measure the usability compliance. Twenty-nineguidelines were selected and twenty university web sites from each country were randomly selected. Thefindings showed that the trend of standardization was emerging for language and organization category.However, there was also a clear evidence of the need for website designers to consider the impact of localculture as some cultural reflections in terms of high/low context orientation were noted. In terms of culture,unexpectedly, Australian university websites depicted a higher uncertainty avoidance index. This study will bean addition to web design literature and facilitate universities and individuals to develop effective strategies toelevate the image of universities in the global context. Future studies should examine other cultural dimensionssuch as collectivism versus individualism and power distance. Future studies may also use interview method togain an in-depth analysis of factors which influence the cultural projection in university websites.

  14. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  15. Teacher Professional Development Strategies in Australian Government and Professional Associations Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostina Ludmyla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teacher in Australia is determined as an active participant of professional community with high level of collaboration, professional development coherent activities and collaborative learning practice. Thus, teacher quality is one of critical factors affecting student outcomes. The article touches upon the issue of the potential to improve secondary school teacher professional expertise in Australia. These are initiatives approved by Australian specific organizations at government and non-government levels. The author describes the goals and directions of secondary school teacher government support and government strong requirements for teacher professional learning. The article also considers the role of Australian professional education organizations in teacher professional growth. The analysis of the goals is carried out by means of government and professional education organizations documents. The author reports that social context of secondary school teacher professional development in Australia is provided through government education institutions. In support of this fact there is a range of government projects, programmes and documents approved at international and national levels and aimed to encourage lifelong quality teacher development. Furthermore, teacher professional development support is also organized by various Australian professional associations that work collaboratively. Moreover, these associations are not only focused on teacher professional development national standards, requirements and forms but global trends in professional learning and performance.

  16. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  17. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  18. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  19. Bacteriophages from the forestomachs of Australian marsupials.

    OpenAIRE

    Klieve, A V

    1991-01-01

    Bacteriophages were observed in forestomach contents from three species of Australian macropodoid marsupials possessing a foregut fermentative digestion: the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), the eastern wallaroo (Macropus robustus robustus), and the rufous bettong (Aepyprymnus rufescens). Forty-six morphologically distinct phage types, representing the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae, were identified. The range of forms varied between host species. The greatest d...

  20. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  1. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  2. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means

  3. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  4. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  5. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  6. Wilson's disease in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D H; Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Patrick, M; Powell, L W

    1990-01-01

    Wilson's disease is due to a genetically determined defect inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most reported cases have been caucasoid. This report describes a case of Wilson's disease in an Australian Aboriginal girl, only the second such case reported. PMID:2129845

  7. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  8. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  9. Licensing of the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)'s Replacement Research Reactor has been submitted to a comprehensive licensing process of which peer review has been a fundamental part. Following Australian Regulation, an application for a site licence was the first step supported by an Environmental Impact Statement approved by The Minister for the Environment and Heritage, and a Reference Accident Analysis. After the site licence had been granted and the contract awarded to the Designer and Constructor, INVAP S.E:, a 2500 page Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was submitted by ANSTO to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), which conducted its review. ARPANSA requested that the PSAR be also reviewed by an experts mission from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The PSAR was also reviewed by the Argentine Regulatory Body, it was submitted to public examination in Australia and it was reviewed by international experts hired as consultants by several Australian organisations. A public forum was also held in Sydney. The Regulator, the applicant and the Designer-Constructor maintained constant interaction during the whole process, so that questions, comments and observations that arose from the review of the PSAR were fed back to the designers. This process allowed for a robust, safe design enriched by the results of the safety analysis and review process. (author)

  10. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in Australian…

  11. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  12. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  13. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  14. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  15. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  16. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  17. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  18. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  19. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  20. Social Media and Mobile Apps for Health Promotion in Australian Indigenous Populations: Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Carl; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health promotion interventions, with a particular focus on the Australian context and on health promotion targeted toward an Indigenous audience. Specifically, our research questions were: (1) What is the peer-reviewed evidence of benefit for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management, and health service delivery, with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media? and (2) What social media and mobile software have been used in Indigenous-focused health promotion interventions in Australia with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, or otitis media, and what is the evidence of their effectiveness and benefit? Methods We conducted a scoping study of peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of social media and mobile technologies in health promotion (globally) with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media. A scoping review was also conducted for Australian uses of social media to reach Indigenous Australians and mobile apps produced by Australian health bodies, again with respect to these three areas. Results The review identified 17 intervention studies and seven systematic reviews that met inclusion criteria, which showed limited evidence of benefit from these interventions. We also found five Australian projects with significant social media health components targeting the Indigenous Australian population for health promotion purposes, and four mobile software apps that met inclusion

  1. A Contemporary Introduction to Essential Oils: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Prospects for Australian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sadgrove

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review is a comprehensive introduction to pertinent aspects of the extraction methodology, chemistry, analysis and pharmacology of essential oils, whilst providing a background of general organic chemistry concepts to readers from non-chemistry oriented backgrounds. Furthermore, it describes the historical aspects of essential oil research whilst exploring contentious issues of terminology. This follows with an examination of essential oil producing plants in the Australian context with particular attention to Aboriginal custom use, historical successes and contemporary commercial prospects. Due to the harsh dry environment of the Australian landmass, particularly to the cyclical climatic variation attendant upon repeated glaciation/post-glaciation cycles, the arid regions have evolved a rich assortment of unique endemic essential oil yielding plants. Though some of these aromatic plants (particularly myrtaceous species have given birth to commercially valuable industries, much remains to be discovered. Given the market potential, it is likely that recent discoveries in our laboratory and elsewhere will lead to new product development. This review concludes with an emphasis on the use of chemotaxonomy in selection of commercially viable cultivar chemotypes from the Australian continent. Finally, drawing largely from our own results we propose a list of Australian endemic species with novel commercial potential.

  2. Australian dust storm associated with extensive Aspergillus sydowii fungal "bloom" in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Coman, Frank; Davies, Claire; Hayashi, Aiko; McLeod, David; Slotwinski, Anita; Whittock, Lucy; Richardson, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    A massive central Australian dust storm in September 2009 was associated with abundant fungal spores (150,000/m(3)) and hyphae in coastal waters between Brisbane (27°S) and Sydney (34°S). These spores were successfully germinated from formalin-preserved samples, and using molecular sequencing of three different genes (the large subunit rRNA gene [LSU], internal transcribed spacer [ITS[, and beta-tubulin gene), they were conclusively identified as Aspergillus sydowii, an organism circumstantially associated with gorgonian coral fan disease in the Caribbean. Surprisingly, no human health or marine ecosystem impacts were associated with this Australian dust storm event. Australian fungal cultures were nontoxic to fish gills and caused a minor reduction in the motility of Alexandrium or Chattonella algal cultures but had their greatest impacts on Symbiodinium dinoflagellate coral symbiont motility, with hyphae being more detrimental than spores. While we have not yet seen any soft coral disease outbreaks on the Australian Great Barrier Reef similar to those observed in the Caribbean and while this particular fungal population was non- or weakly pathogenic, our observations raise the possibility of future marine ecosystem pathogen impacts from similar dust storms harboring more pathogenic strains. PMID:24657868

  3. Applying ecological modeling to parenting for Australian refugee families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Julian; Guerin, Pauline B

    2014-10-01

    Children in families with parents from refugee backgrounds are often viewed as a vulnerable group with increased risks of developing physical or psychological problems. However, there is very little research regarding the strategies that parents might use to parent their children in a new country while they also manage the interrelated challenges of poverty, social isolation, maternal stress, and mental ill health that often go along with resettlement. We explore the application of ecological modeling, specifically at individual, institutional, and policy levels, within an Australian context to critique the factors that shape the development of parenting capacity within refugee families settling in a new Western country. Ecological modeling enables examination of how public policy at local state and national levels influences the individual and family directly and through the organizations that are given the task of implementing many of the policy recommendations. Recommendations for health practice and research are made. PMID:24583875

  4. Observations of SN 1987A at the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since outburst, about 15% of all time on the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian telescope (AAT) has been devoted to observing SN 1987A. In this report the author describes these observations, first discussing the policy and organization adopted for making them followed by a description of the various types of observation made. The author presents some of the highlights which have emerged from these observations

  5. Teacher Professional Development Strategies in Australian Government and Professional Associations Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Kostina Ludmyla

    2015-01-01

    Teacher in Australia is determined as an active participant of professional community with high level of collaboration, professional development coherent activities and collaborative learning practice. Thus, teacher quality is one of critical factors affecting student outcomes. The article touches upon the issue of the potential to improve secondary school teacher professional expertise in Australia. These are initiatives approved by Australian specific organizations at government and non-gov...

  6. Australian sea-floor survey data, with images and expert annotations

    OpenAIRE

    Bewley, Michael; Friedman, Ariell; Ferrari, Renata; Hill, Nicole; Hovey, Renae; Barrett, Neville; Pizarro, Oscar; Figueira, Will; Meyer, Lisa; Babcock, Russ; Bellchambers, Lynda; Byrne, Maria; Williams, Stefan B.

    2015-01-01

    This Australian benthic data set (BENTHOZ-2015) consists of an expert-annotated set of georeferenced benthic images and associated sensor data, captured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) around Australia. This type of data is of interest to marine scientists studying benthic habitats and organisms. AUVs collect georeferenced images over an area with consistent illumination and altitude, and make it possible to generate broad scale, photo-realistic 3D maps. Marine scientists then typic...

  7. A Contemporary Introduction to Essential Oils: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Prospects for Australian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Sadgrove; Graham Jones

    2015-01-01

    This review is a comprehensive introduction to pertinent aspects of the extraction methodology, chemistry, analysis and pharmacology of essential oils, whilst providing a background of general organic chemistry concepts to readers from non-chemistry oriented backgrounds. Furthermore, it describes the historical aspects of essential oil research whilst exploring contentious issues of terminology. This follows with an examination of essential oil producing plants in the Australian context with ...

  8. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  9. Organizational change, patient-focused care: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, J

    1995-08-01

    Hospitals throughout the world are attempting to improve organizational performance through a variety of means. The focus in this paper is on a leading teaching hospital in Australia for a review of current management strategy. In a time of shrinking resources, management adopted a multi-faceted change management program including restructuring the organization, becoming more patient-focused via a product-line management approach and emphasising efficiency and cost-reduction measures. The next stage in management thinking is to place greater emphasis on patient-focused care. It is concluded this has the propensity to yield substantial further benefits, including improved financial and quality of care outcomes, in the Australian as well as the British and wider Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) context. 'Professionally, we have committed ourselves to creating caring environments that promote healing. We cannot meet this goal until we make a commitment to be patient-focused and give up being nurse-focused or facility-focused' (Kerfort and LeClair, 1991). 'In a customer-driven [organization], the distribution of roles is different. The organization is decentralized, with responsibility delegated to those who until now have comprised the order-obeying bottom level of the pyramid. The traditional, hierarchical corporate structure, in other words, is beginning to give way to a flattened, more horizontal structure' (Carlzon, 1987). PMID:10151089

  10. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition environment, accounting-finance indicators, marketing strategy and marketing mix (4P factors. Thus, a deeper focus on the organization is realized and shared. As aresult, firm’s entry to the Australian market is discussed with a new product by suggesting recent and altered target customer base, customer profile,marketing strategy and marketing mix. Our study evaluates the potential disadvantages and advantages in detail and argues that there is a need for Hershey’s to enter the Australian market with a new product. In general, this article discusses and defends the entry of Hershey’s to Australian market witha new product by logical reasoning and draws a strategic roadmad to reach this goal.

  11. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  12. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  13. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  14. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  15. Accelerators for the Australian environment and heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian researchers have access to a variety of natural systems where records of the Earth's past environment have been stored. These archives include sediment cores, Antarctic ice, Tasmanian pine trees, rock surfaces, corals, etc. Each of these media contain information on past environmental conditions but the records must be carefully deciphered and compared with one-another. The AMS analysis of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides is essential for providing absolute time scales for these natural archives. Other analytical methods based on high-energy ion interactions are well suited to characterise environmental and archaeological samples with high sensitivity. The use of ANSTO's accelerators in research programs related to the environment in the Australian region is reviewed

  16. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  17. Provenance, Purity & Price Premiums: Consumer Valuations of Organic & Place-of-Origin Food Labelling (Executive Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2006-01-01

    China is now the world’s largest food producer for many food categories, and has recently embarked on a major conversion to organic agriculture. Australian farmers have described their industry as in crisis due to increasing competition from imports; they have called for strengthening of country of origin labelling on food. Priestley (2005) noted the absence of data on the premium Australian consumers will pay, if any, for Australian food produce. Halpin (2004) has reported that the current p...

  18. Progress with the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the new Australian Research Reactor, the replacement for the now 46 year old HIFAR research reactor, is approximately 80% completed. Construction of the reactor facility began in April 2002 at ANSTO's Lucas Heights site near Sydney and commissioning is still on track for late 2005. Some details of the progress of construction and licensing and an outline of ANSTO research related to the use of Zircaloy-4 in the core region and reflector vessel of the reactor are given. (author)

  19. FINANCIAL CONTROL IN AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT BUDGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2000-01-01

    With the arrival of accrual accounting and a performance budgeting system known as \\"accrual output budgeting\\", there have been huge changes in the mechanism of central financial control in the budget-dependent Australian public sector. This article outlines and evaluates these changes. The new parliamentary appropriations arrangements are discussed, as is the increased role played by non-appropriated departmental \\"own-source\\" funding. The commercialisation rationale of these changes is ou...

  20. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, th...

  1. The Australian Credit Default Swap Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Fabbro

    2011-01-01

    The Australian credit default swap (CDS) market has been increasingly used by financial institutions to trade and manage credit risk. As a result, there has been greater use of the market as a source of credit risk pricing information. Similarities between CDS and bonds allow pricing in the two markets to be compared. However, the CDS market has a greater tendency at times to be affected by poor liquidity, which complicates the interpretation of CDS pricing, particularly when there are large ...

  2. New Measures of Australian Corporate Credit Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Ivailo Arsov; Matthew Brooks; Mitch Kosev

    2013-01-01

    Australian corporations access bond markets both domestically and offshore. Despite this, there is a lack of publicly available data on bond market conditions faced by non-financial corporations (NFCs). This gap in the data is particularly apparent at longer maturities where the low level of bond issuance, especially in the domestic market, makes it difficult to gauge the long-term credit spreads faced by resident issuers. To address this lack of data, the article presents a method for estima...

  3. Financial Regulation and Australian Dollar Liquid Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Heath; Mark Manning

    2012-01-01

    Liquid assets with low credit and market risk have a number of uses in financial markets, such as providing collateral against short-term funding or credit exposures that arise between counterparties to financial transactions. This article examines the existing sources of demand for Australian dollar-denominated liquid assets. Given relatively low levels of government debt in Australia, demand for these assets has been increasing relative to supply for some time. A further increase in demand ...

  4. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Hearfield; Brian Dollery

    2009-01-01

    In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more...

  5. Inventories in the Australian business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This Economics Research Note examines inventories in the business cycle for Australia covering the period since the mid 1980s. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) defines inventories as all materials etc., work in progress and finished goods owned by a business, whether held at locations of the business or elsewhere. These items are usually held by businesses in anticipation of a product’s sale. Inventory investment is counted as an additional contribution to gross domestic product (...

  6. Profiling socially responsible investors: Australian evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Pérez-Gladish; Karen Benson; Robert Faff

    2012-01-01

    With the aid of an online survey, the purpose of this study is to examine financial preferences; social, environmental and ethical concerns; and socio-demographic characteristics of Australian socially responsible (SR) investors. The study advances knowledge of SR investors’ profiles and their motivations when making investment decisions. Based on a sample of 145 investors, our findings suggest that SR investors seek financial return as well as non-financial benefits. Social conscience and ...

  7. Accrual Financial Reporting and Australian Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2000-01-01

    Australian governments have recently moved from cash accounting to accrual accounting. In doing so they have made simultaneous use of two rival accrual accounting frameworks: AAS 31 and GFS. AAS 31 and GFS operating result measures differ significantly. To date, the AAS 31 framework has enjoyed primacy. This paper evaluates these two frameworks, and suggests that GFS is superior. Accrual accounting has been accompanied at the national government level by the introduction of a new key fiscal p...

  8. Assessing the Research Performance of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Worthington, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies new classifications of Australian universities based on their total and per-academic staff research outputs using the data for the period 1998-2002. We define research performance in terms of audited numbers of PhD completions, publications and grants (in accordance with rules established by the Department of Education, Science and Training). Our analysis indicates that (a) the highest achievers consists of the seven Group of Eight (Go8) universities; (b) the top-three...

  9. Ownership Structure and Corporate Performance: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Fishman; Gerard Gannon; Russell Vinning

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the relationship between ownership structure and corporate performance for fifty firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange during 2002-2003. The study initially tests a two equation model similar to that in the existing literature, but is distinguished from prior literature by subsequently reclassifying leverage. By categorising leverage as an endogenous variable, an examination of the relationship between ownership and performance is undertaken through ordinar...

  10. The Australian synchrotron - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises progress with the development of the Australian Synchrotron. The facility is based on the Boomerang Storage Ring which has a DBA structure with 14 superperiods. The design objective was to achieve a low emittance in a relatively compact circumference that had an excellent dynamic aperture and was obust with respect to potential construction aberrations. The potential suite of beamline and instrument stations is discussed and some examples are given

  11. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  12. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  13. Australian RRRP seismic design and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focuses on the structural design and qualification that has been carried out for the safety against seismic events at the Australian RRRP (Replacement Research Reactor Project). The RRRP is a 20 MW multi-purpose nuclear research reactor designed and constructed by INVAP from Argentina, for ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) in Sydney, Australia. On account of the site characteristics, the australian regulations and the engineering and design standards applicable to the project, the design requirements for the reactor included very stringent and clear guidelines that should be observed to ensure that appropriate levels of protection are provided against seismic events. Despite the fact of being a research reactor with a thermal power two orders of magnitude lower than that of nuclear power plants, the methodology used in the seismic qualification was based on the one used for NPPs instead of using simplified methods as suggested by the literature on research reactors. With this in mind, the regulatory and engineering frame was based on IAEA standards for power reactors and complementary guides for specific issues. The paper describes the Design Basis Ground Motion, Seismic Levels, Seismic Classification and the particular design criteria and qualification methods used for systems as: Civil, Mechanical, Process, Instrumentation and Control, Electrical, HVAC, etc. (authors)

  14. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  15. Curated exhibitions and Australian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine De Lorenzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Australian Art history in all it guises has tended to bypass the impact of contemporary curated exhibitions on shaping the discipline. Yet an examination of a cluster of key contemporary exhibitions from the early 1970s onwards reveals their significance for the history of art in Australia. They reflect institutional judgements behind the selection, research and display the work of artists as well as the reception of such work by the public, artists, art critics and art historians. This is especially so in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st, as the country underwent major cultural changes. This paper focuses on selected exhibitions of Australian art from 1968 to 2008 and indicates how exhibitions also constitute a major form of contemporary Australian art historiography. As this period coincides with a transformation in the way exhibitions were funded, it also begins to investigate the question of the long term impact of public funding of the arts.

