Sample records for australian ms patients

  1. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

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    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)


    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  2. The Australian Multiple Sclerosis (MS immunotherapy study: a prospective, multicentre study of drug utilisation using the MSBase platform.

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    Vilija G Jokubaitis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively characterise treatment persistence and predictors of treatment discontinuation in an Australian relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS population. METHODS: Tertiary MS treatment centres participating in the MSBase registry prospectively assessed treatment utilisation, persistence, predictors of treatment discontinuation and switch rates. Multivariable survival analyses were used to compare treatment persistence between drugs and to identify predictors of treatment discontinuation. RESULTS: 1113 RRMS patients were studied. Patients persisted on their first disease-modifying therapy (DMT for a median of 2.5 years. Treatment persistence on GA was shorter than on all IFNβ products (p<0.03. Younger age at treatment initiation and higher EDSS were predictive of DMT discontinuation. Patients persisted on subsequent DMTs, for 2.3 years. Patients receiving natalizumab (NAT as a subsequent DMT persisted longer on treatment than those on IFNβ or GA (p<0.000. The primary reason for treatment discontinuation for any drug class was poor tolerability. Annualised switch or cessation rates were 9.5-12.5% for individual IFNβ products, 11.6% for GA and 4.4% for NAT. CONCLUSION: This multicentre MS cohort study is the first to directly compare treatment persistence on IFNβ and GA to NAT. We report that treatment persistence in our Australian RRMS population is short, although patients receiving IFNβ as a first DMT persisted longer on treatment than those on GA. Additionally, patients receiving NAT as a subsequent DMT were more likely to persist on treatment than those switched to IFNβ or GA. EDSS and age at DMT initiation were predictive of DMT discontinuation. Treatment intolerance was the principal reason for treatment cessation.

  3. Seasonal and Species Variation of the Hepatotoxin Indospicine in Australian Indigofera Legumes As Measured by UPLC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Materne, Christopher M; Silcock, Richard G; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Al Jassim, Rafat; Fletcher, Mary T


    Livestock industries have maintained a keen interest in pasture legumes because of the high protein content and nutritive value. Leguminous Indigofera plant species have been considered as having high feeding values to be utilized as pasture, but the occurrence of the toxic constituent indospicine in some species has restricted this utility. Indospicine has caused both primary and secondary hepatotoxicosis and also reproductive losses, but has only previously been determined in a small number of Indigofera species. This paper validates a high-throughput ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the indospicine content of various Indigofera species found in Australian pasture. Twelve species of Indigofera together with Indigastrum parviflorum plants were collected and analyzed. Of the 84 samples analyzed, *I. spicata (the asterisk indicates a naturalized species) contained the highest indospicine level (1003 ± 328 mg/kg DM, n = 4) followed by I. linnaei (755 ± 490 mg/kg DM, n = 51). Indospicine was not detected in 9 of the remaining 11 species and at only low levels (<10 mg/kg DM) in 2 of 8 I. colutea specimens and in 1 of 5 I. linifolia specimens. Indospicine concentrations were below quantitation levels for other Indigofera spp. (I. adesmiifolia, I. georgei, I. hirsuta, I. leucotricha, *I. oblongifolia, I. australis, and I. trita) and Indigastrum parviflorum. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that the indospicine content of I. linnaei is highly variable (from 159 to 2128 mg/kg DM, n = 51) and differs across both regions and seasons. Its first regrowth after spring rain has a higher (p < 0.01) indospicine content than growth following more substantial summer rain. The species collected include the predominant Indigofera in Australia pasture, and of these, only *I. spicata and I. linnaei contain high enough levels of indospicine to pose a potential toxic threat to grazing

  4. Hearing Status Survey in Define MS Patients

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    Davood Rostamian


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to survey the hearing status of the patients with definite MS. The results of this study may help to confirm the diagnosis and to improve our knowledge of different aspects of this disease and to optimize the treatment and rehabilitative techniques. Material & Methods: This study is performed in audiology clinic of rehabilitation science faculty of Iran medical science university as an assesive-analytic procedure in winter of 2000 in 40 MS patients (Referred from the MS clinic of Shohada Hospital of 20 to 45 years old. All the patients have no history of otologic problems. The results of conventional audiologist tests (PTA, SRT, SDS, imittance audiometry and ABR findings of MS patients were compared to the results of control group. Results: The differences between the means of low, high and mid frequency PTAve in MS patients and control group were statistically significant (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between two groups in the speech test's results, statistically. The results of ART test show statistically significant differences between experimental and control groups. The only differences in ABR results were seen for the absolute latency of the wave V and IPLs (I-V, III-V between two groups. The amplitude ratio of V/I in MS patients 1.5 was within the normal range (0.5 to 2. There was a statistically significant relationship between mean of mid frequency PTAve and prolongation of absolute latency of the wave V. The relationship between ABR and SDS and also between ART and ABR were not statistically significant. Finally, the results of this study suggested that low, high and mid frequency PTAve, ART, absolute latency of the wave V, and IPLs III-V, I-V can be used ascomplementory method to confirm the diagnosis of MS with other conventional methods such as: MRI, CSF analysis, SEP and VEP.

  5. Quality evaluation of Terpinen-4-ol type Australian Tea Tree oils and commercial products: An integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics (United States)

    Conventional GC/MS, chiral GC/MS and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain tea tree oils. Fifty-seven known provenance pure Australian tea tree oils and forty-seven commercial TTO products were investigated. Twent...

  6. Development of a fast isocratic LC-MS/MS method for the high-throughput analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Australian honey. (United States)

    Griffin, Caroline T; Mitrovic, Simon M; Danaher, Martin; Furey, Ambrose


    Honey samples originating from Australia were purchased and analysed for targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) using a new and rapid isocratic LC-MS/MS method. This isocratic method was developed from, and is comparable with, a gradient elution method and resulted in no loss of sensitivity or reduction in chromatographic peak shape. Isocratic elution allows for significantly shorter run times (6 min), eliminates the requirement for column equilibration periods and, thus, has the advantage of facilitating a high-throughput analysis which is particularly important for regulatory testing laboratories. In excess of two hundred injections are possible, with this new isocratic methodology, within a 24-h period which is more than 50% improvement on all previously published methodologies. Good linear calibrations were obtained for all 10 PAs and four PA N-oxides (PANOs) in spiked honey samples (3.57-357.14 µg l(-1); R(2) ≥ 0.9987). Acceptable inter-day repeatability was achieved for the target analytes in honey with % RSD values (n = 4) less than 7.4%. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were achieved with spiked PAs and PANOs samples; giving an average LOD of 1.6 µg kg(-1) and LOQ of 5.4 µg kg(-1). This method was successfully applied to Australian and New Zealand honey samples sourced from supermarkets in Australia. Analysis showed that 41 of the 59 honey samples were contaminated by PAs with the mean total sum of PAs being 153 µg kg(-1). Echimidine and lycopsamine were predominant and found in 76% and 88%, respectively, of the positive samples. The average daily exposure, based on the results presented in this study, were 0.051 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for adults and 0.204 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children. These results are a cause for concern when compared with the proposed European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Committee on Toxicity (COT) and Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR - Federal Institute of Risk Assessment Germany) maximum

  7. Melatonin acts as antioxidant and improves sleep in MS patients. (United States)

    Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Pierzchala, Krystyna; Sowa, Pawel; Mucha, Sebastian; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Adamczyk, Jowita; Hartel, Marcin


    The relationship between the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and sunlight's ultraviolet radiation was proved. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenic traits of MS. Melatonin possesses antioxidative properties and regulates circadian rhythms. Sleep disturbances in MS patients are common and contribute to daytime fatigue. The aim of study was to evaluate 5 mg daily melatonin supplementation over 90 days on serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its influence on sleep quality and depression level of MS patients. A case-control prospective study was performed on 102 MS patients and 20 controls matched for age and sex. The Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale, magnetic resonance imaging examinations, Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Beck Depression Inventory questionnaires were completed. Serum TOS and TAC levels were measured. We observed higher serum levels of TOS in all MS groups, while after melatonin treatment the TOS levels significantly decreased. The TAC level was significantly lower only in mitoxantrone-treated group and it increased after melatonin supplementation. A strong positive correlation between T1Gd(+) number lesions and TAC level in interferon-beta-1A group was observed. AIS group mean score above 6 defining insomnia were observed in interferon-beta-1B-group, glatiramer acetate-group and mitoxantrone-group: 6.62 ± 2.88, 8.45 ± 2.07, 11.1 ± 3.25, respectively. After melatonin treatment the AIS mean scores decrease in glatiramer acetate-group and mitoxantrone-group achieving 5.25 ± 1.14 and 7.08 ± 2.39, respectively (p melatonin can act as an antioxidant and improves reduced sleep quality in MS patients.

  8. Therapeutic monitoring of amphotericin B in Saudi ICU patients using UPLC MS/MS assay. (United States)

    Al-Quadeib, Bushra T; Radwan, Mahasen A; Siller, Lidija; Mutch, Elaine; Horrocks, Ben; Wright, Matthew; Alshaer, Abdulaziz


    Amphotericin B (AmB) is the first-line agent for the treatment of life-threatening invasive fungal infections. The aim of this study was to monitor AmB in critically ill Saudi patients in ICU after i.v. administration of 0.68 ± 0.1 mg/kg/day Fungizone®. A selective, sensitive and precise UPLC MS/MS method was developed to measure AmB concentrations in these patients. Seven ICU patients with creatinine clearance (ClCr) >40 mL/min were included. AmB levels were analyzed using a Waters Aquity UPLC MS/MS system, a BEH Shield RP18 column and detection via electrospray ionization source with positive ionization mode. The precision and accuracy of the developed UPLC method in the concentration range of 200-4000 ng/mL show no significant difference among inter- and-intra-day analysis (p > 0.05). Linearity was observed over the investigated range with correlation coefficient, r > 0.995 (n = 6/day). The pharmacokinetics of AmB in these patients, at steady state, showed a high terminal half-life of 124.6 ± 73.4 h, with a highest concentration of 513.9 ± 281.1 ng/mL, a lowest concentration 316.4 ± 129.0 ng/mL and a mean clearance 91.1 ± 39.2 mL/h/kg. The pharmacokinetics of AmB in critically ill Saudi patients in ICU was studied using a fully validated assay. A weak correlation (r = -0.22) of AmB Cl with ClCr was obtained, which suggests the need for further investigation in a larger population.

  9. Emotional Intelligence (EI of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS.

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    Mahsa Ghajarzadeh


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient's lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI in cases with MS.One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model.Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting than Secondary Progressive (SP ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001. Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI.Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness.

  10. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) (United States)

    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; OWJI, Mahsa; SAURAIAN, Mohammad Ali; NASER MOGHADASI, Abdorreza; AZIMI, Amirreza


    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient’s lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. Methods One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Results Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, PMultiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Conclusion Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness. PMID:26060723

  11. Therapeutic approaches to disease modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis in adults: an Australian and New Zealand perspective: part 2 new and emerging therapies and their efficacy. MS Neurology Group of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists. (United States)

    Broadley, Simon A; Barnett, Michael H; Boggild, Mike; Brew, Bruce J; Butzkueven, Helmut; Heard, Robert; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Kermode, Allan G; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Macdonell, Richard A L; Marriott, Mark; Mason, Deborah F; Parratt, John; Reddel, Stephen W; Shaw, Cameron P; Slee, Mark; Spies, Judith; Taylor, Bruce V; Carroll, William M; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; King, John; McCombe, Pamela A; Pollard, John D; Willoughby, Ernest


    In Part 2 of this three part review of multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment with a particular focus on the Australian and New Zealand perspective, we review the newer therapies that have recently become available and emerging therapies that have now completed phase III clinical trial programs. We go on to compare the relative efficacies of these newer and emerging therapies alongside the existing therapies. The effectiveness of β-interferon in the treatment of different stages and the different disease courses of MS is critically reviewed with the conclusion that the absolute level of response in term of annualised relapse rates (where relapses occur) and MRI activity are similar, but are disappointing in terms of sustained disability progression for progressive forms of the disease. Finally we review the controversial area of combination therapy for MS. Whilst it remains the case that we have no cure or means of preventing MS, we do have a range of effective therapies that when used appropriately and early in the disease course can have a significant impact on short term and longer term outcomes.

  12. Psychopathy, Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Reconviction in an Australian Sample of Forensic Patients. (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephane M; Campbell, Rachel E; Ogloff, James R P


    This study identified the presence of psychopathy (as measured by the PCL-R/PCL:SV instruments) and antisocial personality disorder (APD) and their relationship with future reconviction in an Australian forensic sample (N = 136) of patients with a mental disorder. Patients were tracked for over 4 years postrelease to determine associations between a diagnosis of APD/psychopathy and reoffense. Patients with higher psychopathy scores were found to have an increased likelihood of reincarceration, a higher rate of reconviction, and were reconvicted earlier compared with patients with lower psychopathy scores. Patients with APD were more likely to be reconvicted and reincarcerated during the follow-up period than patients without an APD diagnosis. Despite demonstrating associations with general reconviction, the PCL instruments did not exhibit statistically significant relationships with violence. Implications for the clinical identification of personality disordered patients in forensic settings are discussed.

  13. Chemical Profiling (HPLC-NMR & HPLC-MS, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Meroditerpenoids from the Southern Australian Marine Brown Alga Sargassum paradoxum

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    Robert Brkljača


    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of a southern Australian marine brown alga, Sargassum paradoxum, resulted in the isolation and identification of four new (5, 9, 10, and 15 and nine previously reported (1, 2, 6–8, and 11–14 bioactive meroditerpenoids. HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS were central to the identification of a new unstable compound, sargahydroquinal (9, and pivotal in the deconvolution of eight (1, 2, 5–7, and 10–12 other meroditerpenoids. In particular, the complete characterization and identification of the two main constituents (1 and 2 in the crude dichloromethane extract was achieved using stop-flow HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS. This study resulted in the first acquisition of gHMBCAD NMR spectra in the stop-flow HPLC-NMR mode for a system solely equipped with a 60 μL HPLC-NMR flow cell without the use of a cold probe, microcoil, or any pre-concentration.

  14. The significance of oral and systemic factors in Australian and Croatian patients with oral lichen planus. (United States)

    Vučićević Boras, Vanja; Savage, Neil William; Brailo, Vlaho; Škrinjar, Ivana; Valter, Kruna; Alajbeg, Iva; Dulčić, Nikša; Vidović Juras, Danica


    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologically T cell-mediated disease caused by an unknown stimulus. Despite intensive investigation its pathogenesis still remains unknown. A few possible associations between OLP and certain diseases such as thyroid and malignant diseases as well as specific medication intake have been proposed in the literature with inconsistent findings. We aimed to investigate the profile of 163 Australian and 163 Croatian OLP patients with special regard to their systemic diseases, medication intake (with special regard to the drugs that metabolize through Cytochrome P450), OLP type and localization, as well as involvement of other body surfaces with lichen. We did not find any statistical significance with regard to the OLP presence and thyroid and malignant diseases. As expected, the reticular type of OLP was most prevalent, as well as involvement of the both buccal mucosas. There was no significant association with other oral diseases such as labial herpes. Simultaneous involvement of other body surfaces in patients with OLP does not seem to be prevalent. None of the medical conditions which were investigated had significant correlation with OLP neither in Australian nor in Croatian patients with OLP. Furthermore, the use of drugs which metabolize through Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) was not significantly correlated with OLP in either studied population. Therefore, we conclude that patients with OLP are not to be routinely screened for any systemic conditions.

  15. Increased Calpain Correlates with Th1 Cytokine Profile in PBMCs from MS Patients (United States)

    Imam, Sarah A.; Guyton, Mary K.; Haque, Azizul; Vandenbark, Arthur; Tyor, William R.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune demyelinating disease of the CNS. This study investigated whether expression and activity of the calcium-activated protease calpain correlated with Th1/Th2 dysregulation in MS patients during states of relapse and remission. Calpain expression and activity were significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MS patients, compared to controls, with the highest expression and activity noted during relapse. Th1 cytokines were highest and Th2 cytokines were lowest in MS patients during relapse. Treatment with calpain inhibitor, calpeptin, decreased Th1 cytokines in PBMCs from MS patients. Calpain inhibitor also reduced degradation of myelin basic protein (MBP) by inhibiting the calpain secreted from MBP-specific T cells. Taken together, these results suggested calpain involvement in Th1/Th2 dysregulation in MS patients. PMID:17765980

  16. MRI criteria for MS in patients with clinically isolated syndromes

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    Montalban, X.; Tintore, M.; Swanton, J.;


    In recent years, criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have changed, mainly due to the incorporation of new MRI criteria. While the new criteria are a logical step forward, they are complex and-not surprisingly-a good working knowledge of them is not always evident among neurologi...

  17. Streptococcal peritonitis in Australian peritoneal dialysis patients: predictors, treatment and outcomes in 287 cases

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    McDonald Stephen P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has not been a comprehensive, multi-centre study of streptococcal peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD to date. Methods The predictors, treatment and clinical outcomes of streptococcal peritonitis were examined by binary logistic regression and multilevel, multivariate poisson regression in all Australian PD patients involving 66 centres between 2003 and 2006. Results Two hundred and eighty-seven episodes of streptococcal peritonitis (4.6% of all peritonitis episodes occurred in 256 individuals. Its occurrence was independently predicted by Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander racial origin. Compared with other organisms, streptococcal peritonitis was associated with significantly lower risks of relapse (3% vs 15%, catheter removal (10% vs 23% and permanent haemodialysis transfer (9% vs 18%, as well as a shorter duration of hospitalisation (5 vs 6 days. Overall, 249 (87% patients were successfully treated with antibiotics without experiencing relapse, catheter removal or death. The majority of streptococcal peritonitis episodes were treated with either intraperitoneal vancomycin (most common or first-generation cephalosporins for a median period of 13 days (interquartile range 8–18 days. Initial empiric antibiotic choice did not influence outcomes. Conclusion Streptococcal peritonitis is a not infrequent complication of PD, which is more common in indigenous patients. When treated with either first-generation cephalosporins or vancomycin for a period of 2 weeks, streptococcal peritonitis is associated with lower risks of relapse, catheter removal and permanent haemodialysis transfer than other forms of PD-associated peritonitis.

  18. A tool to evaluate patients' experiences of nursing care in Australian general practice: development of the Patient Enablement and Satisfaction Survey. (United States)

    Desborough, Jane; Banfield, Michelle; Parker, Rhian


    Australian health policy initiatives have increasingly supported the employment of nurses in general practice. An understanding of the impact of nursing care on patients in this setting is integral to assuring quality, safety and a patient-centred focus. The aim was to develop a survey to evaluate the satisfaction and enablement of patients who receive nursing care in Australian general practices. The survey was to be simple to administer and analyse, ensuring practicality for use by general practice nurses, doctors and managers. Two validated instruments formed the basis of the Patient Enablement and Satisfaction Survey (PESS). This survey was refined and validated for the Australian setting using focus groups and in-depth interviews with patients, and feedback from general practice nurses. Test-retest and alternate form methods were used to establish the survey's reliability. Feedback resulted in 14 amendments to the original draft survey. Questions that demonstrated a strong positive correlation for the test-retest and alternate form measures were included in the final survey. The PESS is a useful, practical tool for the evaluation of nursing care in Australian general practice, its validity and reliability established through a patient-centred research approach, reflective of the needs of patients accessing nursing services in this setting.

  19. Profiling the Proteome of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Healthy Smokers and COPD Patients by LC-MS/MS

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    Carmine Tinelli


    Full Text Available Three pools of exhaled breath condensate (EBC from non-smokers plus healthy smokers (NS + HS, n = 45; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD without emphysema (COPD, n = 15 and subjects with pulmonary emphysema associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD, n = 23 were used for an exploratory proteomic study aimed at generating fingerprints of these groups that can be used in future pathophysiological and perhaps even clinical research. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was the platform applied for this hypothesis-free investigation. Analysis of pooled specimens resulted in the production of a “fingerprint” made of 44 proteins for NS/HS; 17 for COPD and 15 for the group of AATD subjects. Several inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2; IL-12, α and β subunits, IL-15, interferon α and γ, tumor necrosis factor α; Type I and II cytokeratins; two SP-A isoforms; Calgranulin A and B and α1-antitrypsin were detected and validated through the use of surface enhanced laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS and/or by Western blot (WB analysis. These results are the prelude of quantitative studies aimed at identifying which of these proteins hold promise as identifiers of differences that could distinguish healthy subjects from patients.

  20. Special considerations for haematology patients in relation to end-of-life care: Australian findings. (United States)

    McGrath, P; Holewa, H


    Recent hematology clinical guidelines recommend that palliative care specialists should have central roles in hemato-oncology teams. However, the available research evidence indicates there are presently significant obstacles to the integration of palliative care in hematology. The following discussion presents findings from an Australian study designed to address the problems associated with lack of referral of hematology patients to the palliative system through the development of a best-practice model for end-of-life care for these diagnostic groups. The preliminary step in the development of such a model is to document the factors that denote the special characteristics of the end-of-life stage of hematological conditions and their treatments. This article presents the list of special considerations from a nursing perspective, including issues associated with the high-tech nature of treatments, the speed of change to a terminal event, the need for blood products and possibility of catastrophic bleeds, the therapeutic optimism based on a myriad of treatment options and the clinical indices of the terminal trajectory. The nursing insights provide an important foundation for building a practical, patient-centred model for terminal care in hematology.

  1. Design Aspects for Rehabilitation Games for MS Patients


    Notelaers, Sofie; De Weyer, Tom; Robert, Karel; RAYMAEKERS, Chris; Coninx, Karin


    Computer-supported rehabilitation can bene t many groups of patients. However, when designing such a therapy, it is important to take the characteristics of the patient popula- tion and the wishes of the therapists involved into account. This paper therefore focuses on the requirements of rehabilitation games for Multiple Sclerosis patients. As we have created a system for rehabilitating Multiple Sclerosis, based on a virtual environment with force feedback, we will discuss how these...

  2. Evaluating Mental (psychological Health in MS patients from Mozandran Province in 1386 (2007

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    Kiomars Niaz Azari3


    Full Text Available (Received 10 Sep, 2008 ; Accepted 4 Mar, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: The most common weakness caused by a neurological disease is MS, in which the Milin membrane is decimalized, which brings a reduction in the neural message transfer. The neural message transfer stops, which causes an increased lack of sensitivity (non-stimulus physical disorders and central neural system involvement. This also causes various physical, psychological, relationship disorders, in addition to negative social and family behaviors for those who are needy. Due to the lack of research in the Mazandaran Province regarding psychological health of MS patients, there exist discrepancies resulting from research on the given subject around the world. This study, aims at determining the psychological health of the MS patients and its relationship to the field variables in the Mazandran Province.Materials and methods: The present study is of descriptive type and samples were MS patients who were members of the MS association from Mazandran Province. The sample consisted of 134 MS patients, who were under our study and had documented cases of MS, and were chosen among 700 MS patients randomly. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire, which consisted of field information and a standard questionnaire of GHQ, with 28 questions which were completed by patients.Results: The research showed that 17/9% had severe physical problems, 38/8% had severe social problems, 11/2% had high depression, and 14/9% with high anxiety. Based on the results of this study, statistical test showed a significant relationship between psychological health and educational levels (f=6/63, and critical f=2/68. However, the analysis of variance showed no relationship between MS and income levels. It should be noted, that our research findings showed a significant relationship (based on the independent t statistical test, between psychological health in 4 aspects with MS (t=5/06, p=0/05, df=132 and

  3. A pilot study to improve adherence among MS patients who discontinue treatment against medical advice. (United States)

    Bruce, Jared; Bruce, Amanda; Lynch, Sharon; Strober, Lauren; O'Bryan, Sean; Sobotka, Deborah; Thelen, Joan; Ness, Abigail; Glusman, Morgan; Goggin, Kathy; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Catley, Delwyn


    Between 30 and 50% of MS patients may prematurely discontinue disease modifying therapies. Little research has examined how to best talk with patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether telephone counseling increases disease modifying therapy (DMT) re-initiation among nonadherent patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants were eligible if they had relapsing-remitting disease, had stopped taking a DMT, and had no plan to re-initiate treatment despite a provider recommendation. Following a baseline assessment, 81 patients were randomly assigned to either five 20 min, weekly sessions of Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MI-CBT) or Treatment as Usual (TAU) with brief education. At 10 weeks, patients initially assigned to TAU switched over to MI-CBT. Compared to patients in the TAU group, patients undergoing MI-CBT were significantly more likely to indicate they were re-initiating DMT (41.7 vs. 14.3%). These significant results were replicated among patients crossing over from TAU to MI-CBT. Treatment satisfaction was high, with 97% of participants reporting that they would recommend MI-CBT to other patients with MS. Results of this pilot study provide initial support for the use of MI-CBT among MS patients who have discontinued treatment against medical NCT01925690.

  4. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

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    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S;


    in longitudinal studies of MS patients, but little is known about the associated changes in cerebral neural function. METHODS: The authors studied 10 patients with clinically definite MS who underwent serial measurements of CMRglc, MRI T2-weighted total lesion area (TLA), and clinical evaluation of disability...... (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) over a period of approximately 2 years (three examinations). CMRglc was calculated using PET and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: The global cortical CMRglc decreased with time (p...OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression...


    Piga, M Antonella


    In this article, the Author analyzes her own experience as a member of the IRB that approved a trial to determine the efficacy of a disobstruction procedure of extracranial veins by means of angioplasty in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The so-called "liberation therapy" was proposed by an Italian vascular surgeon, who theorized a condition called "chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" (CCSVI) as playing a role in the pathogenesis of MS. This approval, given after an animated discussion amongst IRB members, lacked any solid scientific evidence of a causal relationship between CCSVI and MS, and was accepted despite the concerns about potential risks associated with the proposed therapy. Undoubtedly, considerable pressure was exerted on IRB by MS sufferers, who rushed off to get the surgery from the many clinics who offered liberation therapy.The remaining sense of bitter has raised a reflection on how to prevent similar future cases.

  6. Cortical reorganization during PASAT task in MS patients with preserved working memory functions. (United States)

    Forn, C; Barros-Loscertales, A; Escudero, J; Belloch, V; Campos, S; Parcet, M A; Avila, C


    Cortical reorganization in multiple sclerosis (MS) is defined as a compensatory mechanism which requires MS patients to overactivate specific brain areas in order to perform the task as controls. To investigate this process with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) task, we selected 15 MS patients who performed the PASAT task within-normal limits and 10 healthy controls. Once selected, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain areas involved in PASAT performance in both groups. Results showed that the task activated the left frontal (BA6 and 9) and parietal cortex (BA7 and 40) in both groups, but MS patients showed a stronger activation in the left prefrontal cortex (BA9, 44 and 45) when compared with controls. These results confirmed those obtained post hoc by Audoin et al. [Audoin, B., Ibarrola, D., Ranjeva, J.P., Confort-Gouny, S., Malikova, I., Ali-Chérif, A.M., Pelletier, J., Cozzone, P., et al., 2003. Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during cognitive task at the earliest stage of MS. Hum. Brain Mapp. 20, 51-58], and we interpreted this as showing true cortical reorganization.

  7. Increased Circulating Levels of Vitamin D Binding Protein in MS Patients

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    Arturo Ottavio Rinaldi


    Full Text Available Vitamin D (vitD low status is currently considered a main environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS etiology and pathogenesis. VitD and its metabolites are highly hydrophobic and circulate mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (DBP and with lower affinity to albumin, while less than 1% are in a free form. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the circulating levels of either of the two vitD plasma carriers and/or their relationship are altered in MS. We measured DBP and albumin plasma levels in 28 MS patients and 24 healthy controls. MS patients were found to have higher DBP levels than healthy subjects. Concomitant interferon beta therapy did not influence DBP concentration, and the difference with the control group was significant in both females and males. No significant correlation between DBP and albumin levels was observed either in healthy controls or in patients. These observations suggest the involvement of DBP in the patho-physiology of MS.

  8. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls (United States)

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen


    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  9. Three cases of herpes zoster radiculitis in MS patients treated with natalizumab. (United States)

    Yamout, Bassem I; Abou Zeid, Nuhad; Taha, Ali J; Zeineddine, Maya M; Khoury, Samia J


    Natalizumab was the first FDA-approved monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report on 3 natalizumab-treated patients who developed herpes zoster infections. In addition to progressive multifocal leukoencephelopathy, other opportunistic infections have been rarely reported during Natalizumab treatment. We believe that clinicians need heightened awareness of these infections in view of the risks of serious complications.

  10. A cross-sectional study assessing the self-reported weight loss strategies used by adult Australian general practice patients

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    Yoong Sze


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a significant public health concern. General practitioners (GPs see a large percentage of the population and are well placed to provide weight management advice. There has been little examination of the types of weight loss strategies used in Australian general practice patients. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the proportion of normal weight, overweight and obese general practice patients who report trying to lose weight in the past 12 months, the types of weight loss strategies and diets used as well as the proportion consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Methods Adult patients completed a touchscreen computer survey while waiting for their appointment. Responses from 1335 patients in twelve Australian practices are reported. Results A larger proportion of obese patients had tried to lose weight in the past 12 months (73% compared to those who were overweight (55% and normal weight (33%. The most commonly used strategy used was changing diet and increasing exercise in all BMI categories. Less than 10% used strategies such as prescription medication, over the counter supplements and consulted a weight loss specialist. Low calorie and low fat diets were the most frequently reported diets used to lose weight in those who were normal weight, overweight and obese. Overall, the proportion seeking GP advice was low, with 12% of normal weight, 15% of overweight and 43% of obese patients consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Conclusions A large proportion of overweight or obese patients have tried to lose weight and utilized strategies such as changing diet and increasing exercise. Most attempts however were unassisted, with low rates of consultation with GPs and weight loss specialists. Ways to assist overweight and obese general practice patients with their weight loss attempts need to be identified.

  11. Therapeutic approaches to disease modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis in adults: an Australian and New Zealand perspective: part 1 historical and established therapies. MS Neurology Group of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists. (United States)

    Broadley, Simon A; Barnett, Michael H; Boggild, Mike; Brew, Bruce J; Butzkueven, Helmut; Heard, Robert; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Kermode, Allan G; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Macdonell, Richard A L; Marriott, Mark; Mason, Deborah F; Parratt, John; Reddel, Stephen W; Shaw, Cameron P; Slee, Mark; Spies, Judith; Taylor, Bruce V; Carroll, William M; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; King, John; McCombe, Pamela A; Pollard, John D; Willoughby, Ernest


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially life-changing immune mediated disease of the central nervous system. Until recently, treatment has been largely confined to acute treatment of relapses, symptomatic therapies and rehabilitation. Through persistent efforts of dedicated physicians and scientists around the globe for 160 years, a number of therapies that have an impact on the long term outcome of the disease have emerged over the past 20 years. In this three part series we review the practicalities, benefits and potential hazards of each of the currently available and emerging treatment options for MS. We pay particular attention to ways of abrogating the risks of these therapies and provide advice on the most appropriate indications for using individual therapies. In Part 1 we review the history of the development of MS therapies and its connection with the underlying immunobiology of the disease. The established therapies for MS are reviewed in detail and their current availability and indications in Australia and New Zealand are summarised. We examine the evidence to support their use in the treatment of MS.