  16. Outlook for the Australian coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shortage of bituminous coal is now being witnessed on the world market, which stems from an increase in demand for it. The prices for bituminous coal, which have been increasing since 1988, will continue to rise in 1990. World coal production in 1989/1990 has been estimated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources at 3,370 million tons, which is 50 million tons more than in the preceding year. Australian experts predict a doubling in world demand for coal by 2025. Many Australian coal mining companies, counting on the increased demand in the future, are taking measures to consolidate production and strengthen their financial base in order to accelerate development of new fields or expand production at existing mines. It is expected that the highest rates of growth in demand will be for power coal. Because of increased world production of steel the demand for coking coal will also rise, but the rates of growth will be much lower than for power coal

  17. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  18. Venom Down Under: Dynamic Evolution of Australian Elapid Snake Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N. W. Jackson

    2013-12-01

    forms of kunitz and waprin peptides were recovered, including dual domain kunitz-kunitz precursors and the first kunitz-waprin hybrid precursors from elapid snakes. The novel sequences recovered in this study reveal that the huge diversity of unstudied venomous Australian snakes are of considerable interest not only for the investigation of venom and whole organism evolution but also represent an untapped bioresource in the search for novel compounds for use in drug design and development.

  19. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  20. A data delivery system for IMOS, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Roberts, K.; Ward, B. J.

    2010-09-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS, www.imos.org.au), an AUD 150 m 7-year project (2007-2013), is a distributed set of equipment and data-information services which, among many applications, collectively contribute to meeting the needs of marine climate research in Australia. The observing system provides data in the open oceans around Australia out to a few thousand kilometres as well as the coastal oceans through 11 facilities which effectively observe and measure the 4-dimensional ocean variability, and the physical and biological response of coastal and shelf seas around Australia. Through a national science rationale IMOS is organized as five regional nodes (Western Australia - WAIMOS, South Australian - SAIMOS, Tasmania - TASIMOS, New SouthWales - NSWIMOS and Queensland - QIMOS) surrounded by an oceanic node (Blue Water and Climate). Operationally IMOS is organized as 11 facilities (Argo Australia, Ships of Opportunity, Southern Ocean Automated Time Series Observations, Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility, Australian National Mooring Network, Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, Australian Acoustic Tagging and Monitoring System, Facility for Automated Intelligent Monitoring of Marine Systems, eMarine Information Infrastructure and Satellite Remote Sensing) delivering data. IMOS data is freely available to the public. The data, a combination of near real-time and delayed mode, are made available to researchers through the electronic Marine Information Infrastructure (eMII). eMII utilises the Australian Academic Research Network (AARNET) to support a distributed database on OPeNDAP/THREDDS servers hosted by regional computing centres. IMOS instruments are described through the OGC Specification SensorML and where-ever possible data is in CF compliant netCDF format. Metadata, conforming to standard ISO 19115, is automatically harvested from the netCDF files and the metadata records catalogued in the

  1. Challenges and Success Factors of ERP Systems in Australian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, great potential is envisaged for ERP systems in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, and software vendors have been repackaging their ERP systems for SMEs with a recent focus on cloud-based systems. While cloud ERP offers the best solution for SMEs without the overheads of the huge investment and management costs that are associated with traditional ERP systems, the SME sector faces many challenges in their adoption. Traditional ERP studies have predominantly focused on large organizations, and gaps in the literature indicate that both vendor and consumer perspectives require more understanding with new technology offerings for SMEs. This paper describes some of the common challenges, such as cost effectiveness, alignment between software and business processes, customized governance and training, which form the major SME constraints for ERP system adoption. Due to the dynamic nature of SME businesses, best practice guidelines for an SME’s ERP implementation could be arrived at through closer investigation of its business requirements in order to avoid misfits. This forms the main objective of the study. We identify key success factors of ERP implementation in an Australian SME as a case study. These target success factors are then compared to the actual outcomes achieved. Factors such as business process alignment with the ERP system, meeting customer and stakeholder needs and reducing recurring and maintenance costs were key to the success of ERP implementation for the Australian SME. In particular, the IT and business strategy alignment with a customer focus and flexible reporting features of ERP systems has resulted in business agility.

  2. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL) Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Orchard; John Orchard; Hugh Seward

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL) injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012), covering 162,683 player-ma...

  3. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  4. Immigrant Australians and Education. A Review of Research. Australian Education Review Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew

    This review examines whether immigrant Australians are disadvantaged educationally or vocationally by the education they receive, and whether their educational experiences are of a high quality and relevant to their needs. First, data is provided on the patterns of post-war immigration, along with information about the changing attitudes of…

  5. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  6. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  7. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  8. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  9. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  10. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region. (author)

  11. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology (ASNT) was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region

  12. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  13. Defining and Assessing Generic Competencies in Australian Universities: Ongoing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elaine; O'Neill, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss ongoing challenges in defining and assessing generic competencies in Australian universities. The paper begins with a discussion of factors that led to, and later fuelled, the focus on generic competencies in Australian higher education. Broad constructs that have underpinned research and practice in the field are then…

  14. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  15. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  16. The Teaching of First Year Economics in Australian Universities*

    OpenAIRE

    Nilss Olekalns

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys current pedagogical practice in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics and microeconomics in Australian universities. Survey results are presented detailing lecturers’ approaches to their teaching over 2001 and other aspects of their teaching environment. A comparison of the content and methodology of the main textbooks used in Australian introductory economic courses is also presented.

  17. Casual Academic Staff in an Australian University: Marginalised and Excluded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Burgess, John; Connell, Julia; Groen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Australian workforce has become more casualised, with approximately one-quarter of the workforce in casual employment today. One of the highest users of casual employees is the higher education sector, where casual academics (referred to as sessionals in the Australian context) are estimated to account for 50% of the…

  18. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  19. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  20. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  1. The Myth of the World of Literature for Australian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Briefly reviews two South Australian Education Department curriculum documents that justify the teaching of literature and then argues that newly arrived immigrants and many Australian ethnic minority students are denied the experiences of literature as established in the rationale of the documents. (HOD)

  2. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  3. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  4. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  5. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  6. Sunshine virus in Australian pythons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Cathy M; Doneley, Robert J T; Nicholls, Philip K

    2012-12-28

    Sunshine virus is a recently discovered novel paramyxovirus that is associated with illness in snakes. It does not phylogenetically cluster within either of the two currently accepted paramyxoviral subfamilies. It is therefore only distantly related to the only other known genus of reptilian paramyxoviruses, Ferlavirus, which clusters within the Paramyxovirinae subfamily. Clinical and diagnostic aspects associated with Sunshine virus are as yet undescribed. The objective of this paper was to report the clinical presentation, virus isolation, PCR testing and pathology associated with Sunshine virus infection. Clinical records and samples from naturally occurring cases were obtained from two captive snake collections and the archives of a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. The clinical signs that are associated with Sunshine virus infection are localised to the neurorespiratory systems or are non-specific (e.g. lethargy, inappetence). Out of 15 snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus (detected in any organ by either virus isolation or PCR), the virus was isolated from four out of ten (4/10) sampled brains, 3/10 sampled lungs and 2/7 pooled samples of kidney and liver. In these same 15 snakes, PCR was able to successfully detect Sunshine virus in fresh-frozen brain (11/11), kidney (7/8), lung (8/11) and liver (5/8); and various formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (7/8). During a natural outbreak of Sunshine virus in a collection of 32 snakes, the virus could be detected in five out of 39 combined oral-cloacal swabs that were collected from 23 of these snakes over a 105 day period. All snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus were negative for reovirus and ferlavirus by PCR. Snakes infected with Sunshine virus reliably exhibited hindbrain white matter spongiosis and gliosis with extension to the surrounding grey matter and neuronal necrosis evident in severe cases. Five out of eight infected snakes also exhibited mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia

  7. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  8. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  9. Nuclear geophysiology: Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock introduced the term 'geophysiology' to describe the holistic study of the Earth systems. By analogy with medicine, and the corresponding field of nuclear medicine, 'nuclear geophysiology' describes the application of nuclear techniques to Earth system science. Injections of radioisotopes into the Earth's systems occur naturally and continuously, while artificial radionuclides have been injected at times as a result of human activities. Here, we provide some examples of Australian investigations into the physiology of the Earth derived from the study of these isotopes. (author)

  10. Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  11. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  12. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  13. Gender Still Matters in Australian Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Léonie J Rennie

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s, gender issues and a focus on girls’ and young women'sparticipation in SET was a significant issue in Australian education. Much has changed, however, with current policy paying scant attention to gender as an issue in SET. Léonie Rennie was a co-organiser of the Sixth International Gender and Science and Technology conference held in Australia and in this article presents her personal reflection on some of the changes and possiblereasons for the apparent lack of interest in gend...

  14. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  15. Revisiting the Occupational Aspirations and Destinations of Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ranbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from Australia lends support to the "Asian high achieving syndrome" in Chinese-Australian students and "self-deprivation syndrome" in Anglo-Australian students. Applying ethnographic case studies approach for doctoral thesis the author collected data on a longitudinal basis from homes and school of these students. All…

  16. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  17. Australian sea-floor survey data, with images and expert annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Michael; Friedman, Ariell; Ferrari, Renata; Hill, Nicole; Hovey, Renae; Barrett, Neville; Pizarro, Oscar; Figueira, Will; Meyer, Lisa; Babcock, Russ; Bellchambers, Lynda; Byrne, Maria; Williams, Stefan B.

    2015-01-01

    This Australian benthic data set (BENTHOZ-2015) consists of an expert-annotated set of georeferenced benthic images and associated sensor data, captured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) around Australia. This type of data is of interest to marine scientists studying benthic habitats and organisms. AUVs collect georeferenced images over an area with consistent illumination and altitude, and make it possible to generate broad scale, photo-realistic 3D maps. Marine scientists then typically spend several minutes on each of thousands of images, labeling substratum type and biota at a subset of points. Labels from four Australian research groups were combined using the CATAMI classification scheme, a hierarchical classification scheme based on taxonomy and morphology for scoring marine imagery. This data set consists of 407,968 expert labeled points from around the Australian coast, with associated images, geolocation and other sensor data. The robotic surveys that collected this data form part of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) ongoing benthic monitoring program. There is reuse potential in marine science, robotics, and computer vision research. PMID:26528396

  18. Australian sea-floor survey data, with images and expert annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Michael; Friedman, Ariell; Ferrari, Renata; Hill, Nicole; Hovey, Renae; Barrett, Neville; Pizarro, Oscar; Figueira, Will; Meyer, Lisa; Babcock, Russ; Bellchambers, Lynda; Byrne, Maria; Williams, Stefan B

    2015-01-01

    This Australian benthic data set (BENTHOZ-2015) consists of an expert-annotated set of georeferenced benthic images and associated sensor data, captured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) around Australia. This type of data is of interest to marine scientists studying benthic habitats and organisms. AUVs collect georeferenced images over an area with consistent illumination and altitude, and make it possible to generate broad scale, photo-realistic 3D maps. Marine scientists then typically spend several minutes on each of thousands of images, labeling substratum type and biota at a subset of points. Labels from four Australian research groups were combined using the CATAMI classification scheme, a hierarchical classification scheme based on taxonomy and morphology for scoring marine imagery. This data set consists of 407,968 expert labeled points from around the Australian coast, with associated images, geolocation and other sensor data. The robotic surveys that collected this data form part of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) ongoing benthic monitoring program. There is reuse potential in marine science, robotics, and computer vision research. PMID:26528396

  19. The potential for an Australian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of uranium and its part upgrading to enriched uranium for export could be equivalent to 20-25 per cent of Australia's future export income from coal. Australia could be supplying 15,000 tonnes U/yr. and enrichment services of 2.5 million SWU/yr. by 2000. The principles of nuclear energy, nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle are described and the relationship between nuclear power and the requirements for uranium and the other steps in the fuel cycle is discussed. Estimates are given of the future world supply-demand balance for each step in the fuel cycle. A survey is made of world uranium resources and fuel cycle upgrading facilities. The costs of production and pricing are assessed in relation to the potential for an Australian industry. Comments are made on the possibility that Australia could provide the repository for both low-level radioactive waste from small countries and the bulk of the world's high level waste. The impact of a uranium industry on the Australian economy is discussed

  20. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program. PMID:26630501

  1. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Hoy, W E; Kincaid-Smith, P; Seymour, A E; Bertram, J F

    2000-09-01

    We have previously described the prevalence of glomerulomegaly in biopsy specimens from Australian Aborigines with renal disease, a phenomenon documented in a number of other indigenous populations. Many of the biopsy specimens showed variable degrees of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Correlations between glomerular size and FSGS have been described in various animal models, as well as studies of humans. The aim of this study is to determine whether a relation exists between glomerular volume and severity of FSGS in biopsy specimens from Australian Aboriginals in the Northern Territory and Aboriginal inhabitants of the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst Island and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia). Consecutive clinical biopsy specimens were obtained from 78 non-Tiwi and 72 Tiwi Aboriginals. Glomerular volume was estimated using the stereological method of Weibel and Gomez. FSGS was graded from 0 to 4; 0 indicates no sclerosis and 4 indicates severe sclerosis. A biphasic relationship between glomerular size and severity of FSGS was identified. As the severity of FSGS increased from grade 0 to grade 3, glomerular size also increased. For both populations studied, glomeruli scored as grades 1, 2, and 3 were approximately 50% (PAustralian Aborigines. PMID:10977779

  2. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  3. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  4. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hassam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

  5. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  6. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m-3. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  8. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. ...

  9. Distinctive convergence in Australian floral colours seen through the eyes of Australian birds

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Martin; Stayton, C. Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a colour-space model of avian vision to assess whether a distinctive bird pollination syndrome exists for floral colour among Australian angiosperms. We also used a novel phylogenetically based method to assess whether such a syndrome represents a significant degree of convergent evolution. About half of the 80 species in our sample that attract nectarivorous birds had floral colours in a small, isolated region of colour space characterized by an emphasis on long-wavelength reflection...

  10. Platelet antigen allele frequencies in Australian aboriginal and Caucasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lester, S; Boettcher, B; McCluskey, J

    1997-11-01

    We have applied genotyping methods of PCR-SSOP and PCR-RFLP to three, bi-allelic platelet specific antigen systems HPA-1 (Pla), HPA-3 (Bak) and HPA-5 (Br). This combination of techniques offers flexibility for high volume or rapid typing. The phenotype and genotype frequencies of alleles from the three systems differ significantly between the Yuendumu Australian Aboriginals (Wailbri) and Australian Caucasians. The major differences are the very low frequencies of HPA-1b and HPA-3b in Yuendumu Aboriginals which are potentially relevant to platelet transfusion in patients of Australian Aboriginal descent. PMID:9423221

  11. An Empirical Analysis of Australian Gold Mining Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Dirk G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the exposure of Australian gold-mining firms to changes in the gold price, the stock market and the Australian dollar - US dollar exchange rate. The empirical analysis uses daily, weekly and monthly data of all gold-mining firms in the S&P/ASX All Ordinaries Gold Index for the period from January 1980 to December 2010 and finds that the average gold beta is 0.67 for gold denominated in US dollar and 0.38 for gold denominated in Australian dollars. The study also finds subst...

  12. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  13. Microbiological evaluation of South Australian rock lobster meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A S

    1977-12-01

    Samples of frozen precooked rock lobster meat from five South Australian fish-processing plants situated in the West Coast and south-east regions were tested over a period of six months during the 1974/5 lobster fishing season. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, as well as total plate count (TPC) were determined in 480 samples. Monthly geometric mean TPC ranged from 1600/g to 25,000/g. The highest geometric mean of the MPN of coliforms and E. coli were 4.9/g and 1.8/g respectively. The highest geometric mean number of staphylococci was 18.6/g. Salmonella was not detected in the 480 units tested. Only 0.4% of the samples had TPC exceeding 100,000/g. Coliforms and E. coli were not present in 76.1% and 92.7% respectively of the samples tested. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in 67.7% of the samples. The numbers of organisms in 82% of the samples fall within the microbiological standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia for frozen precooked foods. The results of this study demonstrate the microbial quality of precooked lobster meat attainable when good manufacturing practices are used. PMID:336790

  14. The Australian experience in sun protection and screening for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William H

    2004-07-01

    Australia has the world's highest incidence of skin cancer. Despite excellent prevention and early diagnosis education programs and an increasing percentage of the population with darker and more UV tolerant skins, skin cancer remains a major and expensive community medical problem. However, primary and secondary prevention programs are now showing positive outcomes, especially in melanoma incidence and survival. Primary and secondary prevention programs are conducted by a variety of non-government organizations such as the Australian Cancer Council, which is comprised of state anticancer groups, with some assistance from State and Federal health agencies. Current and future campaigns are becoming focused on specific community groups, noticeably teenagers and the older population. The role of sunscreens as the primary preventative approach has been superceded by sunlight avoidance campaigns. In light of an increasing rate of early diagnosis, a low and falling morbidity of melanoma, improving general practitioner competence in skin cancer diagnosis and proliferation of skin cancer clinics throughout Australia, it is unlikely a national skin cancer screening program will be implemented. Ozone depletion, a sunlight overloaded environment, increased leisure time and an outdoor lifestyle necessitate continued efforts to minimise the cost and morbidity of skin cancer in Australia. PMID:15221930

  15. Functional neurological disorders in outpatient practice: An Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Omar; Ahmad, Kate E

    2016-06-01

    Functional disorders are defined as neurological symptoms without causative organic pathology identified. They are a diverse and often neglected group of disorders. The aim of this was to determine the incidence and outcome of functional neurological disorders in an Australian neurology practice. Over a 17month period, all patients presenting to a single outpatient neurology service were evaluated to determine the incidence and outcome of these disorders. A total of 884 patients were assessed and of these, 137 had a final diagnosis of functional neurological illness, equating to an incidence of 15% of all patients seen. Functional disorders were the third most common presentation overall. Patients with functional disorders were younger, more likely to be female and had a higher rate of current psychiatric comorbidity compared to other neurology patients. Sensory symptoms were the most common manifestation (48%) followed by limb weakness (37%) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (14%). Outcome information was available for 49% of patients at an average of 3months follow-up. 45% had some improvement in their symptoms, 43% had static symptoms and 12% had worsening of symptoms. This study confirms the high incidence of functional disorders in outpatient neurology practice. Early improvement was seen in a substantial proportion of patients and is influenced by duration of symptoms. PMID:26754851

  16. Price Premiums for Organic Food: The Education Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2007-01-01

    Australian consumers (N=221) were surveyed to establish their valuations of food, based on country of origin, organic status and eco-labelling. The effect of consumer education level on the valuation of Organic and Certified Organic food is reported. Respondents who reported completing secondary or tertiary education had a similar response style, valuing Certified Organic at approximately twice the premium of Organic. The secondary education group valued Organic at a premium of 6.2%, and Cert...