  12. The secretome of periodontal ligament stem cells from MS patients protects against EAE. (United States)

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Diomede, Francesca; Ballerini, Patrizia; Paolantonio, Michele; Marchisio, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana


    Manipulation of stem cells or stem cells-derived secretome has emerged as a novel alternative therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs)-derived conditioned medium (hPDLSCs-CM) and purified exosomes/microvesicles (hPDLSCs-EMVs) obtained from Relapsing Remitting (RR)-MS patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord. We show that hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and induce anti-inflammatory IL-10. In addition, apoptosis related STAT1, p53, Caspase 3, and Bax expressions were attenuated. Our findings unravel the immunosuppressive effects of hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs in EAE mice, and suggest simple alternative autologous source for patient-customized cell-free targeting treatment in MS patients.

  13. Practices of US health insurance companies concerning MS therapies interfere with shared decision-making and harm patients


    Bourdette, Dennis N.; Hartung, Daniel M.; Whitham, Ruth H.


    Abstract The US Food and Drug Administration has registered 13 multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The medications are not interchangeable as they vary in route of administration, efficacy, and safety profile. Selecting the appropriate MS DMT for individual patients requires shared decision-making between patients and neurologists. To reduce costs, insurance companies acting through pharmacy benefit companies restrict access to MS DMTs through tiered coverage and other...

  14. Alemtuzumab improves preexisting disability in active relapsing-remitting MS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Coles, Alasdair J


    -MS) II, a 2-year randomized, rater-blinded, active-controlled, head-to-head, phase 3 trial, compared efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab 12 mg with subcutaneous interferon-β-1a (SC IFN-β-1a) 44 μg in patients with RRMS. Prespecified and post hoc disability outcomes based on Expanded Disability Status......-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with RRMS and inadequate response to prior disease-modifying therapies, alemtuzumab provides greater benefits than SC IFN-β-1a across several disability outcomes, reflecting improvement of preexisting disabilities. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I...

  15. Variations in plasma and urinary lipids in response to enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease patients by nanoflow UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. (United States)

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jin-Sung; Moon, Myeong Hee


    A deficiency of α-galactosidase A causes Fabry disease (FD) by disrupting lipid metabolism, especially trihexosylceramide (THC). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is clinically offered to FD patients in an attempt to lower the accumulated lipids. Studies on specific types of lipids that are directly or indirectly altered by FD are very scarce, even though they are crucial in understanding the biological process linked to the pathogenesis of FD. We performed a comprehensive lipid profiling of plasma and urinary lipids from FD patients with nanoflow liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) and identified 129 plasma and 111 urinary lipids. Among these, lipids that exhibited alternations (>twofold) in patients were selected as targets for selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based high-speed quantitation using nanoflow ultra-performance LC-ESI-MS/MS (nUPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and 31 plasma and 26 urinary lipids showed significant elevation among FD patients. Higher percentages of sphingolipids (SLs; 48% for plasma and 42% for urine) were highly elevated in patients; whereas, a smaller percentage of phospholipids (PLs; 15% for plasma and 13% for urine) were significantly affected. Even though α-galactosidase A is reported to affect THC only, the results show that other classes of lipids (especially SLs) are changed as well, indicating that FD not only alters metabolism of THC but various classes of lipids too. Most lipids showing significant increases in relative amounts before ERT decreased after ERT, but overall, ERT influenced plasma lipids more than urinary lipids.

  16. AToMS: A Ubiquitous Teleconsultation System for Supporting AMI Patients with Prehospital Thrombolysis

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    Bruno S. P. M. Correa


    Full Text Available The latest population-based studies in the medical literature worldwide indicate that acute myocardial infarction (AMI patients still experience prolonged delay to be rescued, which often results in morbidity and mortality. This paper reports from a technological standpoint a teleconsultation and monitoring system named AToMS. This system addresses the problem of prehospital delivery of thrombolysis to AMI patients by enabling the remote interaction of the paramedics and a cardiologist available at a Coronary Care Unit (CCU. Such interaction allows the diagnosis of the patient eligibility to the immediate application of thrombolysis, which is meant to reduce the delay between the onset of symptoms and the eventual application of proper treatment. Such delay reduction is meant to increase the AMI patient's chances of survival and decrease the risks of postinfarction sequels. The teleconsultation is held with the support of wireless and mobile technologies, which also allows the cardiologist to monitor the patient while he/she is being taken to the nearest CCU. All exchanged messages among paramedics and cardiologists are recorded to render an auditable system. AToMS has been deployed in a first stage in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where the medical team involved in the project has conducted commissioned tests.

  17. Direct Injection LC-MS-MS Analysis of Opiates, Methamphetamine, Buprenorphine, Methadone and Their Metabolites in Oral Fluid from Substitution Therapy Patients. (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Lee, Hsi-Tzu; Hsu, Ya-Ching; Huang, Mei-Han; Liu, Ray H; Chen, Tai-Jui; Lin, Dong-Liang


    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed, validated and applied to simultaneous analysis of oral fluid samples for the following 10 analytes: methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. The oral fluid sample was briefly centrifuged and the supernatant was directly injected into the LC-MS-MS system operated under reverse-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization (ESI). Deuterated analogs of the analytes were adopted as the internal standards and found to be effective (except for buprenorphine) to compensate for potential matrix effects. Each analytical run took 0.99) established for buprenorphine and the other nine analytes were 5-100 and 1-100 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision (% CV) ranges for the 10 analytes were 0.87-12.2% and 1.27-12.8%, while the corresponding accuracy (%) ranges were 91.8-113% and 91.9-111%. Limits of detection and quantitation established for these 10 analytes were in the ranges of 0.1-1.0 and 0.25-1.0 ng/mL (5 ng/mL for buprenorphine). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 62 oral fluid specimens collected from patients participating in methadone and buprenorphine substitution therapy programs. Analytical results of methadone and buprenorphine were compared with data derived from GC-MS analysis and found to be compatible. Overall, the direct injection LC-MS-MS method performed well, permitting rapid analysis of oral fluid samples for simultaneous quantification of methadone, buprenorphine, opiate and amphetamine drug categories without extensive sample preparation steps.

  18. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

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    Bowden Francis J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not

  19. A simple and robust LC-MS/MS method for quantification of free 3-nitrotyrosine in human plasma from patients receiving on-pump CABG surgery. (United States)

    Hui, Yu; Wong, Michael; Zhao, Shuai Sherry; Love, Jennifer A; Ansley, David M; Chen, David D Y


    We have developed a simple, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to determine free 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations in human plasma of patients receiving on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. A one-step solid-phase extraction protocol was optimized to enrich the analyte at low nanomolar concentrations. The processed samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS with a 2.1 × 100 mm Kinetex PFP column and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated for 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations close to real patient plasma levels. The relative standard deviations or relative errors of the intraday and interday determinations were all within 10%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were determined to be 0.034 nM and 0.112 nM, respectively, while lower limit of quantitation was below 0.625 nM. No deterioration of the column performance was noticed after running a large number of patient samples. The results showed that the 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations in coronary sinus plasma samples were elevated after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedure. The pre-CPB and post-CPB concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine in patient plasmas were 1.494 ± 0.107 nM and 2.167 ± 0.177 nM (mean ± SEM), respectively. Application of this method to more patients in clinical studies may help validate 3-nitrotyrosine as a meaningful biomarker for nitrosative stress and link patient characteristics, clinical outcomes, and cardioprotective treatments to endogenous nitrosative stress levels.

  20. Quality evaluation of terpinen-4-ol-type Australian tea tree oils and commercial products: an integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics. (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A


    GC/MS, chiral GC/MS, and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set (n=104) of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain TTO. Twenty terpenoids were determined in each sample and compared with the standards specified by ISO-4730-2004. Several of the oil samples that were ISO compliant when distilled did not meet the ISO standards in this study primarily due to the presence of excessive p-cymene and/or depletion of terpinenes. Forty-nine percent of the commercial products did not meet the ISO specifications. Four terpenes, viz., α-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, present in TTOs with the (+)-isomer predominant were measured by chiral GC/MS. The results clearly indicated that 28 commercial products contained excessive (+)-isomer or contained the (+)-isomer in concentrations below the norm. Of the 28 outliers, 7 met the ISO standards. There was a substantial subset of commercial products that met ISO standards but displayed unusual enantiomeric+/-ratios. A class predictive model based on the oils that met ISO standards was constructed. The outliers identified by the class predictive model coincided with the samples that displayed an abnormal chiral ratio. Thus, chiral and chemometric analyses could be used to confirm the identification of abnormal commercial products including those that met all of the ISO standards.

  1. Callosal function in MS patients with mild and severe callosal damage as reflected by diffusion tensor imaging. (United States)

    Warlop, Nele P; Fieremans, Els; Achten, Eric; Debruyne, Jan; Vingerhoets, Guy


    In this study, callosal function was behaviourally tested in MS patients with a redundant stimuli task. Reaction times to uni- and bilateral visual stimuli are recorded. Normal subjects respond faster to bilateral than to unilateral stimuli. This effect is called the redundancy gain effect. In patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the redundancy gain exceeds that predicted by probability summation, suggesting a mediating influence of the corpus callosum in healthy controls. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of callosal damage on the redundancy gain in MS patients by investigating the probability summation model. Seventeen MS patients and as many matched healthy controls performed the redundancy gain task. In order to objectify callosal damage in our MS group, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in the corpus callosum were obtained. Callosal FA and MD significantly differed in our MS group compared to the healthy controls, indicating pathological callosal involvement. Since the amount of callosal damage was highly variable within the MS group, the MS cohort was split into a low and a high callosal-injured group as quantified by FA. The high FA group performed like the healthy controls, whereas violations of the probability (race) model were found for the low FA group. We conclude that behavioural measures obtained by the redundancy gain paradigm reflect callosal pathology in MS as measured by DTI.

  2. Long acting risperidone in Australian patients with chronic schizophrenia: 24-month data from the e-STAR database

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    Lambert Tim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This observational study was designed to collect treatment outcomes data in patients using the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR. Methods Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Australia who were prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI between 2003 and 2007 were assessed 12-months retrospectively, at baseline and 24-months prospectively at 3-monthly intervals. The intent-to-treat population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of RLAI at baseline, was used for the efficacy and safety analyses. Results At total of 784 patients (74% with schizophrenia, 69.8% male with a mean age of 37.1 ± 12.5 years and 10.6 ± 9.5 years since diagnosis were included in this Australian cohort. A significant improvement in mean Clinical Global Impression - severity score was observed at 24-months (4.52 ± 1.04 at baseline, 3.56 ± 1.10 at 24-months. Most of this improvement was seen by 3-months and was also reflected in mean Global Assessment of Functioning score, which improved significantly at 24-months (42.9 ± 14.5 at baseline, 59 ± 15.4 at 24-months. For patients still receiving RLAI at 24-months there was an increase from a mean baseline RLAI dose of 26.4 ± 5 mg to 43.4 ± 15.7 mg. Sixty-six percent of patients discontinued RLAI before the 24-month period--this decreased to 46% once patients lost to follow-up were excluded. Conclusion Over the 24-month period, initiation of RLAI was associated with improved patient functioning and illness severity in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Improved outcomes were observed early and sustained throughout the study. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number, NCT00283517.

  3. Evidence that the ancestral haplotype in Australian hemochromatosis patients may be associated with a common mutation in the gene

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    Crawford, D.H.G.; Powell, L.W.; Leggett, B.A. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others


    Hemochromatosis (HC) is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism for which neither the gene nor biochemical defect have yet been identified. The aim of this study was to look for clinical evidence that the predominant ancestral haplotype in Australian patients is associated with a common mutation in the gene. We compared indices of iron metabolism and storage in three groups of HC patients categorized according to the presence of the ancestral haplotype (i.e., patients with two copies, one copy, and no copies of the ancestral haplotype). We also examined iron indices in two groups of HC heterozygotes (those with the ancestral haplotype and those without) and in age-matched controls. These analyses indicate that (i) HC patients with two copies of the ancestral haplotype show significantly more severe expression of the disorder than those with one copy or those without, (ii) HC heterozygotes have partial clinical expression, which may be influenced by the presence of the ancestral haplotype in females but not in males, and (iii) the high population frequency of the HC gene may be the result of the selective advantage conferred by protecting heterozygotes against iron deficiency. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Australian Defense. (United States)


    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  5. Recurrence or rebound of clinical relapses after discontinuation of natalizumab therapy in highly active MS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Petersen, Thor;


    A number of studies have reported flare-up of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity after cessation of natalizumab, increasing to a level beyond the pre-natalizumab treatment level. Our aim was to describe the development in clinical disease activity following cessation of natalizumab therapy...... in a large unselected cohort of highly active patients. We studied 375 highly active patients who had suffered at least two significant relapses within 1 year or three relapses within 2 years, or had been treated with mitoxantrone for highly active disease. All patients had discontinued therapy...... with natalizumab after at least 24 weeks on therapy, and had been followed 3-12 months (mean 8.9 months) after cessation of natalizumab therapy. The annualised relapse rate before start of natalizumab therapy was 0.94 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.88-1.00), 0.47 (95 % CI 0.43-0.52) during natalizumab therapy, 0...

  6. Clinical predictors of immune reconstitution following combination antiretroviral therapy in patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database.

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    Reena Rajasuriar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A small but significant number of patients do not achieve CD4 T-cell counts >500 cells/µl despite years of suppressive cART. These patients remain at risk of AIDS and non-AIDS defining illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors associated with CD4 T-cell recovery following long-term cART. METHODS: Patients with the following inclusion criteria were selected from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD: cART as their first regimen initiated at CD4 T-cell count 500 cells/µl and >200 cells/µl. RESULTS: 501 patients were eligible for inclusion from AHOD (n = 2853. The median (IQR age and baseline CD4 T-cell counts were 39 (32-47 years and 236 (130-350 cells/µl, respectively. A major strength of this study is the long follow-up duration, median (IQR = 6.5(3-10 years. Most patients (80% achieved CD4 T-cell counts >500 cells/µl, but in 8%, this took >5 years. Among the patients who failed to reach a CD4 T-cell count >500 cells/µl, 16% received cART for >10 years. In a multivariate analysis, faster time to achieve a CD4 T-cell count >500 cells/µl was associated with higher baseline CD4 T-cell counts (p200 cells/µl included higher baseline CD4 T-cell count (p500 cells/µl despite long-term cART is prolonged in a subset of patients in AHOD. Starting cART early with a PI-based regimen (vs. NNRTI-based regimen is associated with more rapid recovery of a CD4 T-cell count >500 cells/µl.

  7. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

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    Margaritella Nicolò


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs in multiple sclerosis (MS has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS patients with an EDSS Results The Evoked Potentials score (EP score and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2 were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001. Low EP score (below 15–20 points, short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS (BMS.

  8. A simple LC-MS/MS method to determine plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of albendazole metabolites (albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone) in patients with neurocysticercosis. (United States)

    González-Hernández, Iliana; Ruiz-Olmedo, María Isabel; Cárdenas, Graciela; Jung-Cook, Helgi


    The development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of albendazole metabolites (albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone) in human plasma are described. Samples of 200 μL were extracted with ether-dichloromethane-chloroform (60:30:10, v/v/v). The chromatographic separation was performed using a C(18) column with methanol-formic acid 20 mmol/L (70:30) as the mobile phase. The method was linear in a range of 20-5000 ng/mL for albendazole sulfoxide and 10-1500 ng/mL for albendazole sulfone. For both analytes the method was precise (RSD 90%). The method was successfully applied to determine the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone in patients with subarachnoidal neurocysticercosis who received albendazole at 30 mg/kg per day for 7 days. This LC-MS/MS method yielded a quick, simple and reliable protocol for determining albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples and is applicable to therapeutic monitoring.

  9. Physiologic and Functional Responses of MS Patients to Body Cooling Using Commercially Available Cooling Garments (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)


    Personal cooling systems are widely used in industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. Increasingly they are also used by heat sensitive multiple sclerosis (HSMS) patients to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. There are a variety of cooling systems commercially available to the MS community. However, little information is available regarding the comparative physiological changes produced by routine operation of these various systems. The objective of this study was to document and compare the patient response to two passive cooling vests and one active cooling garment. The Life Enhancement Technology, Inc. (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems (MCS) Change of Phase garment, and the Steele Vest were each used to cool 13 male and 13 female MS subjects (31 to 67 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approximately 22 C), were tested with one of the cooling garments. Oral, fight and left ear temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. An-n, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. Each subject was given a series of subjective and objective evaluation tests before and after cooling. The LET and Steele vests test groups had similar, significant (P less than 0.01) cooling effects on oral and ear canal temperature, which decreased approximately 0.4 C, and 0.3 C, respectively. Core temperature increased (N.S.) with all three vests during cooling. The LET vest produced the coldest (P less than 0.01) skin temperature. Overall, the LET vest provided the most improvement on subjective and objective performance measures. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all MS patients. Cooling with the LET active garment configuration resulted in the lowest body temperatures for the MS subjects; cooling with

  10. A consensus statement on the renal monitoring of Australian patients receiving tenofovir based antiviral therapy for HIV/HBV infection. (United States)

    Holt, Stephen G; Gracey, David M; Levy, Miriam T; Mudge, David W; Irish, Ashley B; Walker, Rowan G; Baer, Richard; Sevastos, Jacob; Abbas, Riaz; Boyd, Mark A


    A number of antiviral agents used against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and hepatitis B virus (HBV) mono or co-infection have been associated with real nephrotoxicity (including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), atazanavir, indinavir and lopinavir) or apparent changes in renal function (e.g. cobicistat, ritonavir, rilpivirine and dolutegravir). Patients with HIV are at higher risk of acute and chronic renal dysfunction, so baseline assessment and ongoing monitoring of renal function is an important part of routine management of patients with HIV. Given the paucity of evidence in this area, we sought to establish a consensus view on how routine monitoring could be performed in Australian patients on ART regimens, especially those involving TDF. A group of nephrologists and prescribers (an HIV physician and a hepatologist) were assembled by Gilead to discuss practical and reasonable renal management strategies for patients particularly those on TDF-based combination regimens (in the case of those with HIV-infection) or on TDF-monotherapy (in the case of HBV-mono infection). The group considered which investigations should be performed as part of routine practice, their frequency, and when specialist renal referral is warranted. The algorithm presented suggests testing for serum creatinine along with plasma phosphate and an assessment of urinary protein (rather than albumin) and glucose. Here we advocate baseline tests of renal function at initiation of therapy. If creatinine excretion inhibitors (e.g. cobicistat or rilpivirine) are used as part of the ART regimen, we suggest creatinine is rechecked at 4 weeks and this value used as the new baseline. Repeat testing is suggested at 3-monthly intervals for a year and then at least yearly thereafter if no abnormalities are detected. In patients with abnormal baseline results, renal function assessment should be performed at least 6 monthly. In HBV mono-infected patients advocate that a similar testing

  11. Effects of Mobility-Enhancing Nursing Intervention in Patients with MS and Stroke: Randomised Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Suter-Riederer, Susanne; Kesselring, Jürg


    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) or stroke causes functional impairment which can have a major impact on patients' life. Objectives. This RCT investigated the effect of a new nursing intervention (Mobility Enhancing Nursing Intervention-MFP) designed to improve rehabilitation outcomes. Method. The study took place in a rehabilitation clinic in Switzerland. One hundred forty participants diagnosed with MS, stroke, and brain injuries were randomly assigned to control group (CG = standard care) or intervention group (IG). The IG combined standard care with 30 days of MFB. MFP placed patients on a mattress on the floor and used tactile-kinaesthetic stimulation to increase spatial orientation and independency. Outcomes were functionality (Extended Barthel Index, EBI), quality of life (WHOQoL), and fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I). Results. There was a significant main effect of the intervention on functionality (EBI-diff/day mean = 0.30, versus mean = 0.16, P = 0.008). There was also a significant main effect on QoL (WHOQoL-diff mean = 13.8, versus mean = 5.4, P = 0.046). No significant effect was observed on fall-related self-efficacy. Conclusions. The positive effect of MFP on rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life suggests that this specialized nursing intervention could become an effective part of rehabilitation programs. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of St. Gallen (KEK-SG Nr. 09/021) and registered at NCT02198599.

  12. Multiplex MALDI-TOF MS detection of mitochondrial variants in Brazilian patients with hereditary optic neuropathy (United States)

    Matilde da Silva-Costa, Sueli; Balieiro, Juliane Cristina; Fernandes, Marcela Scabello Amaral; Alves, Rogério Marins; Guerra, Andrea Trevas Maciel; Marcondes, Ana Maria; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia


    Purpose Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by bilateral vision loss. More than 95% of LHON cases are associated with one of the three main mtDNA mutations: G11778A, T14484C, and G3460A. The other 5% of cases are due to other rare mutations related to the disease. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and spectrum of LHON mtDNA mutations, including the haplogroup, in a cohort of Brazilian patients with optic neuropathy and to evaluate the usefulness of iPLEX Gold/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology in detecting LHON mutations. Methods We analyzed a total of 101 patients; 67 had a clinical diagnosis of LHON and 34 had optic neuropathy of unknown etiology. Direct sequencing and iPLEX Gold/MALDI-TOF MS were used to screen for the most common pathogenic point mutations in LHON, together with the rare mutations G3733A, C4171A, T10663C, G14459A, C14482G, A14495G, C14568T, and C14482A. Results We identified mutations in 36 patients, of whom 83.3% carried the G11778A mutation and 16.7% carried the T14484C mutation. In individuals with mutations, the haplogroups found were L1/L2, L3, C, R, U, D, and H. Rare mutations were not detected in any of the patients analyzed. Conclusions The frequencies of the main LHON mutations were similar to those previously reported for Latin America. A different frequency was found only for the A3460G mutation. The most frequent haplogroups identified were of African origin. The iPLEX Gold/MALDI-TOF MS technology proved to be highly accurate and efficient for screening mutations and identifying the haplogroups related to LHON. The MassArray platform, combined with other techniques, enabled definitive diagnosis of LHON in 36% (36/101) of the cases studied. PMID:27582625

  13. Baseline Comorbidities in a Population-Based Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Receiving Biological Therapy: Data from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Briggs


    Methods. Descriptive analysis from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD. Results. Up to October 2006, there were 681 RA patients taking biologics enrolled in ARAD. Baseline data were available for 624 (72% female, mean (SD age 57.0 (12.5 years. Of these, 59.5% reported at least one comorbid condition, most commonly hypertension (35.7% and osteoporosis (30.4%; 61 (9.8% had a history of malignancy (35 nonmelanoma skin, 5 breast, 4 bowel, 5 cervix, 3 melanoma, 3 prostate and 1 each of lip, lung, myeloma, testis, uterus, vagina. Self-reported infections within the previous 6 months were common (71.5%. Conclusions. History of comorbidities, including recent infections, is common among Australian RA patients commencing biologics, and 10% have a history of malignancy. This may impact future evaluations of health outcomes among this population, including attribution of adverse events of biologic therapy.

  14. Functional connectivity analysis using whole brain and regional network metrics in MS patients. (United States)

    Chirumamilla, V C; Fleischer, V; Droby, A; Anjum, T; Muthuraman, M; Zipp, F; Groppa, S


    In the present study we investigated brain network connectivity differences between patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and healthy controls (HC) as derived from functional resonance magnetic imaging (fMRI) using graph theory. Resting state fMRI data of 18 RRMS patients (12 female, mean age ± SD: 42 ± 12.06 years) and 25 HC (8 female, 29.2 ± 5.38 years) were analyzed. In order to obtain information of differences in entire brain network, we focused on both, local and global network connectivity parameters. And the regional connectivity differences were assessed using regional network parameters. RRMS patients presented a significant increase of modularity in comparison to HC, pointing towards a network structure with densely interconnected nodes within one module, while the number of connections with other modules outside decreases. This higher decomposable network favours cost-efficient local information processing and promotes long-range disconnection. In addition, at the regional anatomical level, the network parameters clustering coefficient and local efficiency were increased in the insula, the superior parietal gyrus and the temporal pole. Our study indicates that modularity as derived from fMRI can be seen as a characteristic connectivity feature that is increased in MS patients compared to HC. Furthermore, specific anatomical regions linked to perception, motor function and cognition were mainly involved in the enhanced local information processing.

  15. Economic costs of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia among patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in European and Australian clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weycker Derek


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic implications of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN in European and Australian clinical practice are largely unknown. Methods Data were obtained from a European (97% and Australian (3% observational study of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL receiving CHOP (±rituximab chemotherapy. For each patient, each cycle of chemotherapy within the course, and each occurrence of FN within cycles, was identified. Patients developing FN in a given cycle (“FN patients”, starting with the first, were matched to those who did not develop FN in that cycle (“comparison patients”, irrespective of subsequent FN events. FN-related healthcare costs (£2010 were tallied for the initial FN event as well as follow-on care and FN events in subsequent cycles. Results Mean total cost was £5776 (95%CI £4928-£6713 higher for FN patients (n = 295 versus comparison patients, comprising £4051 (£3633-£4485 for the initial event and a difference of £1725 (£978-£2498 in subsequent cycles. Among FN patients requiring inpatient care (76% of all FN patients, mean total cost was higher by £7259 (£6327-£8205, comprising £5281 (£4810-£5774 for the initial hospitalization and a difference of £1978 (£1262-£2801 in subsequent cycles. Conclusions Cost of chemotherapy-induced FN among NHL patients in European and Australian clinical practice is substantial; a sizable percentage is attributable to follow-on care and subsequent FN events.

  16. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination on a dried blood spot of multiple analytes relevant for treatment monitoring in patients with tyrosinemia type I. (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Malvagia, Sabrina; Materazzi, Serena; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Boenzi, Sara; Martinelli, Diego; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo


    Tyrosinemia type 1 is caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. The enzymatic defect impairs the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate, causing accumulation of succinylacetone which induces severe liver and kidney dysfunction along with mutagenic changes and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment is based on nitisinone (NTBC), an enzymatic inhibitor which suppresses succinylacetone production. NTBC, which has dramatically changed the disease course improving liver and kidney functions and reducing risk of liver cancer, causes a side effect of the increase of tyrosine levels. Treatment is therefore based on the combination of NTBC with a protein-restricted diet to prevent the potential toxicity of excessive tyrosine accumulation. Long-term therapy requires a careful monitoring in blood of NTBC levels along with other disease biomarkers, which include succinylacetone, and a selected panel of circulating aminoacids. We have developed a straightforward and fast MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of NTBC, succinylacetone, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine on a dried blood spot requiring a 2 min run. A single assay suitable for quantitative evaluation of all biochemical markers is of great advance over conventional methods, especially in pediatric patients, since it reduces laboratory costs and blood sampling, is less invasive and particularly suitable for pediatric patients, and allows easier storage and shipping.

  17. A Novel Rapid MALDI-TOF-MS-Based Method for Measuring Urinary Globotriaosylceramide in Fabry Patients (United States)

    Alharbi, Fahad J.; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Hughes, Derralynn A.; Ward, Douglas G.


    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-galactosidase A, resulting in the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in various organs. Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and its isoforms and analogues have been identified and quantified as biomarkers of disease severity and treatment efficacy. The current study aimed to establish rapid methods for urinary Gb3 extraction and quantitation. Urine samples from 15 Fabry patients and 21 healthy control subjects were processed to extract Gb3 by mixing equal volumes of urine, methanol containing an internal standard, and chloroform followed by sonication and centrifugation. Thereafter, the lower phase was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the relative peak areas of the internal standard and four major species of Gb3 determined. The results showed high reproducibility with intra- and inter-assay coefficients variation of 9.9% and 13.7%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/μL and the limit of quantitation was 0.30 ng/μL. Total urinary Gb3 levels in both genders of classic Fabry patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Gb3 levels in Fabry males were higher than in Fabry females (p = 0.08). We have established a novel assay for urinary total Gb3 that takes less than 15 min from start to finish.

  18. The MS Choices Survey: findings of a study assessing physician and patient perspectives on living with and managing multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riñon A


    Full Text Available Alberto Riñon1, Mandy Buch2, Derek Holley2, Elisabetta Verdun11Merck Serono S.A. – Geneva, Switzerland, a branch of Merck Serono S.A., Coinsins, Switzerland, an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany; 2GfK Healthcare, London, UKBackground: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS with disease-modifying drugs (DMDs can reduce relapse frequency and delay disability progression. Although adherence to DMDs is difficult to measure accurately, evidence suggests that poor adherence is common and can compromise treatment success. There are likely to be multiple factors underlying poor adherence. To better understand these factors, the global MS Choices Survey investigated patient and physician perspectives regarding key aspects of MS diagnosis, treatment adherence and persistence, and disease management.Methods: The survey was conducted in seven countries and involved patients with MS (age 18–60 years; MS diagnosis for ≥1 year; current treatment with a DMD and physicians (neurologist for 3–30 years; treating ≥15 patients with MS per average month; >60% of time spent in clinical practice. Separate questionnaires were used for physicians and patients, each containing approximately 30 questions.Results: Questionnaires were completed by 331 patients and 280 physicians. Several differences were observed between the responses of patients and physicians, particularly for questions relating to treatment adherence. Overall, the proportion of patients reporting taking a treatment break (31% was almost twice that estimated by physicians (on average 17%. The reasons cited for poor adherence also differed between patients and physicians. For example, more physicians cited side effects as the main reason for poor patient adherence (82%, than responding patients (42%.Conclusions: Physicians may underestimate the scale of poor adherence to DMDs, which could impact on their assessment of treatment efficacy and result in inappropriate treatment escalation. In

  19. A New Method to Quantify Ifosfamide Blood Levels Using Dried Blood Spots and UPLC-MS/MS in Paediatric Patients with Embryonic Solid Tumours (United States)

    Chávez-Pacheco, Juan L.; Navas, Carlos F.; Demetrio, Joel A.; Alemón-Medina, Radamés; Trujillo, Francisca; Pérez, Martín; Zapata, Martha M.; Cárdenas, Rocío; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Aquino, Arnoldo; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Castillejos, Manuel-de-Jesús


    Ifosfamide blood concentrations are necessary to monitor its therapeutic response, avoiding any adverse effect. We developed and validated an analytical method by UPLC-MS/MS to quantify ifosfamide in dried blood spots (DBS). Blood samples were collected on Whatman 903® filter paper cards. Five 3 mm disks were punched out from each dried blood spot. Acetonitrile and ethyl acetate were used for drug extraction. Chromatographic separation was carried out in an Acquity UPLC equipment with a BEH-C18 column, 2.1 x 100 mm, 1.7 μm (Waters®). The mobile phase consisted in 5 mM ammonium formate and methanol:acetonitrile (40:48:12 v/v/v) at 0.2 mL/min. LC-MS/MS detection was done by ESI+ and multiple reaction mode monitoring, ionic transitions were m/z1+ 260.99 > 91.63 for ifosfamide and 261.00 > 139.90 for cyclophosphamide (internal standard). This method was linear within a 100–10000 ng/mL range and it was accurate, precise and selective. Ifosfamide samples in DBS were stable for up to 52 days at -80°C. The procedure was tested in 14 patients, ages 1 month to 17 years (9 males and 5 females), with embryonic tumours treated with ifosfamide, alone or combined, at a public tertiary referral hospital. Ifosfamide blood levels ranged from 11.1 to 39.7 μmol/L at 12 hours after the last infusion, while 24-hour levels ranged from 0.7–19.7 μmol/L. The median at 12 hours was 19.5 μmol/L (Q25 14.4–Q75 29.0) and 3.8 μmol/L (Q25 1.5–Q75 9.9) at 24 hours, p<0.001. This method is feasible to determine ifosfamide plasma levels in paediatric patients. PMID:26600181

  20. Pathological Assessment of Brain White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting MS Patients using Quantitative Magnetization Transfer Imaging

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    Khodarahm Pahlevan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is characterized by lesions in the white matter (WM of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most specific and sensitive method for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. However, the ability of conventional MRI to show histopathologic heterogeneity of MS lesions is insufficient. Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI is a relatively new method to investigate pathologic processes of the brain tissue occurring in MS patients. Material and Methods: Voxel-based analyses allow regional comparisons between groups to be made for the whole brain in a single analysis. This is done by coregistering data from all individual subjects to a reference brain, generally referred to as the "standard space", and then comparing them on a voxel-by-voxel basis. This study aimed to analyze whole-brain quantitative T1 maps, not to find global changes or changes in selected regions, but specifically to investigate the spatial distribution throughout the brain of T1 increases in MS WM with respect to control WM. In this study, 11 healthy controls, 10 relapsing-remitting (RR MS patients and 13 CIS patients were studied using MT-MRI imaging. MT parameters, including magnetization transfer ratio (MTR, magnetization transfer rate between free protons and restricted macromolecular protons, Ksat and longitudinal relaxation times (with and without MT saturation pulse, T1sat and T1free values were evaluated. Results: The results showed that, at a group level, there is widespread involvement of WM throughout the brain in CIS MS and especially in RRMS, where a significant T1 increase was found in 15.58% of WM voxels (normals < RR. Discussion and Conclusion: This study demonstrates that WM in large parts of the brain is susceptible to disease processes in RR and CIS MS

  1. Assessment and management of serotonin syndrome in a simulated patient study of Australian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane B


    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Methods: Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was ‘not feeling well’. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. Results: The simulated patient’s agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148 of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148 of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient’s symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148 and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148. A total of 33.8% (50/148 of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52 of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148 of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148 of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148 did not recommend non-prescription medicines. Conclusion: While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient’s symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies

  2. Validated UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of pramipexole and ropinirole in plasma of patients with Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Mohamed, Susan; Riva, Roberto; Contin, Manuela


    A simple and validated ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the dopaminergic agents pramipexole and ropinirole in plasma of patients with Parkinson's disease. Following liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether from 250μL plasma, the separation of the analytes was achieved on a Gemini NX3 column using 10mM pH 6.0 ammonium formate and 10mM ammonium formate in methanol as binary gradient mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The MS/MS ion transitions were 212.10→153.03 for pramipexole, 261.2→114.2 for ropinirole and 256.1→211 for the internal standard (lamotrigine). The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for both analytes was 80pg/mL and the linearity was determined from 80 to 4000pg/mL for pramipexole and from 200 to 10000pg/mL for ropinirole. Mean recoveries were 94% for PRA and 73% for ROP. Both intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were ≤20% at LLOQ concentration and ≤15% at other concentrations. The proposed validated method was successfully applied to measure plasma concentrations of pramipexole and ropinirole in a series of patients with Parkinson's disease on chronic treatment. By grouping the two dopaminergic agents in the same assay, the method allows a large series of patient samples to be processed in a single analytical session.

  3. Fatigue favors in vitro Th1 and Th17-like cell expansion and reduces corticoid sensitivity in MS patients. (United States)

    Alvarenga-Filho, Hélcio; Salles, Marisa; Hygino, Joana; Ferreira, Thais B; Sacramento, Priscila M; Monteiro, Clarice; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina F; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Bento, Cleonice A M


    Fatigue is a common "ghost" symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease mediated by T cells that target myelin antigens of the central nervous system. As fatigue has been associated with inflammatory states, its occurrence may negatively impact MS progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fatigue on the cytokine profile of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. For our study, blood were collected from MS patients in clinical remission phase with (n=15) and without (n=15) fatigue. Cytokines were detected by ELISA in the plasma and supernatant collected from anti-CD3/anti-CD28-activated T cells or LPS-stimulated monocytes. In some wells, different doses of hydrocortisone (HC) were added at the beginning of the culture. Here, peripheral levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as in vitro production of cytokines related to Th17 (IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and GM-CSF) or Th1 (IFN-γ) phenotypes, were elevated in fatigued patients and their levels were associated with fatigue severity. The same phenomenon was observed between the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-23 by monocytes and fatigue. Moreover, HC was less efficient in inhibiting in vitro inflammatory cytokine production in patients with fatigue, mainly those produced by both CD8(+) T cells and monocytes. Our data, although preliminary, suggests that the occurrence of fatigue, by favoring the in vitro production of Th1/Th17-related cytokines and corticoid resistance, may negatively impact the course of MS.

  4. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  5. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients. (United States)

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O


    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion.

  6. Nurse staff allocation by nurse patient ratio vs. a computerized nurse dependency management system: a comparative cost analysis of Australian and New Zealand hospitals. (United States)

    Heslop, Liza; Plummer, Virginia


    Coding, costing, and accounting for nursing care requirements in Australian public and private hospitals lacks systematic research. Nurse costing for two nurse staffing allocation methods--nurse patient ratios and a computerized nurse dependency management system--were compared. Retrospective nursing workload management data were obtained from hospital information systems in 21 acute care public and private hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Descriptive statistics, cost analysis, and cost modeling were conducted for 103,269 shifts of nursing care. The comparison of costs for nursing staff by nurse-patient ratios and by a computerized nurse dependency management system demonstrated differences. The provision of nursing care using the computerized nurse dependency management system was, overall, lower in cost than for nurse-patient ratios.

  7. Interferon-Beta-1b Induced Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in a Patient with MS: A Case Report


    Saeedi, M; Forughipour, M; Sasannezhad, P; Shoeibi, A


    A 26-year-old lady with the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis who had received interferon beta1-b for eleven months was visited in MS clinic of our hospital because of icter and fatigue. Laboratory tests showed anemia, indirect hyperbillirubinemia, increased LDH, positive direct and indirect coomb’s tests, and increased reticulocyte count and percentage. Other causes of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA) and pre-existing AHA in the patient were ruled out. After INF discontinuation, symptoms disa...

  8. Hydroxycholesterol Levels in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Revealed by LC-Ag+CIS/MS/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS with Picolinic Derivatization: Increased Levels and Association with Disability during Acute Attack (United States)

    Park, Ki Duk; Park, Kyung Seok; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Jaeick


    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Hydroxycholesterols (OHCs), metabolites of CNS cholesterol, are involved in diverse cellular responses to inflammation and demyelination, and may also be involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. We aimed to develop a sensitive and reliable method for the quantitative analysis of three major OHCs (24S-, 25-, and 27-OHCs), and to evaluate their concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with NMO. The levels of the three OHCs in the serum and CSF were measured using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with picolinyl ester derivatization, respectively. The linear range was 5–250 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.5–25 ng/mL for 25-OHC in serum, and was 0.1–5 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.03–1 ng/mL for 25-OHC in CSF. Precision and accuracy were 0.5%–14.7% and 92.5%–109.7%, respectively, in serum, and were 0.8%–7.7% and 94.5%–119.2%, respectively, in CSF. Extraction recovery was 82.7%–90.7% in serum and 68.4%–105.0% in CSF. When analyzed in 26 NMO patients and 23 control patients, the 25-OHC (0.54 ± 0.96 ng/mL vs. 0.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL, p = 0.032) and 27-OHC (2.68 ± 3.18 ng/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.25 ng/mL, p = 0.005) were increased in the CSF from NMO patients. When we measured the OHCCSF index that controls the effects of blood–brain barrier disruption on the level of OHC in the CSF, the 27-OHCCSF index was associated with disability (0.723; 95% confidence interval (CI)– 0.181, 0.620; p = 0.002), while the 24-OHCCSF index (0.518; 95% CI– 1.070, 38.121; p = 0.040) and 25-OHCCSF index (0.677; 95% CI– 4.313, 18.532; p = 0.004) were associated with the number of white blood cells in the CSF of NMO patients. Our results imply that OHCs in the CNS could play a role in the pathogenesis of NMO. PMID:27942009

  9. Absence of MxA induction by interferon beta in patients with MS reflects complete loss of bioactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, D.; Sellebjerg, F.; Sorensen, P.S.


    BACKGROUND: In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) appearing during treatment with interferon (IFN) beta reduce or in high concentrations abolish bioactivity and therapeutic efficacy. In vivo MxA induction by IFNbeta is used as a marker of biologic response...... to IFNbeta. It has been argued that despite absence of MxA induction measured by PCR, some bioactivity might be preserved. In a cohort study, we measured gene expression by gene chip analysis in NAb-negative and NAb-positive patients to test that hypothesis. METHODS: The effect of IFNbeta was studied....... The corresponding number of IFNbeta-regulated genes in NAb-positive patients was zero. CONCLUSION: In neutralizing antibody (NAb)-positive patients without an MxA response, we were not able to detect differential expression of any of the 1077 interferon (IFN) beta-regulated genes identified in NAb-negative patients...

  10. The MS@Work study : a 3-year prospective observational study on factors involved with work participation in patients with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hiele, Karin; van Gorp, Dennis A. M.; Heerings, Marco A. P.; van Lieshout, Irma; Jongen, Peter J.; Reneman, Michiel F.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Vosman, Frans; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Visser, Leo H.


    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young and middle-aged adults. At this stage in life most people are in the midst of their working career. The majority of MS patients are unable to retain employment within 10 years from disease onset. Leading


    Wallace, Jessica; Pyman, Ella; Faunce, Thomas


    In April 2015, North J of the Federal Court of Australia made a finding of unconscionable conduct against Advanced Medical Institute, a promoter and provider of erectile dysfunction treatment, in a case concerning unfair contract terms (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission vACN 117 372 915 Pty Ltd (in liq) (formerly Advanced Medical Institute Pty Ltd) [2015] FCA 368). The contract required a minimum 12-month commitment, with costs exceeding treatments available from general practitioners, and made refunds available only after all possible treatment plans were exhausted which included penile injections. This column analyses that case, particularly in respect to the consumer law standards of practice under which it was litigated. Those standards refer to patients as "consumers" yet North J made extensive reference to the Good Medical Practice: A Code of Conduct for Doctors in Australia, a text which refers to "patients", as evidence of what constitutes appropriate professional conduct or practice for the health profession. This column considers whether legislative and judicial categorisation of patients (a class of people presumptively suffering, sick and vulnerable) as "consumers" undermines the formal and informal protections accorded to patients under normative systems of medical ethics such as those represented by the Code. The case, it is argued, also illuminates the contemporary tensions between the ethical, legal and human rights standards required of doctors in their treatment of patients and the commercial interests of businesses.

  12. Diagnosing MS (United States)

    ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... Symptoms & Diagnosis Diagnosing MS Possible MS Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Newly Diagnosed Diagnosing Tools Other Conditions to ...

  13. Clinical steroid mass spectrometry: a 45-year history culminating in HPLC-MS/MS becoming an essential tool for patient diagnosis. (United States)

    Shackleton, Cedric


    Automated rapid HPLC tandem mass spectrometry has become the method of choice for clinical steroid analysis. It is replacing immunoassay techniques in most instances because it has high sensitivity, better reproducibility, greater specificity and can be used to analyze multiple steroids simultaneously. Modern multiplex instruments can analyze thousands of samples per month so even with high instrument costs the price of individual assays can be affordable. The mass spectrometry of steroids goes back decades; the first on-line chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for hormone analysis date to the 1960s. This paper reviews the evolution of mass spectrometric techniques applied to sterol and steroid measurement There have been three eras: (1) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), (2) Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) and (3) HPLC/MS. The first technique is only suitable for unconjugated steroids, the second for conjugated, and the third equally useful for free or conjugated. FAB transformed biological mass spectrometry in the 1980s but in the end was an interim technique; GC/MS retains unique qualities but is unsuited to commercial routine analysis, while LC-MS/MS is rightly stealing the show and has become the dominant method for steroid analysis in endocrinology.

  14. Is bronchial wall imaging affected by temporal resolution? Comparative evaluation at 140 and 75 ms in 90 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, Antoine; Tacelli, Nunzia; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); Flohr, Thomas [Computed Tomography, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim (Germany); Duhamel, Alain [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Biostatistics (EA 2694), Lille (France)


    To evaluate the influence of temporal resolution (TR) on cardiogenic artefacts at the level of bronchial walls. Ninety patients underwent a dual-source, single-energy chest CT examination enabling reconstruction of images with a TR of 75 ms (i.e., optimized TR) (Group 1) and 140 ms (i.e., standard TR) (Group 2). Cardiogenic artefacts were analyzed at the level of eight target bronchi, i.e., right (R) and left (L) B1, B5, B7, and B10 (total number of bronchi examined: n = 720). Cardiogenic artefacts were significantly less frequent and less severe in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p < 0.0001) with the highest scores of discordant ratings for bronchi in close contact with cardiac cavities: RB5 (61/90; 68 %); LB5 (66/90; 73 %); LB7 (63/90; 70 %). In Group 1, 78 % (560/720) of bronchi showed no cardiac motion artefacts, whereas 22 % of bronchi (160/720) showed artefacts rated as mild (152/160; 95 %), moderate (7/160; 4 %), and severe (1/160; 1 %). In Group 2, 70 % of bronchi (503/720) showed artefacts rated as mild (410/503; 82 %), moderate (82/503; 16 %), and severe (11/503; 2 %). At 75 ms, most bronchi can be depicted without cardiogenic artefacts. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of Hepcidin Isoforms in Hemodialysis Patients by a Proteomic Approach Based on SELDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Campostrini


    Full Text Available The hepatic iron regulator hormone hepcidin consists, in its mature form, of 25 amino acids, but two other isoforms, hepcidin-20 and hepcidin-22, have been reported, whose biological meaning remains poorly understood. We evaluated hepcidin isoforms in sera from 57 control and 54 chronic haemodialysis patients using a quantitative proteomic approach based on SELDI-TOF-MS. Patients had elevated serum levels of both hepcidin-25 and hepcidin-20 as compared to controls (geometric means: 7.52 versus 4.69 nM, and 4.06 versus 1.76 nM, resp., P<.05 for both. The clearance effects of a single dialysis session by different dialysis techniques and membranes were also investigated, showing an average reduction by 51.3% ± 29.2% for hepcidin-25 and 34.2% ± 28.4% for hepcidin-20 but only minor differences among the different dialysis modalities. Measurement of hepcidin isoforms through MS-based techniques can be a useful tool for better understanding of their biological role in hemodialysis patients and other clinical conditions.

  16. [Determination of thirty three elements in lung cancer tissues of patients with lung cancer by microwave digestion-ICP-MS]. (United States)

    Zhang, Lin-Lin; Ma, Qian-Li; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Guo-Ping; Wei, Fu-Sheng


    A method for determining 33 elements in lung tissues of patients with lung cancer was developed by using vacuum freeze-drying microwave digestion-ICP-MS. The lung tissue samples were treated by vacuum freeze-drying equipment. After microwave digestion in HNO3-H2O2 solution system, the samples were diluted with the method of constant volume. Under the optimized conditions the samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. The double internal standard elements Rh and Re were used to compensate for matrix suppression effect and sensitivity drift. The analytical results showed that the detection limits of the 33 elements were 0.01-0.45 ng x mL(-1). The national standard reference material GBW(E)080193 bovine liver was analyzed by the described method and the measured element values accorded with the standard values or the reference values. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was 2.1%-14.3%. The recovery rates of the studied elements were 90.1%-117.5%. The contents of 33 elements in lung cancer tissues, paracancerous lung tissues and benign lung tissues of 6 patients with lung cancer were determined by the method. It was indicated that the method is rapid, simple and accurate for determining multi-elements in human lung tissue and other biological samples.

  17. Antibody Production in Response to Staphylococcal MS-1 Phage Cocktail in Patients Undergoing Phage Therapy


    Maciej Żaczek; Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska; Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak; Beata Weber-Dąbrowska; Ryszard Międzybrodzki; Barbara Owczarek; Agnieszka Kopciuch; Wojciech Fortuna; Paweł Rogóż; Andrzej Górski


    In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies) to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties towards applied phages (K rate). Among 20 examined patients receiving...

  18. Natalizumab in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars;


    OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with progre......OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients...

  19. CCR5Δ32 Polymorphism Associated with a Slower Rate Disease Progression in a Cohort of RR-MS Sicilian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia D'Angelo


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS disease is carried through inflammatory and degenerative stages. Based on clinical feaures, it can be subdivided into three groups: relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, and primary progressive MS. Multiple sclerosis has a multifactorial etiology with an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and autoimmune inflammatory mechanism in which play a key role CC-chemokines and its receptors. In this paper, we studied the frequency of CCR5 gene Δ32 allele in a cohort of Sicilian RR-MS patients comparing with general Sicilian population. Also, we evaluate the association between this commonly polymorphism and disability development and age of disease onset in the same cohort. Our results show that presence of CCR5Δ32 is significantly associated with expanded disability status scale score (EDSS but not with age of disease onset.

  20. Determination of morphine, codeine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in saliva of substance-abuse patients using HPLC/MS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Vesna


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva represents an alternative specimen for substances abuse determination in toxicology. Hence, the aim of this study was to optimize a method for saliva specimen preparation for heroin metabolites, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-mam, and codeine determination by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS, and to apply this method on saliva samples taken from the patients. Methods. Saliva specimen was prepared using liqiud/liquid extraction of morphine, codeine and 6- mam by mixture of chloroform and isopropanol (9 : 1; v/v. Extracts were analysed by HPLC/MS technique: separation column Waters Spherisorb® 5 μm, ODS2, 4.6 × 100 mm; mobile phase: ammonium acetate : acetonitile (80 : 20; v/v, mobile phase flow rate 0.3 mL/min; mass detection range: 100-400 m/z. Regression and correlation analyses were performed with the probalility level of 0.05. Concentrations of morphine, codeine and 6-mam were determined in saliva samples of the patients with “opiates” in urine identified by the test strips. Results. Calibration for each analysed substance was done in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mg/L and the coefficient of correlation was R2 > 0.99. We obtained following calibration curves: y = 385531x + 14584; y = 398036x + 31542; and y = 524162x - 27105, for morphine, codeine and 6-mam, respectively. Recovery for morphine and codeine determination was 99%, while for 6- mam it was 94%. Limits of detection and quantification of a proposed method were 0.01 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. Concentration of morphine in the saliva of the heroin users ranged between 0.54 and 5.82 mg/L, concentration of codeine between 0.05 and 5.33, and 6-mam between 0.01 and 0.68 mg/L. A statistically significant correlation between codeine and 6-mam concentrations was obtained. Conclusion. A proposed HPLC/MS method for morphine, codeine and 6-mam determination in saliva is accurate, simple, cheap and suitable for routine analysis and


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 金凤表; 史亦男; 张爱文; 侯瑞田


    目的::探讨代谢综合征(MS)合并阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAS)时血脂的改变和意义。方法:以就诊于承德医学院附属医院的MS患者为研究对象,均行睡眠监测,其中单纯MS患者200例,MS合并OSAS患者265例。分别检测两组患者的体重指数(BMI)、颈围、腰围、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)和Epworth睡眠评价量表(ESS)评分。结果:MS+OSAS组患者的BMI、颈围、腰围、TG、TC、LDL-C明显高于MS组,HDL-C明显低于MS组(P<0.05)。MS+OSAS组患者,随着阻塞程度的加重,ESS评分逐渐升高(P<0.05)。结论:MS合并OSAS时可进一步加重血脂的改变;ESS评分可反映OSAS严重程度,积极治疗OSAS亦是预防心血管疾病的重要环节。%Objective: To investigate the changes and significance of blood lipid in metabolic syndromes (MS) combined obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) patients.Methods: The body weight index (BMI), neck circumference, waist circumference, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and ESS score of 200 MS patients and 265 MS+OSAS patients that were treated in the Afifliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College and monitored by polysomnography were measured and recorded respectively. Results:The BMI, neck circumference, waist circumference, TG, TC and LDL-C of MS+OSAS patients were obviously higher than MS patients (P<0.05); but HDL-C was obviously lower (P<0.05). For MS+OSAS patients, the ESS score gradually increased as the degree of obstruction.Conclusions: MS combined OSAS can increase the changes of blood lipid;ESS score may relfect the severity of OSAS, active treatment of OSAS is also an important part for preventing cardiovascular disease.

  2. The Effect of Group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction and Consciousness Yoga Program on Quality of Life and Fatigue Severity in Patients with MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nejati


    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic nature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, have can leave devastating effects on quality of life and fatigue. The present research aimed to study the effect of group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR and conscious yoga program on the quality of life and fatigue severity among patients with MS. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental with intervention and control groups. The statistical population included all members to MS Society of Tehran Province, 24 of whom diagnosed with MS were selected as the sample based on the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned into the test group (12 patients and the control group (12 patients. MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54 and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS were used for data collection. Subjects in the test group underwent a MBSR and conscious yoga program in 8 two-hour sessions. The data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The study findings showed that there was a significant difference between subjects in the experimental and control groups in terms of mean score of some subscales of quality of life including physical health, role limitations due to physical and emotional problems, energy, emotional well-being, health distress, health perception, and satisfaction with sexual function, overall quality of life, and fatigue severity. Conclusion: The results show that the program is effective in reduction of fatigue severity and improving some subscales of quality of life in MS patients. Hence, this supportive method can be used as an effective way for improving quality of life and relieving fatigue in MS patients.

  3. The Effect of Group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction and Consciousness Yoga Program on Quality of Life and Fatigue Severity in Patients with MS (United States)

    Nejati, Somayeh; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh; Rahmani, Soheila; Afrookhteh, Gita; Hoveida, Shahrzad


    Introduction: The chronic nature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), have can leave devastating effects on quality of life and fatigue. The present research aimed to study the effect of group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and conscious yoga program on the quality of life and fatigue severity among patients with MS. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental with intervention and control groups. The statistical population included all members to MS Society of Tehran Province, 24 of whom diagnosed with MS were selected as the sample based on the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned into the test group (12 patients) and the control group (12 patients). MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were used for data collection. Subjects in the test group underwent a MBSR and conscious yoga program in 8 two-hour sessions. The data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The study findings showed that there was a significant difference between subjects in the experimental and control groups in terms of mean score of some subscales of quality of life including physical health, role limitations due to physical and emotional problems, energy, emotional well-being, health distress, health perception, and satisfaction with sexual function, overall quality of life, and fatigue severity. Conclusion: The results show that the program is effective in reduction of fatigue severity and improving some subscales of quality of life in MS patients. Hence, this supportive method can be used as an effective way for improving quality of life and relieving fatigue in MS patients. PMID:28032077

  4. The Effect of Group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction and Consciousness Yoga Program on Quality of Life and Fatigue Severity in Patients with MS. (United States)

    Nejati, Somayeh; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh; Rahmani, Soheila; Afrookhteh, Gita; Hoveida, Shahrzad


    Introduction: The chronic nature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), have can leave devastating effects on quality of life and fatigue. The present research aimed to study the effect of group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and conscious yoga program on the quality of life and fatigue severity among patients with MS. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental with intervention and control groups. The statistical population included all members to MS Society of Tehran Province, 24 of whom diagnosed with MS were selected as the sample based on the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned into the test group (12 patients) and the control group (12 patients). MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were used for data collection. Subjects in the test group underwent a MBSR and conscious yoga program in 8 two-hour sessions. The data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The study findings showed that there was a significant difference between subjects in the experimental and control groups in terms of mean score of some subscales of quality of life including physical health, role limitations due to physical and emotional problems, energy, emotional well-being, health distress, health perception, and satisfaction with sexual function, overall quality of life, and fatigue severity. Conclusion: The results show that the program is effective in reduction of fatigue severity and improving some subscales of quality of life in MS patients. Hence, this supportive method can be used as an effective way for improving quality of life and relieving fatigue in MS patients.

  5. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandawana William Majoni


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9 years. 1244 (79.3% were Indigenous. 44.2% (n=693 were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1 versus 57.4 (15.2, p<0.001] and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35 versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5, p<0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522 versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0, p<0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37 versus 28% (20–38, p=0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2=0.11, p<0.001, no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p<0.001, and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p<0.001, Indigenous ethnicity (p<0.001, urea reduction ratio (p=0.001, and gender (p<0.001 after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation.

  6. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis (United States)

    Lawton, Paul D.; Barzi, Federica; Cass, Alan; Hughes, Jaquelyne T.


    Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months) from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9) years. 1244 (79.3%) were Indigenous. 44.2% (n = 693) were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1) versus 57.4 (15.2), p < 0.001]) and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35) versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5), p < 0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37) versus 28% (20–38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation. PMID:28243472

  7. Volumetric modulated arc therapy is superior to conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy - a comparison among prostate cancer patients treated in an Australian centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydu Lauren E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy technology is expanding rapidly. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT technologies such as RapidArc® (RA may be a more efficient way of delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy-like (IM treatments. This study is an audit of the RA experience in an Australian department with a planning and economic comparison to IM. Methods 30 consecutive prostate cancer patients treated radically with RA were analyzed. Eight RA patients treated definitively were then completely re-planned with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D; and a conventional sliding window IM technique; and a new RA plan. The acceptable plans and their treatment times were compared and analyzed for any significant difference. Differences in staff costs of treatment were computed and analyzed. Results Thirty patients had been treated to date with eight being treated definitely to at least 74 Gy, nine post high dose brachytherapy (HDR to 50.4Gy and 13 post prostatectomy to at least 64Gy. All radiotherapy courses were completed with no breaks. Acute rectal toxicity by the RTOG criteria was acceptable with 22 having no toxicity, seven with grade 1 and one had grade 2. Of the eight re-planned patients, none of the 3D (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were acceptable based on local guidelines for dose to organs at risk. There was no statistically significant difference in planning times between IM and RA (p = 0.792. IM had significantly greater MUs per fraction (1813.9 vs 590.2 p Conclusions 3D was incapable of covering a modern radiotherapy volume for the radical treatment of prostate cancer. These volumes can be treated via conventional IM and RA. RA was significantly more efficient, safe and cost effective than IM. VMAT technologies are a superior way of delivering IM-like treatments.

  8. Profiling of chiral and achiral carboxylic acid metabolomics: synthesis and evaluation of triazine-type chiral derivatization reagents for carboxylic acids by LC-ESI-MS/MS and the application to saliva of healthy volunteers and diabetic patients. (United States)

    Takayama, Takahiro; Kuwabara, Tomohiro; Maeda, Toshio; Noge, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Yutaka; Inoue, Koichi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa


    Novel triazine-type chiral derivatization reagents, i.e., (S)-1-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-amine (DMT-3(S)-Apy) and (S)-4,6-dimethoxy-N-(pyrrolidin-3-yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (DMT-1(S)-Apy), were developed for the highly sensitive and selective detection of chiral carboxylic acids by UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Among the synthesized reagents, DMT-3(S)-Apy was a more efficient chiral reagent for the enantiomeric separation of chiral carboxylic acids in terms of separation efficiency by reversed-phase chromatography and detection sensitivity by ESI-MS/MS. The DMT-3(S)-Apy was used for the determination of 13 carboxylic acids in human saliva of healthy volunteers and diabetic patients. Various biological carboxylic acids including chiral carboxylic acids, and mono- and di-carboxylic acids were clearly identified in the saliva of healthy persons and diabetic patients. The concentrations of carboxylic acids detected in the saliva of diabetic patients were relatively higher than those in the healthy persons. Furthermore, the concentration of D-lactic acid (LA) and the ratio of D/L-LA in the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy persons. The low ratio of D/L-LA in healthy persons was also identified to be independent of age and sex. These results suggest that the determination of the D/L-LA ratio in saliva might be applicable for the diagnosis of diabetes. Based on these observations, DMT-3(S)-Apy seems to be a useful chiral derivatization reagent for the determination not only of chiral carboxylic acids but also achiral ones. In conclusion, the proposed method using DMT-3(S)-Apy is useful for the carboxylic acid metabolomics study of various specimens.

  9. IFNbeta-1a treatment and reestablishment of Th1 regulation in MS patients: dose effects. (United States)

    Pellegrini, Patrizia; Totaro, Rocco; Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Russo, Tomassina; Carolei, Antonio; Adorno, Domenico


    The authors evaluated the relationships between clinical and pharmacologic parameters and the Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine network in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with differing doses of interferon-beta1a (IFN-beta1a). Their results show that low doses are ineffective but that high doses restore Th1 regulation of the maturation and activation of monocytes, T cells, immature dendritic cells, dendritic cells, and T regulatory cells for central and peripheral self-tolerance. Interaction between interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 p70, and IL-6 production appears to play an important role in the control of the maturation and activation states of dendritic cells and T regulatory cells, and is at the basis of the benefit of high doses. The results also indicate that the physiologic mechanisms involved in aging help immunologic reestablishment in IFNbeta-1a-treated patients. Finally, it would appear that the failure of IFNbeta-1a therapy to resolve multiple sclerosis completely is due to the suppression of IL-12 p70 mechanisms (responsible for the physiologic deletion of self-reactive cells) in activation conditions, probably by IFNbeta-1a itself.

  10. Fatigue, mood and quality of life improve in MS patients after progressive resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Petersen, T


    . Fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, FSS), mood (Major Depression Inventory, MDI) and quality of life (physical and mental component scores, PCS and MCS, of SF36) were scored at start, end and follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial of 12 weeks of progressive resistance training in moderately...... disabled (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS: 3-5.5) multiple sclerosis patients including a Control group (n = 15) and an Exercise group (n = 16). Fatigue (FSS > 4) was present in all patients. Scores of FSS, MDI, PCS-SF36 and MCS-SF36 were comparable at start of study in the two groups. Fatigue...... improved during exercise by -0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.4 to 0.4) a.u. vs. 0.1 (95% CI -0.4 to 0.6) a.u. in controls (p = 0.04), mood improved by -2.4 (95% CI -4.1 to 0.7) a.u. vs. 1.1 (-1.2 to 3.4) a.u. in controls (p = 0.01) and quality of life (PCS-SF36) improved by 3.5 (95% CI 1.4-5.7) a...