  17. From structure to substance and back: materialities in Australian Aboriginal kinship

    OpenAIRE

    Dousset, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    In Race et Histoire, Lévi-Strauss wrote a few very interesting sentences, which I must quote here to some extend as a start: “For all that touches on the organization of the family and the harmonization of the relationship between family group and social group, the Australians, although backwards with regard to economy, occupy such an advanced position in comparison to the rest of humanity that it is, to understand the systems of rules that they have elaborated in a reflected and conscious m...

  18. Market outlook for Australian uranium producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent improvements in the uranium market and political changes in Australia presented the uranium producers with their best opportunity in over 15 years. The removal of the well known 'three mines policy' by the current government has encouraged Australian producers to develop new development plans. With the expansion of the existing operations at Ranger and Olympic Dam, and the potential operations of Jabiluka, Kintyre, Koongara, Honeymoon and Beverley, Australia expects to increase annual production to 11630 t U3O8 by the end of the decade. It will then join Canada as a major supplier of uranium to the world's nuclear power utilities in the 21st century. Uranium exploration, which has been virtually nonexistent over the past 15 years, has once again been reactivated. This occurred because of the change in the Government, but also because the Aboriginal groups are once more allowing exploration on their land. (author)

  19. Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to produce effective implants, the materials used must be biocompatible. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material similar to the mineral component of teeth and bone which is often used for orbital implants and bone graft applications. HAp can be manufactured from corals via hydrothermal conversion. Coral is particularly useful as a starting material for hydroxyapatite production because of its porous nature. When a porous structure is used tissue ingrowth can occur readily and hence an excellent mechanical bond can be achieved. A large pore size and a high degree of pore interconnections are desirable implant properties. In the present paper a comparison of the properties of four different species of Australian coral has been made to determine the most favourable species to use as a starting material for hydrothermal conversion.

  20. The Australian RSI debate: stereotyping and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintner, J L

    1995-07-01

    The vehement scientific debate which took place in Australia in the 1980s over the epidemic of the chronic cervicobrachial pain syndrome known as repetition strain injury (RSI) was remarkable for the accompanying social commentary offered by many of the medical participants. This commentary was to have a profound effect on relationships between individual doctors and their patients with RSI. It reflected and reinforced the prevailing stereotypes within Australian society, not only of working women, but also of recipients of workers' compensation payments. On the other hand, some of the medical responses to the epidemic were severely criticized by social scientists who analysed the epidemic. In the process of such criticism, a number of stereotypes of doctors were also reinforced. PMID:7626774

  1. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  2. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  3. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  4. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  5. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  6. Commercialization of Australian advanced infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, John; Brown, Allen; Woods, William F.

    1995-09-01

    For several decades, the main thrust in infrared technology developments in Australia has been in two main sensor technologies: uncooled silicon chip printed bolometric sensors pioneered by DSTO's Kevin Liddiard, and precision engineered high quality Cadmium Mercury Telluride developed at DSTO under the guidance of Dr. Richard Hartley. In late 1993 a low cost infrared imaging device was developed at DSTO as a sensor for guided missiles. The combination of these three innovations made up a unique package that enabled Australian industry to break through the barriers of commercializing infrared technology. The privately owned company, R.J. Optronics Pty Ltd undertook the process of re-engineering a selection of these DSTO developments to be applicable to a wide range of infrared products. The first project was a novel infrared imager based on a Palmer scan (translated circle) mechanism. This device applies a spinning wedge and a single detector, it uses a video processor to convert the image into a standard rectangular format. Originally developed as an imaging seeker for a stand-off weapon, it is producing such high quality images at such a low cost that it is now also being adapted for a wide variety of other military and commercial applications. A technique for electronically stabilizing it has been developed which uses the inertial signals from co-mounted sensors to compensate for platform motions. This enables it to meet the requirements of aircraft, marine vessels and masthead sight applications without the use of gimbals. After tests on a three-axis motion table, several system configurations have now been successfully operated on a number of lightweight platforms, including a Cessna 172 and the Australian made Seabird Seeker aircraft.

  7. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  8. The Performance of Western Australian Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck

    2008-01-01

    <正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.

  9. If you can't comply with dialysis, how do you expect me to trust you with transplantation? Australian nephrologists' views on indigenous Australians' 'non-compliance' and their suitability for kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kate

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Indigenous Australians suffer markedly higher rates of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD but are less likely than their non-Indigenous counterparts to receive a transplant. This difference is not fully explained by measurable clinical differences. Previous work suggests that Indigenous Australian patients may be regarded by treating specialists as 'non-compliers', which may negatively impact on referral for a transplant. However, this decision-making is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate: whether Indigenous patients are commonly characterised as 'non-compliers'; how estimations of patient compliance factor into Australian nephrologists' decision-making about transplant referral; and whether this may pose a particular barrier for Indigenous patients accessing transplants. Methods Nineteen nephrologists, from eight renal units treating the majority of Indigenous Australian renal patients, were interviewed in 2005-06 as part of a larger study. Thematic analysis was undertaken to investigate how compliance factors in specialists' decision-making, and its implications for Indigenous patients' likelihood of obtaining transplants. Results Specialists commonly identified Indigenous patients as both non-compliers and high-risk transplant candidates. Definition and assessment of 'compliance' was neither formal nor systematic. There was uncertainty about the value of compliance status in predicting post-transplant outcomes and the issue of organ scarcity permeated participants' responses. Overall, there was marked variation in how specialists weighed perceptions of compliance and risk in their decision-making. Conclusion Reliance on notions of patient 'compliance' in decision-making for transplant referral is likely to result in continuing disadvantage for Indigenous Australian ESKD patients. In the absence of robust evidence on predictors of post-transplant outcomes, referral decision-making processes

  10. Investigating the Manifestation of Textual Themes in Argumentative English Assignments Written by Iraqi and Australian Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jabbar Al BAKAA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the manifestation of Textual Themes in argumentative English assignments written by Iraqi and Australian postgraduate students. Textual structure is a core component of argumentation in academic writing. How the themes in a text are organized as a message component constructs voice and authority. An important question is how novice writers and in particular international students are able to handle these textual devices when they write their English academic assignments. To this end, four academic assignments were selected and analysed to uncover the similarities and differences in textual features, and how students of different cultures stamp their authorial voice on the text through the element of theme and rheme in their academic arguments. The data were analysed based on Halliday’s (2004 model of thematic organization. The findings showed that the failure to use theme appropriately in constructing a voice and authority in academic writing may have disadvantaged the non-native writers. The paper argues that this has occurred because critical thinking requires a clear self-voice in forming an academic argument. This has not been explicitly emphasized in the writers’ Iraqi curriculum for writing. In contrast, these elements are more explicitly emphasized in the Australian writing curriculum.Keywords: English academic assignments; Iraqi non-native writers; Australian native writers; textual structure; voice and authority; thematic organization; critical thinking

  11. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  12. Management Communication for the New Millennium: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Harry T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses management communications in the general area of identity, and the Australian situation involving management communication scholarship, management communication education, and the future of the field in Australia. (NH)

  13. Diversity in Leadership: Australian women, past and present

    OpenAIRE

    Damousi, Joy; Rubenstein, Kim; Tomsic, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in Leadership: Australian women, past and present provides a new understanding of the historical and contemporary aspects of Indigenous and non-Indigenous women’s leadership in a range of local, national and international contexts.

  14. Nucleonic gauges in the Australian mining and exploration industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-line and in-situ nucleonic analysis systems have found widespread application in the Australian metalliferous mineral and coal industries. The rapid and reliable response of these systems has led to improved exploration and better control of mining and mineral processing. This paper reviews both types of nucleonic control system (on-line and in-situ) available in Australian exploration and mining market. (author)

  15. Aboriginal Placenames : Naming and re-naming the Australian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hercus, Luise; Koch, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases,...

  16. Structure and experiences of the Australian National Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed account is given of the history, structure and functions of the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO). Its nuclear materials accounting and control procedures and its research and development programs are discussed. Australia's physical protection policy and the ASO's role in this field are described. The Australian views on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials and the establishment of National Authorities such as the ASO are outlined

  17. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Therese A. O'Sullivan; Trevor A. Mori; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H; Carole E. Parker; Vivian, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach...

  18. Shakespearean Girlhoods in Contemporary Australian Young Adult Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Hateley, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reads a selection of contemporary Australian young adult novels in order to consider their depiction of the meaning and significance of Shakespeare in the formation of young women’s subjectivity. In the competing tensions of patriarchal and postcolonial social values, these novels suggest that Australian girls may take up Shakespeare in order to further their emotional development and interpersonal relationships, or they may take up Shakespeare as an academic (‘professional’) exerc...

  19. Going Places: Praxis and Pedagogy in Australian Cultural Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Rey; Golnar Nabizadeh

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the pedagogical value of praxis in maintaining the relevance of cultural studies in the Australian academic environment. Following its highly politicised beginnings at the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, we consider whether traditional classroom practices are commensurate with the contemporary expectations of students and staff. As a working model of the current Australian university climate, we consider the discipline group of English and Cultural ...

  20. Raja Junankar, Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    DOUGLAS, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy is a compilation of academic articles written by P.N. Junankar and coauthors on the topic of immigration in Australia. From the effects of immigration on Australia’s economy to the Australian labor market environment immigrants encounter, this book addresses important questions regarding immigration that are relevant to any economy.Keywords. Australia, International migration, International economics.JEL. F00, F22,...

  1. Australian OTC Derivatives Markets: Insights from the BIS Semiannual Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Ahn; Mihovil Matic; Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia recently commenced surveying participants in Australian over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives markets as part of the Bank for International Settlements’ (BIS) semiannual global OTC derivatives survey. Australia’s contribution to the survey complements regulatory efforts to improve the resilience and transparency of Australia’s OTC derivatives markets. It also facilitates a higher frequency comparison of the Australian and foreign OTC derivatives markets. The survey ...

  2. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Woods John A; Katzenellenbogen Judith M; Davidson Patricia M; Thompson Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google ...

  3. Some Australian Evidence on the Consensual Approach to Poverty Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, P.; Bradbury, B.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates of poverty in Australia have relied exclusively on the Henderson poverty line, despite extensive criticism of its relevance to contemporary Australian conditions. This paper analyses data from Morgan Gallup Poll (MGP) surveys on the minimum income required by an Australian family of four to keep in health and live decently in order to assess community views on minimum income levels required in Australia. Analysis of how the average response to the MGP question has changed over the l...

  4. "A deep fragrance of academia": the Australian Tobacco Research Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, S; Carter, S.; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To review the history of the tobacco industry supported Australian Tobacco Research Foundation (ATRF)(1970–1994) for evidence of the industry's use of the Foundation to further its objectives that "more research was needed" on smoking and health and to promulgate the view that nicotine was not addictive. (2) To review efforts by public health advocates to discredit the ATRF as a public relations tool used by the Australian industry.

  5. Global Production Sharing in the Australian Automotive Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kishor Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on global production sharing by investigating the experience of the Australian automotive industry, which has experienced significant structural change following trade liberalisation. Our analysis indicates that the globalisation of the world economy, together with developments in transport and communication, has significantly increased the importance of the global production network in the Australian automotive industry, leading to a substantial rise ...

  6. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin Lyle; Dharmage Shyamali C; Dassanayake Jayantha; Sundararajan Vijaya; Payne Warren R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001) and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity ...

  7. Australian Power: Can renewable technologies change the dominant industry view?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynette Molyneaux; Craig Froome; Liam Wagner; John Foster

    2012-01-01

    With carbon dioxide the major contributor to anthropogenic climate change, being required to reduce the carbon emissions from burning coal for electricity presents a systemic shock to Australian power. The Australian government is committed to the development of its coal seam gas resources for export to lucrative world markets and to transition domestic power generation to greater resilience by moving away from a reliance on coal to lower-emissions intensive gas. Using a commercially availabl...

  8. Characteristics of single vehicle rollover fatalities in three Australian states

    OpenAIRE

    Frechede, Bertrand; McIntosh, Andrew S.; GRZEBIETA, Raphaël; BAMBACH, Michaël

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of 2000-2007 single vehicle rollover fatalities in three Australian states was carried out using data from the Australian National Coroners Information System. In this paper, successive selection criteria were applied to the initial dataset to analyse: - Occupant fatalities in single passenger car crashes (1743 cases), - Occupant fatalities in single passenger car rollovers (474 cases), overall, rollovers accounted for 35% of all occupant fatalities in a single vehicle transport ...

  9. How Big is the Speculative Component in Australian Share Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Black; Patricia Fraser; Nicolaas Groenewold

    2001-01-01

    Using 20 years of Australian quarterly data, this paper decomposes Australian share prices into their fundamental and speculative components. To do this we derive the fundamental share-price-output ratio and, hence, the fundamental share price from a resticted vector-autoregressive model relating the aggregate real share-price index to real output. Our estimates use different assumptions regarding shareholders required real rate of return. Our results imply that a significant speculative comp...

  10. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults. PMID:26881483

  11. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  12. Modelling seasonality in Australian building approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M Karamujic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of seasonal influences on Australian housing approvals, represented by the State of Victoria[1] building approvals for new houses (BANHs. The prime objective of BANHs is to provide timely estimates of future residential building work. Due to the relevance of the residential property sector to the property sector as whole, BANHs are viewed by economic analysts and commentators as a leading indicator of property sector investment and as such the general level of economic activity and employment. The generic objective of the study is to enhance the practice of modelling housing variables. In particular, the study seeks to cast some additional light on modelling the seasonal behaviour of BANHs by: (i establishing the presence, or otherwise, of seasonality in Victorian BANHs; (ii if present, ascertaining is it deterministic or stochastic; (iii determining out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications; and (iv speculating on possible interpretation of the results. To do so the study utilises a structural time series model of Harwey (1989. The modelling results confirm that the modelling specification allowing for stochastic trend and deterministic seasonality performs best in terms of diagnostic tests and goodness of fit measures. This is corroborated with the analysis of out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications, which showed that the models with deterministic seasonal specification exhibit superior forecasting capabilities. The paper also demonstrates that if time series are characterized by either stochastic trend or seasonality, the conventional modelling approach[2] is bound to be mis-specified i.e. would not be able to identify statistically significant seasonality in time series.According to the selected modeling specification, factors corresponding to June, April, December and November are found to be significant at five per cent level

  13. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  14. Australian RRRP first shutdown system seismic qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the seismic qualification methodology used for the First Shutdown System of the Australian Replacement Research Reactor. The seismic qualification was carried out by means of analysis and testing. The analysis was developed in a first step in order to compute stresses and displacements on the mechanisms. In a second step testing was adopted as qualification method with the development of an experimental setup. The test objective was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the shutdown system under the seismic action imposed by the most demanding seismic event condition used for the design of the reactor. The key parameter measured during the test was the control plate insertion time, which is the relevant parameter from the nuclear safety standpoint. The seismic analysis showed that no undue stresses or displacements will be present on the mechanisms for the most demanding seismic condition. Consistently, the test results were that the system is able to insert the control plates within the required time. It was observed that there is no noticeable difference on the control plate insertion times for the cases with or without the presence of the seismic action. (authors)

  15. Nutrition and general practice: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, A

    1997-06-01

    Australia has a government-subsidized, private medical system in which general practitioners (GPs) form the core component of primary care. There are approximately 20,000 active GPs and 80% of the population consults a GP each year. A new vocational register of GPs has been set up that requires training in general practice, followed by formal continuing education. I briefly review sources of information about Australian GPs' practices and knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition. About 15-17% of GPs say they have a special interest in nutrition (20% of female GPs and 13% of male GPs). The main conditions for which advice is given are heart disease, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. The extent of nutrition counseling by GPs is considerably less than might be expected from the strength of their statements about the importance of nutrition and long-term health. Obstacles to nutrition counseling are lack of time, lack of confidence, and inadequate nutrition knowledge, the last documented by objective testing. GPs express interest in learning more about nutrition (which may be partly driven by consumer pressure) but there is still little coherent teaching on the subject, specifically tailored for GPs. When asked their preferences for nutrition education, GPs tend to prefer educational material (such as diet charts) to give to patients. PMID:9174498

  16. Ancestry of the Australian termitivorous numbat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Donnellan, Stephen; Grützner, Frank; Zhao, Fangqing; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    The Australian numbat, Myrmecobius fasciatus, is the only marsupial that feeds almost exclusively on termites and that has a life following the diurnally restricted and dynamic geographical distribution of termites. The millions of years of this adaptation led to unique morphological and anatomical features, especially basicranial and dental characteristics, that make it difficult to identify a clear phylogenetic affiliation to other marsupials. From DNA sequence analyses, the family Myrmecobiidae is placed within the dasyuromorph marsupials, but the exact position varies from study to study, and support values are mostly rather modest. Here, we report the recovery and analysis of approximately 110,000 quasifossilized traces of mobile element insertions into the genome of a dasyurid marsupial (Tasmanian devil), 25 of which are phylogenetically informative for early dasyuromorphial evolution. Fourteen of these ancient retroposon insertions are shared by the 16 Dasyuromorphia species analyzed, including the numbat, but are absent in the outgroups. An additional 11 other insertions are present in all Dasyuridae but are absent in the numbat. These findings place numbats as the sister group to all living Dasyuridae and show that the investigated Dasyuromorphia, including the Myrmecobiidae, constitutes a monophyletic group that is separated from Peramelemorphia, Notoryctemorphia, and other marsupials. PMID:23429857

  17. Malignant otitis externa: An Australian case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish a clinicopathological profile of malignant otitis externa (MOE) in an Australian tertiary referral institution. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort outcomes study. METHODS: 24 patients were identified with MOE between January 1998 and July 2007. Patients were classified into Radiological Grades I-IV. Laboratory investigations Including C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and average glucose level over admission were recorded. RESULTS: Radiological Grade was significantly associated with duration of therapy (rank correlation 0.57, p = 0.004). CRP was a useful indicator confirming disease resolution. Diabetics with MOE had elevated average blood sugar levels during their Hospital admission (p < 0.001) and had poor overall glycaemic control represented by Elevated HBA1c scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant otitis externa is a rare disease, which is best managed in a multidisciplinary team setting. This practical grading system can be used to predict the duration of therapy at time of diagnosis, which enables the efficient utilisation of Hospital resources. Poorly controlled diabetics are more susceptible to developing. MOE than diabetics with satisfactory glycaemic control and may represent a subgroup of more brittle diabetics. CRP combined with appropriate clinical and radiological investigations is useful in assessing disease resolution.