  11. Reliable volumetry of the cervical spinal cord in MS patient follow-up data with cord image analyzer (Cordial). (United States)

    Amann, Michael; Pezold, Simon; Naegelin, Yvonne; Fundana, Ketut; Andělová, Michaela; Weier, Katrin; Stippich, Christoph; Kappos, Ludwig; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Cattin, Philippe; Sprenger, Till


    Spinal cord (SC) atrophy is an important contributor to the development of disability in many neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the spinal cord atrophy in clinical trials and clinical practice, largely automated methods are needed due to the sheer amount of data. Moreover, using these methods in longitudinal trials requires them to deliver highly reliable measurements, enabling comparisons of multiple data sets of the same subject over time. We present a method for SC volumetry using 3D MRI data providing volume measurements for SC sections of fixed length and location. The segmentation combines a continuous max flow approach with SC surface reconstruction that locates the SC boundary based on image voxel intensities. Two cutting planes perpendicular to the SC centerline are determined based on predefined distances to an anatomical landmark, and the cervical SC volume (CSCV) is then calculated in-between these boundaries. The development of the method focused on its application in MRI follow-up studies; the method provides a high scan-rescan reliability, which was tested on healthy subject data. Scan-rescan reliability coefficients of variation (COV) were below 1 %, intra- and interrater COV were even lower (0.1-0.2 %). To show the applicability in longitudinal trials, 3-year follow-up data of 48 patients with a progressive course of MS were assessed. In this cohort, CSCV loss was the only significant predictor of disability progression (p = 0.02). We are, therefore, confident that our method provides a reliable tool for SC volumetry in longitudinal clinical trials.

  12. Mapping and Identification of the Urine Proteome of Prostate Cancer Patients by 2D PAGE/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kiprijanovska


    Full Text Available Proteome analysis of the urine has shown that urine contains disease-specific information for a variety of urogenital system disorders, including prostate cancer (PCa. The aim of this study was to determine the protein components of urine from PCa patients. Urine from 8 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa was analyzed by conventional 2D PAGE. The MS identification of the most prominent 125 spots from the urine map revealed 45 distinct proteins. According to Gene Ontology, the identified proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes, majority of them are secreted (71%, and half of them are enzymes or transporters. Comparison with the normal urine proteome revealed 11 proteins distinctive for PCa. Using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we have found 3 proteins (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase rififylin, tumor protein D52, and thymidine phosphorylase associated with cellular growth and proliferation (p=8.35×10-4-3.41×10-2. The top network of functional associations between 11 proteins was Cell Death and Survival, Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction, and System Development and Function (p=10-30. In summary, we have created an initial proteomic map of PCa patient’s urine. The results from this study provide some leads to understand the molecular bases of prostate cancer.

  13. Fast and Highly Selective LC-MS/MS Screening for THC and 16 Other Abused Drugs and Metabolites in Human Hair to Monitor Patients for Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.


    Background:To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine,

  14. Determining metabolic features of maintenance hemodialysis patients with diabetic nephropathy treated with glucose-added dialysate based on HPLC-MS/MS Q-TOF%基于HPLC-MS/MS Q-TOF分析糖尿病肾病维持性血透患者含糖透析的代谢特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹; 孟宇; 胡波; 冯艳艳; 尹良红


    AIM; To investigate the metabolic features of maintenance hemodialysis patients with diabetic nephropathy treated with glucose-added dialysate (containing glucose at concentration of 5.5 mmol/L for one time) by high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS Q-TOF). METHODS; Self-control study was conducted in 10 maintenance hemodialysis patients with diabetic nephropathy, who were dialyzed with glucose-free dialysate for one time (as glucose-free dialysate group, G- group) and then changed to glucose-added dialysate for another time (as glucose-added dialysate group, G+ group). The serum samples from the patients in G~ group and G+ group before and after hemodialysis were analyzed and tested by the method of HPLC-MS/MS Q-TOF. In order to identify the differential metabolites, the metabonomic data was processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal signal correction-partial least square discriminate analysis ( OSC-PLS-DA). RESULTS: Regardless of before or after hemodialysis, the PCA model could not distinguish the serum samples from G+ group and G- group, but the samples could be effectively distinguish by OSC-PLS-DA model. The substances lined with variable importance in projection (VIP) value > 3 in the OSC-PLS-DA model and P < 0. 05 in the paired sample t-test as differential metabolites of the 2 groups and included metabolites such as hydrocortisone, lithocholic acid, aspartic acid, iV-methyl niacinamide and dihydroxypros-taglandin F. The concentrations of hydrocortisone and lithochlic acid, which was able to raise the levels of blood glucose and gluconeogenesis, were lower in G+ group than those in G- group. The concentration of aspartic acid, which was involved in gluconeogenesis and also a kind of excitatory neurotransmitter, was lower in G+ group than that in G- group. The concentrations of Af-methyl niacinamide and dihydroxyprostaglandin F, which reflected the level of oxidative stress, were

  15. Virulence determinants in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium vanB: clonal distribution, prevalence and significance of esp and hyl in Australian patients with haematological disorders. (United States)

    Worth, L J; Slavin, M A; Vankerckhoven, V; Goossens, H; Grabsch, E A; Thursky, K A


    European studies have suggested that the esp gene and other virulence factors have roles in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) infections. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the spectrum of clinical disease and putative virulence factors in vanB VREfm isolates. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify potential virulence genes (asa1, gel E, cylA, esp and hyl) in VREfm isolates obtained from an Australian population of haematology patients. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and automated ribotyping. Infection, requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and all-cause 30-day mortality were used as clinical indicators of organism virulence. Forty-one VREfm vanB isolates (41 patients; 14 infected and 27 colonised only) were analysed. Thirty-five of these isolates were typed by PFGE, 31 of which were represented by three clusters. The esp gene was identified in 22 of 27 (81.5%) screening and 11 of 14 (78.6%) infection-associated isolates. One isolate was hyl gene positive, and no isolate contained asa1, gel E or cylA genes. VREfm infection was independently associated with host factors (underlying diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia, age esp gene. ICU admission was negatively associated with presence of the esp gene (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.61; P=0.02). There was no association between 30-day mortality and host factors or the presence of the esp gene. When compared to European and US reports, a high esp gene prevalence and low hyl gene prevalence was observed in polyclonal VRE isolates obtained from this immunocompromised population.

  16. Managing the advanced cancer patient in the Australian emergency department environment : Findings from a national survey of emergency department clinicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Weiland (Tracey); Lane, H. (Heather); G.A. Jelinek; C.H.L. Marck (Claudia); Weil, J. (Jennifer); M. Boughey (Mark); Philip, J. (Jennifer)


    textabstractBackground: Delivery of care to people with advanced cancer in the emergency department (ED) is complicated by competing service demands, workloads and physical design constraints. We explored emergency clinicians’ attitudes to the ED environment when caring for patients who present with

  17. Feasibility of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to ICP-MS for the characterization of wear metal particles and metalloproteins in biofluids from hip replacement patients. (United States)

    Loeschner, Katrin; Harrington, Chris F; Kearney, Jacque-Lucca; Langton, David J; Larsen, Erik H


    Hip replacements are used to improve the quality of life of people with orthopaedic conditions, but the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) arthroplasty has led to poor outcomes for some patients. These problems are related to the generation of micro- to nanosized metal wear particles containing Cr, Co or other elements, but the current analytical methods used to investigate the processes involved do not provide sufficient information to understand the size or composition of the wear particles generated in vivo. In this qualitative feasibility study, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF(4)) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate metal protein binding and the size and composition of wear metal particles present in serum and hip aspirates from MoM hip replacement patients. A well-established HPLC anion exchange chromatography (AEC) separation system coupled to ICP-MS was used to confirm the metal-protein associations in the serum samples. Off-line single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) analysis was used to confirm the approximate size distribution indicated by AF(4) of the wear particles in hip aspirates. In the serum samples, AF(4) -ICP-MS suggested that Cr was associated with transferrin (Tf) and Co with albumin (Alb) and an unidentified species; AEC-ICP-MS confirmed these associations and also indicated an association of Cr with Alb. In the hip aspirate sample, AF(4)-ICP-MS suggested that Cr was associated with Alb and Tf and that Co was associated with Alb and two unidentified compounds; AEC analysis confirmed the Cr results and the association of Co with Alb and a second compound. Enzymatic digestion of the hip aspirate sample, followed by separation using AF(4) with detection by UV absorption (280 nm), multi-angle light scattering and ICP-MS, suggested that the sizes of the Cr-, Co- and Mo-containing wear particles in a hip aspirate sample were in the range 40-150 nm. Off-line spICP-MS was used to confirm these

  18. Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for Urinary Lactulose and Mannitol Quantification: Results in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (United States)

    Gervasoni, Jacopo; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Giorgio, Valentina; Primiano, Aniello; Russo, Consuelo; Tesori, Valentina; Urbani, Andrea; Zuppi, Cecilia


    Aim. Lactulose/mannitol ratio is used to assess intestinal barrier function. Aim of this work was to develop a robust and rapid method for the analysis of lactulose and mannitol in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Lactulose/mannitol ratio has been measured in pediatric patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Methods. Calibration curves and raffinose, used as internal standard, were prepared in water : acetonitrile 20 : 80. Fifty μL of urine sample was added to 450 μL of internal standard solution. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna NH2 column operating at a flow rate of 200 μL/min and eluted with a linear gradient from 20% to 80% water in acetonitrile. Total run time is 9 minutes. The mass spectrometry operates in electrospray negative mode. Method was fully validated according to European Medicine Agency guidelines. Results and Conclusions. Linearity ranged from 10 to 1000 mg/L for mannitol and 2.5 to 1000 mg/L for lactulose. Imprecision in intra- and interassay was lower than 15% for both analytes. Accuracy was higher than 85%. Lactulose/mannitol ratio in pediatric patients is significantly higher than that measured in controls. The presented method, rapid and sensitive, is suitable in a clinical laboratory. PMID:28070137

  19. Upregulation of IL-17, but not of IL-9, in circulating cells of CIS and relapsing MS patients. Impact of corticosteroid therapy on the cytokine network. (United States)

    Muls, Nathalie; Jnaoui, Karima; Dang, Hong Anh; Wauters, Antony; Van Snick, Jacques; Sindic, Christian Jean-Marie; van Pesch, Vincent


    The concomitant production of IL-17A and IL-9, both Th17 cytokines, has not been compared in MS patients. We show that IL-17A but not IL-9 expression by CD3(+) cells was increased during a MS relapse. Co-expression of IL-17A and IL-9 was marginal. In addition to Th1 and Th2 cytokines, IL-17A, IL-6 and IL-23p19 were down-regulated by ivMP, but Foxp3 was not, while an increase in IL-10, TGF-β1 and IL-27p28 mRNA was observed. This change in the Th17, Treg and IL-10 balance could be an additional mechanism by which corticosteroids shorten the duration of a MS relapse and promote recovery.

  20. A Rapid and Selective LC-MS/MS Method for Quantification of Quetiapine in Human Plasma and its Application to Pharmacokinetic Study on Indian Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravinder


    Full Text Available A rapid, robust and selective high pressure liquid chromatography–positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of quetiapine (QUE in human plasma with K2EDTA using oxcarbazepine (IS as an internal standard. Analyte and internal standard were extracted from human plasma by solid-phase extraction using acetonitrile. The eluted samples were chromatographed on a C18 column by using a 10:75:15v/v mixture of ammonium formate buffer (5 mM, pH 4.50 and acetonitrile and methanol as an isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min and analyzed by mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using the respective [M+H]+ ions, m/z 384.3/253.2 for Quetiapine and m/z 253.1/208.1 for the internal standard. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 5.01 - 2501.04 ng/mL for quetiapine in human plasma. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. A run time of 2.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze 300 patient plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used for the estimation of quetiapine in real time schizophrenia patient’s plasma samples for pharmacokinetic study.

  1. Pediatric MS (United States)

    ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) Learn More Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Learn More Balo’s Disease Learn More Acute ...

  2. A Rapid and Sensitive UPLC-MS/MS-Method for the Separation and Quantification of Branched-Chain Amino Acids from Dried Blood Samples of Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Fingerhut


    Full Text Available Newborn screening for MSUD is a special challenge since patients with MSUD can metabolically decompensate rapidly without adequate treatment within the first two weeks of life. However, the screening method does not detect the actual marker metabolite (alloisoleucine specifically, but only as part of the group of the other isobaric amino acids leucine, isoleucine and hydroxyproline. We describe a sensitive and rapid second-tier UPLC-MS/MS method to determine branched-chain amino acids from the initial extraction of the screening sample. Quantification is based on a seven-point calibration curve. Reference ranges (mean ± SD in µmol/L were determined from 179 normal, not pre-selected samples from the newborn screening: leucine: 72 ± 27; isoleucine: 37 ± 19; valine: 98 ± 46; hydroxyproline: 23 ± 13. The concentration of alloisoleucine was below the detection limit in about 55% of the cases, and the highest concentration was 1.9 µmol/L. In all 30 retrospectively studied screening samples from patients with confirmed MSUD the concentration of alloisoleucine was significantly increased. In 238 samples with false-positive newborn screening due to a significant increase in the combined concentration of leucine + isoleucine + alloisoleucine + hydroxyproline (400 to >4000 µmol/L, alloisoleucine was below 6.5 µmol/L (n = 57 or not detectable (n = 181. The application of this assay markedly reduces the false-positive rate and the associated anxiety and costs. It is also suitable for routinely monitoring blood spots of patients with MSUD.

  3. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P


    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  4. Motor training programs of arm and hand in patients with MS according to different levels of the ICF: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spooren Annemie IF


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper extremity plays an important role in daily functioning of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS and strongly influences their quality of life. However, an explicit overview of arm-hand training programs is lacking. The present review aims to investigate the training components and the outcome of motor training programs for arm and hand in MS. Methods A computerized systematic literature search in 5 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane was performed using the following Mesh terms: Multiple Sclerosis, Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Training, Exercise, Patient-Centered Care, Upper Extremity, Activities of Daily Living, Motor Skills, Motor Activity, Intervention Studies and Clinical Trial. The methodological quality of the selected articles was scored with the Van Tulder Checklist. A descriptive analyses was performed using the PICO principle, including scoring of training components with the calculation of Hedges’g effect sizes. Results Eleven studies were eligible (mean Van Tulder-score = 10.82(SD2.96. Most studies reported a specific improvement in arm hand performance at the ICF level that was trained at. The mean number of training components was 5.5(SD2.8 and a significant correlation (r = 0.67; p  Conclusion Motor training programs (both at the ICF body function and activity level have shown to improve arm and hand performance in MS in which the value of the training specificity was emphasized. To optimize upper extremity training in MS the component ‘client-centred’ and ‘exercise progression’ may be important. Furthermore, given the importance attributed to the components ‘distribution based practice’, ‘feedback’ and ‘random practice’ in previous research in stroke patients, the use of these components in arm hand training should be explored in future research.

  5. Discrepancy in MALDI-TOF MS identification of uncommon Gram-negative bacteria from lower respiratory secretions in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulWahab A


    Full Text Available Atqah AbdulWahab,1,2 Saad J Taj-Aldeen,3 Emad Bashir Ibrahim,3 Eman Talaq,4 Marawan Abu-Madi,4 Rashmi Fotedar5 1Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3Microbiology Division, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 4Department of Health Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 5Biotechnology Center, Ministry of Environment, Doha, Qatar Introduction: Early identification of microbial organisms from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF is important to guide therapeutic decisions. The objective was to compare the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS relative to the conventional phenotypic method in identifying common bacterial isolates, including nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria, in a cohort of patients with CF. Methods: A total of 123 isolates from 50 patients with CF representing 14 bacterial species from respiratory specimens were identified using MALDI-TOF MS in parallel with conventional phenotypic methods. Discrepancies were confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequencing in five Gram-negative isolates. Results: The MALDI-TOF MS managed to identify 122/123 (99.2% bacterial isolates to the genus level and 118/123 (95.9% were identified to the species level. The MALDI-TOF MS results were 100% consistent to the species level with conventional phenotypic identification for isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and other uncommon organisms such as Chryseobacterium gleum and Enterobacter cloacae. The 5/123 (4.6% isolates misidentified were all Gram-negative bacteria. The isolation of E. cloacae and Haemophilus paraphrohaemolyticus may extend the

  6. A critical assessment of SELDI-TOF-MS for biomarker discovery in serum and tissue of patients with an ovarian mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegdam Wouter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less than 25% of patients with a pelvic mass who are presented to a gynecologist will eventually be diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Since there is no reliable test to differentiate between different ovarian tumors, accurate classification could facilitate adequate referral to a gynecological oncologist, improving survival. The goal of our study was to assess the potential value of a SELDI-TOF-MS based classifier for discriminating between patients with a pelvic mass. Methods Our study design included a well-defined patient population, stringent protocols and an independent validation cohort. We compared serum samples of 53 ovarian cancer patients, 18 patients with tumors of low malignant potential, and 57 patients with a benign ovarian tumor on different ProteinChip arrays. In addition, from a subset of 84 patients, tumor tissues were collected and microdissection was used to isolate a pure and homogenous cell population. Results Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA and Support Vector Machine (SVM classification on serum samples comparing cancer versus benign tumors, yielded models with a classification accuracy of 71-81% (cross-validation, and 73-81% on the independent validation set. Cancer and benign tissues could be classified with 95-99% accuracy using cross-validation. Tumors of low malignant potential showed protein expression patterns different from both benign and cancer tissues. Remarkably, none of the peaks differentially expressed in serum samples were found to be differentially expressed in the tissue lysates of those same groups. Conclusion Although SELDI-TOF-MS can produce reliable classification results in serum samples of ovarian cancer patients, it will not be applicable in routine patient care. On the other hand, protein profiling of microdissected tumor tissue may lead to a better understanding of oncogenesis and could still be a source of new serum biomarkers leading to novel methods for

  7. The Australian National University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Australian National University was established by Federal Parliament in 1946 with a mission to bring credit to the nation and to be one of the world’s great universities.It was the country’s only full-time research university at the time,and had no undergraduate teaching responsibilities.

  8. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek


    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  9. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko


    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  10. Hardening: Australian for Transformation (United States)

    2004-01-01 38 ibid: no page no. 39 ibid: no page no. 40 Aldo Borgu , The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Australian Strategic...Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2002. Borgu Aldo, The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Canberra

  11. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Vitamin D3 in MS: Subgroup Analysis of Patients with Baseline Disease Activity Despite Interferon Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Åivo


    Full Text Available We present a subgroup analysis of the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial with vitamin D3 in MS. In the overall study population, there were 34 patients in the vitamin D arm and 32 patients in the placebo arm. All the patients were using interferon-β-1b (IFNB therapy. The subgroup consisted of 15 patients in the vitamin D arm and 15 patients in the placebo arm, who had either at least one relapse during the year preceding the study or enhancing T1 lesions at the baseline MRI scan. We measured the total number of MRI T1 enhancing lesions, the number of new/enlarging T2 lesions and T2 lesion volume (BOD (mm3, EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, annual relapse Rate (ARR, timed 25-foot walk (T25FW, and timed 10-foot tandem walk (TT10W at baseline and at 12 months in the vitamin D-treated and in the placebo-treated patients. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of T1 enhancing lesions, a smaller T2 lesion volume growth and less new/enlarging T2 brain MRI lesions in the vitamin D3-treated than in the placebo-treated subgroup patients. The MRI results were slightly more pronounced in the subgroup than in the overall study population.

  12. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  13. Survey of a community-based infusion program for Australian patients with rheumatoid arthritis requiring treatment with tocilizumab: patient characteristics and drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voight L


    Full Text Available Louisa VoightCoast Joint Care, Maroochydore, Queensland, AustraliaBackground: Tocilizumab is an effective therapy for patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis that is administered by infusion over one hour every 4 weeks. The community-based infusion (ACTiv program was introduced to Australia in August 2010 to provide accessible and convenient treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis who require tocilizumab. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of patients in the ACTiv program, patient satisfaction, and patient-perceived benefits and concerns with the ACTiv program, and drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns.Methods: A voluntary self-administered survey was given to all 608 patients in the ACTiv program between January 27, 2011 and March 31, 2011.Results: A total of 351 surveys were returned completed, giving a response rate of 58% (351/608. Most patients in the ACTiv program were women aged 40–64 years, with a mean disease duration of 13.7 years and moderate disability, who had been in the ACTiv program for ≥5 months. Most patients (88%, 302/342 were either very satisfied or satisfied with the ACTiv program and believed that they were very unlikely or somewhat unlikely to switch from the ACTiv program (64%, 214/335. The most important benefit was the reassurance of receiving treatment from a trained nurse in a professional medical environment (33%, 102/309. The most important concern was the fear of side effects (48%, 134/280. The main drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns of patients were health profile, previous medication experience, and length of treatment time in the program.Conclusion: The ACTiv program is used by patients of various ages, family life situations, and locations. Patient satisfaction with the program is high, which enables patients to benefit from long-term use of tocilizumab

  14. The use of a portable breath analysis device in monitoring type 1 diabetes patients in a hypoglycaemic clamp: validation with SIFT-MS data. (United States)

    Walton, C; Patel, M; Pitts, D; Knight, P; Hoashi, S; Evans, M; Turner, C


    Monitoring blood glucose concentrations is a necessary but tedious task for people suffering from diabetes. It has been noted that breath in people suffering with diabetes has a different odour and thus it may be possible to use breath analysis to monitor the blood glucose concentration. Here, we evaluate the analysis of breath using a portable device containing a single mixed metal oxide sensor during hypoglycaemic glucose clamps and compare that with the use of SIFT-MS described in previously published work on the same set of patients. Outputs from both devices have been correlated with the concentration of blood glucose in eight volunteers suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus. The results demonstrate that acetone as measured by SIFT-MS and the sensor output from the breath sensing device both correlate linearly with blood glucose; however, the sensor response and acetone concentrations differ greatly between patients with the same blood glucose. It is therefore unlikely that breath analysis can entirely replace blood glucose testing.

  15. Australian University International Student Finances (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati


    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  16. The Australian Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Howe


    Full Text Available Nutrients recently became the target of an unprecedented internet campaign by an individual who disagrees with the content and conclusions of a paper published in the journal last year, viz. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased” by Alan W. Barclay and Jennie Brand-Miller, Nutrients 2011, 3, 491–504. Regrettably, his criticism has extended to the journal and its peer review processes for permitting publication of the article. [...

  17. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search Legacy (United States)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, Christopher G.; Butler, Paul; Horner, Jonathan; Carter, Brad; Wright, Duncan; Jones, H. R. A.


    Radial velocity searches for exoplanets have undergone a revolution in recent years: now precisions of 1 m/s or better are being demonstrated by many instruments, and new purpose-built spectrographs hold the promise of bringing Earth-mass planets into the realm of secure detectability. In the "race to the bottom," it is critical not to overlook the impact of long-running planet search programs that continue to hold the advantage of time. We highlight the continuing impact of the 18-year Anglo-Australian Planet Search: the characterisation of long-period giant planets, and the insights into the occurrence rate of Jupiter and Saturn analogs. To fully understand the origins of planetary systems and the fundamental question of how common (or rare) the architecture of the Solar system is in the Galaxy, we must continue these "legacy" surveys to probe ever-larger orbital separations.

  18. Determination of aldehydes in exhaled breath of patients with lung cancer by means of on-fiber-derivatisation SPME-GC/MS. (United States)

    Poli, Diana; Goldoni, Matteo; Corradi, Massimo; Acampa, Olga; Carbognani, Paolo; Internullo, Eveline; Casalini, Angelo; Mutti, Antonio


    A number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been identified and used in preliminary clinical studies of the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of aldehydes (known biomarkers of oxidative stress) in the diagnosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We used an on-fiber-derivatisation SPME sampling technique coupled with GC/MS analysis to measure straight aldehydes C3-C9 in exhaled breath. Linearity was established over two orders of magnitude (range: 3.3-333.3×10(-12) M); the LOD and LOQ of all the aldehydes were respectively 1×10(-12) M and 3×10(-12) M. Accuracy was within 93% and precision calculated as % RSD was 7.2-15.1%. Aldehyde stability in a Bio-VOC(®) tube stored at +4°C was 10-17 h, but this became >10 days using a specific fiber storage device. Finally, exhaled aldehydes were measured in 38 asymptomatic non-smokers (controls) and 40 NSCLC patients. The levels of all of the aldehydes were increased in the NSCLC patients without any significant effect of smoking habits and little effect of age. The good discriminant power of the aldehyde pattern (90%) was confirmed by multivariate analysis. These results show that straight aldehydes may be promising biomarkers associated with NSCLC, and increase the sensitivity and specificity of previously identified VOC patterns.

  19. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success. (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy


    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  20. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Wallis


    Full Text Available Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin’s model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  1. The salivary proteome profile in patients affected by SAPHO syndrome characterized by a top-down RP-HPLC-ESI-MS platform. (United States)

    Sanna, Monica; Firinu, Davide; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Pisanu, Maria; Murgia, Giuseppe; Piras, Valentina; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene; del Giacco, Stefano Renato; Cabras, Tiziana


    SAPHO syndrome is a rare and often unrecognized disease with prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular symptoms characterized by musculoskeletal manifestations (synovitis, hyperostosis, osteomyelitis) associated with dermatological conditions (severe acne and pustulosis). The acidic soluble fraction of whole saliva from 10 adult women affected by SAPHO syndrome and from a group of 28 healthy women was analysed by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS with the aim of discovering salivary biomarkers of the disorder. The levels of the oral proteins and peptides were correlated with clinical data. The following proteins showed a significant decreased concentration in saliva of SAPHO subjects with respect to controls: cystatin S1 and SN, histatins, the major acidic PRPs, P-C and P-B peptides. The cystatin SN abundance lowered according to the disease duration and histatins showed positive correlations with the C reactive protein. Statistical analysis performed excluding one patient with a different pattern of salivary proteins/peptides highlighted a positive relationship between cystatin S1, histatins 3, histatin 5, and the neutrophil count. Moreover, histatin 3 correlated positively with the total white cell count and negatively with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Levels and frequency of S100A12 protein showed a trend to increase in SAPHO patients. The high expression of this pro-inflammatory protein is probably related to the inflammatory response and to the altered neutrophil responses to functional stimuli that characterize SAPHO syndrome suggesting a possible application as a salivary biomarker.

  2. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire


    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  3. Keeping cool: use of air conditioning by australians with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Summers, Michael P; Simmons, Rex D; Verikios, George


    Despite the known difficulties many people with MS have with high ambient temperatures, there are no reported studies of air conditioning use and MS. This study systematically examined air conditioner use by Australians with MS. A short survey was sent to all participants in the Australian MS Longitudinal Study cohort with a response rate of 76% (n = 2,385). Questions included hours of air-conditioner use, areas cooled, type and age of equipment, and the personal effects of overheating. Air conditioners were used by 81.9% of respondents, with an additional 9.6% who could not afford an air conditioner. Regional and seasonal variation in air conditioning use was reported, with a national annual mean of 1,557 hours running time. 90.7% reported negative effects from overheating including increased fatigue, an increase in other MS symptoms, reduced household and social activities, and reduced work capacity. Households that include people with MS spend between 4 and 12 times more on keeping cool than average Australian households.

  4. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. (United States)

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David


    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC).

  5. Screening and management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients attending an Australian urban sexual health clinic. (United States)

    Kakar, Sheena; Drak, Douglas; Amin, Tahiya; Cheung, Jason; O'Connor, Catherine; Gracey, David


    Background: Few data exist regarding cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected patients attending sexual health clinics (SHC) in Australia. Methods: The medical records of 188 patients attending an inner-city SHC between August 2013 and July 2014 were retrospectively reviewed for cardiovascular risk factors and associated screening and management practices. Results: Cardiovascular risk factors were common among attendees of the SHC, including smoking (38%), hypertension (14%) and dyslipidaemia (11%). Of the 188 patients, 23% reported using potentially cardiotoxic recreational drugs, 25% of dyslipidaemic patients were not on therapy and 10% of patients were hypertensive; none were prescribed treatment. A smoking cessation program was offered to all patients. Conclusion: A high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease was demonstrated. Modification of risk factors could be improved.

  6. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Society Sign In In Your Area Donate Donate Search v What Is MS? Definition of MS What Causes MS? Who Gets MS? Multiple Sclerosis FAQs Types of MS Related Conditions Symptoms & Diagnosis MS Symptoms ...

  7. Determination of Docetaxel and Paclitaxel in Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Application in Breast Cancer Patients%LC-MS/MS法测定血浆中多西他赛和紫杉醇浓度及在乳腺癌患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵苏; 陈冰; 杨婉花


    Objective: To establish an LC-MS/MS method for determining the concentrations of docetax-el and paclitaxel in plasma of breast cancer patients. Methods: Docetaxel and paclitaxel were used as the internal standard for each other. A sample of 100μL human plasma was extracted by using 1 mL of terta-butyl methyl ether. The upper organic layer was dried under nitrogen flow. The residue was reconstituted with mobile phase and then injected for LC-MS/MS analysis. The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 analytical column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 3.5μm) at 40℃. Samples were eluted using a mobile phase consisting of 0.4% formic acid water / 0.4% formic acid acetonitrile solution (20∶80, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min-1. Detection and quantitation were performed by electrospray ionization in the positive ionization mode by multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 808.5 → m/z 527.2 for docetaxel and m/z 854.3 → m/z 569.4 for paclitaxel. Results: The linear ranges of docetaxel and paclitaxel were, respectively, 5.0-1000 ng·mL-1 and 1.0-500 ng·mL-1 with LLOQ at 5.0 ng·mL-1 and 1.0 ng·mL-1. The intra-and inter-day RSDs were all within 15% at low, moderate and high concentrations. The mean extract re-coveries were 65.9%-84.3% for docetaxel and 90.4%-106.5% for paclitaxel. Conclusion: The method es-tablished is rapid, sensitive, accurate and reliable for the determination of docetaxel and paclitaxel in hu-man plasma. The method is useful for the therapeutic drug monitoring of docetaxel and paclittaxel, and can be applied in pharmacokinetic study of the drugs in Chinese breast cancer patients.%目的:建立一种快速、灵敏的液相色谱-串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)法检测乳腺癌患者血浆中多西他赛、紫杉醇的浓度。方法:多西他赛和紫杉醇互为内标,血浆样品100μL加入1 mL叔丁基甲醚萃取,分离有机相,以氮气吹干后流动相复溶进样。色谱柱为Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18(2.1 mm

  8. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Merlin C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  9. Comparison of emergency nurses association Emergency Severity Triage and Australian emergency mental health triage systems for the evaluation of psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Downey, La Vonne A; Zun, Leslie S; Burke, Trena


    The use of a triage system in the emergency department allows for the ability to reliably assign patients for treatment within a short amount of time in order to prioritize and treat on the basis of patients injury and illness. A 5 point triage system has been shown to have the highest correlation with effective resource utilizations, lower time to be seen and treatment times, and admission or release outcomes for patients. The problem is, however, that these triage scales were developed on the basis of physical illness and not on the ever-increasing number of patients who present with mental illness. This article compares one physical and one specific mental illness-based triage system to measure the differences in times to be seen by a physician. It found that the specialized psychiatric triage system decreased wait times and allowed symptoms to be addressed sooner for patients presenting with psychiatric complaints.

  10. Impact of nursing care in Australian general practice on the quality of care: A pilot of the Patient Enablement and Satisfaction Survey (PESS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desborough, J.; Phillips, C.; Banfield, M.; Bagheri, N.; Mills, J.


    BACKGROUND: Nursing roles in general practice have undergone significant expansion, but as yet there are few tools to measure the quality of nursing care in general practice. This study piloted the Patient Enablement and Satisfaction Survey (PESS) to evaluate two aspects of quality of care in this s

  11. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)


    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  12. Progressive-Relapsing MS (PRMS) (United States)

    ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... relapsing MS (PRMS) Types of MS Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Primary progressive MS ( ...

  13. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

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    Full Text Available ... Related Conditions Symptoms & Diagnosis MS Symptoms Diagnosing MS Possible MS Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Newly Diagnosed Diagnosing ... Myelitis d Symptoms & Diagnosis d Diagnosing MS d Possible MS d Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) d Newly ...

  14. A qualitative study of patients' knowledge and views of about oral health and acceptability of related intervention in an Australian inpatient alcohol and drug treatment facility. (United States)

    Cheah, Alison Li Sun; Pandey, Ram; Daglish, Mark; Ford, Pauline J; Patterson, Sue


    Social factors, health behaviours and the direct effects of substances contribute to the poor oral health and restricted access to dental services experienced by people who are dependent on drugs and/or alcohol. Admission for inpatient withdrawal management provides an opportunity for intervention to promote oral health but to be effective it must be acceptable to patients. To support intervention design, we examined patients' views about oral health, practices and treatment access, and appropriateness of health-promoting intervention in this context. Given paucity of knowledge in the area we employed a qualitative approach, data were collected in semi-structured interviews with inpatients of a public specialist alcohol and drug unit in Australia in September 2014. Analysis employed the framework approach. All 14 participants wanted 'good teeth' but few diligently attended to oral healthcare; most sought assistance only in emergencies. Participants' knowledge of services was limited and practical and affective barriers hindered access. With none recalling attention to oral health during admission, support was strong for incorporation of oral health in inpatient assessments. Participants wanted information about the impact of substances on oral health and oral hygiene practices provided in various formats, and facilitated referral to non-judgemental, affordable treatment. Patients regarded promotion of oral health in the inpatient context as important, relevant and acceptable. Support should respect the different knowledge, practices and motivations for oral health and recovery, of patients. Addressing practical and affective barriers to dental services will require collaboration between drug and alcohol and dental services, and this should be the focus of further research.

  15. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jingjing; Sun Yongjian


    @@ As a large country with 7.69 million, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.

  16. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; Jingjing; Sun; Yongjian


      As a large country with 7.69 million, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.……

  17. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  18. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony


    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  19. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil


    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  20. Managing Progressive MS (United States)

    ... the carepartners/family members who take on significant responsibility. MS is changeable and unpredictable and people experience ... individuals with MS so that the safest and best practices are used from the beginning. The Society is ...

  1. Enlightenment of the Australian Policies of Hospice Care for Chronic Disease Patients on China%澳大利亚慢性病患者临终关怀政策对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 黄莉


    The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is attached with increasingly more importance now,and hospice care for chronic disease patients has become an important issue in public health service. In China,research on hospice care started late,thus hospice care for chronic disease patients has been rarely mentioned. Australia has made great achievement in this area,with effective governmental support,active public participation,a large number of relative agencies and diverse patterns of service. By analyzing the Australian policies of hospice care for chronic disease patients,the study aims to provide suggestions for the formulation of relevant policies in China. A pattern of hospice care with Chinese characteristics should be explored,and social security system of China should be improved,in order to speed up the development of the cause of hospice care in China.%慢性病的防治工作已逐渐被公共卫生事业所重视,对慢性病患者的临终关怀也成了主要焦点。中国对临终关怀的研究起步本身较晚,因此,对慢性病患者的临终关怀更是少有提及。澳大利亚慢性病患者的临终关怀取得较大发展,呈现出政府重视、民众参与度高、机构数量大、服务多样等特点。通过对澳大利亚慢性病患者临终关怀政策的分析,为中国制定慢性病患者临终关怀政策提出建议,探索有中国特色的临终关怀模式,健全中国的社会保障体系,加快中国临终关怀事业的发展。

  2. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... v What Is MS? Definition of MS What Causes MS? Who Gets MS? Multiple Sclerosis FAQs Types of MS Related Conditions Symptoms & Diagnosis ... Myelin Immune-Mediated Disease T Cells d What Causes MS? Disproved Theories ... Hispanics & Latino/as d Multiple Sclerosis FAQs d Types of MS Clinically Isolated Syndrome ( ...

  3. Development of a label-free LC-MS/MS strategy to approach the identification of candidate protein biomarkers of disease recurrence in prostate cancer patients in a clinical trial of combined hormone and radiation therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, Brian


    Combined hormone and radiation therapy (CHRT) is one of the principle curative regimes for localised prostate cancer (PCa). Following treatment, many patients subsequently experience disease recurrence however; current diagnostics tests fail to predict the onset of disease recurrence. Biomarkers that address this issue would be of significant advantage.

  4. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier. (United States)

    Weisz, George M


    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  5. Significance of MRI Perivascular Spaces in MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The role of perivascular Virchow-Robin spaces was investigated in 45 multiple sclerosis (MS patients and 30 healthy controls, in a study at Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, and Goethe University, Frankfurt.

  6. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives


    Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; van Schaik, Katherine D; Aoun, Samar M.; Thompson, Sandra C


    Background: Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods: In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient a...

  7. Australian network of magnetic observatories (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  8. Contemporary Australian writers and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver


    Full Text Available It is amazing to see just how much travel writing, writing which does not exclusively belong to the travel sub-genre of "creative non-fiction", and also how many non-Australian locales, with emphasis on European and Asian ones, there are in the recent contemporary Australian writing since the 1960s. This perhaps speaks about a certain preoccupation or downright trait in the Australian national character. Perhaps, it is a reflection of a particular condition of being "down under", itself derived from "a tradition of colonialism and post-colonialism; from geographical location, both a deterrent and a spur; from post-Romantic literary tradition, coinciding with the early years of white settlement; and from the universal lure of ideas of travel, never more flourishing than at the present" (Hergenhan, Petersson xiii. Tourism is an increasingly global phenomenon to some extent shaping the physical reality as well as the spiritual world of the people involved in it. Within this globalization process, with the prospect of "cyber" travel, there is, however, always an individual "national" experience of the country of destination that a literary traveller puts into words, an experience which is typical and conditioned by specific socio-political and cultural circumstances.

  9. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control. (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick


    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids.

  10. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Definition of MS Myelin Immune-Mediated Disease T Cells d What Causes MS? Disproved Theories Viruses Clusters ... Research News & Progress Research News ECTRIMS 2016 Stem Cells in MS Progressive MS Research Clinical Trials in ...

  11. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Gets MS? Pediatric MS African Americans Hispanics & Latino/as d Multiple Sclerosis FAQs d Types of MS ... Clinicians d Treating MS d Comprehensive Care Developing a Healthcare Team Make the Most of Your Doctor ...

  12. Development and validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation the plasma concentration of Sabarubicin and its alcohol metabolite M3 in Chinese small cell lung cancer patients. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Peng; Li, Ning; Wu, Di; Feng, Yun; Song, Yuanyuan; Shi, Yuankai; Han, Xiaohong


    To support a novel anthracycline agent - Sabarubicin's pharmacokinetics study in Chinese small cell lung cancer patients, a rapid, sensitive, and high throughput ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using Doxorubicin hydrochloride as internal standard (IS) was developed and validated for simultaneously quantifying Sabarubicin and its alcohol metabolite M3 in human plasma. Plasma samples were pre-extracted with n-hexane to remove hydrophobic interferences and the target compounds were extracted into a 1ml mixture of chloroform and isopropanol (1:1, v/v) and separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column with gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid. Detection was performed by electrospray ionization in the positive ionization mode under multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 644→130 for Sabarubicin, m/z 646→333.2 for M3, and m/z 544→360 for IS. For Sabarubicin and M3, calibration curves over 2-400ng/ml and 0.5-100ng/ml could achieve excellent linearity respectively(r>0.99). Intra- and inter-day precisions were 1.5%-9.1% and 2.2%-12.8%, and accuracy were -9.6% to 0.7% and -4.8% to 5.9% for Sabarubicin and M3 respectively at four concentration levels. The mean recovery for Sabarubicin was 62.4%, 71.9% for M3, and 58.8% for IS. This method was completely validated and successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics study of Sabarubicin and M3 in Chinese small cell lung cancer patients.

  13. Australian HFC, PFC and SF6 emissions: atmospheric verification (United States)

    Fraser, P.; Dunse, B.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, P.; Manning, A. J.


    exceptions. References DCCEE (2011), Australian National Greenhouse Accounts, National Inventory Report 2009, Volume 1, Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, 284 pp, April 2011. Miller, B., R. Weiss, P. Salameh, T. Tanhua, B. Greally, J. Muhle & P. Simmonds, Medusa: a sample pre-concentration and GC-MS detector system for in situ measurements of atmospheric trace halocarbons, hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds, Anal. Chem., 80 (5), 1536-1545, 2008. Prinn, R., R. Weiss, P. Fraser, P. Simmonds, D. Cunnold, F. Alyea, S. O'Doherty, P. Salameh, B. Miller, J. Huang, R. Wang, D. Hartley, C. Harth, P. Steele, G. Sturrock, P. Midgley & A. McCulloch, A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE, Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 105 (D14): 17751-17792, 2000.

  14. Physical Exercise and MS Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Stenager, E


    The use of physical exercise programmes in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a controversial issue for many years. During the last decade, however, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements...... in a number of physiological functions, which ultimately can lead to functional improvements that have a positive effect on a patients daily life. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing research, to provide clinicians with some easily administrable recommendations for the application of exercise...

  15. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.


    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the philosophy

  16. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests? (United States)

    Ditchburn, Geraldine


    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  17. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art (United States)

    Vize, Anne


    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  18. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff


    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  19. The influence of the sample matrix on LC-MS/MS method development and analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco Arjan


    In order to provide personalized patient treatment, a large number of analytical procedures is needed to measure a large variety of drugs in various human matrices. The analytical technique used for this research is Liquid Chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). E

  20. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} (Samarium-153 EDTMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, N.R.; Whitwell, J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Australian Radioisotopes


    Quadramet{sup T} (Samarium-153 EDTMP) has been shown overseas to be potentially useful in the palliation of painful osteoblastic skeletal metastases and has been approved this year for general marketing in the USA. Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) has licensed this product from the Australian patent holders, Dow Chemical. Within the facilities of ARI, a hot cell has been dedicated to this product and fitted out to manufacture it weekly on a cycle related to the operating cycle of the Australian reactor HIFAR. Due to neutron flux limitations of HIFAR, the local formulation has an elemental Samarium content up to 200{mu}g/mL whereas the overseas formulation has a level of 20-46{mu}g/mL. All other specifications of the two products are essentially the same. In 1995 and 1996 a small clinical trial with 19 patients was held which demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic behaviour was also essentially the same by measuring blood clearance rates and skeletal uptake dynamics. Soft tissue uptake was also qualitatively determined. The ARI version is now the subject of an application for general marketing within Australia. Some useful characteristics of this agent are: almost complete excretion or fixation in the skeleton within 6 hours, rapid onset of clinical effect, applicability in most cases where an abnormal diagnostic bone scan correlates with painful sites, dosage can be tailored to individual patient uptake due to easy dose measurement and retreatment is quite possible. The use of this class of agents in pain palliation continues to increase. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} provides a further option in the management of these difficult cases

  1. The influence of nutritional intervention on the MS patient's metabolism%营养干预对代谢综合征患者脂代谢影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓峰; 吴升; 吴敏魁; 许秀娟


    Objective To research the influence of nutritional intervention on the MS patient's body weight index and the blood fats. Methods 300 patients with MS were divided into the nutrition intervention group and the control group by using the pair design. The patients in nutrition intervention group were carried nutrition intervention for 4 weeks according to the hypoglycemia load food selection principle. The patients in control group were carried a healthy education about diet and exercise. Compared the change of BMI, total cholesterol( TC ),triglyceride( TG ), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol( HDL-C )and low density lipoproteincholesterol( LDL-C ). Results BMI and TG were decreased before and after nutrition intervention. The significant difference was observed between the two groups ( P < 0.01 ). There were significances in statistics. No significant difference was observed in TC,HDL-C and LDL-C between groups. Conclusion The results were suggested that nutrition interventions can assist in reducing BMI and the blood fats of MS patients.%目的 研究营养干预对代谢综合征(MS)患者脂代谢的影响作用.方法 将确诊的300例MS患者采用配对设计的方法分为干预组和对照组.干预组:由医师开出营养处方,营养师通过互动平台,依据低血糖负载食物选择原则,进行标准化营养干预4周;对照组:由医师进行1次以饮食和运动指导为主的健康教育.4周后,比较两组血清胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)等生化指标及BMI的变化.结果干预组试验后较干预前BMI、TG明显下降(P0.05).结论 依据低血糖负载食物选择原则的营养干预有助于MS患者的体质量控制和脂代谢紊乱的改善.

  2. Motor Neurone Disease: Disability Profile and Service Needs in an Australian Cohort (United States)

    Ng, Louisa; Talman, Paul; Khan, Fary


    Motor neurone disease (MND) places considerable burden upon patients and caregivers. This is the first study, which describes the disability profile and healthcare needs for persons with MND (pwMND) in an Australian sample from the perspective of the patients and caregivers to identify current gaps in the knowledge and service provision. A…

  3. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W


    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  4. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks


    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  5. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W


    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  6. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.


    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  7. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.


    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  8. Analysis of eicosanoids by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS: a historical retrospect and a discussion. (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Zoerner, Alexander A


    Eicosanoids are a large family that derives from arachidonic acid, i.e., eicosatetraenoic acid. Prominent members include prostaglandins, thromboxane and leukotrienes. They are biologically highly active lipid mediators and play multiple physiological roles. GC-MS/MS has played a pivotal role in the identification and quantification of eicosanoids in biological samples. This technology generated a solid knowledge of their analytical chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology. Since about a decade, GC-MS and GC-MS/MS are increasingly displaced by the seemingly more simple, rapid and powerful LC-MS/MS in the area of instrumental analysis of physiological substances, drugs and their metabolites. In this article, we review and discuss LC-MS/MS methods published over the last decade from the perspective of the GC-MS/MS user. Our analysis revealed that the shift from the adult GC-MS/MS to the youthful emerging LC-MS/MS technology in eicosanoid analysis is associated with several important challenges. Known pitfalls and problematic issues discovered by eicosanoid pioneers by using GC-MS/MS are often ignored by LC-MS/MS users. Established reference values and intervals provided by GC-MS-based methods are not considered properly in developing and validating LC-MS/MS methods. Virtually, there is a belief in the unlimited capability of the LC-MS/MS technique in eicosanoid analysis, a thought that simulates analytical certainty. LC-MS/MS users should profit from the plethora of solid knowledge acquired from the use of GC-MS/MS in eicosanoid analysis in basic and clinical research.

  9. Is there a Rationale for Autologous Breast Reconstruction in Older Patients? A Retrospective Single Center Analysis of Quality of life, Complications and Comorbidities after DIEP or ms-TRAM Flap Using the BREAST-Q. (United States)

    Ludolph, Ingo; Horch, Raymund E; Harlander, Marina; Arkudas, Andreas; Bach, Alexander D; Kneser, Ulrich; Schmitz, Marweh; Taeger, Christian D; Beier, Justus P


    Autologous breast reconstruction with the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) or muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (ms-TRAM) flap is a common method in the majority of patients after mastectomy. Because of an increased perioperative risk profile the benefit in older patients is questionable. To assess the postoperative quality of life and peri- and post-operative complications of older compared to younger patients is the aim of this retrospective study. In a retrospective analysis 39 older (i.e. >60 years) and 140 younger patients (i.e. breast reconstruction in the Department of Plastic Surgery at the University Hospital of Erlangen-Nuernberg were surveyed at least 6 month postoperative using the BREAST-Q questionnaire. Correlations were generated between comorbidities and complications. Significant differences were observed regarding hospitalization, pre-existing diseases and the choice of DIEP versus ms-TRAM flaps. Parameters such as major and minor complications, bulging or hernia and risk factors (e.g. smoking or obesity) showed no significant differences. The results of the questionnaire parameters showed no significant difference between both groups, revealing high satisfaction with the aesthetic result and an improvement in quality of life independent of age. Autologous breast reconstruction after mastectomy generates a gain in quality of life and shows a good to excellent overall satisfaction in older as well as younger patients. Despite a longer hospitalization and a different risk profile there were no significant differences regarding minor and major complications in the postoperative course. Hence autologous breast reconstruction for older patients is justified and should be taken into consideration.

  10. Analysis of imatinib in bone marrow and plasma samples of chronic myeloid leukaemia patients using solid phase extraction LC-ESI-MS


    Iqbal, Z; Elliott, M; Watson, D.G.; Holyoake, T. L.; Jorgensen, H G


    The LC-ESI-MS was developed and validated for the analysis of imatinib in plasma and bone marrow samples using deuterated imatinib (D(8)-IM) as an internal standard. The biological samples were extracted using Strata-X-C SPE cartridges and separated on C8 column (50 x 3 mm, 3 µm), and methanol: 0.1% formic acid (70:30) was delivered at the rate of 0.7 ml/min as a mobile phase. Imatinib was quantified in samples by monitoring the ions m/z 494.3 for imatinib and 502.3 for D8-imatinib on ma...

  11. Treatment optimization in MS: Canadian MS Working Group updated recommendations. (United States)

    Freedman, Mark S; Selchen, Daniel; Arnold, Douglas L; Prat, Alexandre; Banwell, Brenda; Yeung, Michael; Morgenthau, David; Lapierre, Yves


    The Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Working Group (CMSWG) developed practical recommendations in 2004 to assist clinicians in optimizing the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. The CMSWG convened to review how disease activity is assessed, propose a more current approach for assessing suboptimal response, and to suggest a scheme for switching or escalating treatment. Practical criteria for relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression and MRI were developed to classify the clinical level of concern as Low, Medium and High. The group concluded that a change in treatment may be considered in any RRMS patient if there is a high level of concern in any one domain (relapses, progression or MRI), a medium level of concern in any two domains, or a low level of concern in all three domains. These recommendations for assessing treatment response should assist clinicians in making more rational choices in their management of relapsing MS patients.

  12. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada


    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  13. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart


    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  14. Malignant otitis externa: An Australian case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    OBJECTIVES: To establish a clinicopathological profile of malignant otitis externa (MOE) in an Australian tertiary referral institution. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort outcomes study. METHODS: 24 patients were identified with MOE between January 1998 and July 2007. Patients were classified into Radiological Grades I-IV. Laboratory investigations Including C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and average glucose level over admission were recorded. RESULTS: Radiological Grade was significantly associated with duration of therapy (rank correlation 0.57, p = 0.004). CRP was a useful indicator confirming disease resolution. Diabetics with MOE had elevated average blood sugar levels during their Hospital admission (p < 0.001) and had poor overall glycaemic control represented by Elevated HBA1c scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant otitis externa is a rare disease, which is best managed in a multidisciplinary team setting. This practical grading system can be used to predict the duration of therapy at time of diagnosis, which enables the efficient utilisation of Hospital resources. Poorly controlled diabetics are more susceptible to developing. MOE than diabetics with satisfactory glycaemic control and may represent a subgroup of more brittle diabetics. CRP combined with appropriate clinical and radiological investigations is useful in assessing disease resolution.

  15. Living with Advanced MS (United States)

    ... Read More Read More Resource Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program The Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate ... Connection About the Society Vision Careers Leadership Cultural Values Financials News Press Room MS Prevalence Charitable Ratings ...

  16. Representing doctors: discourses and images in the Australian press. (United States)

    Lupton, D; McLean, J


    Reports of incidents and issues related to members of the medical profession and the practice of medicine often feature in the western news media. Such intense coverage has incited the interest of both medical sociologists and members of the profession themselves. Thus far, however, very few detailed studies addressing the tenor of news reporting on the medical profession have been published, particularly in relation to the Australian media. This article presents the findings of a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the representation of doctors and the medical practice over a period of 15 months (January 1994 to March 1995) in metropolitan Australian newspapers and major news magazines. The method of critical discourse analysis was employed, including both quantitative analysis and interpretive analysis of the language and visual imagery of the news texts. The study revealed that negative portrayals of doctors were countered by positive representations. While cases of medical negligence, sexual assault and avarice on the part of doctors were often reported, medical successes were also frequently covered. Doctors were overwhelmingly reported as the major authorities on medical matters and as active agents in interacting with patients and other groups such as government officials. It is concluded that while the nature of reporting would suggest that members of the medical profession may be constantly under the spotlight of media scrutiny, they enjoy a significant degree of cultural and social authority in the Australian press.

  17. Differentiation of manuka honey from kanuka honey and from jelly bush honey using HS-SPME-GC/MS and UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS. (United States)

    Beitlich, Nicole; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Speer, Karl


    In the present study, pollen-identical pure manuka and kanuka honeys and an Australian jelly bush honey were analyzed for the nonvolatiles by UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS and for the volatiles by HS-SPME-GC/MS. A chromatographic profile matchup by means of characteristic marker compounds achieved a clear discrimination between manuka, kanuka, and jelly bush honey. UHPLC-PDA profiles of manuka honey show leptosin, acetyl-2-hydroxy-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanate, 3-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-penta-1,4-dione, kojic acid, 5-methyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, and two unknown compounds as prominent, kanuka honey was characterized by 4-methoxyphenyllactic acid, methyl syringate, p-anisic acid, and lumichrome. 2-Methylbenzofuran, 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, and 2'-methoxyacetophenone were markant volatiles for manuka honey, whereas kanuka honey was characterized by 2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1,4-dione, phenethyl alcohol, p-anisaldehyde, and an unknown compound in HS-SPME-GC/MS. The jelly bush honey differed from the manuka honey by higher contents of 2-methoxybenzoic acid and an individual unknown substance in the PDA profile and by lower intensities of 2'-methoxyacetophenone, higher concentrations of cis-linalool oxide, and 3,4,5-trimethylphenol in the HS-SPME-GC/MS profile.

  18. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Awareness Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support d What Is MS? d Definition of MS Myelin Immune-Mediated Disease T Cells d What Causes MS? Disproved Theories Viruses Clusters d ...

  19. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which the person is aware. What happens in RRMS? Relapsing-remitting MS is defined by inflammatory ... remitting MS (RRMS) Learn More Learn More Research in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Learn More Learn More ...

  20. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W


    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  2. Population and Australian development assistance. (United States)

    Jones, R


    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  3. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R


    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  4. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman


    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  5. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  6. SAR by MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOFSTADLER Steven; LOWERY Kristin; DRADER Jared; DING Yili; JEFFERSON Elizabeth; SWAYZE Eric; GRIFFEY Rich; HE Yun


    @@ RNAs have recently emerged as an exciting new target for small molecule therapeutics. Conventional HTS discovery strategies measuring disruption of RNAprotein interactions have proven unsuccessful. We describe a ligand-based drug discovery strategy that addresses the inherent difficulties RNA targets. The strategy is based on: 1) using a MS spectrometry (MS)-based assay to measure the affinity of compounds for a target; 2) performing competitive binding experiments and molecular modeling with the motifs to determine the binding site(s) of the ligands; 3) design and synthesis of derivatives of interesting binders to establish the linking sites; 4) identifying the appropriate linker group using MS; 5) fusing motifs into a more complex structure to afford higher affinity compounds. Example of applying this strategy to identify new classes of lead molecules with affinity and specificity for ribosomal RNA targets will be presented.

  7. SAR by MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOFSTADLER; Steven


    RNAs have recently emerged as an exciting new target for small molecule therapeutics. Conventional HTS discovery strategies measuring disruption of RNAprotein interactions have proven unsuccessful. We describe a ligand-based drug discovery strategy that addresses the inherent difficulties RNA targets. The strategy is based on: 1) using a MS spectrometry (MS)-based assay to measure the affinity of compounds for a target; 2) performing competitive binding experiments and molecular modeling with the motifs to determine the binding site(s) of the ligands; 3) design and synthesis of derivatives of interesting binders to establish the linking sites; 4) identifying the appropriate linker group using MS; 5) fusing motifs into a more complex structure to afford higher affinity compounds. Example of applying this strategy to identify new classes of lead molecules with affinity and specificity for ribosomal RNA targets will be presented.  ……

  8. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective (United States)


    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADF Australian Defence Force COLA cost of living adjustment CPI consumer price index CSB career status bonus CSS...will help you build a Lego city; however, mum will still need to change the nappies. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. Disney and Johnson (2001) and the World Bank (Pordes, 1994). There have also been various papers and reviews about Australian and U.S. military

  9. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism



    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  10. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (United States)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  11. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  12. Australian Politics in a Digital Age


    Chen, Peter John


    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  13. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode


    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  14. New horizons: Australian nurses at work in World War I. (United States)

    Harris, Kirsty


    More than 3000 nurses from Australia served with the Australian Army Nursing Service or the British nursing services during World War I. These nurses served in various theatres of war including Egypt, France, India, Greece, Italy and England. They worked in numerous roles including as a surgical team nurse close to the front working under fire; nursing on hospital ships carrying the sick and wounded; or managing hospital wards overrun with patients whilst dealing with a lack of hospital necessities. The skills and roles needed to be a military nurse significantly differed to the skills required to nurse in Australia.

  15. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MS Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Relapsing-remitting ... Here Start Here Colophon Stay Informed Join Us Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Pinterest MS Connection About the ...

  16. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G.J.; Class, Thomas J.; Costa Pinheiro, Nathalie


    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For L

  17. ICP-MS Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, April J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eiden, Gregory C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This is a short document that explains the materials that will be transmitted to LLNL and DNN HQ regarding the ICP-MS Workshop held at PNNL June 17-19th. The goal of the information is to pass on to LLNL information regarding the planning and preparations for the Workshop at PNNL in preparation of the SIMS workshop at LLNL.

  18. Human herpesviruses and MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove


    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in MS pathogenesis; the human herpesviruses (HHV) are likely candidates for such factors. HHV share a number of properties: they are almost ubiquitous, they are highly prevalent worldwide, they all cause latent infections...

  19. A critical assessment of SELDI-TOF-MS for biomarker discovery in serum and tissue of patients with an ovarian mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegdam, W.; Moerland, P.D.; Meijer, D.; de Jong, S.M.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Kenter, G.G.; Buist, M.R.; Aerts, J.M.


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Less than 25% of patients with a pelvic mass who are presented to a gynecologist will eventually be diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Since there is no reliable test to differentiate between different ovarian tumors, accurate classification could facilitate adequate ref

  20. Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy. (United States)

    Heslop, Liza


    Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations.

  1. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  2. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd


    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  3. In vivo determination of aluminum, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, titanium and vanadium in oral mucosa cells from orthodontic patients with mini-implants by Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). (United States)

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Angeles; Puerto, Maria; Calleja, Ana; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M


    Miniscrews are used as orthodontic anchorage devices in the dentistry clinical practice but the in vivo metallic release from these structures has been not previously investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Ti and V in oral mucosa cells of control subjects, patients under orthodontic treatment and with both, orthodontic treatment and miniscrew, in order to know the contribution of these mini-implants to the total metallic content. ICP-MS measurements revealed the following ascending order: Cr

  4. Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Champion


    Full Text Available The Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia (IPWEA has recently published the Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines. The Guidelines provide new assistance to link the technical (engineering and financial aspects of managing infrastructure and services, and to assist infrastructure owners such as local government to develop sustainable long-term asset and financial management plans. Financial management for long-life infrastructure assets (such as roads, water, sewerage, and stormwater networks, and community buildings is about ensuring sustainability in the provision of services required by the community. These new Guidelines offer advice for every organisation and individual with responsibility for the management of infrastructure assets. They assist in defining best practice approaches for: • Accounting for infrastructure • Depreciation, valuation, useful life, fair value • Managing financial sustainability • Integrating asset management planning and long term financial planning • Meeting requirements for financial reporting The project was a joint initiative of IPWEA and the National Local Government Financial Management Forum. A steering committee representing national and state governments, technical and financial professionals, local government associations and auditors oversaw it.

  5. Prevalence, risk factors and genotypes of hepatitis B infection among HIV-infected patients in the State of MS, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Zacalusni Freitas


    Full Text Available Objectives: A cross-sectional study on prevalence of HBV and HDV infection, risk factors and genotype distribution of HBV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil. Methods: Serum samples of 848 participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc and hepatitis surface antibody (anti-HBs. HBsAg positive samples were tested for anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HCV, and total anti-HDV. HBsAg and anti-HBc positive were subjected to DNA extraction. Viral DNA was amplified by semi-nested PCR for the regions pre-S/S and then purified and genotyped/subgenotyped by direct sequencing. Student's t-test, chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare variables and to evaluate association between HBV positivity (defined as anti-HBc and/or HBsAg positivity and risk factors. Results: Among the 848 HIV infected patients investigated 222 had serological markers of HBV infection. The prevalence rate of HIV-HBV coinfection was 2.5% (21/848; 95% CI: 1.4–3.5%; 484 (57.1% patients were susceptible for HBV infection. There were no cases of anti-HDV positive and only one (0.1% anti-HCV-positive case among the HIV-HBV coinfected patients. Male gender, increasing age, family history of hepatitis, use of illicit drug, and homosexual activity were independent factors associated with HBV exposure. The phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene region revealed the presence of genotypes D (76.9%, F (15.4% and A (7.7% in the study sample. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the low prevalence of HIV-HBV infection and also highlights the need for early vaccination against HBV as well as testing for HBV, HCV and HDV in all HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Feasibility of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to ICP-MS for the characterization of wear metal particles and metalloproteins in biofluids from hip replacement patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Harrington, Chris F.; Kearney, Jacque-Lucca;


    or other elements, but the current analytical methods used to investigate the processes involved do not provide sufficient information to understand the size or composition of the wear particles generated in vivo. In this qualitative feasibility study, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled...... and give an indication of particle size, providing useful pathological indices. As such, the methods indicate a new way forward for in vivo investigation of the processes which lead to tissue necrosis and hip loosening in patients with MoM hip replacements....

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of MS in Latin America. MS Forum Interactive Symposium at the LACTRIMS Congress, 27 August 2004, Iguazu Falls, Brazil. (United States)

    Montalban, Xavier


    The LACTRIMS congress at Foz do Iguacu attracted approximately 500 delegates, representing an important medium for increasing awareness of MS within the neurology community in Latin America. It also provided a forum for neurologists in Latin America, who are already diagnosing and treating patients with MS, to discuss ideas and exchange experiences. This year's congress discussed comprehensive management of patients with MS in Latin America, and how best to achieve this within the context of the local healthcare system. An MS Forum Interactive Symposium formed part of the congress programme and gave attendees the opportunity to learn more about the MS Forum and its activities, as well as managing MS.

  8. Male Sex Is Independently Associated with Faster Disability Accumulation in Relapse-Onset MS but Not in Primary Progressive MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ann Ribbons

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis is more common in women than men and females have more relapses than men. In a large international cohort we have evaluated the effect of gender on disability accumulation and disease progression to determine if male MS patients have a worse clinical outcome than females.Using the MSBase Registry, data from 15,826 MS patients from 25 countries was analysed. Changes in the severity of MS (EDSS were compared between sexes using a repeated measures analysis in generalised linear mixed models. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to test for sex difference in the time to reach EDSS milestones 3 and 6 and the secondary progressive MS.In relapse onset MS patients (n = 14,453, males progressed significantly faster in their EDSS than females (0.133 vs 0.112 per year, P<0.001,. Females had a reduced risk of secondary progressive MS (HR (95% CI = 0.77 (0.67 to 0.90 P = 0.001. In primary progressive MS (n = 1,373, there was a significant increase in EDSS over time in males and females (P<0.001 but there was no significant sex effect on the annualized rate of EDSS change.Among registrants of MSBase, male relapse-onset patients accumulate disability faster than female patients. In contrast, the rate of disability accumulation between male and female patients with primary progressive MS is similar.