  18. Effective teaching strategies in Australian multicultural classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芳卉

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction@@ Australia's population is increasingly culturally diverse.The diverse composition of the Australian population is reflected in the ACT.The 1991 census showed 65,739 people counted in the ACT were bern overseas,representing 23.5% of the population.Almost 10% of the respondents to the census came from non-English - speaking countries.(1) The results from the 2001 census showed that of the 4,645,000 people in Victoria,almost one quarter (23.4%) were born overseas,represented 208 countries and spoke 151 languages.English was spoken at home by 75.3% of Victorians.(2) These numbers are reflected in our schools because students come from many cultural,educational and language backgrounds.The increasingly muhieultural populations in our schools present many challenges for schools and teachers,with regards to inclusive teaching strategies,language differences,muhieuhural curricular practices,racism issues and numerous other factors.

  19. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  20. Greenhouse gas emission from Australian coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1997, when the Australian Coal Association (ACA) signed a letter of Intent in respect of the governments Greenhouse Challenge Program, it has encouraged its member companies to participate. Earlier this year, the ACA commissioned an independent scoping study on greenhouse gas emissions in the black coal mining industry This was to provide background information, including identification of information gaps and R and D needs, to guide the formulation of a strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining, processing and handling of black coals in Australia. A first step in the process of reducing emission levels is an appreciation of the source, quantity and type of emissions om nine sites. It is shown that greenhouse gas emissions on mine sites come from five sources: energy consumption during mining activities, the coal seam gas liberated due to the extraction process i.e. fugitive emissions, oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, land use, and embodied energy. Also listed are indications of the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the estimates

  1. Australians Abroad: Narrative Paths and Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Nooy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although commonly characterized as an immigrant nation, Australia has been shaped just as importantly by the overseas journeys of its people, and the liminal experiences thus provided have not only been self-defining and defining of the other, but at times nation-defining. This special issue proposes a multidisciplinary analysis of Australian travellers and expatriates past and present: the reasons for and destinations of their travel, its impact on their identity, the roles they play, their writings and reflections, their linguistic and intercultural competence. Clusters of travellers to particular destinations give rise to narrative patterns which solidify into templates, the narrative equivalent of the beaten track. The essays that follow highlight both discursive grooves and off-piste accounts that challenge the patterns. In both cases, the emphasis in the essays is on the travellers’ active engagement in the experience and on their negotiation of existing discourses. For even those who follow the trail invest it with personal meanings.

  2. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship. PMID:27436735

  3. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  4. The Australian SKA Pathfinder: First Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a precursor and technology demonstrator for the Square Kilometre Array.A specialist wide-field survey instrument, ASKAP compises 36 x 12m dish antennas with a maximum separation of 6km. The array operates in the frequency range 700 - 1800 MHz and has an instantaneous bandwidth of 300 MHz. Each dish is mounted with a 'phased array feed', a radio receiver that dramatically enhances the telescope's field-of-view from 1 to 30 square degrees. ASKAP is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory, Australia's core site for the SKA.Ten Science Survey Projects have been established by teams of more than 600 astronomers from around the world. Astronomical research topics tackled by these teams include galaxy evolution, cosmic magnetism, the history of gas in galaxies and cosmology. A program of ASKAP Early Science will commence in late 2015. The 6-antenna Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) is currently being used by the commissioning team and at the time of writing has produced its first scientific discovery paper.In this talk, hear the ASKAP Project Scientist report some of the exciting new capabilities demonstrated by ASKAP and learn about the first scientific discoveries made by the commissioning and early science team.

  5. Balance and injury in elite Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, C; McLaughlin, P; Goodman, C

    2007-10-01

    This project measured pre-season balance ability and determined its relationship to knee and ankle ligament injuries during the season for professional Australian footballers. The balance test involved the players stepping onto a foam balance mat on top of a force plate and maintaining single limb balance. Throughout the playing season, injuries were monitored. The results from two hundred and ten players participating in this project were analysed. During the 2003 season, 8 % (17 out of 210) sustained a knee ligament injury and 10 % (21 out of 210) sustained an ankle ligament injury. Multivariate analysis revealed that pre-season balance ability was a significant independent predictor of ankle ligament injury. Players with low balance ability had at least twice as many ankle ligaments injuries as those with average or good balance ability. Balance ability was not a significant predictor of knee ligament injuries. The height of the players was the only significant independent predictor of knee ligament injuries. Low pre-season balance ability was associated with an increased risk of ankle ligament injury. A modifiable injury risk factor has been identified. Research is now required to determine the optimal training regime to enhance balance ability and whether this translates to a reduction in the incidence of ankle injuries. PMID:17373597

  6. Translation Services and the Australian ‘Multicultural Policy’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Eser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Australia is one of the world’s most diverse multicultural nations. Almost half of the population are immigrants or the children of an immigrant. The objective of this paper is to find out about the needs for translation and interpreting services in Australia as a multi-cultural country from the perspective of the macro environmental forces that shape up the market. One of the most important policies on translation and interpreting in Australia is the Multicultural Access and Equity Policy, which is significant in that it fosters sustainability in Australia. In order to meet the challenges of an ageing population, skilled migration is seen as a solution. By respecting diversity and improving responsiveness, this policy acknowledges that immigrants live in a multicultural society and there is an obligation on Australian Government departments and agencies to provide equitable access to services regardless of the cultural or linguistic background. Data were collected though a content-analysis method from the sources of Australia’s governmental bodies with a focus on the demographic, political and cultural forces. The demographic environment is of major interest because it involves people who make up markets. The political environment consists of laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence or limit various organizations and individuals in a given society. The cultural environment consists of institutions and other forces that affect a society’s basic values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors. The findings were used to draw conclusions about translation and interpreting services as a profession in Australia and the sustainability of the public services.Keywords: Translation and Interpreting, Services, Australia, Macro-environment, Multicultural Policy

  7. PROCTOECES SP. (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) IN AUSTRALIAN OYSTERS, 'SACCOSTREA COMMERCIALIS' AND 'CRASSOSTREA AMASA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of Protoeces sp., a cosmopolitan digenetic trematode, is reported from two different species of Australian oysters. The low prevalence of the helminth is attributed to the intertidal environment inhabited by the Australian oysters. (Copyright (c) 1987, American Mic...

  8. Mechanics, Problems and Contributions of Tertiary Strategic Alliance: The Case of 22 Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffu, Kojo; Mamman, Aminu

    1999-01-01

    A study of international strategic alliances involving 22 Australian universities indicates that a majority of universities have frameworks for internationalization initiatives, with top institutional management instrumental in initiating joint ventures with overseas institutions despite limited resources. Australian universities believe they…

  9. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  10. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community

  11. Liminality, the Australian State and Asian Nurse Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Willis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades the flow of Asians to Australia through legitimate immigration programs has accelerated. This is particularly the case for Asian nurses coming from countries that were once subjected to European colonisation. The difficulties encountered by nurses from Asian countries mirror those of earlier waves of migrants. These include navigating the language and differences in cultural mores, values, and beliefs, along with the loneliness that may come from leaving strong family ties at home. While racism has been evident for all earlier waves of migrants, Asians face an additional hurdle linked to the uneasy relationship Australians and the Australian state has with Asia. Australia is geographically in Asia, but culturally Anglo and European.  The impact this might have on the working relationships of Asian and Australian born registered nurses is significant given the nature of their work in caring for the sick and elderly. This liminal relationship between the Australian state and Asians provides a theoretical insight into the particular difficulties experienced by Asian nurses and the integration programs that might assist them and their Australian colleagues to develop cohesive working relationships.

  12. Nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals. Are they improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Walker, Karen Z; Gill, Timothy P

    2012-10-01

    The nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals is not systematically monitored despite the importance of breakfast for general health. We examined whether the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals has improved between 2004 and 2010, and whether any change could be detected after the introduction of Daily Intake Guide (DIG) front-of-pack labelling. Supermarket surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010 using the same methodology to collect information from the nutrition information panels of Australian breakfast cereals and the nutrient content of cereals was compared by year. Breakfast cereals with and without DIG labelling in 2010 were also compared. Nutritional quality was assessed using UK Traffic Light criteria. No significant difference was detected in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals between 2004 and 2010. There was no notable improvement in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals marketed as the same product in both years. Overall there has been little improvement in the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals in the 6 year period. A large proportion of Australian breakfast cereals were considered high sugar. In conclusion, the introduction of DIG labelling does not appear to have promoted product reformulation, and breakfast cereals carrying DIG labels were not consistently healthier. PMID:22728950

  13. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists – an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professionalpractice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australianpharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-countermedications. This review aims to identify Australian studiesinvolving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing.Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacistprescribing were identified and considered in the context ofits implementation internationally. Australian studies havemainly focused on the attitudes of community and hospitalpharmacists towards such an expansion. Studies evaluatingthe views of Australian consumers and pharmacy clients werealso considered. The available Australian literature indicatedsupport from pharmacists and pharmacy clients for anexpanded pharmacist prescribing role, with preference fordoctors retaining a primary role in diagnosis. Australianpharmacists and pharmacy client’s views were also inagreement in terms of other key issues surrounding expandedpharmacist prescribing. These included the nature of anexpanded prescribing model, the need for additional trainingfor pharmacists and the potential for pharmacy clients gainingimproved medication access, which could be achieved withinan expanded role that pharmacists could provide. Currentevidence from studies conducted in Australia providesvaluable insight to relevant policymakers on the issue ofpharmacist prescribing in order to move the agenda ofpharmacist prescribing forwards.

  14. Australian Seismometers in Schools - eyes on seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, M.; Balfour, N.; Sambridge, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Seismometers in Schools (AuSIS) program has installed 42 research quality broadband seismometers in schools around Australia. The school's infrastructure allows for real time data transfers, and eager young students monitor the instruments and report any recorded events. The reporting feature ("Caught it? Report it!") through our website works as a crude type of detection to inform us of what instruments pick up the earthquakes. It also has the added benefits of keeping schools engaged in the program, ongoing learning about earth science and geography, and obviously keeps them returning to our website. A network of professional and amateur seismologists provides support to the schools and helps promote earth science education and earthquake risk awareness. The data is publically available through the IRIS DMC and is used by not just our volunteers but also by government departments, universities and private agencies for research and monitoring. One of the challenges has been to provide a way for schools and to interact with the real time data in an accessible format. We have achieved this through website and mobile app development alongside step-by step how to guides. These tools have the added advantage that they also allow schools without their own seismometer to connect with nearby schools that do. The government run national network of seismometers in Australia is sparse; the AuSIS program provides additional instruments that are now being incorporated into the national network for improved regional earthquake locations. Although schools are not the ideal site for broadband seismometers, the program has proven that with a well-chosen location within the school we can recover high quality data for much of the day. The schools are generally well distributed across the country enabling the program to supplement the national network at the same time as bringing earth science to rural communities that often miss out on this type of opportunity.

  15. Water Management at Australian Uranium Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian uranium operations are located in widely different climates, ranging from monsoonal conditions at the Ranger uranium mine in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory to semi-arid conditions in inland South Australia, where the Olympic Dam and Beverley operations are located. This paper describes the range of water management strategies that are in place or planned to deal with the varying issues facing Australia's three operations. For Olympic Dam, the strategies are focused on water conservation and reuse, and evaporation of the acidic liquor arising from the leach process. Net water usage at an in situ operation such as Beverley is considerably less than comparable underground or open pit mines as acidic leach liquor is recycled in the wellfields, and there is no water loss with tailings. However, bleeds are required to maintain control of wellfield balance and to limit the buildup of impurities. The disposal of the bleed stream into the mining aquifer via wells must be balanced carefully to ensure that it does not impact on mining or wellfield management. Water management at Ranger has evolved considerably during its almost 25-year operating life. This is particularly the case over the last 8 years with the development of pit 3 and the deposition of tailings into the mined out pit 1. These changes, which have significantly increased the catchment area from which runoff water must be collected and managed, and the recent higher-than-average rainfall combined with the further expansion of pit 3 now have the potential to move the site water balances into significant surplus. To address this risk, ERA has successfully investigated processes at the pilot plant scale that would complement the capacity of existing passive pond water treatment systems by allowing the treatment and release of pond and/or process waters. These processes, which are part of a number of strategies currently being considered for implementation at the Ranger site

  16. A requirement for Australian research: access to 'big science' facilities, a report by the Australian National Committee for crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of 'Big Science' research facility - synchrotron radiation sources and intense neutron beams - are now recognised as essential resources for a wide range of research activities in chemistry, physics and biology. The cost of such facilities and the lack of a sufficiently large user base will probably preclude their construction in Australia in the foreseeable future. The needs of Australian crystallographers for access to such facilities are assessed. In relation to synchrotron radiation sources, the Committee considered only the question of access to such facilities overseas. In relation to neutron beam sources, the Committee's inquiries included not only the question of access to powerful facilities overseas but also the special problems which confront Australian crystallographers as a result of the obsolescence of the HIFAR reactor. The arguments about, and options for, funding Australian use of facilities overseas are presented. The Committee concluded there is a strong case for the purchase of a beam-line at an overseas synchrotron radiation facility and a strong, though less urgent, case for substantial Australian involvement in an overseas neutron beam facility. The Committee recommended that the Australian HIFAR reactor be refurbished in its present shell, retaining the present flux and power levels, and that in the upgrading of the neutron scattering instrumentation at HIFAR special consideration be given to including items which are sufficiently specialised to attract the international neutron scattering community

  17. Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research: Creating Spaces for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides some background information about the Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research initiative: a joint program of work sponsored by the Australian Association for Research in Education and the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In addition, it offers some broader analysis of the contexts within which…

  18. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  19. Estimating the Social Rate of Return to Education for Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junankar, P. N.; Liu, J.

    2003-01-01

    Compares estimates of the social rate of return to education of Indigenous Australians with those of non-Indigenous Australians. Finds that social rate of return is higher for Indigenous Australians than for non-Indigenous. Draws implications for public policy. (Contains 4 tables and 32 references.)(PKP)

  20. Values-Based Education in Schools in the 2000s: The Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the teaching of values in Australian schools through a framework established by the Australian Federal government during the 2000s. This paper focuses on: the approaches employed by the Australian Federal government in the implementation of Values Education; and the application of cases of values-based education utilized by…

  1. The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous education.…

  2. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  3. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Walsh, Mark [Mater Hospital and Lady Cilento Children' s Hospital Medical Imaging Department, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Francis, Joshua R. [Royal Darwin Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Darwin (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  4. Positioning the School in the Landscape: Exploring Black History with a Regional Australian Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a project establishing an Indigenous Australian artists-in-residence program at a regional Australian primary school to foreground its Black History. Primary school students worked with Indigenous Australian story tellers, artists, dancers and musicians to explore ways in which they could examine print and non-print texts for…

  5. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  6. Enhancing Opportunities for Australian Aboriginal Literacy Learners in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lee; Clancy, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the context of contemporary Australian society, the education system is still failing to increase educational outcomes among the majority of Australian Aboriginal (1) learners. This educational dilemma has persisted despite the regular introduction of systemic initiatives and funding aimed at addressing Australian Aboriginal learners' low…

  7. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  8. Aboriginal, Anglo, and Immigrant Australian Students' Motivational Beliefs about Personal Academic Success: Are There Cultural Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Hinkley, John; Dowson, Martin; Van Etten, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a study in which the similarities and differences between Aboriginal Australian, Anglo Australian, and immigrant Australian students' learning-goal orientations were measured. Previous research posits that children embrace different learning goals according to their culture. In contrast, findings indicate that the profiles of all…

  9. Attitudes to Spoken Australian English: Judgements of Ingroup and Ethnic Outgroup Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, Cynthia; Callan, Victor J.

    1989-01-01

    Two studies examined Anglo-Australians attitudes toward male and female Australian and immigrant speakers using English. Results support view that foreign or ethnic accent is sufficient cue to elicit ethnic stereotypes, that such stereotypes are salient to Anglo-Australians, and that accent can combine with other vocal cues to social group…

  10. Eating Disorders and Dieting Behavior among Australian and Swazi University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M.; Schumaker, John F.; Sibiya, Thokozile E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the eating behaviors of 192 Australian and 129 Swaziland university students using the Eating Attitudes Test. Reports no significant differences between the Australian and Swazi samples in terms of eating disorder symptoms, but indicates that more Australians saw themselves as overweight and were on a weight loss diet. (CMK)

  11. Review of restrictive actions under the Australian drug regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, M N; Lunde, I

    1982-05-15

    An analysis of restrictive measures taken by the Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) over the period of 27 months (from March, 1976, to June, 1978) was made by two non-Australian observers. During this period, the ADEC took 32 useful restrictive measures (a little more than one a month). The analysis was limited only to cases in which ADEC took substantial action; if less comprehensive measures were included, the number of valid actions to counter the occurrence of iatrogenic complications would be much greater. It is concluded that, although it is an undisputed fact that many pharmaceutical companies maintain the highest ethical standards, there is a need for the type of objective and dispassionate control exercised by the Australian Drug Evaluation Committee. PMID:7099069

  12. Did aboriginal vegetation burning impact on the Australian summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Michael; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Chen, Guangshan

    2011-06-01

    Aboriginal vegetation burning practices and their role in the Australian environment remains a central theme of Australian environmental history. Previous studies have identified a decline in the Australian summer monsoon during the late Quaternary and attributed it to land surface-atmosphere feedbacks, related to Aboriginal burning practices. Here we undertake a comprehensive, ensemble model evaluation of the effects of a decrease in vegetation cover over the summer monsoon region of northern Australia. Our results show that the climate response, while relatively muted during the full monsoon, was significant for the pre-monsoon season (austral spring), with decreases in precipitation, higher surface and ground temperatures, and enhanced atmospheric stability. These early monsoon season changes can invoke far-reaching ecological impacts and set-up land surface-atmosphere feedbacks that further accentuate atmospheric stability.