  9. Someone Else's Story? Reflections on Australian Studies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask; Leer, Martin Hugo; Ward, Stuart James


    History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach......History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach...

  10. Divergent Trends of Anti-JCPyV Serum Reactivity and Neutralizing Activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS Patients during Treatment with Natalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Antonia Diotti


    Full Text Available The association between natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is established, but a reliable clinical risk stratification flow-chart is lacking. New risk factors are needed, such as the possible role of the anti-JC polyomavirus (JCPyV neutralizing antibody. In this pilot study, we analyzed this parameter during natalizumab treatment. Sequential sera of 38 multiple sclerosis patients during their first year of natalizumab treatment were collected, and grouped according to the number of infusions. For 11 patients, samples were also available after 24 infusions (T24, when progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML risk is higher. The reactivity against VP1, the main JCPyV surface protein, and the anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity were evaluated. During the first year, a lack of correlation between anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity was observed: a significant decrease in anti-JCPyV antibody response was observed (p = 0.0039, not paralleled by a similar trend in the total anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity (p = 0.2239. This lack of correlation was even more evident at T24 when, notwithstanding a significant increase in the anti-JCPyV response (p = 0.0097, a further decrease of the neutralizing activity was observed (p = 0.0062. This is the first study evidencing, prospectively, the lack of correlation between the anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity during natalizumab treatment.

  11. Divergent Trends of Anti-JCPyV Serum Reactivity and Neutralizing Activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Patients during Treatment with Natalizumab (United States)

    Diotti, Roberta Antonia; Capra, Ruggero; Moiola, Lucia; Caputo, Valeria; De Rossi, Nicola; Sangalli, Francesca; Martinelli, Vittorio; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo; Mancini, Nicasio


    The association between natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is established, but a reliable clinical risk stratification flow-chart is lacking. New risk factors are needed, such as the possible role of the anti-JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) neutralizing antibody. In this pilot study, we analyzed this parameter during natalizumab treatment. Sequential sera of 38 multiple sclerosis patients during their first year of natalizumab treatment were collected, and grouped according to the number of infusions. For 11 patients, samples were also available after 24 infusions (T24), when progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) risk is higher. The reactivity against VP1, the main JCPyV surface protein, and the anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity were evaluated. During the first year, a lack of correlation between anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity was observed: a significant decrease in anti-JCPyV antibody response was observed (p = 0.0039), not paralleled by a similar trend in the total anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity (p = 0.2239). This lack of correlation was even more evident at T24 when, notwithstanding a significant increase in the anti-JCPyV response (p = 0.0097), a further decrease of the neutralizing activity was observed (p = 0.0062). This is the first study evidencing, prospectively, the lack of correlation between the anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity during natalizumab treatment. PMID:27164128

  12. Australian paediatric hyperbaric oxygen therapy 1998-2011. (United States)

    Frawley, G; Bennett, M; Thistlethwaite, K; Banham, N


    For a large number of ischaemic, infective, inflammatory or traumatic conditions, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is either the only treatment or an adjunct that significantly reduces morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this review is to identify clinical conditions treated in a paediatric population referred to Australian hyperbaric units. Secondary aims are to describe outcomes of treatment and detail any complications occurring during treatment or during transfer between units. This was a retrospective cohort study (January 1998-December 2011) of children treated at four Australian hyperbaric medical units. A total of 112 children underwent 1099 hyperbaric treatments for 14 indications. Ages were not normally distributed with a median age of 14 years (interquartile range 11-16; range 0.25-16 years). Treatments were completed as planned in 81.5% of cases with 25 patients' treatment terminated at the request of physicians, parents or patients. Complications relating to hyperbaric oxygen therapy occurred in 58 treatments (5.3%). Central nervous system oxygen toxicity occurred in 1:366 treatments. Our findings indicate that provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to children is feasible in major regional hyperbaric units and is associated with low complication rates. Management of children in an adult hyperbaric facility, however, requires significant cooperation between paediatric, intensive care and hyperbaric consultants, as the need for transfer to another hospital and prolonged transports often impacts on optimal ongoing surgical and intensive care management.

  13. Determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam by LC-MS/MS in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy%液相色谱-串联质谱法测定连续肾脏替代治疗患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿华; 程龙妹; 曲恒燕; 郝光涛; 刘泽源; 夏鹄


    Objective To establish a sensitiv e and specific LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT). Methods Cefuroxime axetil was used as the internal standard,the plasma samples were separated on an WatersAtlantis dC18 column (150 mm× 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with ESI was used as the detector and operated in the mode of multiple reaction monitoring.Quantitive analysis of[M-H]-ions were m/z 644.1→528.1(cefoperazone), m/z 231.8→188.0(sulbactam) and m/z 509.3→206.9(the internal standard, IS), respectively. Results The linear range of cefoperazone and sulbactam in human plasma and ultrafiltrate were(10-500) and(6-300)μg/ml, respectively. Extraction recoveries were more than 90.0%, and intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The matrix effect of plasma and ultrafiltrate showed that the matrix effect of the two media had little influence on the measurement of cefoperazone, sulbactam and IS. Conclusion The method is simple, fast, and highly sensitive. The two drugs can be detected simultaneously in the same sample. It is appropriate to monitor drug concentration in plasma and ultrafiltrate of the patients undergone CRRT. Sieving coefficient could be calculated and provide an accurate basis for dose adjustment.%目的:建立液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定连续肾脏替代治疗(continuous renal replacement therapy, CRRT)患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度。方法以头孢呋辛酯为内标,采用WatersAtlantis dC18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5.0μm)进行分离,通过串联质谱仪,以多反应监测方式进行测定。用于定量分析的离子对分别是m/z 644.1→528.1(头孢哌酮)、m/z 231.8→188.0(舒巴坦)和m/z 509.3→206.9〔头孢呋辛酯,内标(IS)〕。结果头孢哌酮在10~500

  14. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film


    Erika Smith


    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  15. Childhood onset MS and MS during Pregnancy Rinze Frederik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Neuteboom (Rinze)


    textabstractChapter 1, the introduction, summarizes current knowledge regarding two special and different situations in multiple sclerosis (MS): Childhood onset MS and MS during pregnancy. Chapter 2 describes the clinical (chapter 2.1-2.3) and biological studies (chapter 2.4-2.6) on pregnancy and M

  16. Dopamine, T cells and multiple sclerosis (MS). (United States)

    Levite, Mia; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco


    Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that induces critical effects in the nervous system and in many peripheral organs, via 5 dopamine receptors (DRs): D1R-D5R. Dopamine also induces many direct and very potent effects on many DR-expressing immune cells, primarily T cells and dendritic cells. In this review, we focus only on dopamine receptors, effects and production in T cells. Dopamine by itself (at an optimal concentration of~0.1 nM) induces multiple function of resting normal human T cells, among them: T cell adhesion, chemotactic migration, homing, cytokine secretion and others. Interestingly, dopamine activates resting effector T cells (Teffs), but suppresses regulatory T cells (Tregs), and both effects lead eventually to Teff activation. Dopamine-induced effects on T cells are dynamic, context-sensitive and determined by the: T cell activation state, T cell type, DR type, and dopamine concentration. Dopamine itself, and also few dopaminergic molecules/ drugs that are in clinical use for cardiac, neurological and other non-immune indications, have direct effects on human T cells (summarized in this review). These dopaminergic drugs include: dopamine = intropin, L-DOPA, bromocriptine, pramipexole, pergolide, haloperidol, pimozide, and amantadine. Other dopaminergic drugs were not yet tested for their direct effects on T cells. Extensive evidence in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) show dopaminergic dysregulations in T cells in these diseases: D1-like DRs are decreased in Teffs of MS patients, and dopamine does not affect these cells. In contrast, D1-like DRs are increased in Tregs of MS patients, possibly causing functional Treg impairment in MS. Treatment of MS patients with interferon β (IFN-β) increases D1-like DRs and decreases D2-like DRs in Teffs, decreases D1-like DRs in Tregs, and most important: restores responsiveness of patient's Teffs to dopamine. DR agonists and antagonists confer some benefits in

  17. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White


    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  18. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael


    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  19. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore


    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  20. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Travel and Recreation Managing MS and Another Condition Vaccinations Aging with MS Anesthesia and Surgery d Family ... 20s and 30s (although it can occur in childhood or later adulthood), while the onset of PPMS ...

  1. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because the location of the damage is so variable, no two people have exactly the same symptoms. ... relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Learn More Learn More Research in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Learn More Learn ...

  2. Multilocus sequence typing of Australian Streptococcus suis type 2 by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of PCR amplicons. (United States)

    Groves, Mitchell D; Jordan, David; Chapman, Toni A; Jassim, Rafat Al


    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a ubiquitous pathogen of swine and is known to cause severe disease in humans. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is ideal for characterising this organism because it permits isolates to be compared on a national and international scale. A novel approach to MLST using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MS-MLST) provides a more rapid alternative to dideoxy sequencing. This study used MS-MLST to define the multilocus sequence types (STs) present among a collection of Australian S. suis type 2, and thus, delivered a basis for comparison of Australian isolates with international strains already well characterised for virulence attributes. A collection of 45 isolates recovered from infected humans (n=3) and diseased pigs (n=42) was genotyped using MS-MLST and conventional MLST. Both methods were 100% concordant in their classification of sequence types (STs), although MS-MLST permitted much quicker analysis of sequence data. The collection contained ST25 (n=31), ST1 (n=10), ST28 (n=3) and ST369 (n=1). These results are consistent with the population structure of S. suis type 2 observed in diseased pigs and humans in Canada and the United Kingdom. MS-MLST may have utility for studying the population structure and epidemiology of S. suis in countries where the diversity of S. suis is greater and human disease is more common.

  3. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials. (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S


    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  4. The ethical commitment of Australian radiographers: Does medical dominance create an influence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Sarah [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail:; Heard, Robert [School of Behavioural and Community Health Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Robinson, John [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); White, Karolyn [Centre for Values and Ethics and the Law in Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Poulos, Ann [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)


    There is a lack of awareness and openness surrounding ethical debate in Diagnostic Radiography literature and culture, perpetuated in part by the historical growth of the technical realm of radiography, radiology and medicine. Hence, the impact of Australian radiographers' current level of professional autonomy, combined with the influence of medical dominance and radiographers' ethical commitment was undocumented. This study investigated the role, importance and attitudes of Australian radiographers towards ethics through a qualitative study following a grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Australian. A conceptual framework mapping the causal conditions affecting the ethical commitment was developed. This study argues that a number of internal and external variables weave an intricate fabric of poor identity, subservience and negative workplace culture. Australian radiographers, whist attempting to set a standard of ethical commitment, are hindered by difficulties of medical dominance, relatively poor professional autonomy and difficulty in accepting responsibility. The presence of private radiology enterprise and the association between patient referral and money has eroded the radiographer-patient relationship and introduced the potential for unethical practice in the radiographer-radiologist-referring practitioner relationship.

  5. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P


    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  6. Phenylphenalenones from the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex. (United States)

    Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia


    Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.

  7. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels


    be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research relations.......This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...

  8. Peripheral nerves injury of electrophysiology and pathology in MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li runjin; Qian zhimin; Chen ping


    OBJECTIVE We report the EMG and pathological features of sural nerve biopsy of 12 patients with MS. The pathological of thesel 1 patients demonstrated demyelination injury of peripheral nerves.METHODS Twelve cases abnomaly are screened with EMG from60 cases MS. Sural nerve biopsy were analyzed by HE AND loyez, and electron microscopy. RESULTS EMG showed slow of MCV in 9 patients and SCV in 7 patients. Myelinated fibers was the presence in 8 sural nerve biopsy patients and most striking demyelinating fibers, regeneration of myelinated fibers. CONCLUSION Ms is characterized by demyelinating disorder limited to the CNS.There are,howeve ,the results of this study sugee that combine with PNS demyelinating injury in MS may be more frequent than is generally assumed.

  9. Socially responsible genetic research with descendants of the First Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M


    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy

  10. Bowlby's children: the forgotten revolution in Australian children's nursing. (United States)

    Wood, Jeanette


    Children's hospitals are vastly different today from fifty years ago. Although there have been dramatic changes in treatment and environment, the biggest contrast for patients is the involvement of parents and family in the nursing and care of the children. This change is largely due to the work of two men from Great Britain, Dr John Bowlby and James Robertson, whose research findings changed the way children were nursed to include consideration of their psychological alongside physical needs. This caused a revolution in the nursing of children that spread throughout Australasia. Bowlby and Robertson's work is largely forgotten now, but it forms the basis for the current policy of nursing children within the context of the family. This paper includes excerpts from an Australian oral history collection of twenty-six narratives from former child patients, parents and nurses and the personal papers of Dr Bowlby.

  11. A review of linked health data in Australian nephrology. (United States)

    Kotwal, Sradha; Webster, Angela C; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin


    Linked health data bring together data about one person from varying sources such as administrative health datasets, death registries and clinical registries using a process that maintains patient privacy. Linked health data have been used for burden of disease estimates and health-care planning and is being increasingly use as a research methodology to study health service utilisation and patient outcomes. Within Australian nephrology, there has been limited understanding and use of linked health data so far, but we expect that with the increasing availability of data and the growing complexity of health care, the use of such data will expand. This is especially pertinent for the growing elderly population with advanced kidney disease, who are poorly represented in other types of research studies. This article summarizes the history of linked health data in Australia, the nature of available datasets in Australia, the methods of access to these data, privacy and ethical issues, along with strengths, limitations and implications for the future.

  12. Survival and mortality rates among Danes with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Stenager, Egon; Hansen, Thomas;


    people with MS, representing more than 200,000 person-years of observation, have been analysed. Overall, mortality was almost three times higher and life expectancy 10 years less among people with MS than for the general population. However, excess mortality has declined significantly since 1950.......Long-term survival and trends in overall and cause-specific excess mortality among people with MS have been studied using the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, which contains information about all Danish MS patients since the mid-20th Century. A total of 4254 deaths among approximately 10,000...

  13. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  14. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry. (United States)

    Barraclough, S


    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  15. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard


    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB...

  16. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China (United States)

    Kendall, Timothy


    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  17. The Dawkins Reconstruction of Australian Higher Education. (United States)

    Harman, Grant

    Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…

  18. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy? (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka


    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  19. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography (United States)

    Maude, Alaric


    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  20. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David


    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  1. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education (United States)

    Nunan, Ted


    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…

  2. The Reflexive Modernization of Australian Universities (United States)

    Pick, David


    The profound changes occurring in Australian higher education are viewed here in the context of the social, cultural, political and economic effects of globalization. Particular attention is paid to providing a theoretical foundation for understanding these effects using the reflexive modernization perspective. Highlighted are some of the…

  3. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie


    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  4. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul


    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  5. Contributions to Indo-Australian Herpetology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.


    A complete account of all the reptiles then known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago was published by De Rooij in 1915 and 1917. Since this time several new species have been described, while others have been suppressed or revived. Also the problem of geographical variation begins to penetr

  6. The Australian species of Rhodamnia (Myrtaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, C.T.


    The genus Rhodamnia, founded by W. JACK (Malayan Miscellanies 1822) on the common Malayan R. cinerea, find its greatest development in the Australian and Papuan regions. DIELS (in LAUTERB., Beitr. Fl. Papuasien, V, ex ENGL., Bot. Jahrb. LVII, 360, 1922) recognizes five species, with a doubtful sixth

  7. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education (United States)

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John


    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  8. Anglo-Australian Observatory August 2009 newsletter

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbie, Paul


    The August 2009 edition of the AAO newsletter contains articles on observations of the lunar impact of the Kaguya satellite, mapping the ISM towards Omega Centauri, early results from the Anglo-Australian Rocky Planet search, details of a new AAOmega observing mode, the new telescope control system and a number of regular features.

  9. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs (United States)


    Point ( HACCP ) program, and use of the Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) decision-making tree (Australian Food and Grocery cow’s milk and beef meat proteins. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89 61-64. Emmett, S. E., et al. (1999) Perceived prevalence of peanut allergy in

  10. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.


    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  11. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa


    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  12. Industrial Relations in Australian Tertiary Education. (United States)

    Hancock, Keith


    A government official in industrial relations and former university administrator chronicles the emergence of unions in Australian universities and discusses the current state of academic trade unionism, focusing on the restructuring of the compensation system and the problems resulting from the process. (MSE)

  13. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Wildburger


    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  14. Prevalence of headache in Australian footballers


    McCrory, P; Heywood, J.; Coffey, C.


    Methods: A prospective questionnaire based survey was performed on elite Australian footballers participating in a national competition. The survey was designed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for headache using standardised International Headache Society (HIS) criteria. Headache prevalence was compared with that of an age and sex matched community control population.

  15. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell


    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  16. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English. (United States)

    Ingram, J. C. L.


    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  17. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul


    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with draft…

  18. Adolescent Breakfast Skipping: An Australian Study. (United States)

    Shaw, Mary E.


    Reports on the findings of an Australian survey of adolescents concerning the extent of skipping breakfast. Finds that skippers are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body shape and to be on a diet to lose weight. Findings suggest that skipping breakfast is a matter of individual choice rather than a result of poverty. (Author/GCP)

  19. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers. (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.


    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  20. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science (United States)

    Bennison, Linda


    in 1996, and which have been held subsequently every four years. A society logo was introduced for the national soil conference in 1984 and a competition was subsequently held to design a logo for the Society. The winning design was launched in 1986, replaced in 2006 and the rebranding of the Society continued into 2011 when the business name Soil Science Australia was adopted by the Society as the 'public name' of the organisation. Over the years the Society was approached to support a range of organisations. It was a founding member of the Australian GeoScience Council in 1982. In general the Society has maintained its focus on soil and limited its associations to kindred organisations. Technology has driven many of the recent changes in the Society. In 1996 the first web site was developed, housed on the University of Melbourne domain. The Society newsletter ceased to be printed on paper in 2002 and delivery to members was via email. Subscription notices are no longer issued and online collection of subscriptions due is via the internet. The administration of the Society was moved to a centralized office run by the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science in 1996 and whilst the Federal Council Executive continues to rotate across the branches of Australia the administration found a permanent home for the first time. In 1998 the first Executive Officer was appointed, whose role includes the administration of the Society. In 2010 the Governor of Queensland, Her Excellency Ms Penelope Wensley AC Governor of Queensland accepted the invitation to become the first Patron of the Society. A significant decision taken in 1996 to introduce the Certified Professional Soil Scientist (CPSS) accreditation program has seen the program burgeon primarily due to the increasing demand by Government authorities for certified professionals in soil and land management. Accreditation is only available to members with requirements for accreditation listed in the Standards for

  1. CT-Guided Trigeminal Neuralgia in MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi


    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Multiple sclerosis has nonspecific"nsigns in MR images and clinic and also has pain,"none of the pain syndromes in MS cases is trigeminal"nneuralgia. 12 patients of our 38 trigeminal neuralgic"npatients etiology were known as MS cases. All of them"nwere young (20-40 years old."nIntroduction: Multiple sclerosis diagnosis is by clinic,"nMRI, CSF electrophoresis and evocked potensial tests."nImaging diagnostis is not suggestive and specific but in"nthis article we show imaging help not only in diagnosis"nalso in treatment of complications. Trigeminal neuralgia"nis the worse clinical condition in M.S patients and may"npush them to addiction or suicide."nMaterials and Methods: X-ray CT machine is used for"nguidance of L.P or coaxial 10cm needle with 22G, local"nanesthesia and ethanol injection. One time treatment"nmade for all patients and they were pain free after"ninterventional drug injection. 5-6 cc bupivicain 0.5%"nand 3-4cc ethanol 96% are used for treatment."nResults: All patients were pain free and very happy"nafter treatment. One of them had pain for 12 years"nand had tried all the other treatments with no good"nresponse. No complication was seen in our treatments."n15 to 20 minutes time is needed for each examination"nor treatment."nConclusion: Despite known MS cases and relative"ndrug therapies for patients it is not possible to treat"ntrigeminal paint except using interventional therapy"nand CT-guidance is exactive and easy. There was"nno complication except irritation in the middle ear"nbecause of Eustachian tube compression by injected"nvolume of drugs

  2. Differential diagnoses to MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Friis, Tina; Modvig, Signe;


    of 643 patients were included in the study. Apart from ON, the most frequent diagnoses were tumors (n = 15), ischemic or hypertensive neuropathies (n = 13), and retinal or choroid disorders (n = 9). Six patients were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica. Rarer causes of visual loss were infections (n = 5...

  3. Economic costs associated with an MS relapse

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, K.


    This was an prospective audit composed of medical chart review and patient questionnaire. Relapses were stratified into 3 groups: low, moderate and high intensity. Age, gender, MS subtype, disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score, disease modifying therapy (DMT) use and employment status were recorded. Direct costs included GP visits, investigations, clinic visit, consultations with medical staff, medication and admission costs. Indirect costs assessed loss of earnings, partner\\'s loss of earnings, childcare, meals and travel costs.

  4. Acceptability of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and self-directed therapies in Australians living with chronic hepatitis C. (United States)

    Stewart, Benjamin J R; Turnbull, Deborah; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A; Harley, Hugh A J; Andrews, Jane M


    Despite the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), treatment is under-researched. Patient preferences are likely to affect treatment uptake, adherence, and success. Thus, the acceptability of psychological supports was explored. A postal survey of Australian CHC outpatients of the Royal Adelaide Hospital and online survey of Australians living with CHC was conducted, assessing demographic and disease-related variables, psychosocial characteristics, past experience with psychological support, and psychological support acceptability. The final sample of 156 patients (58 % male) had significantly worse depression, anxiety, stress, and social support than norms. The most acceptable support type was individual psychotherapy (83 %), followed by bibliotherapy (61 %), pharmacotherapy (56 %), online therapy (45 %), and group psychotherapy (37 %). The most prominent predictor of support acceptability was satisfaction with past use. While individual psychotherapy acceptability was encouragingly high, potentially less costly modalities including group psychotherapy or online therapy may be hampered by low acceptability, the reasons for which need to be further explored.

  5. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.


    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  6. [Related substances in orlistat detected with UPLC-MS/MS]. (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Ma, Chen


    The study aims to identify related substances in orlistat pharmaceutical substance from different production technologies. Advanced technologies including UPLC-QTOF-MS and UPLC-QTrap-MS were used and the structures or molecules of 10 kinds of related substances in orlistat were identified. The experimental data were valuable to the quality control and development of orlistat.

  7. Will the new Australian health privacy law provide adequate protection? (United States)

    Bomba, David; Hallit, George


    Amendments to the original Privacy Act (1988) come at a key point in time, as a national medical record system looms on the Australian horizon. Changes to The Privacy Act have the potential to define a level of information privacy prior to the implementation of such a system. We have therefore collected expert opinions on the ability of the Health Privacy Guidelines (enacted in December 2001 under The Privacy Act and hereafter more specifically known as Health Privacy Legislation) to ensure the privacy and security of patient information. We conclude that the legislation is flawed in its capacity to withstand an increasingly corporatised health sector. Deficiencies in consent requirements, together with feeble enforcement capabilities, mean The Legislation cannot effectively ensure that personally identifiable information will not end up in corporate third party hands. To significantly bolster the new legislation, we argue that it should be supplemented with explicit health data legislation and privacy auditing.

  8. Hydrogen Rearrangement Rules: Computational MS/MS Fragmentation and Structure Elucidation Using MS-FINDER Software. (United States)

    Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kind, Tobias; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yukihira, Daichi; Tanaka, Wataru; Cajka, Tomas; Saito, Kazuki; Fiehn, Oliver; Arita, Masanori


    Compound identification from accurate mass MS/MS spectra is a bottleneck for untargeted metabolomics. In this study, we propose nine rules of hydrogen rearrangement (HR) during bond cleavages in low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). These rules are based on the classic even-electron rule and cover heteroatoms and multistage fragmentation. We evaluated our HR rules by the statistics of MassBank MS/MS spectra in addition to enthalpy calculations, yielding three levels of computational MS/MS annotation: "resolved" (regular HR behavior following HR rules), "semiresolved" (irregular HR behavior), and "formula-assigned" (lacking structure assignment). With this nomenclature, 78.4% of a total of 18506 MS/MS fragment ions in the MassBank database and 84.8% of a total of 36370 MS/MS fragment ions in the GNPS database were (semi-) resolved by predicted bond cleavages. We also introduce the MS-FINDER software for structure elucidation. Molecular formulas of precursor ions are determined from accurate mass, isotope ratio, and product ion information. All isomer structures of the predicted formula are retrieved from metabolome databases, and MS/MS fragmentations are predicted in silico. The structures are ranked by a combined weighting score considering bond dissociation energies, mass accuracies, fragment linkages, and, most importantly, nine HR rules. The program was validated by its ability to correctly calculate molecular formulas with 98.0% accuracy for 5063 MassBank MS/MS records and to yield the correct structural isomer with 82.1% accuracy within the top-3 candidates. In a test with 936 manually identified spectra from an untargeted HILIC-QTOF MS data set of human plasma, formulas were correctly predicted in 90.4% of the cases, and the correct isomer structure was retrieved at 80.4% probability within the top-3 candidates, including for compounds that were absent in mass spectral libraries. The MS-FINDER software is freely available at .

  9. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer


    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  10. Australian Lasioglossum + Homalictus form a monophyletic group: resolving the "Australian enigma". (United States)

    Danforth, B N; Ji, S


    The bee genus Lasioglossum includes > 1,000 species of bees distributed on all continents except Antarctica. Lasioglossum is a major component of the bee fauna in the Holarctic, Ethiopian, and Asian regions and is an important group for investigating the evolution of social behavior in bees. Given its cosmopolitan distribution, the historical biogeography of the genus is of considerable interest. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the subgenera and species within Lasioglossum s.s., using DNA sequence data from a slowly evolving nuclear gene, elongation factor-1 alpha. The entire data set includes > 1,604 aligned nucleotide sites (including three exons plus two introns) for 89 species (17 outgroups plus 72 ingroups). Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses provide strong evidence that the primarily Indoaustralian subgenera (Homalictus, Chilalictus, Parasphecodes) form a monophyletic group. Bootstrap support for the Australian clade ranged from 73% to 77%, depending on the method of analysis. Monophyly of the Australian Lasioglossum suggests that a single colonization event (by way of Southeast Asia and New Guinea) gave rise to a lineage of > 350 native Indoaustralian bees. We discuss the implications of Australian monophyly for resolving the "Australian enigma"--the similarity in social behavior among the Australian halictine bees relative to that of Holarctic groups.

  11. Detection of Serum Differential Expression Protein by MALDI-TOF-MS in Patients with Multiple Myeloma%质谱技术分析多发性骨髓瘤患者血清差异蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冠飞; 房亚哲; 吴琳; 翟玉华; 张洪涛; 陈文明; 王清涛


    Objective Using proteomics technology to analysis and identify the serum differentially expression proteins in patients with multiple myeloma and to search the possible biomarkers of multiple myeloma for clinical diagnosis. Methods The serum samples were collected from patients with multiple myeloma, other blood malignant tumors and healthy control group. The albumin and IgG in serum samples removed and the proteins in serum were separated by two-dimensional gel were electrophoresis (2DE). After silver staining, images were captured by scanner, and then edited and matched by Imagemaster 2D platinum analysis software. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprint base on matrix-assisted laser desorption ioniza-tion time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF-MS). Results Compared with controls, 51 protein spots were differently expressed in serum of patients with multiple myeloma, and 22 proteins were identified. Among them, 13 kinds of protein including serine/threonine-protein kinase RIOK1 isoform 2, ras-related protein Rab-37 isoform 2, immunoglobulin lambda light chain VLJ region, keratin 1, actinin alpha 1 isoform 3 , HP protein, Human Zinc-Alpha-2-Glycoprotein, cytokeratin 9 were up-regulated. 9 kinds of protein including Alpha-2-HS- glycoprotein, poly ( ADP- ribose ) polymerase family member 1, indoleamine- pyrrole 2, 3 dioxygenase, Phosphodiesterase 4D interacting protein, Human Apolipoprotein A-1, myosin, light polypeptide 6B, multime-rin-1 were down-regulated. Conclusion The 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS could be used to detect the differential expression proteins in serum of patients with multiple myeloma, and these proteins could be used as potential disease biomarkers for understand the mechanism of the development and progression of multiple myeloma.%目的 应用双向电泳(2-DE)和质谱技术分析多发性骨髓瘤(MM)患者血清中的差异表达蛋白,寻找MM特异性蛋白标记物.方法 收集MM患者5例、其

  12. Acceleration profiles in elite Australian soccer. (United States)

    Varley, M C; Aughey, R J


    We quantified the acceleration and high-velocity running of elite Australian soccer players. We hypothesised that high-intensity activity would be underestimated when excluding acceleration during match analysis given its high metabolic demand and occurrence at low velocities. Player movements were observed from 29 players (forwards and central and wide defenders and midfielders) during domestic Australian competition using 5-Hz global positioning system. Effort occurrence were determined for high-velocity running, sprinting and maximal accelerations. The commencement and final velocity of maximal accelerations were also identified. Players undertook an 8~fold greater number of maximal accelerations than sprints per game (65±21 vs. 8±5). Of maximal accelerations ~98% commenced from a starting velocity lower than what would be considered high-velocity running while ~85% did not cross the high-velocity running threshold. The number of efforts performed in all categories were position dependent (Psprints compared to all other positions (Pdrills.

  13. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon


    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  14. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR


    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  15. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar BN


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  16. Development of a national burn network: providing a co-ordinated response to a burn mass casualty disaster within the Australian health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Robertson


    Full Text Available With the threat of terrorist activity ever present since the incidents in Bali and Jakarta, the Australian health system must be prepared to manage another mass burn casualty disaster. The Australian and New Zealand Burns Association (ANZBA highlighted the lack of a national burn disaster response before the 2000 Olympics. With the limited number of burn beds available and the protracted length of stay after such injuries, any state or territory could be overwhelmed with relatively few patient admissions. In 2002, the Australian Health Minister's Conference called for a solution. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the process and development of the Australian National Burn Network, which underpins the National Burn Disaster Response (AUSBURNPLAN.

  17. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G J; Class, Thomas J; Pinheiro, Nathalie Costa


    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For LC-MS/MS, sample preparation involved an ultrafiltration followed by chromatography on an anion exchange column. The analysis by GC-MS/MS involved an extraction step, cleanup on a cation exchange column, and derivatization with heptafluorobutanol and trifluoroacetic acid anhydride. Both methods were newly developed for breast milk and are able to quantify glyphosate residues at concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL. The methods were applied to quantify glyphosate levels in 114 breast milk samples, which had been collected from August to September of 2015 in Germany. The mothers participated at their own request and thus do not form a representative sample. In none of the investigated samples were glyphosate residues above the limit of detection found.

  18. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education



    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated) for distance educ...

  19. Management of psychosis in Australian general practice. (United States)

    Charles, Janice; Miller, Graeme; Ng, Anthea


    The BEACH program, a continuous national study of general practice activity in Australia, gives us an overview of consultations involving the management of psychoses. In this analysis we have included schizophrenia, affective disorders/bipolar, organic psychoses, and senile psychoses, with undefined psychosis and chronic brain syndrome grouped as 'other'. This synopsis provides a backdrop against which the theme articles in this issue of Australian Family Physician can be further considered.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Australian Ration Packs (United States)


    gained experience in industrial and environmental chemistry with Pasminco . He undertakes chemical, microbiological and food technology research in...NAPOC QWG Engineer NBCD c/- DENGRS-A, HQ Engineer Centre, Liverpool Military Area, NSW 2174 Librarian, Australian Defence Force Academy Counsellor... NSW 2070 Directorate of Fleet Supply Services, Dept. of Defence (Navy), Campbell Park 3-1-5, Canberra ACT 2600 Assistant Chief Material - A (ACMAT-A

  1. Australian Eager to Enter China's LNG Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han


    @@ Australian Trade Minister Mark Vaile made a trip to China, Japan and Republic of Korea in mid-April in an attempt to locate potential users for LNG from the northwestern continental shelf of the country.Australia has made tenacious efforts for the annual 3-million-ton LNG supply project in China's Guangdong Province. In addition, Australia also hopes to have more users in Japan and Republic of Korea.

  2. Chinese, Australian scholars meet in Beijing to probe sustainable ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Co-hosted by CAS, the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) and the Australian Academy of Science(AAS), a Sino-Australian Workshop on Sustaining Global Ecosystems convened from 8 to 10 August in Beijing. It brought together more than 100 participants from universities, research institutions, government departments and enterprises to discuss various ecological issues of global significance ranging from sustainable water, land, air and energy, to health and the environment.

  3. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study


    Bambang Yudi Cahyono


    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  4. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to single-particle ICP-MS for the simultaneous characterization of AgNPs and determination of dissolved Ag in plasma and blood of burn patients. (United States)

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mičetić, Ivan; Benetti, Federico; Manodori, Laura; Cairns, Warren R L


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in medical devices as innovative antibacterial agents, but no data are currently available on their chemical transformations and fate in vivo in the human body, particularly on their potential to reach the circulatory system. To study the processes involving AgNPs in human plasma and blood, we developed an analytical method based on hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in single-particle detection mode. An innovative algorithm was implemented to deconvolute the signals of dissolved Ag and AgNPs and to extrapolate a multiparametric characterization of the particles in the same chromatogram. From a single injection, the method provides the concentration of dissolved Ag and the distribution of AgNPs in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, mass-derived diameter, number and mass concentration. This analytical approach is robust and suitable to study quantitatively the dynamics and kinetics of AgNPs in complex biological fluids, including processes such as agglomeration, dissolution and formation of protein coronas. The method was applied to study the transformations of AgNP standards and an AgNP-coated dressing in human plasma, supported by micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES) speciation analysis and imaging, and to investigate, for the first time, the possible presence of AgNPs in the blood of three burn patients treated with the same dressing. Together with our previous studies, the results strongly support the hypothesis that the systemic mobilization of the metal after topical administration of AgNPs is driven by their dissolution in situ. Graphical Abstract Simplified scheme of the combined analytical approach adopted for studying the chemical dynamics of AgNPs in human plasma/blood.

  5. pepgrep: A tool for peptide MS/MS pattern matching. (United States)

    Chernukhin, Igor


    Typically, detection of protein sequences in collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS (MS2) dataset is performed by mapping identified peptide ions back to protein sequence by using the protein database search (PDS) engine. Finding a particular peptide sequence of interest in CID MS2 records very often requires manual evaluation of the spectrum, regardless of whether the peptide-associated MS2 scan is identified by PDS algorithm or not. We have developed a compact cross-platform database-free command-line utility, pepgrep, which helps to find an MS2 fingerprint for a selected peptide sequence by pattern-matching of modelled MS2 data using Peptide-to-MS2 scoring algorithm. pepgrep can incorporate dozens of mass offsets corresponding to a variety of post-translational modifications (PTMs) into the algorithm. Decoy peptide sequences are used with the tested peptide sequence to reduce false-positive results. The engine is capable of screening an MS2 data file at a high rate when using a cluster computing environment. The matched MS2 spectrum can be displayed by using built-in graphical application programming interface (API) or optionally recorded to file. Using this algorithm, we were able to find extra peptide sequences in studied CID spectra that were missed by PDS identification. Also we found pepgrep especially useful for examining a CID of small fractions of peptides resulting from, for example, affinity purification techniques. The peptide sequences in such samples are less likely to be positively identified by using routine protein-centric algorithm implemented in PDS. The software is freely available at

  6. Substantial Early, But Nonprogressive Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Spinal Cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmer, Lucas; Albert, Monika; Buss, Armin; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.; Antel, Jack P.; Brueck, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine


    Research in multiple sclerosis (MS) has recently been focusing on the extent of neuroaxonal damage and its contribution to disease outcome. In the present Study, we examined spinal cord tissue from 30 clinically well-characterized MS patients. MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control spi

  7. Cancers in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) (United States)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; van Leuwen, Marina; Vajdic, Claire M; Woolley, Ian; Chuah, John; Templeton, David J; Grulich, Andrew; Law, Matthew


    Objectives To conduct a within cohort assessment of risk factors for incident AIDS defining cancers (ADC) and non-ADC (NADC) within the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). Methods 2181 AHOD registrants were linked to the National AIDS Registry/National HIV Database NAR/NHD and the Australian cancer registry to identify those with a notified cancer diagnosis. Included in the current analyses were cancers diagnosed after HIV infection. Risk factors for cancers were also assessed using logistic regression methods. Results 139 cancer cases were diagnosed after HIV infection among 129 patients. More than half the diagnoses (n=68, 60%) were ADC, of which 69% were KS and 31% NHL. Among the NADC, the most common cancers were melanoma (n=10), lung cancer (n=6), and 5 cases each of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and anal cancer. Over a total of 21021 person years (PY) of follow-up since HIV diagnosis, the overall crude cancer incidence rate for any cancer was 5.09/1000 PY. The overall rate of cancers decreased from 15.9/1000 PY (95%CI: 9.25-25.40/1000) for CD4 counts below 100 cells/μL to 2.4/1000 PY (95%CI: 1.62-3.39/1000) for CD4 counts above 350 cells/μL. Lower CD4 cell count and prior AIDS diagnoses were significant predictors for both ADC and NADC. Conclusion ADC remain the predominant cancers in this population, although NADC rates have increased in the more recent time period. Immune deficiency is a risk factor for both ADC and NADC. PMID:22934689

  8. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) Learn More Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Learn More Balo’s Disease Learn More Acute ...

  9. Primary-Progressive MS (PPMS) (United States)

    ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) Learn More Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Learn More Balo’s Disease Learn More Acute ...

  10. Secondary-Progressive MS (SPMS) (United States)

    ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) Learn More Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Learn More Balo’s Disease Learn More Acute ...

  11. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with MS d Health and Wellness Diet & Nutrition Exercise Emotional Health Smoking Sleep Alcohol Heat & Temperature Sensitivity ... Together, you can weigh the potential risks and benefits of other treatment options. If your symptoms have ...

  12. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... membranes surrounding nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS)), as well as the nerve fibers themselves. ... and problems with cognition (learning and memory or information processing). People with progressive forms of MS are ...

  13. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online d Give in Honor or Memory d Workplace Giving d Employer Matching Gifts d Gifts of ... Brochure Working with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure Taming Stress (.pdf) Download Brochure Multiple Sclerosis and Your Emotions (. ...

  14. LC-MS based Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magdenoska, Olivera

    with only 12C or 13C carbons were very low or even not measurable and showed minimal or no interference to the spiked amount of nonlabeled standards and their stable isotope-labeled internal standards (SIL-IS). Finally the developed IP-RP LC-MS method was coupled to a quadrupole time of flight (QTOF) MS....... The analytical tools applied for analysis of intracellular metabolites should be capable to cope with the large number of metabolites to be analyzed and the complex matrix in the samples. Therefore the combination of separation and detection techniques is commonly applied for analysis of intracellular...... and optimization of the chromatographic separation and iii) optimization of the sample preparation. A substantial part of the thesis was focused on the development of the LC-MS method. For quantitative targeted analysis of a group of defined metabolites, triple quadrupole (QqQ) MS was used. The optimization...

  15. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Change Become an MS Activist Take Action Current Advocacy Issues Advocacy Results Advocacy News d Raise ... your healthcare provider can feel confident that the current treatment regimen is working effectively. How does RRMS ...

  16. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Potentials (EP) d Other Conditions to Rule Out Lyme Disease Lupus Neuromyelitis Optica Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) d ... Trials in MS Wellness and Lifestyle Research Diet Vitamin D How and Why Do Scientists Share Results ...

  17. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) (United States)

    ... Potentials (EP) d Other Conditions to Rule Out Lyme Disease Lupus Neuromyelitis Optica Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) d ... Trials in MS Wellness and Lifestyle Research Diet Vitamin D How and Why Do Scientists Share Results ...

  18. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services in Your Area Living Well with MS Health and Wellness Family and Relationships Mobility & Accessibility Personal ... Peers One-on-One d Insurance & Financial Information Health Insurance and Medicare Disability Insurance Life and Long- ...

  19. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with MS d Health and Wellness Diet & Nutrition Exercise Emotional Health Smoking Alcohol Heat & Temperature Sensitivity Travel ... Together, you can weigh the potential risks and benefits of other treatment options. If your symptoms have ...

  20. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Senior Leadership Team Founder Sylvia Lawry d Cultural Values d Financials Annual Reports Sources of Support d ... Connection About the Society Vision Careers Leadership Cultural Values Financials News Press Room MS Prevalence Charitable Ratings ...

  1. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advanced Care Needs Employment Resources for Specific Populations Find Programs & Services in Your Area Living Well ... Decisions Career Options Accommodations d Resources for Specific Populations Pediatric MS Support Veterans with Multiple Sclerosis d ...

  2. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Results d Research We Fund Stopping MS In Its Tracks Restoring What's Been Lost Ending the Disease ... are diagnosed in their 20s and 30s (although it can occur in childhood or later adulthood), while ...

  3. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training. (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  4. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58 (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn


    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  5. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit? (United States)

    Gough, Annette


    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  6. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas


    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  7. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine


    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  8. Great Powers, National Interests, and Australian Grand Strategy (United States)


    Australian Journal of Political Science 31, no.2 (July 1997): 169. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 22 March 2013). 331 Ann Capling, “Twenty...Australia in the Asia Pacific.” Australian Journal Of Political Science 32, no. 2 (July 1997): 169. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 22

  9. Australian Higher Education and the Relevance of Newman. (United States)

    Coady, Tony; Miller, Seumas


    John Henry Newman's conception of the university as a teaching institution in which the guiding concept is transmission of liberal knowledge is examined as it applies to the Australian context. The theory is seen as a useful starting point for developing a theory of the modern Australian university. (MSE)

  10. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools (United States)

    Goff, Wendy


    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  11. The Effect of Energy Srategy on Australian Economic Security (United States)


    necessary for a green energy economy , a smart grid greatly improves the viability of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic...Australia’s energy economy to influence national policy. This paper examines the current Australian internal and external energy economies for...than many developed economies , while the expanding world energy market provides alternative customers if an Australian energy customer refused to

  12. What Do We Know about the Chancellors of Australian Universities? (United States)

    O'Meara, Bernard; Petzall, Stanley


    This research attempts to explore the key social characteristics and demographics of Australian chancellors to determine who they are and where they come from. The chancellor of an Australian university wields an enormous amount of power, from overseeing the appointment of the Vice-Chancellor (VC) to fulfilling various statutory requirements.…

  13. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011 (United States)

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John


    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  14. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria


    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  15. Educational Malpractice: American Trends and Implications for Australian Schools. (United States)

    Whalley, P. W. F.


    Educational malpractice developments in America may affect legal accountability of Australian teachers and educational institutions. This paper discusses significant American cases and commentators' observations in the context of the Australian legal system. Teachers should embrace their widening legal responsibility in order to advance…

  16. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha


    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  17. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification? (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne


    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  18. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.


    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  19. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective (United States)

    Jones, Adrian


    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  20. The Teaching of First Year Economics in Australian Universities*


    Nilss Olekalns


    This paper surveys current pedagogical practice in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics and microeconomics in Australian universities. Survey results are presented detailing lecturers’ approaches to their teaching over 2001 and other aspects of their teaching environment. A comparison of the content and methodology of the main textbooks used in Australian introductory economic courses is also presented.

  1. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice (United States)

    Pill, Shane


    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  2. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education (United States)

    Salter, Peta


    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  3. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley


    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  4. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan


    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  5. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine


    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  6. LC/MS and SFC/MS: will they replace GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.


    Will LC/MS and SFC/MS eventually replace GC/MS as the method of choice for organic trace analysis. This question was addressed at a symposium organized by Richard Browner of the Georgia Institute of Technology at this year's Pittsburgh Conference in Atlantic City, NJ. The symposium, one of the best-attended technical sessions at this year's meeting, featured presentations by Browner, Ron Hites of Indiana University, Jack Henion of Cornell University, Dick Smith of Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Marvin Vestal of The University of Houston.

  7. Migration and multiple sclerosis in immigrants from United Kingdom and Ireland to Australia: a reassessment. III: risk of multiple sclerosis in UKI immigrants and Australian-born in Hobart, Tasmania. (United States)

    Barnett, Michael H; McLeod, James G; Hammond, Simon R; Kurtzke, John F


    Our previous work suggested that migrants from the United Kingdom and Ireland (UKI) to Australia who left their home country at a young age had a longer interval between immigration and onset and likely acquired MS in Australia. In the present study, we reassessed Australian-born cases of MS identified in Hobart, Tasmania, a relatively high-risk zone, in our 1981 survey and compared these with cases of MS in UKI immigrants incident in Australia. The incidence of MS in Australian-born residents rose from 1.63 per 100,000 in 1941-1965 to 3.48 per 100,000 in 1966-1981. The bulk of UKI immigrants who developed MS in Australia migrated after the age of 15 years, and likely acquired their disease in the UKI. The mean interval from immigration to onset differed significantly (p < 0.01) between those migrating before (22 years) versus after (6 years) the age of 15, suggesting acquisition of MS in Australia in the former group. Identified environmental risk factors such as smoking, sunlight and exposure to Epstein-Barr virus do not fully account for the epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. The apparent introduction of MS into Hobart from the mid-1940s on could provide circumstantial support for the theory that MS is a transmissible disease.

  8. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres


    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  9. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index (United States)

    Thoms, Martin


    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  10. An economic appraisal of the Australian Medical Sheepskin for the prevention of sacral pressure ulcers from a nursing home perspective

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    Achterberg Wilco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many devices are in use to prevent pressure ulcers, but from most little is known about their effects and costs. One such preventive device is the Australian Medical Sheepskin that has been proven effective in three randomized trials. In this study the costs and savings from the use of the Australian Medical Sheepskin were investigated from the perspective of a nursing home. Methods An economic model was developed in which monetary costs and monetary savings in respect of the sheepskin were balanced against each other. The model was applied to a fictional (Dutch nursing home with 100 beds for rehabilitation patients and a time horizon of one year. Input variables for the model consisted of investment costs for using the sheepskin (purchase and laundry, and savings through the prevented cases of pressure ulcers. The input values for the investment costs and for the effectiveness were empirically based on a trial with newly admitted rehabilitation patients from eight nursing homes. The input values for the costs of pressure ulcer treatment were estimated by means of four different approaches. Results Investment costs for using the Australian Medical Sheepskin were larger than the monetary savings obtained by preventing pressure ulcers. Use of the Australian Medical Sheepskin involves an additional cost of approximately €2 per patient per day. Preventing one case of a sacral pressure ulcer by means of the Australian Medical Sheepskin involves an investment of €2,974 when the sheepskin is given to all patients. When the sheepskin is selectively used for more critical patients only, the investment to prevent one case of sacral pressure ulcers decreases to €2,479 (pressure ulcer risk patients or €1,847 (ADL-severely impaired patients. The factors with the strongest influence on the balance are the frequency of changing the sheepskin and the costs of washing related to this. The economic model was hampered by considerable

  11. Halictine social evolution: the Australian enigma. (United States)

    Knerer, G; Schwarz, M


    Australian halictines belong to the primitive genus Lasioglossum or related subgenera. The underground nests have lined cells in series or clusters and sometimes at the end of laterals. Two full generations per year are produced in the communal nests. Overwintered and newly emerged females form unique "pseudosocieties" rather than matrifilial societies along Holarctic patterns. Several Chilalictus species produce a "male caste" of big-headed, flightless males, in addition to normal individuals. Oviposition of unfertilized eggs on large pollen balls causes such allometric bees.

  12. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

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    Colin Hearfield


    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  13. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

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    Ted Nunan


    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated for distance education in university teaching and learning in Australia.

  14. A new era in Australian migration policy. (United States)

    Birrell, R


    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  15. Ciguatera: Australian perspectives on a global problem. (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J


    Ciguatera is a global disease caused by the consumption of certain warm-water fish that have accumulated orally effective levels of sodium channel activator toxins (ciguatoxins) through the marine food chain. Symptoms of ciguatera arising from the consumption of ciguateric fish include a range of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. This review examines progress in our understanding of ciguatera from an Australian perspective, especially the laboratory-based research into the problem that was initiated by the late "Bob" Endean at the University of Queensland.

  16. The State of the Australian Middle Class

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    Clive Hamilton


    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  17. Teaching evolution in the Australian classroom (United States)

    Vozzo, Les

    A summary of the key issues of controversy encountered by science teachers in Australian classrooms. Evolution, cloning and gene manipulation, fertility control, artificial intelligence, irradiation of food, the use of nuclear energy, radiation from powerlines are some of the topics discussed and debated in classrooms. What are some of the difficulties encountered by teachers when students ask questions that raise moral dilemmas and challenges entrenched beliefs and views of the world. What are some of the teaching strategies used that deal with these difficulties.

  18. Development and clinical application of an LC-MS-MS method for mescaline in urine. (United States)

    Björnstad, Kristian; Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof


    Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethylamine) is an hallucinogenic psychoactive substance present in several species of cacti. Mescaline has a documented use dating back 5700 years. In more recent years, the interest in hallucinogenic designer drugs such as ecstasy has also triggered interest in the naturally occurring mescaline. This study was undertaken to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the screening and confirmation of mescaline in human urine samples and to apply this method to routine testing in patient samples. For the screening procedure, chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5-microm HyPURITY C(18) column, using a methanol gradient in ammonium acetate buffer. The MS-MS analysis was performed using selected reaction monitoring; the transitions monitored were m/z 212.3 --> m/z 180.3 for mescaline and m/z 221.3 --> m/z 186.3 for the deuterated internal standard (mescaline-d(9)). The detection limit for mescaline in urine matrix was 3-5 microg/L, the upper limit of quantification was 10,000 microg/L, and the total coefficient of variation for spiked samples containing 10 to 1025 microg/L was mescaline (m/z 212.3 --> m/z 195.2) was monitored. The LC-MS-MS method was found to be sensitive and specific for the routine detection of mescaline in urine. Among 462 urine samples collected from young people with alcohol or drug problems, 32% were positive for illicit drugs, but none for mescaline.

  19. Australian human and parrot Chlamydia psittaci strains cluster within the highly virulent 6BC clade of this important zoonotic pathogen (United States)

    Branley, James; Bachmann, Nathan L.; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S. A.; Polkinghorne, Adam


    Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere. PMID:27488134

  20. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents. (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora


    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  1. Robert Carswell: the first illustrator of MS. (United States)

    Murray, T J


    The first illustration of multiple sclerosis (MS) was by a young Scottish physician and artist, Dr Robert Carswell. Recognized as a talented illustrator by his teachers, he was encouraged to create an anatomy and pathology atlas. He spent years in the hospitals and mortuaries of Paris and Lyon painting watercolours and pen and ink drawings of patients and post mortem preparations. Of the 1034 paintings, 99 are of the brain and spinal cord and Plate 4, figure 4.4 in the atlas (Figure 2), is of MS. Carswell indicated he saw two examples of this pathology, but had not examined either patient, but illustrated one of them. We know little about the clinical history other than that the patient was paralyzed. About 200 of the atlases were printed, and it is still regarded as one of the greatest and most beautiful of all medical books. Carswell was appointed as the first Professor of Anatomy at the North London Hospital, later renamed the University College Hospital UK, where the original copy of his great atlas is archived. Due to ill health he resigned after a few years to reside in the healthier air outside Brussels, Belgium. He was appointed physician to King Leopold, but was also noted for his care of the poor. Queen Victoria knighted him for his care of King Louis Philippe of France when he was in exile. Although English journals did not note his passing at the age of 64 years, his great atlas remains as his memorial.

  2. Natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis: the experience from two Brazilian MS centers


    Enedina Maria Lobato Oliveira; Renata Faria Simm; Gorana Dasic; Marília Mamprim de Morais; Samira Luiza dos Apostolos Perreira; Dagoberto Callegaro


    Objective Analyze the demographics, clinical characteristics, efficacy and safety of natalizumab treatment in Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) followed up for at least 12 months, in two tertiary MS care centers in São Paulo.Method We evaluated the effect of natalizumab treatment on annualized relapse rate and disability progression in 75 patients with MS treated with natalizumab for at least 12 months. A subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate efficacy of natalizumab treatm...

  3. SIFT-MS and FA-MS methods for ambient gas phase analysis: developments and applications in the UK. (United States)

    Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik


    Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, a relatively new gas/vapour phase analytical method, is derived from the much earlier selected ion flow tube, SIFT, used for the study of gas phase ion-molecule reactions. Both the SIFT and SIFT-MS techniques were conceived and developed in the UK, the former at Birmingham University, the latter at Keele University along with the complementary flowing afterglow mass spectrometry, FA-MS, technique. The focus of this short review is largely to describe the origins, developments and, most importantly, the unique features of SIFT-MS as an analytical tool for ambient analysis and to indicate its growing use to analyse humid air, especially exhaled breath, its unique place as a on-line, real time analytical method and its growing use and applications as a non-invasive diagnostic in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, principally within several UK universities and hospitals, and briefly in the wider world. A few case studies are outlined that show the potential of SIFT-MS and FA-MS in the detection and quantification of metabolites in exhaled breath as a step towards recognising pathophysiology indicative of disease and the presence of bacterial and fungal infection of the airways and lungs. Particular cases include the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (SIFT-MS) and the measurement of total body water in patients with chronic kidney disease (FA-MS). The growing exploitation of SIFT-MS in other areas of research and commerce are briefly listed to show the wide utility of this unique UK-developed analytical method, and future prospects and developments are alluded to.

  4. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

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    Butow Phyllis N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  5. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

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    Ng Shu-Kay


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  6. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots. (United States)

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum


    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis.

  7. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

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    Andrew Taylor


    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  8. Healthcare and complicity in Australian immigration detention. (United States)

    Essex, Ryan


    Australian immigration detention has received persistent criticism since its introduction almost 25 years ago. With the recent introduction of offshore processing, these criticisms have intensified. Riots, violence, self-harm, abuse and devastating mental health outcomes are all now well documented, along with a number of deaths. Clinicians have played a central role working in these environments, faced with the overarching issue of delivering healthcare while facilitating an abusive and harmful system. Since the re-introduction of offshore processing a number of authors have begun to discuss the possibility of a boycott. While taking such action may lead to change, further discussion is needed, not only in relation to the impact of a boycott, but whether it is possible for clinicians to engage with this system in more productive, ethical ways. This article utilises a framework proposed by Lepora and Goodin (On complicity and compromise, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013) that provides a structured approach to examine complicity and seeks to explore how clinicians have engaged with Australian immigration detention and ultimately whether they should continue to do so.

  9. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage". (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Day, Carolyn; Gilmour, Stuart; Hall, Wayne


    Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  10. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage"

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    Gilmour Stuart


    Full Text Available Abstract Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  11. Language issues: an important professional practice dimension for Australian International Medical Graduates. (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Henderson, David; Holewa, Hamish


    Issues associated with speech and language have been noted in the international literature as an important aspect of the process of integration for Australian International Medical Graduates (IMGs). This paper makes a contribution through the presentation of a sub-set of findings on the factors associated with speech and language practices for IMGs, taken from a qualitative study which examined the IMGs' experience of integration into the Australian healthcare system. A purposive sample of 30 IMGs were interviewed via telephone. Participants were asked to share their experience with communicating in English with patients and other health professionals in the context of the Australian healthcare system. The taped interviews were transcribed verbatim and then coded and thematically analysed. The findings indicate that the months following the point of entry into a medical position are a critical time for the majority of IMGs in terms of difficulties with communicating in English. A range of suggestions to improve speech and language skills for IMGs is provided. The findings emphasize the importance of speech and language skills and the serious implications of this issue for the clinical practice of IMGs.

  12. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: challenges for Australian health and medicine policies. (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A; Townsend, Ruth


    Four formal rounds of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations took place in 2010. They involved over 200 officials from Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Chile, Singapore, Brunei, Peru, Vietnam and Malaysia. Future negotiations officially are set to include three issues with public health and medicines policy implications for Australia and our region: ways to approach regulatory coherence and transparency; how to benefit multinational and small-medium enterprises; and multilateral investor-state dispute settlement. US-based multinational pharmaceutical companies are lobbying for TPPA provisions like those in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, which reduce government cost-effectiveness regulatory control of pharmaceuticals, threatening equitable access to medicines. They also advocate increased TPPA intellectual monopoly privilege protection, which will further limit the development of Australian generic medicine enterprises and restrict patient access to cheap, bioequivalent prescription drugs. Of particular concern is that proposed TPPA multilateral investor-state dispute settlement procedures would allow US corporations (as well as those of other TPPA nations) to obtain damages against Australian governments through international arbitral proceedings if their investments are impeded by Australian public health and environment protection legislation.

  13. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

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    Julie Culbert


    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  14. Slovenia as a locale in contemporary Australian verse

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    Igor Maver


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the writer Patrick White had worked on his novels for a short while also at Lake Bled in Slovenia at Hotel "Toplice", just like Agatha Christie did at Lake Bohinj, Slovenia has only recently come to feature in mainstream Australian literature, more precisely in contemporary Australian poetry. It should be stressed that Slovenia is thus no longer present only in Slovene migrant poetry written in Australia as has so far been the case: it entered the major contemporary Australian anthologies. This testifies to the fact that Slovenia no longer belongs to the uncharted part of Central Europe on the geographical and consequently also on the Australian literary map. Rather than that Slovenia increasingly makes part of an average Australian 'Grand Tour' travel itinerary in Europe; it has thus become present in the Australian cultural consciousness. In this light two recent Australian poems with Slovenia as a literary locale are discussed, Andrew Taylor's "Morning in Ljubljana" I and Susan Hampton's poem "Yugoslav Story".

  15. Disposable chromatography for a high-throughput nano-ESI/MS and nano-ESI/MS-MS platform. (United States)

    Williams, Jason G; Tomer, Kenneth B


    High-throughput proteomics has typically relied on protein identification based on MALDI-MS peptide maps of proteolytic digests of 2D-gel-separated proteins. This technique, however, requires significant sequence coverage in order to achieve a high level of confidence in the identification. Tandem MS data have the advantage of requiring fewer peptides (2) for high confidence identification, assuming adequate MS/MS sequence coverage. MALDI-MS/MS techniques are becoming available, but can still be problematic because of the difficulty of inducing fragment ions of a singly charged parent ion. Electrospray ionization, however, has the advantage of generating multiply charged species that are more readily fragmented during MS/MS analysis. Two electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches, nanovial-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS, are used for high throughput proteomics, but much less often than MALDI-MS and peptide mass fingerprinting. Nanovial introduction entails extensive manual manipulation and often shows significant chemical background from the in-gel digest. LC-MS has the advantages that the chemical background can be removed prior to analysis and the analytes are concentrated during the separation, resulting in more abundant analyte signals. On the other hand, LC-MS can often be time intensive. Here, we report the incorporation of on-line sample clean-up and analyte concentration with a high-throughput, chip-based, robotic nano-ESI-MS platform for proteomics studies.

  16. Naturopathy/herbalism consultations by mid-aged Australian women who have cancer. (United States)

    Adams, J; Sibbritt, D; Young, A F


    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is now a significant practice issue for those delivering cancer care with a range of CAM being utilized by a significant number of patients with cancer. While various studies have explored the prevalence of CAM use among cancer patients, little is currently known about naturopathy/herbalism use by patients with cancer in Australia. This paper reports the prevalence of naturopath/herbalist consultations among mid-aged Australian women with cancer. The research was conducted as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, with the data for this analysis coming from the third survey of 11,202 women aged 50-55, conducted in 2001. For all cancers combined, 15.7% of women with cancer were found to consult a naturopath/herbalist. Mid-aged women with cancer were found to be more likely to consult a naturopath/herbalist than mid-aged women without cancer. Naturopathy/herbalism consultations appear to be utilized by the women with cancer alongside and as a supplement to conventional health services. Given the prevalence of consultations with herbal therapists/naturopaths among mid-aged women with cancer in Australia, it is important that physicians and others involved in cancer patient care and management are informed and educated about naturopathy/herbalism and its use among their patients.

  17. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M


    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study was to exam......OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study...... was to examine the number and nature of the drug-related problems identified and investigate differences between each type of review. SETTING: Australian patients living at home or in residential care-facilities. METHOD: We collected a nation-wide sample of medication reviews conducted between 1998 and 2005....... These reviews had been self-selected by pharmacists and submitted as part of the reaccreditation process to the primary body responsible for accrediting Australian pharmacists to perform medication reviews. The drug-related problems identified in each review were classified by type and drugs involved. MAIN...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Tahir


    Full Text Available We empirically investigate how different location-specific variables and strategic motives influenced Australian and New Zealand (ANZ firms' ownership strategy choices in foreign markets between 1998 and 2008. This study is the first to analyse how strategic motives and ownership-specific, location-specific, and internalisation variables have influenced the ownership structure choices of ANZ firms in foreign markets. The results indicate that large market potential and low levels of cultural distance increase the probability that ANZ manufacturing firms will undertake wholly owned subsidiary (WOS ownership structures and market-seeking (MS and/or efficiency-seeking (ES foreign direct investment (FDI. Low exchange rate fluctuation increases the probability that ANZ manufacturing firms will undertake WOS-type risk reduction-seeking (RRS FDI.

  19. Essential oil composition of three Australian endemic species of Darwinia (Myrtaceae). (United States)

    Brophy, Joseph J; Goldsack, Robert J; Palá-Paúl, Jesús; Copeland, Lachlan M; Lassak, Erich V


    The essential oils from the aerial parts of three rare Australian endemic species of Darwinia have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In D. procera, myrtenyl acetate (6.1-29.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9-25.1%), gamma-terpinene (6.2-13.6%), bicyclogermacrene (5.5-10.8%) and (E)-nerolidol (3.4-9.7%) were the principal components detected. D. fascicularis ssp. fascicularis produced an oil in which (E)-nerolidol (33.0%), alpha-pinene (15.1%) and gamma-terpinene (10.2%) were the principal components. In D. peduncularis the major constituents were alpha-pinene (33.5%), gamma-terpinene (23.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7%).