  13. Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Mongols and Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alestig, E; Hannoun, C; Horal, P; Lindh, M

    2001-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is spread worldwide. Seven genotypes, A-G, have been described, differing by more than 8% of the genome. In eastern Asia and Oceania genotypes B and C are predominant. However, little is known about genotypes in Mongolia and Australian aborigines. We analysed the preS and S regions of HBV from 9 Mongols and 5 Australian Aborigines. All Mongolian strains were of genotype D and were most similar to Central Asian sequences. All the Australian strains were genetically of serotype ayw3, and could not be reliably classified by the S region analysis, but placed on a separate branch. By preS analysis, they were however clearly of genotype C. The 6-7% nucleotide difference from published Asian genotype C sequences suggests that they diverged from Asian genotype C branch more than 1000 years ago. PMID:11811682

  14. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  15. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong;

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that...... Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves...... prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa....

  16. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  17. The outlook for the world and Australian oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global demand for oil is projected to continue its upward trend to 2000-1, with growth in the transport sector expected to underpin future increases in oil consumption. World oil consumption is projected to be matched by global production, keeping the average annual oil price relatively stable. In many countries, the diversion of oil revenue to other projects is threatening to constrain increases in production capacity, particularly in the OPEC countries. The encouragement of foreign investment in state oil industries is a likely method of easing the constraint. Australian exploration activity is rising steadily with the prospect of stable oil prices, expanding gas markets and the incentives provided by a number of recent discoveries. While the geographical pattern of Australian production has now changed, with Western Australian production exceeding Victoria production, Australia is expected to maintain its position in the world oil market as a significant producer, importer and exporter. (author). 6 figs., 23 refs

  18. Our Organic Future - Cottage, Corporate, Commodified or Containerized?

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2007-01-01

    Abstract China achieved a remarkable 1000% increase in organically managed land in 2006. Chinese organic certification is described as the most stringent in the world, and China has both political references and an economic agenda congruent with an organic future. Australian consumers (N = 221) valued produce of Australia at 26.0% more than produce of China. This gap diminished to 10.7% comparing Australia to China/Certified Organic. The valuation gap increased to 28.9% comparing Australia...

  19. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  20. Australian Writing and the Contemporary: Are We There Yet?

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Annee

    2016-01-01

    Australia’s geographical location (within ‘Asia’)—seen as a negative into the twenty-first century when the nation defined itself as culturally and aspirationally linked to the major Euro-American metropolitan cultural centres (the ‘West’)—must now be reevaluated. After two hundred years of white settlement and of turning its back on the region in which it is located, some Australian writers are writing texts that illuminate an aspect of Australian literature that is in transition, becoming, ...

  1. The Australian black coal industry: productivity commission inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    February 1999 saw the release of the final report of the Productivity Commission's inquiry into the Australian black coal industry. The report is a comprehensive examination of the state of play of the Australian coal industry, drawing from the Commission's own research, submissions from a range of stakeholders and the results of a benchmarking study which compared Australia's performance with world's best practice. Essentially, the report finds that recent reforms have improved productivity and some parts of the industry now perform very well. However, the report finds that further changes to federal industry awards and state legislation and regulation could significantly improve the performance of the industry overall

  2. E-Business Developmental Issues in the Australian Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohini Singh

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses e-business developmental issues in the Australian Food industry that were identified from a research project funded by the Australian Research Council. Data was gathered from interviews with 11 food organisations in the year 2000, most of which can be classified as ‘bricks and clicks’. These 11 companies were traditional businesses that had adopted e-business as a new way of doing business. The findings of the paper highlight the fact that the B2B is the predominant e-bu...

  3. Forward contracts in electricity markets: The Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward contracts play a vital role in all electricity markets, and yet the details of the market for forward contracts are often opaque. In this paper we review the existing literature on forward contracts and explore the contracting process as it operates in Australia. The paper is based on interviews with participants in Australia's National Electricity Market (NEM). The interviews were designed to understand the contracting process and the practice of risk management in the Australian energy-only pool market. This survey reveals some significant gaps between the assumptions made in the academic literature and actual practice in the Australian market place

  4. Forward contracts in electricity markets: The Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward contracts play a vital role in all electricity markets, and yet the details of the market for forward contracts are often opaque. In this paper we review the existing literature on forward contracts and explore the contracting process as it operates in Australia. The paper is based on interviews with participants in Australia's National Electricity Market (NEM). The interviews were designed to understand the contracting process and the practice of risk management in the Australian energy-only pool market. This survey reveals some significant gaps between the assumptions made in the academic literature and actual practice in the Australian market place. (author)

  5. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume

  6. An empirical investigation of Australian Stock Exchange data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, William K.

    2004-10-01

    We present an empirical study of high frequency Australian equity data examining the behaviour of distribution tails and the existence of long memory. A method is presented allowing us to deal with Australian Stock Exchange data by splitting it into two separate data series representing an intraday and overnight component. Power-law exponents for the empirical density functions are estimated and compared with results from other studies. Using the autocorrelation and variance plots we find there to be a strong indication of long-memory type behaviour in the absolute return, volume and transaction frequency.

  7. Evaluating synoptic systems in the CMIP5 climate models over the Australian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter B.; Uotila, Petteri; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Pitman, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate models are our principal tool for generating the projections used to inform climate change policy. Our confidence in projections depends, in part, on how realistically they simulate present day climate and associated variability over a range of time scales. Traditionally, climate models are less commonly assessed at time scales relevant to daily weather systems. Here we explore the utility of a self-organizing maps (SOMs) procedure for evaluating the frequency, persistence and transitions of daily synoptic systems in the Australian region simulated by state-of-the-art global climate models. In terms of skill in simulating the climatological frequency of synoptic systems, large spread was observed between models. A positive association between all metrics was found, implying that relative skill in simulating the persistence and transitions of systems is related to skill in simulating the climatological frequency. Considering all models and metrics collectively, model performance was found to be related to model horizontal resolution but unrelated to vertical resolution or representation of the stratosphere. In terms of the SOM procedure, the timespan over which evaluation was performed had some influence on model performance skill measures, as did the number of circulation types examined. These findings have implications for selecting models most useful for future projections over the Australian region, particularly for projections related to synoptic scale processes and phenomena. More broadly, this study has demonstrated the utility of the SOMs procedure in providing a process-based evaluation of climate models.

  8. Erythrocyte phosphate composition and osmotic fragility in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus fosteri, and osteoglossid, Scleropages schneichardti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacks, R E; Kim, H D

    1984-01-01

    The packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (g/dl) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus fosteri, and in one of three Australian osteoglossids, Scleropages schneichardti, were 32.3 and 29.9; 10.5 and 10.0; and 407 and 176 micron 3 respectively. Total acid-soluble phosphates (TPi) from the red blood cells (RBC) of the lungfish and osteoglossid were 35.3 and 18.1 mumol/cm3 RBC respectively. Inorganic phosphate (Pi), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) represented 16.4, 39.7 and 17.8% of the cell phosphates in the lungfish respectively. Inositol bisphosphate was not present in extracts of the red cells of N. fosteri, in contrast to the red cells of Lepidosiren paradoxa and Protopterus aethiopicus, in which it was first observed. In the osteoglossid, Pi and ATP represented 37.6 and 46.4% of the erythrocyte phosphate, respectively, with only traces of GTP present. ATP is the predominant organic phosphate in the red cells of both species. The osmotic fragility of erythrocytes of N. fosteri are quite resistant to hemolysis, with hemolysis beginning at 35-30 mM and a complete hemolysis occurring at 20 mM NaCl. The red cells of S. schneichardti begin to hemolyze at 95-90 mM with hemolysis continuing to completion at 60 mM NaCl. PMID:6150802

  9. Course diversity within South Australian secondary schools as a factor of successful transition and retention within Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There has long been a disparity in the provision of curriculum within Australian secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate whether diversity within schools alters students’ university experiences. While much of the existing literature focuses on each aspect individually, this paper attempts to clarify a link between these factors by focussing on the transition process. A theoretical analysis of key concepts surrounding a web of inter-related issues, including student satisfaction, interest and motivation frames the quantitative data collection. The methodology employed consists of analysing a balanced sample of South Australian secondary schools, from an array of different locations, SES groupings and sizes, and an acknowledgement of previous studies into the first year experience within Australian Universities. The findings suggest that there is a disparity between learning areas in school curricula and an inherent link has been established with issues such as student attrition and dissatisfaction in universities.

  10. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  11. Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Giles Lynne C; Glonek Gary FV; Moore Vivienne M; Davies Michael J; Luszcz Mary A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 1,031 women aged 65-103 years). We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with...

  12. Racial Attitudes of Australian Tertiary Students. University of Maryland Cultural Study Center Research Report No. 4-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaples, Ernest A.; And Others

    Three forms of the Situational Attitude Scale (SAS), measuring attitudes toward Aborigines, New Australians and a neutral form, were administered to 314 white Australian university and college students (New Australians are immigrants from non-English speeking European countries). Analysis of the data indicated that white Australian students have a…

  13. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  14. Australian Students' Perceptions of Racial Attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Anna M.; Evans, Virden; Evans, Adeline L.

    1998-01-01

    This survey of the perceptions of Australian high school students toward racism in America indicates that a majority knew little about cultural diversity; had various cultural backgrounds; were influenced more by television than other forms of media; and believed African Americans do not have equal access to education, equal opportunity to…

  15. Motivational Postures and Compliance with Environmental Law in Australian Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Robyn; Barclay, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Motivational posture theory is applied and extended to the context of Australian agriculture and environmental regulation. Regulatory failure in this area has been observed but little was known of the compliance attitudes and behaviours of farmers prior to this study. Agriculture covers over 60% of Australia's land surface so this information is…

  16. Essential books and journals in clinical neuropsychology: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen A; Ryan, Joseph J

    2004-04-01

    To assist in the identification of key professional resources for neuropsychologists, 214 Australian clinical neuropsychologists were asked to identify "essential" reference materials. Fifty members of the Australian College of Clinical Neuropsychologists returned useable surveys. Forty-three respondents provided information about which clinical neuropsychology books and journals they considered essential and why. Results showed 15 books, including 3 Australian books, and 31 journals were included in the essential reading list of at least 10% of this sample. Compared to similar previous surveys (predominantly conducted overseas and mostly over 10 years ago), the results of this survey suggest that, Australian neuropsychologists have similar views about the top ranking books and journals in clinical neuropsychology as their overseas counterparts. An exception to this general trend may be the status of reference books containing norms, which appear to be growing in perceived importance. Importantly, the results of this survey may be used to help practitioners identify key professional resources in the area of clinical neuropsychology. PMID:15202548

  17. Food irradiation: an inquiry by the Australian Consumers' Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Consumers' Association's Inquiry into Food Irradiation was undertaken at the request of the Commonwealth Minister of Health, Dr N Blewett. The terms of reference of the Inquiry covered the implications of food irradiation in terms of consumer health, the environment, and the cost to the consumer

  18. Investigating Ten Years of Equity Policy in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Hamish; Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports issues arising from a longitudinal study of 1991 to 2002 Australian higher education equity data. The national equity framework uses an empirical performance indicator system to monitor access, participation, success and retention of six designated equity groups. The paper examines three possible approaches for defining new…

  19. Models of Reference Services in Australian Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Liz

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a project which was undertaken in 2006 to investigate the current modes and methods for delivering reference services in Australian academic libraries. The project included a literature review to assist in providing a definition of reference services as well as a snapshot of statistics showing staff and patron numbers from…

  20. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Online Assessment in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Rod; Ellis, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Assessment is one of the key elements of the teaching and learning process. It provides teachers with a means of evaluating the quality of their instruction. Students also use it to drive and direct their learning. Online teaching and learning will continue to become more important to Australian universities in order for them to remain competitive…

  1. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  2. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to provide a…

  3. Career Decision-Making: What Matters to Indigenous Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This article brings together and discusses three research projects that examined the vocational education and career-decision making of Indigenous Australians. These studies focused on the experiences of Indigenous people themselves, in order to provide an Indigenous perspective on vocational and career development. Four main barriers that limit…

  4. Communication dated 14 December 2012 received from the Australian Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 14 December 2012 from the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office, enclosing a paper on behalf of the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network on the fundamentals and good practices of safeguards regulatory authorities. The aforementioned communication and, as requested, the enclosed paper are herewith circulated for the information of Member States.

  5. A Ten Year Citation Analysis of Major Australian Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Excellence in Research for Australia scheme has heightened debate amongst research institutions over the use of metrics such as citations, especially given the ready availability of citation data. An analysis is presented of the citation performance of nine Australian universities and the Commonwealth Scientific, Industrial…

  6. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  7. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Students & Courses. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of 2013 data relating to students, courses, qualifications, training providers and funding in Australia's publicly funded vocational education and training (VET) system. The Australian VET system provides training across a wide range of subject areas and is delivered through a variety of training…

  8. GLBTIQ Teachers in Australian Education Policy: Protections, Suspicions, and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Gray, Emily; Harris, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status by the United Nations has led to the development of new policies concerning homophobia and transphobia in educational contexts. This paper examines new Australian education policies impacting gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer…

  9. The Rise and Fall of the Australian DBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortt, Michael A.; Pervan, Simon J; Hogan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the drivers behind the rise and fall of the Australian Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) and to assess its future. Design/methodology/approach: Data covering the period 1993-2013 was sourced from the Commonwealth Department of Education and Training to provide a comprehensive…

  10. Phelan's Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Australian Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Phelan (2000) has produced a complex bibliometric analysis of the international contribution of Australian educational research based upon publications and citations reported in the journals indexed by the Institute for Scientific Information--the Standard & Poors of the academic world. This paper examines Phelan's analysis, showing its strengths…

  11. Applying Frequency Map Analysis to the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Yaw-Ren E; Le Blanc, Gregory Scott

    2005-01-01

    The technique of frequency map analysis has been applied to study the transverse dynamic aperture of the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring. The results have been used to set the strengths of sextupoles to optimise the dynamic aperture. The effects of the allowed harmonics in the quadrupoles and dipole edge effects are discussed.

  12. Lead poisoning in Australian fruit bats (Pteropus poliocephalus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1970-09-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed in 3 Australian fruit bats. Diagnoses were indicated by the finding of large acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal and hepatic cells, and toxic amounts of lead in tissues. The source of lead was believed to be peeling leaded paint from the walls of the bats' cage.

  13. Australian Primary In-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the second part of a two pronged qualitative investigation that examines the ways in which Australian primary teachers conceptualise geography and geography teaching. In the first part of the project, 47 pre-service primary teachers were surveyed. In this paper, I draw on interviews with six in-service primary teachers to…

  14. Implementing Cooperative Learning in Australian Primary Schools: Generalist Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Angela; Dionigi, Rylee A.

    2013-01-01

    To implement cooperative learning successfully in practice, teachers require knowledge of cooperative learning, its features and terms, and how it functions in classrooms. This qualitative study examined 12 Australian generalist primary teachers', understandings of cooperative learning and perceived factors affecting its implementation. Using…

  15. Sixth Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the abstracts of 77 lectures. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume

  16. Australian Studies in Europe and the Omnipresent Elephant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Australian Studies has to undergo a transformation from its overtly literary focus to a more interdisciplinary approach, if it is to have a viable future. Rather than seeing this as a moment of unproductive stalemate, the article argues for the advantages in developing such a new focus. Also the ...

  17. Aligning IT and Business Strategy: An Australian University Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Alignment with business objectives is considered to be an essential outcome of information technology (IT) strategic planning. This case study examines the process of creating an IT strategy for an Australian university using an industry standard methodology. The degree of alignment is determined by comparing the strategic priorities supported by…

  18. Working in Australian Universities: Pay Equity for Men and Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Belinda

    1998-01-01

    Reports a study of pay equity among both academic and nonacademic staff at 18 Australian universities. Addresses topics including employment level, tenure (faculty), age differences, years in higher education, family needs, employment qualifications, career progression, job content, and research productivity (faculty). (MSE)

  19. Australian Mining and Petroleum Law Association yearbook 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, B. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    Papers are presented under the following headings: state interest - Gawler Craton; constitutional law; confidential information; long term gas contracts - past, present and future; resource project financing; contracting for electricity; tax on transactions; joint venture issues; recent developments; climate change and the Kyoto Protocol - emissions trading and Australian resource industries; native title and cultural heritage and corporate governance. One paper has been abstracted separately.

  20. Dimensions and Domains of Organisational Effectiveness in Australian Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, Art

    1990-01-01

    Research in Australian higher education testing one theory of dimensions of organizational effectiveness is reviewed, and two theories are analyzed to develop a more comprehensive set of dimensions. The existing taxonomy is further defined, and the implications relating to recent structural adjustments in the higher education system are discussed.…

  1. Ideologies of Religion and Diversity in Australian Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In many multicultural democracies, education has a Christian history. However, teaching religion has ideological variation. Progressives teach about many religions, while conservatives favor (often exclusive) instruction into one tradition. Australian secular education controversially prioritizes faith-forming instruction (mostly Christian). In…

  2. Communicating Spending Cuts: Lessons for Australian University Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, two Australian university vice chancellors flagged spending cuts at their institutions to overcome financial problems. In both cases, union and staff opposition led to public protests, intense media scrutiny, delays and retreats. This article compares the two cases to see what lessons may be drawn for university leaders faced…

  3. Danish and Australian Television: The Impact of Format Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2007-01-01

    influences local television markets and leads to changes according to local competitive, financial, cultural and political conditions. It explores the impact of format adaptation on Danish and Australian prime-time schedules between 1995 and 2004/05, and its effect on local content and genres among the main...

  4. Glacial to Holocene swings of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, M.; Oppo, D.W.; Steinke, S.; Stuut, J.B.W.; De Pol-Holz, R.; Hebbeln, D.; Lückge, A.; Stuut, J.B.W.; De-Pol-Holz, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Australian-Indonesian monsoon is an important component of the climate system in the tropical Indo-Pacific region(1). However, its past variability, relation with northern and southern high-latitude climate and connection to the other Asian monsoon systems are poorly understood. Here we present

  5. Student Engagement and Departure Intention: An Australian University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackling, Beverley; Natoli, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the departure intentions of an Australian university business student cohort that is characterised by high levels of diversity in pre-entry attributes. The study investigates the level of student engagement using the academic and social integration components of the Student Engagement Questionnaire (SEQ) based on Tinto's model…

  6. Australian Vice-Chancellors: Incumbency Patterns in an Emerging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloper, David

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents baseline data about the incumbency of Australian vice-chancellors who held appointments from 1963 to 1983. Findings are that the average length of the incumbency has declined from 13.6 years to 8.0 years and that the subsequent period will witness even higher rates of turnover. (TE)

  7. Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

  8. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  9. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  10. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  11. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  12. Learning Mathematics: Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Children and Their Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…

  13. Educational Implications of the Values Held by Australian Aboriginal Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the values held by Australian aboriginal college students, which are more collective than those of non-aboriginal students, could help explain their low achievement levels. Longitudinal survey data indicated there were factors other than value systems that had a much greater impact on students' problems (e.g., lack of…

  14. Transferrin D1: identity in Australian aborigines and American Negroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A C; Sutton, H E; Scott, I D

    1967-05-19

    Human transferrin D(1) obtained from an Australian aborigine was found to have the same substitution of glycine for aspartic acid in peptide 1C previously shown in transferrin D(1) from an American Negro. This finding is relevant to formation of distinct Australoid and African populations. PMID:6023254

  15. Torres Strait Islanders and Australian Nationhood: Some Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the role of education in incorporating Australia's Melanesian minority, the Torres Strait Islanders, into the Australian nation. Reviews education on the Strait Islands from 1892 to 1985, focusing on issues related to educational standards, the inclusion of islanders within legislative provisions for Aborigines, immigration, and…

  16. Benefits of e-Learning Benchmarks: Australian Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sarojni

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 the Australian Flexible Learning Framework developed a suite of quantitative and qualitative indicators on the uptake, use and impact of e-learning in the Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. These indicators were used to design items for a survey to gather quantitative data for benchmarking. A series of four surveys gathered…

  17. Experiences of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended "Generation Next" seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the…

  18. Holiday and School-Term Sleep Patterns of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-01-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient…

  19. The Evolution of Technology: Landmarking Australian Secondary School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée

    2014-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the history of the inclusion of technology in Australian education with a focus on music education. There will be a discussion of some of the arguments for its inclusion and how these may have changed over time. Technology has always been actively present in music and its practice. However, it was through…

  20. Lead-210 in the Australian environment, 1964--70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive monitoring studies have been made of fission products arising from nuclear weapon tests and of naturally occurring radionuclides in the Australian environment. Methods are described for the sampling and radiochemical measurement procedures for lead-210 in air, precipitation, and drinking water. The results of measurements in Australia to the end of 1970 are reported. (U.S.)

  1. Australian Rural Education Award 1996 and Recipient's Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Judy

    1996-01-01

    Short descriptions and contact information for the 14 programs nominated for the 1996 Australian Rural Education Award. The winner's acceptance speech describes the Students at Risk Program at East Kalgoorlie Public School (Western Australia), a transportation and health support program developed from discussions with children and parents that…

  2. Rethinking Leadership in the Academy: An Australian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Stefano; Maxwell, Tudor; Dovey, Ken

    2014-01-01

    As with higher education institutions in other Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Australian universities are facing significant challenges. One particular challenge is that of the declining quality of the teaching and learning experience within the academy. This paper describes an attempt to sustain the quality of a…

  3. Economies of Scale and Scope in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, A. C.; Higgs, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates economies of scale and scope for 36 Australian universities using a multiple-input, multiple-output cost function over the period 1998-2006. The three inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff and physical capital. The five outputs are undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD…

  4. Functional Performance in Young Australian Children with Achondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth M.; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine population-specific developmental milestones for independence in self-care, mobility, and social cognitive skills in children with achondroplasia, the most common skeletal dysplasia. Methods: Population-based recruitment from October 2008 to October 2010 identified 44 Australian children with…

  5. Pruritis and palpable purpura from leeches in the Australian Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Seiverling, Elizabeth V.; Amrit Khalsa; Hadjh T. Ahrns

    2014-01-01

    Highlights • Leech saliva contains hirudin (a thrombin inhibitor) and histamine. • Leech bites cause pruritis (itching) and purpura (visible hemorrhage into the skin). • Some Australian leeches can transmit trypanosomal infections. • Saturated salt solution, alcohol, or vinegar, may ease leech removal.

  6. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains statutory rules made under the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 defining how specified standards to be observed, practices and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken by controlled persons in relation to activities relating to controlled facilities, as well as in relation to dealings with controlled apparatus or controlled material

  7. Supplement to a monograph of the Indo-Australian Clausiliidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1963-01-01

    Since the publication of my monograph of the Indo-Australian Clausiliidae (Loosjes, 1953) I obtained some additional information, consisting mainly of new distribution records and data on shell-structures. The present paper deals with these additional data, while furthermore two new species are desc

  8. Secondary Teacher Resignation in Western Australian: An Anthology of Existences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherston, Tony; Lummis, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Western Australian school have faced a significant increase in the number of secondary school teacher resignations. By analysing qualitative data gathered from interviews of 11 recently resigned secondary teachers, and three senior level administrators, the researchers sought to begin to understand the reasons behind a teacher…

  9. The Australian Geodetic Observing Program. Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, G.; Dawson, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Australian government has through programs like AuScope, the Asia Pacific Reference Frame (APREF), and the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring (PSLM) Project made a significant contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Program. In addition to supporting the national research priorities, this contribution is justified by Australia's growing economic dependence on precise positioning to underpin efficient transportation, geospatial data management, and industrial automation (e.g., robotic mining and precision agriculture) and the consequent need for the government to guarantee provision of precise positioning products to the Australian community. It is also well recognised within Australia that there is an opportunity to exploit our near unique position as being one of the few regions in the world to see all new and emerging satellite navigation systems including Galileo (Europe), GPS III (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Beidou (China), QZSS (Japan) and IRNSS (India). It is in this context that the Australian geodetic program will build on earlier efforts and further develop its key geodetic capabilities. This will include the creation of an independent GNSS analysis capability that will enable Australia to contribute to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and an upgrade of key geodetic infrastructure including the national VLBI and GNSS arrays. This presentation will overview the significant geodetic activities undertaken by the Australian government and highlight its future plans.

  10. Issues in English Language Assessment of Indigenous Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Although English is widely used by Indigenous Australians as the main means of communication, national testing has consistently raised questions as to the level of their English language and literacy achievement. This article examines contextual factors (historical, linguistic, cultural, socio-political and educational) which underlie this…

  11. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This document contains statutory rules made under the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 defining how specified standards to be observed, practices and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken by controlled persons in relation to activities relating to controlled facilities, as well as in relation to dealings with controlled apparatus or controlled material

  12. Non-Technical Skill Gaps in Australian Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Chapman, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The need for "job-ready" graduates has catalysed the development of non-technical skills in higher education institutions worldwide. Continued criticism of business school outcomes has provoked this examination of non-technical skill deficiencies in Australian business graduates. The purpose of this paper is to compare findings with…

  13. Exploring the Experience of Ten Australian Honours Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Honours study is viewed as a transition from undergraduate to postgraduate study and/or to enhanced career prospects. In Australia, Honours is usually an adjunct to the standard undergraduate degree. This paper provides an ethnographic study of 10 Australian Honours students. Seeing their experience through their reflections, in their own voices,…

  14. Shared Delivery: Integrating ELT in Australian Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how ESOL and vocational teachers in an Australian technical and further education (TAFE) institute work together to prepare students to complete their vocational courses and obtain employment. Students are concurrently enrolled in an ESOL and a vocational course, and the teachers of these courses work closely together, jointly…

  15. Knowing Asia: Creative Policy Translation in an Australian School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta

    2014-01-01

    Policy implementation at school level is often recognised as transformative enactment. Positioning school leaders as gatekeepers in this enactment is limiting. This study of one Australian school explores the complex contextualised agency of school leaders showing that their role, far more than gatekeeping, can be enabling and transformative.…

  16. Year 10 English: Australian Texts and the Battle for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson,, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The texts and classroom activities in this paper are a sample of those used within a unit on "The Battle for Survival". The unit brings classic Australian literary texts together with reportage on contemporary news events, and demonstrates an integrated approaches to the Literacy, Language and Literature strands of the AC:E. The unit concludes…

  17. Examining Education Qualifications for Australian Vocational Education Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kim Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the practice of professional development within the vocational education and training (VET) arena. The study objective was to explore appropriate education qualifications for Australian VET practitioners in the tourism and hospitality sector required for effective teaching practice. The study was conducted utilising…

  18. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  19. Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution in Australian Agricultural Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. GOURLEY; A. RIDLEY

    2005-01-01

    The Australian farming sector is continuing to intensify, particularly within 300 km of the east and southern coastlines.In the future there will be fewer and larger farms, which will use more fertilizer, support more stock, grow more monoculture crops, and utilise more marginal soils. This is likely to increase the major environmental impacts of soil degradation, salt,nutrient and sediment contamination of waterways, and greenhouse gas emissions. Australian national water policy continues to focus on land, stream and groundwater salinity issues, although there is now a greater recognition of the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agriculture. The general philosophy of policy for dealing with nonpoint source pollution has been towards a voluntary rather than regulatory approach, with state and national governments supporting a range of programs to encourage sustainable agricultural practices. A catchment (watershed) based approach,through the use of integrated catchment management plans, is the primary way that non-point source pollution is addressed at the farm and local level. At an industry level, cotton, grains, meat, sugarcane and dairy amongst others, as well as the Australian fertilizer industry, have responded to non-point source issues by investing in research and development, and developing codes of practice aimed at abating these environmental impacts. Understanding the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of farming as well as the environmental impacts of agriculture are very important in determining the appropriateness of policy responses for Australian farming systems.

  20. Eating Disorders among Indian and Australian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostedt, John P.; Schumaker, John F.; Nathawat, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influx of western-style eating disorders into India, Asia, and the southern Pacific region. Predicted Australian students would have more eating disorder symptoms, but instead, the Indian students showed more symptoms. Concludes substantial evidence of western-style eating disorders appear in the privileged socioeconomic class of…

  1. Quality Australian Journals in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to test the journal diffusion factor (JDF) as an alternative to journal impact factors (JIFs) for ranking journals. Bibliometric research methods were applied to rank Australian architecture, communications and education journals by the JDF; this was with the total number of citations they attract in ISI indexed…

  2. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  3. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  4. Intergenerational transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-Australian and Italian-Australian three-generation families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene

    2016-08-01

    Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families. PMID:27133550

  5. Australian Muslim civil society organisations: Pathways to social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Shikeen Amath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest on issues related to Muslims and Islam; however, a large concentration of the scholarly literature as well as media and political discourses focus predominantly on political issues and actions related to fundamentalism, radicalisation, militancy and terrorism. The dominance of these issues in the discourses does not provide a holistic understanding of Muslims, particularly their role, place and identity as minorities in a Western society. Indeed, we know relatively little about the larger number of Muslim political actors engaged in civil society, especially those involved in creating pathways to social inclusion. Utilising descriptive phenomenology, this paper explores the complex issues of social inclusion and the Australian Muslim communities. Underpinning this discussion is the theory of social capital; as noted by a number of scholars and social policy experts, the theory of social inclusion alone is inadequate and ineffective in creating participation, equality and cohesion. This paper also observes that while many reports and studies provide pragmatic suggestions on how to work towards the social inclusion of Australian Muslims, the concentration on these suggestions tend to focus on how the government can provide these solutions. What is lacking in the literature is the recognition of the Australian Muslim community’s role and agency in initiating and executing the programs needed to address such issues of social exclusion. The 30 unstructured phenomenological interviews demonstrate that Australian MCSOs are proactively engaging with their communities to ensure that they are responding appropriately to these issues. Moreover, they are creating pathways and access for Australian Muslims to better participate, engage in and contribute to mainstream society. In particular, the MCSO actors revealed four themes related to social inclusion: supporting participation in education and training, facilitating participation

  6. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Pamela W; Dickson, Hugh G; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Whyte, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AH...

  7. Homogenised Australian climate datasets used for climate change monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Bureau of Meteorology has developed a number of datasets for use in climate change monitoring. These datasets typically cover 50-200 stations distributed as evenly as possible over the Australian continent, and have been subject to detailed quality control and homogenisation.The time period over which data are available for each element is largely determined by the availability of data in digital form. Whilst nearly all Australian monthly and daily precipitation data have been digitised, a significant quantity of pre-1957 data (for temperature and evaporation) or pre-1987 data (for some other elements) remains to be digitised, and is not currently available for use in the climate change monitoring datasets. In the case of temperature and evaporation, the start date of the datasets is also determined by major changes in instruments or observing practices for which no adjustment is feasible at the present time. The datasets currently available cover: Monthly and daily precipitation (most stations commence 1915 or earlier, with many extending back to the late 19th century, and a few to the mid-19th century); Annual temperature (commences 1910); Daily temperature (commences 1910, with limited station coverage pre-1957); Twice-daily dewpoint/relative humidity (commences 1957); Monthly pan evaporation (commences 1970); Cloud amount (commences 1957) (Jovanovic etal. 2007). As well as the station-based datasets listed above, an additional dataset being developed for use in climate change monitoring (and other applications) covers tropical cyclones in the Australian region. This is described in more detail in Trewin (2007). The datasets already developed are used in analyses of observed climate change, which are available through the Australian Bureau of Meteorology website (http://www.bom.gov.au/silo/products/cli_chg/). They are also used as a basis for routine climate monitoring, and in the datasets used for the development of seasonal

  8. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurrin Lyle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001 and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity of participants from each of the 13 regions compared to the Australian-born population. Results There was a greater prevalence of physical inactivity for female immigrants from most regions compared to male immigrants from a like region. Immigrants from South East Asia (OR 2.04% 95% CI 1.63, 2.56, Other Asia (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.10, 2.13, Other Oceania (1.81 95% CI 1.11, 2.95, the Middle East (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.97, 2.06 [note: border line significance] and Southern & Eastern Europe are at a significantly higher risk of being physically inactive compared to those born in Australian. In contrast, immigrants from New Zealand (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.62, 0.94, the UK & Ireland (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.73, 0.92, and other Africa (OR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94 are at a significantly lower risk of being physically inactive compared to the Australian born population. Conclusion Future research identifying potential barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity will inform culturally sensitive physical activity programs that aim to encourage members of specific regional ethnic sub-groups to undertake physical activity.

  9. Environmental risks associated with unconventional gas extraction: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Dirk; Bekele, Elise; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Miotlinski, Konrad; Gerke Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal seam gas is naturally occurring methane gas (CH4) formed by the degradation of organic material in coal seam layers over geological times, typically over several millions of years. Unlike conventional gas resources, which occur as discrete accumulations in traps formed by folds and other structures in sedimentary layers, coal seam gas is generally trapped in low permeable rock by adsorption of the gas molecules within the rock formation and cannot migrate to a trap and form a conventional gas deposit. Extraction of coal seam gas requires producers to de pressurise the coal measures by abstracting large amounts of groundwater through pumping. For coal measures that have too low permeabilities for gas extraction to be economical, mechanical and chemical techniques are required to increase permeability and thus gas yield. One such technique is hydraulic fracturing (HF). Hydraulic fracturing increases the rate and total amount of gas extracted from coal seam gas reservoirs. The process of hydraulic fracturing involves injecting large volumes of hydraulic fracturing fluids under high pressure into the coal seam layers to open up (i.e. fracture) the gas-containing coal layers, thus facilitating extraction of methane gas through pumping. After a hydraulic fracturing operation has been completed in a coal seam gas well, the fracturing fluid pressure is lowered and a significant proportion of the injected fluid returns to the surface as "flowback" water via coal seam gas wells. Flowback water is fluid that returns to the surface after hydraulic fracturing has occurred but before the well is put into production; whereas produced water is fluid from the coal measure that is pumped to the surface after the well is in production. This paper summarises available literature data from Australian coal seam gas practices on i) spills from hydraulic fracturing-related fluids used during coal seam gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, ii) leaks to soil and shallow

  10. Australian climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on impacts, adaptation and vulnerability made the following conclusions about Australia (Hennessy et al., 2007): Regional climate change has occurred. Since 1950, there has been 0.70C warming, with more heat waves, fewer frosts, more rain in north-west Australia, less rain in southern and eastern Australia, an increase in the intensity of Australian droughts and a rise in sea level of about 70 mm. Australia is already experiencing impacts from recent climate change. These are now evident in increasing stresses on water supply and agriculture, changed natural ecosystems, and reduced seasonal snow cover. Some adaptation has already occurred in response to observed climate change. Examples come from sectors such as water, natural ecosystems, agriculture, horticulture and coasts. However, ongoing vulnerability to extreme events is demonstrated by substantial economic losses caused by droughts, floods, fire, tropical cyclones and hail. The climate of the 21st century is virtually certain to be warmer, with changes in extreme events. Heat waves and fires are virtually certain to increase in intensity and frequency. Floods, landslides, droughts and storm surges are very likely to become more frequent and intense, and snow and frost are very likely to become less frequent. Large areas of mainland Australia are likely to have less soil moisture. Potential impacts of climate change are likely to be substantial without further adaptation; As a result of reduced precipitation and increased evaporation, water security problems are projected to intensify by 2030 in southern and eastern Australia; Ongoing coastal development and population growth, in areas such as Cairns and south-east Queensland, are projected to exacerbate risks from sea level rise and increases in the severity and frequency of storms and coastal flooding by 2050. Significant loss of biodiversity is projected to occur by 2020 in some ecologically rich

  11. Spectral Information System for Australian Spectroscopy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, L. A.; Ong, C.; Hueni, A.; Suarez, L.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.

    2013-12-01

    data processing. When associated with intelligent software, data is not only retrievable and usable by other users or systems, but additional processing functionalities become available which further transform the data/information held by the information system (Chisholm et al 2013). The Australian remote sensing community has moved towards a system that can support scientists in analysing their data using the full potential of combined metadata spaces (Wason and Wiley, 2000) and spectral spaces (Hueni et al 2012). Combined with efforts towards establishing a metadata standard, the development of best practice protocols, and conceptualisation of the spectroscopy data life cycle, a series of operational case studies from operational testing serve to highlight the capacity of the system to capture and manage an expanding range of spectroscopy research data. This paper will summarise case studies to illustrate the use of the system as data repository and as a platform for post-processing and storage of according results in the database. This approach will address the use of the system to characterize vegetation attributes which infer function, and uses which demonstrate the generic nature of the SPECCHIO system for the handling of in-situ spectral data and metadata, and as a platform for post-processing and storage of according results in the database.

  12. Unlocking the Australian Landsat Archive – From dark data to High Performance Data infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B.J. Purss

    2015-06-01

    The key outcome of the project was the migration of the raw Landsat data that was housed in tape archives at Geoscience Australia to High Performance Data facilities hosted by the National Computational Infrastructure (a super computer facility located at the Australian National University. Once this migration was completed the data were calibrated to produce a living and accessible archive of sensor and scene independent data products derived from Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 data for the period 1998–2012. The calibrated data were organized into High Performance Data structures, underpinned by ISO/OGC standards and web services, which have opened up a vast range of opportunities to efficiently apply these data to applications across multiple scientific domains.

  13. Overload and work-family conflict among Australian dual-career families: moderating effects of support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloy, David F; Mackie, Beth

    2002-12-01

    Individuals in dual-career situations have become increasingly common all over the world. For couples dealing with multiple demands, this lifestyle often generates stresses and strains at home and at work, which can have negative consequences for organizations. Most empirical research into this lifestyle has been conducted in the United States and Britain, and very little in Australia. This particular study, based on data from an Australian sample of 65 dual-career couples, analyzed the relation between overload and work-family conflict and the moderating effects of support (supervisor, coworkers, and friends). Results confirm that overload was significantly related to work-family conflict but no moderating effects were found for support. Limitations of the study and an organizational role in managing the work-family interface dual-career couples are discussed. PMID:12530741

  14. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  15. [book review] Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds -- Les Christidis and Walter E. Boles. Collingwood, VIC, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry

    2009-01-01

    Systematists argue that the importance of our work lies not only in the elucidation of evolutionary relationships, but also in the incorporation of evolutionary information into classifications and the use of these classifications by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, professional scientists, and others interested in biodiversity. If this is true, and I think that it is, then synthetic publications that make our findings accessible to a wide audience, such as Christidis and Boles' new Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds, may be among the most significant works that we publish.

  16. Investigation of metal toxicity to tropical biota. Recommendations for revision of Australian water quality guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific objectives of this study were to: review available data on the toxicity of metals to aquatic biota in tropical Australia; identify metals considered to be priority toxicants to aquatic biota in tropical Australia; and employ previously developed toxicity testing protocols for two tropical freshwater species to obtain preliminary toxicity data for two priority metals. From the literature review, it was concluded that insufficient metal toxicity data exist for Australian tropical species. Data were absent for a range of metals (eg Ag, As, Al, Cr, Hg, Ni, Sb and Se) listed in the current Australian water quality guidelines. Aluminium, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, U, V and Zn were identified as priority metals of potential ecotoxicological concern in aquatic ecosystems of tropical Australia, largely as a consequence of mining activities, but also from urban impacts. Instead of testing the toxicity of the priority metals for which data do not currently exist (ie Al, Co, Ni and V), it was deemed more important to conduct further experimental work on Cu and U, in the context of elucidating the relatively high variability in the toxic response of these two metals. As a result, Cu and U were selected and toxicity tests conducted using two tropical freshwater species (green hydra (Hydra viridissima) and gudgeon fish (Mogurnda mogurnda)) from the Australian wet/dry tropics using test protocols designed to maximise the greatest sensitivity of metal response in the shortest period of time. Hydra viridissima was about eight times more sensitive to Cu than U, whereas M. mogurnda was about twenty times more sensitive. Once differences between the sublethal and lethal endpoints of the two organisms were corrected by statistical extrapolation, H. viridissima was approximately seven times more sensitive than M. mogurnda to U, but only about three times more sensitive to Cu. Both species were more sensitive to Cu than U. These results are generally consistent with those from

  17. Gene frequencies of human platelet antigens 1-5 in indigenous Australians in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J A; Palmer, L J; Musk, A W; Erber, W N

    2002-06-01

    The frequencies of human platelet antigen (HPA) systems vary between different racial groups; however, HPA frequency data for some racial groups are still incomplete. We report the distribution of HPA 1-5 systems in Australian Aborigines from a remote community in the north-west of Australia and compare our findings with HPA observed in a Western Australian blood donor population. Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with sequence-specific primers, 185 indigenous Australians and 1000 Western Australian blood donors were genotyped for each of the HPA 1-5 systems. Comparison of gene frequencies of alleles from HPA-1, -2, -3 and -5 systems showed significant differences between Aboriginal people and Western Australian blood donors (P Australian Aboriginals, from this study, was one of the lowest reported, whilst the frequency of HPA-5b (0.246) was one of the highest for this allele. Gene frequencies were similar to those reported for central Australian Aborigines but with no other ethnic group. In conclusion, this study confirms significant differences in HPA distributions between indigenous Australians, Australian blood donors and other racial groups. These results indicate a higher potential risk of alloimmunization to HPA-1, -2 and -3 in Australian Aborigines receiving transfusion therapy from a Caucasian blood donor population, thereby having practical implications for transfusion and pregnancy risks in people of Aboriginal origin. PMID:12071877

  18. Invariance of Parent Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in Australian and Malaysian, and North European Australian and Malay Malaysia Children: A Mean and Covariance Structures Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study used the mean and covariance structures analysis approach to examine the equality or invariance of ratings of the 18 ADHD symptoms. Method: 783 Australian and 928 Malaysian parents provided ratings for an ADHD rating scale. Invariance was tested across these groups (Comparison 1), and North European Australian (n = 623) and…

  19. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  20. Introduction of Social Sciences in Australian Natural Resource Management Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Roughley

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the integration, from 1978 to 2002, of six social scientists in five Australian natural resource management agencies: CSIRO Australia, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, the Murray Darling Basin Commission, the Western Australian Social Impact Unit, and the Queensland Social Impact Assessment Unit. All but one of the social scientists in the study occupied the first formal social science position in the respective agency. The organisational arrangements for integration, the roles of the social scientists and achievements of social science programs in those agencies illustrate a number of integration approaches and insights for effectively integrating social and natural science. Insights emanating from this research will be useful to inform future natural resource management that avoids integration failures. This paper illustrates both significant impediments to integration in practice and positive examples of integrated multidisciplinary approaches in natural resource management.

  1. Environmental risk assessment: an Australian perspective. Supervising Scientist Report 102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental risk assessment can be used as a strategic tool to set environmental priorities and as a tactical tool to set environmental standards. This report is designed to inform Australian environmental managers about the techniques and applications of environmental risk assessment and to familiarize risk analysts with some of the issues that are of concern to environmental managers. The use of risk assessment is illustrated by applying its techniques to five case studies which include: risk from chemicals and from contaminated sites; risk to people and to the natural environment from development, such as uranium mining; climate change; and risk associated with political decision-making. Then, by considering Australian and overseas practice, a generic framework is presented within which environmental risk assessment in Australia can be undertaken, and possible methods of implementation are discussed. refs., 38 figs

  2. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new......As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... insights into cross-cultural similarities and differences, into elaboration likelihood differences among consumer segments, and show how the involvement construct may be used as basis for communication development....

  3. Securitization of Migration: an Australian case study of global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Humphrey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Post September 11 migration has increasingly been framed as a security problem. In the 2010 Australian election campaign migration was connected to security (defense of our borders, terrorism and social cohesion and to related issues of insecurity about the future (population size,sustainability and economic growth. Thisframing of migration as a national security issue overlooks the reality that Australian immigration is part of the global flow of population. Migration is an international issue experienced by states as a national question of border control and sovereignty seeking to manage the consequences of global inequality and mobility. This paper analyses the 'security turn' in migration debates in Australia and the North and the way the securitization of migration signifies the transformation of security from the problem of producing national order to the problem of managing global disorder resulting in the merging of national and international security strategies.

  4. The Australian Movement against Uranium Mining: Its Rationale and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Branagan

    2014-09-01

    The paper then describes how the movement evolved between the Roxby and Jabiluka blockades, with changes to the movement’s philosophy, strategy, tactics and internal dynamics. This analysis includes a comparison between two anti-nuclear bike rides, one a year after the 1984 Roxby blockade and involving some of the same activists, and another at the time of the Jabiluka blockade. This author was present at all these events, and provides an emic (insider perspective within a longitudinal participant-observation methodology. Although this perspective obviously has a subjective element, the paper fills a gap in that there is little written history of these blockades (particularly Roxby and more generally of Australian resistance to uranium mining, let alone the aspects of nonviolence and movement evolution. It is an introductory history of these campaigns, examining the direct action components, the practicalities of nonviolent campaigning, and the evolution of Australian anti-uranium activism.

  5. The Ralph review - tax reform and the Australian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the Federal Government's tax reform package on the Australian gas industry will be generally negative, particularly in terms of infrastructure investment, according to Pricewaterhouse Coopers' Peter Hordern and Ian Kellock. This article examines the critical aspects of the package. Overall, the impact of the tax reform package (consisting of the Ralph committee's report and the Government's initial response) on the Australian gas industry would appear to be negative. The removal of accelerated depreciation and the potential for severe limitations on leasing arrangements is particularly bad news. While the proposed reduction in the company tax rate may appear positive, this is unlikely to provide significant benefit to the industry. The reality is existing gas infrastructure investors are generally in tax losses and will derive no immediate benefit from the rate change. For new investors, the reduction in rate will not offset the loss of accelerated depreciation deductions

  6. Implementing Business Process Redesign: early lessons from the Australian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Broadbent

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Redesign (BPR is a change management approach aimed at achieving quantum improvements in business performance. Industry interest levels in BPR are high as a direct result of current difficulties in the global economic climate and tight business conditions. Integral to BPR is the availability of new stable technologies which both stimulate and enable process changes. This paper highlights the experiences of a number of Australian firms which have implemented BPR. A ten step framework for BPR is presented together with a series of caveats. BPR is a difficult, messy and often non-linear activity which challenges many of the ways organisations operate. Information Technology plays a pivotal role in BPR as both an enabler and disenabler for change. Lessons emerging from early Australian experiences with BPR focus on the role of executive sponsorship, consultants, measurements, education and training, technology and people involved in the change process.

  7. Transient coupling relationships of the Holocene Australian monsoon

    CERN Document Server

    McRobie, Fiona H; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The modern-day northwest Australian summer monsoon is dynamically coupled to other regional monsoon systems and inflows from the Indian Ocean, however, the nature of these relationships over longer time scales is uncertain. Previous attempts to evaluate how proxy records from the Indonesian-Australian monsoon region correspond to other records from the Indian and East Asian monsoon regions, as well as to El Ni\\~no-related proxy records, has been qualitative, relying on `curve-fitting' methods. Here, we seek a quantitative approach for identifying coupling relationships between paleoclimate proxy records, employing statistical techniques to compute the interdependence of two paleoclimate time series. We verify the use of complex networks to identify coupling relationships between modern climate indices which correspond to physically-based mechanisms. This method is then extended to a set of paleoclimate proxy records from the Asian, Australasian and South American regions spanning the past 9,000 years. The res...

  8. Did Aboriginal vegetation burning affect the Australian summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    For thousands of years, Aboriginal Australians burned forests, creating grasslands. Some studies have suggested that in addition to changing the landscape, these burning practices also affected the timing and intensity of the Australian summer monsoon. Different vegetation types can alter evaporation, roughness, and surface reflectivity, leading to changes in the weather and climate. On the basis of an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model, Notaro et al. conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of decreased vegetation cover on the summer monsoon in northern Australia. They found that although decreased vegetation cover would have had only minor effects during the height of the monsoon season, during the premonsoon season, burning-induced vegetation loss would have caused significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature. Thus, by burning forests, Aboriginals altered the local climate, effectively extending the dry season and delaying the start of the monsoon season. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047774, 2011)

  9. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2009-12-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

  10. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

  11. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  12. The effect of a carbon Tax on Australian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commonwealth Government has adopted an interim planning target of stabilizing emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide based on 1988 levels, by the year 2000, and reducing these emissions by 20% by the year 2005. The Government also agreed that Australia will not adopt measures which would damage Australia's competitiveness, in the absence of similar action by major greenhouse gas producing countries. This paper reports on a study, carried out by London Economics, which assesses the impact of a carbon tax on the international competitiveness of energy-intensive australian industries. A special feature of the study is that analysis is done at a disaggregated level using information on all major world plant in each of the industries. The study finds that a tax imposed to meet the Toronto target would virtually wipe out australian steel and aluminium industries and have a severe impact on the coal industry. 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  14. Do East Australian Current anticyclonic eddies leave the Tasman Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Gabriela S.; Oke, Peter R.; Rykova, Tatiana; Coleman, Richard; Ridgway, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Using satellite altimetry and high-resolution model output we analyze the pathway of large, long-lived anticyclonic eddies that originate near the East Australian Current (EAC) separation point. We show that 25-30% of these eddies propagate southward, around Tasmania, leave the Tasman Sea, and decay in the Great Australian Bight. This pathway has not been previously documented owing to poor satellite sampling off eastern Tasmania. As eddies propagate southward, they often "stall" for several months at near-constant latitude. Along the pathway eddies become increasingly barotropic. Eddy intensity is primarily influenced by merging with other eddies and a gradual decay otherwise. Surface temperature anomaly associated with anticyclonic eddies changes as they propagate, while surface salinity anomaly tends to remain relatively unchanged as they propagate.

  15. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  16. Alternative Australian climate change plans: The public's views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has come to the forefront of Australian politics and there is now an active on-going policy debate about how to best reach a commonly agreed long term goal. This paper looks at five major dimensions of this debate and constructs policy options based on them. A discrete choice experiment approach was used with a representative sample from a major internet panel provider. Survey respondents made choices between pairs of policy options with different characteristics. They favored policies starting in 2010 rather than 2012, and spending 20% of revenue raised on energy-related R and D. They were almost evenly split on whether the plan should initially exempt the transport sector and two competing approaches that redistribute revenue from the plan, and, they opposed plans giving special treatment to energy-intensive sectors of the economy. A number of other policy relevant questions related to understanding Australian views and knowledge related to climate change also were asked.

  17. Alternative Australian climate change plans. The public's views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has come to the forefront of Australian politics and there is now an active on-going policy debate about how to best reach a commonly agreed long term goal. This paper looks at five major dimensions of this debate and constructs policy options based on them. A discrete choice experiment approach was used with a representative sample from a major internet panel provider. Survey respondents made choices between pairs of policy options with different characteristics. They favored policies starting in 2010 rather than 2012, and spending 20% of revenue raised on energy-related R and D. They were almost evenly split on whether the plan should initially exempt the transport sector and two competing approaches that redistribute revenue from the plan, and, they opposed plans giving special treatment to energy-intensive sectors of the economy. A number of other policy relevant questions related to understanding Australian views and knowledge related to climate change also were asked. (author)

  18. Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2006-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the most comprehensive statistical information available on the Western Australian minerals and petroleum industry. The statistics in this Digest show that in 2006-07 the value of sales by the State's minerals and petroleum sector set a new record, rising by 25 per cent to reach $53.4 billion. This follows a decade of average annual growth of twelve per cent. This record result was driven by strong overseas demand for our resources and rising commodity prices. Despite the robust nature of the industry, the year produced many challenges and the impressive result was achieved against a background of a strengthening Australian dollar, adverse weather conditions, skills shortages and mining equipment supply constraints

  19. Contributions of foods to sodium in the Australian food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, H; Smith, A M; Maples, J; Wills, R B

    1984-06-01

    The sodium contributions of various foods in the Australian supply have been calculated by applying recent local food composition data to food availability data and to typical notional Australian diets. Sodium available for consumption from the food supply was 3.00 g per capita per day. Of foods which are salted during processing, the three heaviest contributors of sodium were bread (23 per cent of total available sodium), processed meat and fish (14 per cent), and margarine (8 per cent). Other important contributors were breakfast cereals, biscuits, cheese, butter, potato crisps, dried soups and cakes (including pastries, pies and puddings). Foods identified by health authorities as 'highly salted' and thus prime targets for reduced consumption, provided 33 per cent of total available sodium, less than the 50 per cent contributed by other foods salted during processing. Take-away foods per se did not contribute more sodium than processed foods generally. PMID:6480405

  20. Patterning of organic semiconductors for photovoltaic applications by LIFT technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitl, Přemysl; Vrňata, M.; Vlček, Jan; Tomeček, D.; Kopecký, D.; Novotný, Michal; Lančok, Ján

    Canberra: Australian National University, 2015 - (Rode, A.). P 182 ISBN 978 0 64694 286 5. [COLA 2015. International Conference on Laser Ablation 2015. 31.08.2015-04.09.2015, Cairns] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic semiconductors * laser deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Projection of Australian coal production : Comparisons of four models

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Steve; Höök, Mikael; Mudd, Gavin; Evans, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Coal exports are an important source of revenue for Australia and for this reason Australian coal production and resources have been examined in detail. Two recoverable resource estimates, a Standard case and a High case, were determined. The Standard case calculated the likely recoverable coal resources in Australia to be 317 Gt, whereas the High scenario determined the maximal amount of recoverable coal resources at 367 Gt. The study performed forecasting by use of curve-fitting with Logist...

  2. ICT adoption policy of Australian and Croatian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Hazbo Skoko; Branka Krivokapic-Skoko; Marinko Skare; Arnela Ceric

    2013-01-01

    Many SMEs are currently adopting information and communication technology (ICT) and services based on it. However, there is little systematic research into how they are doing this and what are the organisational and environmental factors associated with this adoption. In this article, the authors build the model of ICT adoption in Australian and Croatian SMEs, founded on premises that SMEs are the main economic developing factor in all modern economies and that the adoption and the use of ICT...

  3. Simulation for Evolution of the Australian Netting Spider PM Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Vernon

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a simulated evolution project, which had the goal of simulating the refractive components of the PM eye of Australian netting spider diopis subrufus on a desktop computer. The model for the simulation is the anatomy of the eye described by Blest and Land [Ble & Lan 1977]. The evolution simulation was able to produce hundreds of eyes with equivalent optical qualities to the measured eyes for the phenotype of the netting spider. These artificially evolved eyes began to occ...

  4. The Fruits of Abdication: Australian Multi-employer Award Respondency

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Plowman; Malcolm Rimmer

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of Australian multi-employer awards. It suggests that these awards do not exhibit occupational, industry or representational concentration and thus follow no clear rational principles. The hybrid award system is sub-optimal and can be explained by employer associations' neglect in the formative period of arbitration. Multi-employer awards are in need of reform if Australia is to become and remain internationally competitive.

  5. Voluntary Demand for Auditing by Farm Businesses: An Australian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Peter; Tanewski, George

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates voluntary demand for auditing by Australian farm businesses, a significant but relatively unexplored segment of the economy. Most farms operate as family partnerships or sole proprietors and we thus focus on incentives to audit arising from internal sources (owner-manager), controlling for traditional incentives arising from external contractual constraints (i.e., debt), organisational characteristics (i.e., size), and agency conflict. We hypothesise that an external a...

  6. Characteristics and drivers of baseflow response in 183 Australian catchments

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2009-01-01

    Daily streamflow data for 183 Australian catchments were used to assess the characteristics and main drivers of baseflow and quick flow behaviour, and to find an appropriate balance between simplicity and explanatory performance in modelling. Baseflow separation was performed following the Wittenberg algorithm. A linear reservoir model (one parameter) produced baseflow estimates as good as those obtained using a non-linear reservoir (two parameters) and was therefore considered the mor...

  7. The Potential Impact of Digital Currencies on the Australian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Mustafa; Gardiner, Michael; Lane, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Crypto-currencies like Bitcoins are relatively recent phenomena on the online Internet landscape and an emerging force in the financial sector. While not conforming to traditional institutional practices, they are gaining increasing acceptance as viable commercial currencies. In this conceptual paper we discuss the potential impact of digital currency technology on the Australian economy, including the (i) payments sector, (ii) retail sector, and (iii) banking sector; and explore potential wa...

  8. Vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in Australian marsupials

    OpenAIRE

    Parameswaran, N.; O’Handley, R.M.; Grigg, M. E.; Wayne, A.; Thompson, R.C.A.

    2009-01-01

    To date, little is known about the dynamics of vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in Australian marsupials. Studies in mice demonstrate that vertical transmission of T. gondii is common and that chronically infected mice can transmit T. gondii to successive generations. In this study, PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect T. gondii in chronically infected marsupial dams and their offspring. T. gondii was detected in the unfurred pouch young of 2 out of 10 chronically infect...

  9. Environmental and Social Disclosure in Australian Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaolu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how Australian mining industry performs in environmental and social disclosure. There is growing public consensus that corporations should take responsibility for their environmental and social activities, which have already produced a massive amount of social problems such as wastes or pollutions. In response to the increasing public demand, environmental and social disclosure has developed rapidly during last decades. The paper tries to attribute to t...

  10. Marketing Strategy : Company X Entering the Australian Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukrejev, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to identify which marketing strategy is most effective for wine producing companies to enter and compete on the Australian wine market with excessive supply and diminishing demand. The purpose of the thesis was to create a marketing strategy for the commissioner, a case company, referred to as Company X for confidential reasons. Secondary research, predominantly based on marketing literature and governmental statistics, was conducted to create the th...

  11. Source-finding for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Matthew; Humphreys, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) presents a number of challenges in the area of source finding and cataloguing. The data rates and image sizes are very large, and require automated processing in a high-performance computing environment. This requires development of new tools, that are able to operate in such an environment and can reliably handle large datasets. These tools must also be able to accommodate the different types of observations ASKAP will make: continuum ...

  12. Gender, age, and ethnicity in immigration for an Australian nation

    OpenAIRE

    R Fincher

    1997-01-01

    Since the Second World War, large-scale immigration has been promoted by successive Australian governments as vital to national development. Most accounts of the content and implementation of the resulting immigration policies, particularly until the demise of the White Australia policy in 1972, have emphasised their racism. The ideal immigrant under these policies, however, was not merely of particular birthplace and ethnicity, but also had specified gender and age characteristics. The autho...

  13. Australian uranium exports: nuclear issues and the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction; formulation of uranium policy (the public debate; the Ranger Enquiry into all environmental aspects of a proposal by the AAEC and Ranger Uranium Mines to develop certain uranium deposits in the Northern Territory of Australia; the Government's decision); issues (non-proliferation and uranium safeguards policy; uranium enrichment in Australia; government involvement in uranium development; U development and environmental protection; U development and the Australian aborigines); conclusions. (U.K.)

  14. Australian diagnostic reference levels for multi detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is undertaking web based surveys to obtain data to establish national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for diagnostic imaging. The first set of DRLs to be established are for multi detector computed tomography (MDCT). The survey samples MDCT dosimetry metrics: dose length product (DLP, mGy.cm) and volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol, mGy), for six common protocols/habitus: Head, Neck, Chest, AbdoPelvis, ChestAbdoPelvis and Lumbar Spine from individual radiology clinics and platforms. A practice reference level (PRL) for a given platform and protocol is calculated from a compliant survey containing data collected from at least ten patients. The PRL is defined as the median of the DLP/CTDIvol values for a single compliant survey. Australian National DRLs are defined as the 75th percentile of the distribution of the PRLs for each protocol and age group. Australian National DRLs for adult MDCT have been determined in terms of DLP and CTDIvol. In terms of DLP the national DRLs are 1,000 mGy cm, 600 mGy cm, 450 mGy cm, 700 mGy cm, 1,200 mGy cm, and 900 mGy cm for the protocols Head, Neck, Chest, AbdoPelvis, ChestAbdoPelvis and Lumbar Spine respectively. Average dose values obtained from the European survey Dose Datamed I reveal Australian doses to be higher by comparison for four out of the six protocols. The survey is ongoing, allowing practices to optimise dose delivery as well as allowing the periodic update of DRLs to reflect changes in technology and technique.

  15. Assessing the Efficiency of the Australian Higher Education Export Sector

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOOD, Amir; McKay, Darren

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the efficiency of the Australian higher education sector in exporting education services. Little attempt has been made to date to quantify this sector’s export efficiency, and therefore this paper attempts to contribute toward filling this void. Efficiency is measured by comparing export income generated by this sector with the domestic resource costs incurred in providing these services. As such this paper goes further than merely comparing university fees to costs by att...

  16. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along ...

  17. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} (Samarium-153 EDTMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, N.R.; Whitwell, J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Australian Radioisotopes

    1997-10-01

    Quadramet{sup T} (Samarium-153 EDTMP) has been shown overseas to be potentially useful in the palliation of painful osteoblastic skeletal metastases and has been approved this year for general marketing in the USA. Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) has licensed this product from the Australian patent holders, Dow Chemical. Within the facilities of ARI, a hot cell has been dedicated to this product and fitted out to manufacture it weekly on a cycle related to the operating cycle of the Australian reactor HIFAR. Due to neutron flux limitations of HIFAR, the local formulation has an elemental Samarium content up to 200{mu}g/mL whereas the overseas formulation has a level of 20-46{mu}g/mL. All other specifications of the two products are essentially the same. In 1995 and 1996 a small clinical trial with 19 patients was held which demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic behaviour was also essentially the same by measuring blood clearance rates and skeletal uptake dynamics. Soft tissue uptake was also qualitatively determined. The ARI version is now the subject of an application for general marketing within Australia. Some useful characteristics of this agent are: almost complete excretion or fixation in the skeleton within 6 hours, rapid onset of clinical effect, applicability in most cases where an abnormal diagnostic bone scan correlates with painful sites, dosage can be tailored to individual patient uptake due to easy dose measurement and retreatment is quite possible. The use of this class of agents in pain palliation continues to increase. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} provides a further option in the management of these difficult cases

  18. Fiscal Responsibility and Australian Commonwealth , State and Territory Government Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Wines

    2006-01-01

    The government sector in Australia has seen the introduction of accrual accounting principles in recent years. However, this process has been complicated by the presence of two alternative financial reporting frameworks in the form of a) the Government Finance Statistics (GFS) uniform framework and b) the accrual accounting rules specified in Australian professional accounting standards, principally AAS 31. While a variety of cash and accrual based measurements are available pursuant to these...

  19. Australian Wage and Price Inflation: 1971-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Lynne Cockerell; Bill Russell

    1995-01-01

    This paper estimates an imperfect competition model of price and wage adjustment for Australia. The results suggest the Australian economy can be characterised as one where firms are trying to achieve their desired long-run income share while workers are primarily concerned with maintaining their real wage. The estimation of the price-wage model is complicated by two problems; namely the substantial and persistent changes in income shares and the changing means in the inflation series over th...

  20. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  1. Glacial to Holocene swings of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mohtadi; Oppo, D. W.; Steinke, S.; De Pol-Holz, R.; Hebbeln, D.; Lückge, A.; Stuut, J.B.W.; De-Pol-Holz, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Australian-Indonesian monsoon is an important component of the climate system in the tropical Indo-Pacific region(1). However, its past variability, relation with northern and southern high-latitude climate and connection to the other Asian monsoon systems are poorly understood. Here we present high-resolution records of monsoon-controlled austral winter upwelling during the past 22,000 years, based on planktic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes and faunal composition in a sedimentary archive ...

  2. Cerebral lateralization determines hand preferences in Australian parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Culum; Magat, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Individual preference for the use of one limb over the other to explore the environment or manipulate objects is common trait among vertebrates. Here, we explore the hypothesis that limb preference is determined by the engagement of a particular cerebral hemisphere to analyse certain stimuli. We recorded the eye and foot preferences of 322 individuals from 16 species of Australian parrots while investigating potential food items. Across all species, eye preferences explained 99 per cent of th...

  3. Evaluating Junior Secondary Science Textbook Usage in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine V.

    2016-08-01

    A large body of research has drawn attention to the importance of providing engaging learning experiences in junior secondary science classes, in an attempt to attract more students into post-compulsory science courses. The reality of time and resource constraints, and the high proportion of non-specialist science teachers teaching science, has resulted in an overreliance on more transmissive pedagogical tools, such as textbooks. This study sought to evaluate the usage of junior secondary science textbooks in Australian schools. Data were collected via surveys from 486 schools teaching junior secondary (years 7-10), representing all Australian states and territories. Results indicated that most Australian schools use a science textbook in the junior secondary years, and textbooks are used in the majority of science lessons. The most highly cited reason influencing choice of textbook was layout/colour/illustrations, and electronic technologies were found to be the dominant curricula material utilised, in addition to textbooks, in junior secondary science classes. Interestingly, the majority of respondents expressed high levels of satisfaction with their textbooks, although many were keen to stress the subsidiary role of textbooks in the classroom, emphasising the textbook was `one' component of their teaching repertoire. Importantly, respondents were also keen to stress the benefits of textbooks in supporting substitute teachers, beginning teachers, and non-specialist science teachers; in addition to facilitating continuity of programming and staff support in schools with high staff turnover. Implications from this study highlight the need for high quality textbooks to support teaching and learning in Australian junior secondary science classes.

  4. Modelling the Research Output of Australian Universities by Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Ville, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates a cross-sectional model for forecasting research output across the Australian university system. It builds upon an existing literature that focuses either on institutional comparisons or studies of specific subjects, by providing discipline-specific results across all of the ten major disciplinary areas as defined by Australia’s Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST). The model draws upon four discipline-specific explanatory variables; staff siz...

  5. Ranking and Clustering Australian University Research Performance, 1998-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Worthington, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper clusters and ranks the research performance of thirty-seven Australian universities over the period 1998-2002. Research performance is measured according to audited numbers of PhD completions, publications and grants (in accordance with rules established by the Department of Education, Science and Training) and analysed in both total and per academic staff terms. Hierarchical cluster analysis supports a binary division between fifteen higher and twenty-two lower-performing universi...

  6. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupink, Tim H; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M

    2016-06-21

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537-542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the "Out of Africa" model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  7. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  8. Mitochondrial control-region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians.

    OpenAIRE

    van Holst Pellekaan, S; Frommer, M.; Sved, J; Boettcher, B.

    1998-01-01

    The mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable segment 1 (mt HVS1) between nucleotides 15997 and 16377 has been examined in aboriginal Australian people from the Darling River region of New South Wales (riverine) and from Yuendumu in central Australia (desert). Forty-seven unique HVS1 types were identified, varying at 49 nucleotide positions. Pairwise analysis by calculation of BEPPI (between population proportion index) reveals statistically significant structure in the populations, although some id...

  9. The Curtailment of Critical Commentary in Australian Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Dollery; Joel Byrnes; Galia Akimova

    2008-01-01

    Coelho, De Worken-Eley and McClure (2005) showed that, 1963 through 2004, critical commentary declined significantly in the American Economic Review, Economic Journal, Journal of Political Economy, Quarterly Journal of Economics and the Review of Economics and Statistics. Using the same method, we investigated the same question for all of the economic journals produced in Australia, and then published the results in Australian Economic Papers (Dollery, Byrnes and Akimova 2007). We found the s...

  10. Safety Leadership Defined within the Australian Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Luke Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the tenets of safety leadership within the Australian construction environment. The scope of this research aims to establish a universal definition of safety leadership and how it differs from other leadership disciplines. The literature review into this topic was governed by the parent disciplines of Safety and Leadership.  Gaps were identified in the literature that indicated safety leadership is not a well-defined concept and much of the work into safety leadership h...

  11. Board composition and firm performance variance: Australian evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Wang; Judith Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between board composition and firm performance variance in the context of recent corporate governance reforms, based on the agency and organisational literatures. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses 384 of the top 500 Australian companies as its dataset. Board composition measures include the percentages of affiliated, executive and independent members on the board. Firm risk is represented by the standard deviat...

  12. An industry endorsed strategic plan for the Australian venison industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Rodney J.; Watson, Geoff K.; McRae, Timothy B.; Cunial, Catharine M.

    2006-01-01

    The process of developing and successfully achieving endorsement of a strategic plan formulated for the Australian Venison Industry is presented in this paper, the first in a series of four papers on this theme. The endorsed strategic plan recommends that the industry should establish market focussed alliances with the aim of delivering a specified product to an identified target market. It also proposes generic industry policies and initiatives and suggests a stronger commercial focus for th...

  13. The Economics of Regulated Changes to the Australian Egg Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trewin, Ray

    2001-01-01

    The Australian egg industry is facing adjustment pressures including from animal welfare developments. Production and consumption of free-range eggs are rising in response. However, considerations have been given to banning the dominant conventional cage production as in Switzerland. Consideration has also been given to compulsory labelling eggs by their form of production. A focus of the research is to develop possible future scenarios and to value any associated animal welfare benefits agai...

  14. Medical negligence and wrongful birth actions: Australian developments.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, K

    1997-01-01

    Wrongful birth actions aim to compensate litigants who are negligently deprived by health professionals of their right to reproductive choice. Access to safe and legal abortion is integral to the action and wrongful birth claims in the United Kingdom have been facilitated by the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended). The recent Australian case CES v Superclinics (1995) 38 NSWLR 47 shows how judicial confusion about the legality of abortion can result in judges condoning medical negligence. The Super...

  15. Modelling Possible Impacts of GM Crops on Australian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Susan F.; Matysek, Anna; Dolling, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    "Modelling Possible Impacts of GM Crops on Australian Trade" by Susan Stone, Anna Matysek and Andrew Dolling was released on 8 November 2002. The paper provides an analysis of the economic and trade implications of the introduction of GM technology in the grains, excluding wheat and oilseeds, sectors. It contains a detailed review of the evidence of the on-farm benefits achieved from the main GM crops commercialised to date. It assesses the consumer and regulatory environments in which GM cro...

  16. Australian Writing and the Contemporary: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annee Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s geographical location (within ‘Asia’—seen as a negative into the twenty-first century when the nation defined itself as culturally and aspirationally linked to the major Euro-American metropolitan cultural centres (the ‘West’—must now be reevaluated. After two hundred years of white settlement and of turning its back on the region in which it is located, some Australian writers are writing texts that illuminate an aspect of Australian literature that is in transition, becoming, by definition, in, of, and with the region as well as in, of, and with present time. Art historian Terry Smith’s theory of the three currents of contemporary art, particularly the third current, suggests a new paradigm, a potential break from modernism, and a different kind of entanglement and interconnection in a world that is witnessing shifts in world power, voluntary and involuntary mass movements of people, and real time global communication technologies. Adrian Snodgrass and David Coyne’s application of hermeneutical theory to the architectural design studio via the metaphor of excursion and return illuminates some imaginative intersections, understandings and energies in three texts by Australian authors—Michelle De Kretser, Chi Vu and Jennifer Mackenzie. In Smith’s terms too, the texts perform original leaps of the imagination in their diversity, freshness, and ability to surprise and invite questions about literature’s potential to stir up prior understandings and invite new ways of being in the present. In terms of Giorgio Agamben’s definition of the contemporary, the three texts bring the reader to a plurality and intercultural connectedness that we have yet to fully recognise and live. They represent a line of flight towards a literary imaginary in Australian writing that is contemporary, locally grounded, but also regionally and globally entangled.

  17. Economic Evaluations of Production Technologies in the Australian Sheep Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester, Luke T.; Vere, David T.

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Sheep Industry Cooperative Research Centre (Sheep CRC) commenced operations in February 2002 and will receive federal funding of $19.8 million over its seven-year grant period. As well, the sheep industry is expected to invest over $10 million in Sheep CRC activities over this period, while core and supporting parties will make in-kind contributions totalling about $60 million. The main objective of the Sheep CRC is to develop new technologies that will increase the productivit...

  18. Multimarket Market Power Estimation: The Australian Retail Meat Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Charles Evan; Perloff, Jeffrey M

    1996-01-01

    A new technique for estimating market power in several markets simultaneously is developed and applied to the Australian retail beef, lamb, and pork markets. The hypotheses that market power is zero and that market power is the same for each meat cannot be rejected. Nor is there evidence that market power increased over the period of analysis. Little bias is created by examining markets in isolation, rather than within a system, when markets are competative, but that bias can be large when ma...

  19. Testing International Momentum Strategies between Chinese and Australian Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Mon Abraham

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests international momentum effects between Chinese Shanghai Composite Index and Australian resource stocks. If markets were efficient, there would be no profits from momentum strategies. Two momentum strategies are examined; index tracking and enhanced indexing. The enhanced indexing strategy is more profitable than the index tracking strategy, although the index tracking strategy had a higher Sharpe Ratio. Small capitalised stocks exhibit strong momentum effects. Using a newly d...

  20. Australian Businesses in China: Strategies to Overcome the Cultural Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Chung; Jane Menzies

    2010-01-01

    This paper indentifies a main barrier when doing business with China, the cultural gap, and provides the strategies that companies can use when entering the Chinese market. This empirical study examined 40 Australian organisations in their activities when entering the Chinese market. Alarmingly after 30 years of attempting to do business in China, companies are still not addressing the issue of cultural differences. Companies are also caught by surprises due to lack of preparation how large t...