  20. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods John A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  1. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty


    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Online extraction LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitative confirmation of urine drugs of abuse and metabolites: amphetamines, opiates, cocaine, cannabis, benzodiazepines and methadone. (United States)

    de Jager, Andrew D; Bailey, Neville L


    A rapid LC-MS/MS method for confirmatory testing of five major categories of drugs of abuse (amphetamine-type substances, opiates, cocaine, cannabis metabolites and benzodiazepines) in urine has been developed. All drugs of abuse mandated by the Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4308:2008 are quantified in a single chromatographic run. Urine samples are diluted with a mixture of isotope labelled internal standards. An on-line trap-and-flush approach, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS has been successfully used to process samples in a functioning drugs of abuse laboratory. Following injection of diluted urine samples, compounds retained on the trap cartridge are flushed onto a reverse-phase C18 HPLC column (5-μm particle size) with embedded hydrophylic functionality. A total chromatographic run-time of 15 min is required for adequate resolution. Automated quantitation software algorithms have been developed in-house using XML scripting to partially automate the identification of positive samples, taking into account ion ratio (IR) and retention times (Rt). The sensitivity of the assay was found to be adequate for the quantitation of drugs in urine at and below the confirmation cut-off concentrations prescribed by AS/NZS 4308:2008.

  3. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

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    Clifton Peter M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  4. Method-MS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Popic, J.M. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Science (UMB), Isotope Lab. (Norway)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Salminen, S. (Univ. of Helsinki (UH) (Finland)); Nygren, U. (Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden)); Sigmarsson, O.; Palsson, S.E. (Univ. of Iceland/Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland))


    Radiometric determination methods, such as alpha spectrometry require long counting times when low activities are to be determined. Mass spectrometric techniques as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) have shown several advantages compared to traditional methods when measuring long-lived radionuclides. Mass spectrometric methods for determination of very low concentrations of elemental isotopes, and thereby isotopic ratios, have been developed using a variety of ion sources. Although primarily applied to the determination of the lighter stable element isotopes and radioactive isotopes in geological studies, the techniques can equally well be applied to the measurement of activity concentrations of long-lived low-level radionuclides in various samples using 'isotope dilution' methods such as those applied in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to the low specific activity of long-lived radionuclides, many of these are more conveniently detected using mass spectrometric techniques. Mass spectrometry also enables the individual determination of Pu-239 and Pu-240, which cannot be obtained by alpha spectrometry. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) are rapidly growing techniques for the ultra-trace analytical determination of stable and long-lived isotopes and have a wide potential within environmental science, including ecosystem tracers and radio ecological studies. Such instrumentation, of course needs good radiochemical separation, to give best performance. The objectives of the project is to identify current needs and problems within low-level determination of long-lived radioisotopes by ICP-MS, to perform intercalibration and development and improvement of ICP-MS methods for the measurement of radionuclides and isotope ratios and to develop new methods based on modified separation chemistry applied to new

  5. The detection of sedatives in hair and nail samples using tandem LC-MS-MS. (United States)

    Irving, Rachel C; Dickson, Stuart J


    Drug screening methods were developed to detect alprazolam, clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, midazolam, oxazepam, temazepam, triazolam, zopiclone, and selected metabolites in human hair and nail samples employing liquid-liquid extraction and tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Hair and nail samples were obtained from patients who had recently discontinued or were currently prescribed one or more of the targeted drugs. Prazepam was used as the internal standard for all compounds. Some components in the hair matrix gave the same transitions as some of the analytes but did not compromise the analyses because their retention times differed from those for the target compounds. The analytical run time was 8-10min. Results of the hair analysis of a DFSA victim are also presented.

  6. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu


    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  7. The Australian experiment with ETS-V (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro


    Land-mobile satellite propagation measurements were implemented at L Band (1.5 GHz) in South-Eastern Australia during an 11 day period in October 1988. Transmissions (CW) from both the Japanese ETS-5 and INMARSAT Pacific geostationary satellites were accessed. Previous measurements in this series were performed at both L Band (1.5 GHz) and UHF (870 MHz) in Central Maryland, North-Central Colorado, and the southern United States. The objectives of the Australian campaign were to expand the data base acquired in the U.S. to another continent, to validate a U.S. derived empirical model for estimating the fade distribution, to establish the effects of directive antennas, to assess the isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions, to derive estimates of fade as well as non-fade durations, and to evaluate diversity reception. All these objectives were met.

  8. Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to produce effective implants, the materials used must be biocompatible. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material similar to the mineral component of teeth and bone which is often used for orbital implants and bone graft applications. HAp can be manufactured from corals via hydrothermal conversion. Coral is particularly useful as a starting material for hydroxyapatite production because of its porous nature. When a porous structure is used tissue ingrowth can occur readily and hence an excellent mechanical bond can be achieved. A large pore size and a high degree of pore interconnections are desirable implant properties. In the present paper a comparison of the properties of four different species of Australian coral has been made to determine the most favourable species to use as a starting material for hydrothermal conversion.

  9. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato


    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  10. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W


    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  11. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  12. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015. (United States)

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E


    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  13. The Performance of Western Australian Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck


    <正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.

  14. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013. (United States)

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P


    In 2013, there were 143 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network (NNN). This was the lowest number of laboratory confirmed IMD cases referred to the NNN since the inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed IMD is notifiable in Australia. There were 149 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2013. Meningococcal serogrouping was determined for 139/143 laboratory confirmed IMD cases; 74.8% (104 cases) were serogroup B infections; 5.8% (8 cases) were serogroup C infections; 8.6% (12 cases) were serogroup W135; and 10.8% (15 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed, respectively, in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years). Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over where serogroup Y predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was low, and has been proportionally stable over recent years. The number of IMD cases caused by W135 and Y serogroups was similar to previous years but the proportion has increased with the overall reduction in numbers of IMD cases. Molecular typing was performed on 92 of the 93 IMD isolates, and 23 of the 50 cases confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing. In 2013, the most common porA genotype circulating in Australia was P1.7-2,4. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was observed in 78.5% of isolates.

  15. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2014. (United States)

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Suzie


    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. During the survey period of 1 January to 31 December 2014, 1,022 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 733 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 480 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 253 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. Genotype G1P[8] was the 2nd most common strain nationally, representing 22.9% of samples, followed by genotype G3P[8] (14.9%). This report highlights the continued significance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G1P[8] being the dominant genotype (29%) followed by G12P[8] as the 2nd most common genotype (26%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G1P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  16. Determination of drugs in hair using GC/MS/MS. (United States)

    Uhl, M


    An important task for the forensic toxicologist and expert witness is the detection of the noxa in biological matrices. Because of this, the identification and quantification of residues of illegal drugs in human hair is still of growing interest. Utilizing the advantages of GC/MS/MS testing human hair is performed for most common drugs of abuse like heroin and other opioides, cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine derivatives. Analyzing hair specimens for substances that present a toxicological risk is another challenge. Several quality control parameters must be observed to avoid false positive or false negative results and to gain additional information. Blank sample, blank hair as well as the combined wash extracts are tested for the presence of the relevant compounds within every series. Careful evaluation of the findings can provide an approximate measure of the intensity of drug use in the majority of cases.

  17. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol


    Carter, S


    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  18. Determination of paraquat in vegetables using HPLC-MS-MS. (United States)

    Zou, Tingting; He, Pingli; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen


    A simple, sensitive, reliable and economical method was developed for the determination of paraquat (a widely used herbicide) in four edible vegetables (cabbage, lettuce, spinach and Chinese cabbage) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS). The samples were extracted with water under sonication and cleaned up by weak cation exchange solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation of paraquat was achieved on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3 µm) with a gradient program using 10 mM ammonium acetate in 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The low salt concentration used in the eluting buffer ensured extended LC-MS analysis of paraquat in different matrices without the necessity of frequent source cleaning. The validity of the developed method was evaluated by spiking paraquat in four edible vegetables at 50 and 500 ng g(-1). Recovery ranged from 43.6 to 73.5%. The limit of detection is 0.94 ng g(-1). With the developed method, the kinetic of paraquat entering plant tissue was also evaluated.

  19. Provision of opioid substitution therapy services in Australian pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaar BB


    Full Text Available Opioid dependence, despite being the subject of significantpublic funding, remains a costly burden to Australian societyin human and economic terms. The most cost-effective publichealth strategy for managing opioid dependence is opioidsubstitution therapy (OST, primarily through the use ofmethadone or buprenorphine. Supervised dispensing of OSTfrom specialist clinics and community pharmacies plays acrucial role in enhancing compliance, monitoring treatmentand reducing diversion. Australia, compared with othercountries in the world, ranks very high in illicit opioid use;hence there is a great demand for OST.The utilisation of community pharmacies for stable patientshas many advantages. For public clinics, patient transfer tocommunity pharmacies relieves workload and costs, andincreases capacity for new OST patients. From a patient’sperspective, dosing at a pharmacy is more flexible andgenerally more preferable. Pharmacists stand to gain clientele,profit and receive small incentives from state governments inAustralia, for their services. Yet, many “unmet needs” existand there is a high demand for more involvement in OSTservice provision in community pharmacy in Australia.In the UK there has been a steady increase in communitypharmacy provision of OST, and pharmacists appear ready toprovide further healthcare services to these patients.The role of pharmacy in some countries in Europe, such asGermany, is less prominent due to their approach to harmminimisation and the complex, variable nature of OSTprovision across the European Union (EU. The provisionof OST by pharmacists in the USA on the other hand is oflesser frequency as the healthcare system in the USAencourages detoxification clinics to handle cases of illicitdrug addiction.At a time when harm minimisation strategies constitute atopic of considerable political and public interest, it isimportant to understand the scope and variability ofpharmacy involvement in drug policy in Australia

  20. Perioperative anesthetic documentation: Adherence to current Australian guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Elhalawani


    Full Text Available Purpose: The lack of adequate perioperative documentation has legal implications and can potentially affect the quality and safety of patient care. Despite the presence of guidelines, the adequacy of perioperative documentation in Australasia has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study is to assess the adequacy of anesthetic documentation on the pre and intraoperative encounters and to test the hypotheses that documentation is incomplete in the settings of emergency vs. elective procedures, regional vs. general anesthesia, and manual vs. electronic documentation. Materials and Methods: The study was an observational retrospective study in the setting of a 250-bed teaching hospital in metropolitan Adelaide, Australia. The perioperative records of 850 patients were analyzed. A scoring system was designed, based on a policy statement from the Australian and New Zealand College of Anesthetists and a survey of the hospital anesthetists. Scored and categorical data was analyzed using Chi-square test. Numerical data was analyzed using student t-test. The null hypothesis was accepted or rejected at 0.05 significance. Results: There were significant deficiencies in the adequacy of preanesthetic and intraoperative records. This has been shown to be true in all cases. Documentation was found to be poorer in the emergency setting when compared to elective cases (median scores 15 vs. 21 P = 0.03 as well as documentation of airway assessment for cases done solely under regional anesthesia (42 vs. 85%, P = 0.05. There were no significant differences in the adequacy of electronic vs. manual records ( P = 0.92. Conclusion: There are significant deficiencies in the adequacy of perioperative records. This has been shown to be true in all cases, but is especially so in emergency cases and for patients having only regional anesthesia.

  1. Australian immunisation registers: established foundations and opportunities for improvement. (United States)

    Chin, L K; Crawford, N W; Rowles, G; Buttery, J P


    The National Immunisation Program Schedule in Australia is formulated and funded nationally under the population-wide Medicare system. The policy is implemented by the eight state and territory jurisdictions. The national immunisation registers consist of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR), and, more recently, the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. Moreover, a variety of jurisdiction-based registers and primary care practice software systems exist, which interact with the national registers. General practitioners can obtain reports listing patients under seven years attending their practice and recorded as 'not fully immunised', and immunisation coverage rates for their practice linked to government incentives through Medicare. A 2011 report documents national coverage of 91.8% fully immunised at 12 months, and 92.6% at 24 months. The HPV register provides information on vaccination coverage with the potential to link with a register of cervical cancer screening results. Limitations of current national register include inability to easily access immunisation histories beyond seven years of age, and issues of underreporting and timeliness, which impact significantly the immunisation coverage estimates. The linkage of these registers with healthcare outcome data will further enhance public health outcomes by enabling rapid, population-level vaccine safety and effectiveness investigations in a nation with a track record as an 'early adopter' of new childhood vaccines.

  2. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Confidence of Australian General Practice Registrars

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    Caryl A. Nowson


    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and confidence were assessed in General Practice Registrars (GPRs throughout Australia. Of approximately 6,000 GPRs invited to complete a nutrition survey, 93 respondents (2% completed the online survey, with 89 (20 males, 69 females providing demographic and educational information. Fifty-one percent had graduated from medical school within the last two years. From a list of 11 dietary strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk, respondents selected weight loss (84%, reducing saturated fats (90%, a maximum of two alcoholic drinks/day (82%, and increasing vegetables (83% as “highly appropriate” strategies, with only 51% indicating that salt reduction was “highly appropriate.” Two-thirds of registrars felt “moderately” (51% or “very” confident (16% providing nutrition advice. Most of them (84% recalled receiving information during training, but only 34% recalled having to demonstrate nutritional knowledge. The results indicate that this group of Australian GPRs understood most of the key dietary recommendations for reducing cardiovascular risk but lacked consensus regarding the recommendation to reduce salt intake and expressed mixed levels of confidence in providing nutritional advice. Appropriate nutrition education before and after graduation is recommended for GPRs to ensure the development of skills and confidence to support patients to make healthy dietary choices and help prevent chronic diseases.

  3. Improving organisational systems for diabetes care in Australian Indigenous communities

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    Robinson Gary


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from diabetes. There is an urgent need to understand how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver diabetes services to those most in need, to monitor the quality of diabetes care received by Indigenous people, and to improve systems for better diabetes care. Methods The intervention featured two annual cycles of assessment, feedback workshops, action planning, and implementation of system changes in 12 Indigenous community health centres. Assessment included a structured review of health service systems and audit of clinical records. Main process of care measures included adherence to guideline-scheduled services and medication adjustment. Main patient outcome measures were HbA1c, blood pressure and total cholesterol levels. Results There was good engagement of health centre staff, with significant improvements in system development over the study period. Adherence to guideline-scheduled processes improved, including increases in 6 monthly testing of HbA1c from 41% to 74% (Risk ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.71–2.10, 3 monthly checking of blood pressure from 63% to 76% (1.27, 1.13–1.37, annual testing of total cholesterol from 56% to 74% (1.36, 1.20–1.49, biennial eye checking by a ophthalmologist from 34% to 54% (1.68, 1.39–1.95, and 3 monthly feet checking from 20% to 58% (3.01, 2.52–3.47. Medication adjustment rates following identification of elevated HbA1c and blood pressure were low, increasing from 10% to 24%, and from 13% to 21% respectively at year 1 audit. However, improvements in medication adjustment were not maintained at the year 2 follow-up. Mean HbA1c value improved from 9.3 to 8.9% (mean difference -0.4%, 95% CI -0.7;-0.1, but there was no improvement in blood pressure or cholesterol control. Conclusion This quality improvement (QI intervention has proved to be highly acceptable in the

  4. Structural impediments to TQM in Australian health care. (United States)

    Degeling, P; Carnegie, M


    The culture of quality called for by total quality management (TQM) has much to recommend it. Australian experience, however, suggests that it is not something that can easily be added to the profession-based structures and cultures prevailing in most Australian hospitals. Implementing TQM is not just a matter of advocating it. The institutional transformation implied by TQM requires additional action on multiple fronts, both internal and external to the hospital.

  5. Measures of Buyer Concentration in the Australian Wool Market



    The study uses empirical measures of market concentration to examine buyer competition in wool between 1974 and 1992. Three measures of concentration are examined, concentration ratios, Herfindahl indices and Lorenz curves. Data from the Australian Council of Wool Exporters are used to obtain estimates of these measures over the sample period. The results indicate that the buying sector in the Australian wool market is relatively concentrated and calculation of Spearman correlation coefficien...

  6. Creating Royal Australian Navy Standard Operating Procedures using Flow Diagrams (United States)


    DST-Group-TR-3137 UNCLASSIFIED Acronyms 4TQ 4TQ Toolkit ABR Australian Book of Reference ADF Australian Defence Force BPMN Business...steps to perform the activity. Object Management Group’s (OMG) Business Process Model and Notation ( BPMN ) [10] is becoming the standard to use when...Department of Defence 10. Object Management Group, Business Process Model and Notation ( BPMN ), version 2.0. 2011, Object Management Group: http

  7. Records of Australian Fouling Organisms: Sessile Barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia), (United States)



  8. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?


    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.


    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these ...

  9. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 14, Number 2, Summer (United States)


    Australian DEFENCESCIENCE BRIEFS DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research Extended range for Joint Direct Attack Munition Missile Approach...for ADF frontline aircraft DSTO and the Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding...and ANSTO Executive Director Mr Ian Smith signed the agreement in Sydney on 29 August. DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research

  10. Raja Junankar, Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy


    DOUGLAS, Kacey


    Abstract. The Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy is a compilation of academic articles written by P.N. Junankar and coauthors on the topic of immigration in Australia. From the effects of immigration on Australia’s economy to the Australian labor market environment immigrants encounter, this book addresses important questions regarding immigration that are relevant to any economy.Keywords. Australia, International migration, International economics.JEL. F00, F22,...

  11. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes


    Dillon Paul; Gates Peter; Swift Wendy


    Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone a...

  12. 24 CFR Appendix Ms-2 to Part 3500 - Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500 (United States)


    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT Pt. 3500, App. MS-2 Appendix MS-2 to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500 MS Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  13. 24 CFR Appendix Ms-1 to Part 3500 - Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500 (United States)


    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT Pt. 3500, App. MS-1 Appendix MS-1 to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500 MS Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  14. Analytical Method Details (MS): SE24_MS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE24_MS1 LC-FTICR-MS Analysis (Positive) LC, Agilent 1200 series (Agilent); MS, Sol...sample (1 uL) was analyzed using LC-FTICR-MS (LC, Agilent 1200 series; MS, Bruker Daltonics solarix 7.0 T).

  15. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study



    Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods ...

  16. Early Experience in Da Vinci Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: An Australian Single Centre Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ting


    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN technique in an Australian setting. Methods. Between November 2010 and July 2014, a total of 76 patients underwent 77 RAPN procedures using the Da Vinci Surgical System© at our institution. 58 of these procedures were performed primarily by the senior author (PB and are described in this case series. Results. Median operative time was 4 hours (range 1.5–6 and median warm ischaemic time (WIT was 8 minutes (range 0–30 including 11 cases with zero ischaemic time. All surgical margins were clear with the exception of one patient who had egress of intravascular microscopic tumour outside the capsule to the point of the resection margin. Complications were identified in 9 patients (15.8%. Major complications included conversion to open surgery due to significant venous bleeding (n=1, reperfusion injury (n=1, gluteal compartment syndrome (n=1, DVT/PE (n=1, and readmission for haematuria (n=1. Conclusion. This series demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the RAPN technique in an Australian setting when performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons in a dedicated high volume robotic centre.

  17. LC-MS systems for quantitative bioanalysis. (United States)

    van Dongen, William D; Niessen, Wilfried M A


    LC-MS has become the method-of-choice in small-molecule drug bioanalysis (molecular mass Triple quadrupole MS is the established bioanalytical technique due to its unpreceded selectivity and sensitivity, but high-resolution accurate-mass MS is recently gaining ground due to its ability to provide simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of drugs and their metabolites. This article discusses current trends in the field of bioanalytical LC-MS (until September 2012), and provides an overview of currently available commercial triple quadrupole MS and high-resolution LC-MS instruments as applied for the bioanalysis of small-molecule and biopharmaceutical drugs.

  18. Life with quintuplets: transitioning GeMS into regular operations (United States)

    Garrel, Vincent; Van Dam, Marcos A.; Neichel, Benoît; Vidal, Fabrice; Sivo, Gaetano; Marin, Eduardo; Montes, Vanessa; Serio, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Trujillo, Chadwick; Rambold, William N.; Gigoux, Pedro; Galvez, Ramon; Moreno, Cristian; Araujo Hauck, Constanza; Vucina Parga, Tomislav; Donahue, Jeff; Marchant, Claudio; Gausachs, Gaston; Collao, Fabian; Carrasco Damele, Eleazar R.; Pessev, Peter; Lopez, Ariel


    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope in Cerro Pachon is the first sodium Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system with multiple guide stars. It uses five LGSs and two deformable mirrors (DMs) to measure and compensate for distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence. After its 2012 commissioning phase, it is now transitioning into regular operations. Although GeMS has unique scientific capabilities, it remains a challenging instrument to maintain, operate and upgrade. In this paper, we summarize the latest news and results. First, we describe the engineering work done this past year, mostly during our last instrument shutdown in 2013 austral winter, covering many subsystems: an erroneous reconjugation of the Laser guide star wavefront sensor, the correction of focus field distortion for the natural guide star wavefront sensor and engineering changes dealing with our laser and its beam transfer optics. We also describe our revamped software, developed to integrate the instrument into the Gemini operational model, and the new optimization procedures aiming to reduce GeMS time overheads. Significant software improvements were achieved on the acquisition of natural guide stars by our natural guide star wavefront sensor, on the automation of tip-tilt and higher-order loop optimization, and on the tomographic non-common path aberration compensation. We then go through the current operational scheme and present the plan for the next years. We offered 38 nights in our last semester. We review the current system efficiency in term of raw performance, completed programs and time overheads. We also present our current efforts to merge GeMS into the Gemini base facility project, where night operations are all reliably driven from our La Serena headquarter, without the need for any spotter. Finally we present the plan for the future upgrades, mostly dedicated toward improving the performance and reliability of the

  19. The potential of combining ion trap/MS/MS and TOF/MS for identification of emerging contaminants (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.; Heine, C.E.; Thurman, E.M.


    The use of a method combining ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) for identification of emerging contaminates was discussed. The two tools together complemented each other in sensitivity, fragmentation and accurate mass determination. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS), in positive ion mode of operation, was used to separate and identify specific compounds. Diagnostic fragment ions were obtained for a polyethyleneglycol(PEG) homolog by ion trap MS/MS, and fragments were measured by TOF/MS. It was observed that the combined method gave an exact mass measurement that differed from the calculated mass.

  20. MMP-2 -1575G/A polymorphism modifies the onset of optic neuritis as a first presenting symptom in MS? (United States)

    Gašparović, Iva; Čizmarević, Nada Starčević; Lovrečić, Luca; Perković, Olivio; Lavtar, Polona; Sepčić, Juraj; Jazbec, Saša Šega; Kapović, Miljenko; Peterlin, Borut; Ristić, Smiljana


    Previous studies show altered activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. Optic neuritis (ON) is a common symptom of both disorders. Here we investigated the impacts of MMP-2 -1575G/A and MMP-9 -1562 C/T gene polymorphisms on disease phenotype in 100 MS patients with ON as a first symptom and 376 MS patients with other initial symptomatology. The MMP-2 -1575G/A polymorphism led to a 5-year-earlier age of disease onset in MS patients with ON as a first symptom (p=0.009).

  1. Cloud point extraction for analysis of antiretrovirals in human plasma by UFLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Hunzicker


    Full Text Available An analytical methodology based on cloud point extraction (CPE coupled to Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS was developed for analysis of Abacavir (ABC, Efavirenz (EFV, Lamivudine (3 TC and Nelfinavir (NFV in human plasma. It is the first time that CPE was used for extraction of antiretrovirals (ARV from plasma. The effects of relevant physic-chemical variables on analytical response of each ARV, including pH, surfactant concentration, equilibration time and temperature, were study and optimized; as well as its coupling to UFLC-ESI-MS/MS. Under optimized conditions, the resulting methodology was as follows: a 500 μL aliquot of human plasma was diluted with 2 mL deionized water in a 10 mL centrifuge tube. A 500 μL aliquot Triton X-114 5% w/v was added and homogenized using a vortex stirrer. The resulting cloudy solution was kept at 65 °C for 20 min for promoting the condensation of surfactant micelles. Then it was centrifuged at 3000 × g for 5 min for separation of the surfactant-rich phase. After discarding the aqueous supernatant, 400 μL ACN were added to the remaining surfactant rich phase and centrifuged in order to precipitate proteins and separate them. A 150 μL aliquot of the supernatant was transferred to 2 mL vial and further diluted with 400 μL deionized water. A 30 μL aliquot of the so-prepared solution was injected and analyzed into the UFLC-MS/MS. The method detection limits for ABC, EFV, 3 TC and NFV under optimized conditions were 31, 77, 57 and 21 ng mL−1, respectively. The RSD% for the studied analytes were <15%, except at the LOQ, which were <19%. Recovery values ranged from 81 to 107%. The proposed methodology was successfully applied for the analysis of ABC, EFV, 3 TC and NFV in human plasma within the concentration range of 43–6816, 125–4992, 81–3248 and 49–7904 ng mL−1, respectively. Under optimized working conditions the proposed

  2. MRI-only conversion to MS following a clinically isolated syndrome


    Chard, Declan T; Dalton, Catherine Mary; Swanton, Josephine K; Fisniku, Leonora K; Katherine, Miszkiel A; Thompson, Alan J.; Plant, Gordon T.; Miller, David H.


    Abstract Objectives: Using current diagnostic criteria, patients who present with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) may develop multiple sclerosis (MS) by subsequently exhibiting dissemination in space and time on clinical (clinically definite [CD] MS) or radiological (MRI) grounds. We investigated the frequency of radiological without clinical conversion to MS after long-term follow up as this has not previously been defined. Methods: We investigated two cohorts who underwen...

  3. Supplier-induced demand: reconsidering the theories and new Australian evidence. (United States)

    Richardson, Jeffrey R J; Peacock, Stuart J


    This paper reconsiders the evidence and several of the key arguments associated with the theory of supplier-induced demand (SID). It proposes a new theory to explain how ethical behaviour is consistent with SID. The purpose of a theory of demand and one criterion for the evaluation of a theory is the provision of a plausible explanation for the observed variability in service use. We argue that Australian data are not easily explained by orthodox possible explanation. We also argue that, having revisited the theory of SID, the agency relationship between doctors and patients arises not simply because of asymmetrical information but from an asymmetrical ability and willingness to exercise judgement in the face of uncertainty. It is also argued that the incomplete demand shift that must occur following an increase in the doctor supply is readily explained by the dynamics of market adjustment when market information is incomplete and there is non-collusive professional (and ethical) behaviour by doctors. Empirical evidence of SID from six Australian data sets is presented and discussed. It is argued that these are more easily explained by SID than by conventional demand side variables. We conclude that once the uncertainty of medical decision making and the complexity of medical judgements are taken into account, SID is a more plausible theory of patient and doctor behaviour than the orthodox model of demand and supply. More importantly, SID provides a satisfactory explanation of the observed pattern and change in the demand for Australian medical services, which are not easily explained in the absence of SID.

  4. Modelling seasonality in Australian building approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M Karamujic


    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of seasonal influences on Australian housing approvals, represented by the State of Victoria[1] building approvals for new houses (BANHs. The prime objective of BANHs is to provide timely estimates of future residential building work. Due to the relevance of the residential property sector to the property sector as whole, BANHs are viewed by economic analysts and commentators as a leading indicator of property sector investment and as such the general level of economic activity and employment. The generic objective of the study is to enhance the practice of modelling housing variables. In particular, the study seeks to cast some additional light on modelling the seasonal behaviour of BANHs by: (i establishing the presence, or otherwise, of seasonality in Victorian BANHs; (ii if present, ascertaining is it deterministic or stochastic; (iii determining out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications; and (iv speculating on possible interpretation of the results. To do so the study utilises a structural time series model of Harwey (1989. The modelling results confirm that the modelling specification allowing for stochastic trend and deterministic seasonality performs best in terms of diagnostic tests and goodness of fit measures. This is corroborated with the analysis of out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications, which showed that the models with deterministic seasonal specification exhibit superior forecasting capabilities. The paper also demonstrates that if time series are characterized by either stochastic trend or seasonality, the conventional modelling approach[2] is bound to be mis-specified i.e. would not be able to identify statistically significant seasonality in time series.According to the selected modeling specification, factors corresponding to June, April, December and November are found to be significant at five per cent level

  5. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.


    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  6. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.


    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing additi

  7. Selenium speciation analysis of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus selenoprotein by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS (United States)

    Analytical methods for selenium (Se) speciation were developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Separations of selenomethionine (Se-Met) and sel...

  8. Effect of slow release-Fampridine on muscle strength, rate of force development, functional capacity and cognitive function in an enriched population of MS patients. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H B; Nielsen, J L; Ravnborg, M.


    contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) of the lower extremities and 2) to replicate previously published data on the effect of slow release-Fampridine (SR-Fampridine) on the functional capacity of the lower limbs, the upper limb and cognitive function, in persons with multiple sclerosis (pw...... 25 Foot Walk Test (T25FW) and 5-Times Sit-to-Stand (5-STS). RESULTS: A statistical significant effect of SR-Fampridine on MVC was demonstrated during knee extension, knee flexion and hip flexion of the weakest leg, as well as on RFD during knee extension and knee flexion of the weakest leg....... Furthermore, a significant effect of SR-Fampridine on T25FW, SSST and 5-STS was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Gold standard dynamometry assessment of muscle strength showed improved MVC and RFD in persons with MS treated with SR-Fampridine compared to placebo. Furthermore, previous findings on the effects of SR...

  9. Australians Abroad: Narrative Paths and Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Nooy


    Full Text Available Although commonly characterized as an immigrant nation, Australia has been shaped just as importantly by the overseas journeys of its people, and the liminal experiences thus provided have not only been self-defining and defining of the other, but at times nation-defining. This special issue proposes a multidisciplinary analysis of Australian travellers and expatriates past and present: the reasons for and destinations of their travel, its impact on their identity, the roles they play, their writings and reflections, their linguistic and intercultural competence. Clusters of travellers to particular destinations give rise to narrative patterns which solidify into templates, the narrative equivalent of the beaten track. The essays that follow highlight both discursive grooves and off-piste accounts that challenge the patterns. In both cases, the emphasis in the essays is on the travellers’ active engagement in the experience and on their negotiation of existing discourses. For even those who follow the trail invest it with personal meanings.

  10. Injection Efficiency Monitor for the Australian Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassool R. P.


    Full Text Available The Australian Synchrotron AS is moving towards a continuous injection mode called top-up. During top-up the linac and booster synchrotron injection system will be in continuous operation rather than usedevery eight hours the way they are used at present. In order to monitor the performance of the injection system areal-time injection efficiency monitoring system has been developed. The system consists of several Fast CurrentTransformers [1] and matching digitisers [2] and is designed to count every beam pulse and measure the transmission efficiency through the whole accelerator complex. After calibrating the system using a properly matchedFaraday Cup at the electron gun, a transmission efficiency is then calculated at each stage of transferring the beamfrom 90 keV out of the gun to 3 GeV in the storage ring. The system is used to optimise the injection process inorder to maximise the injection efficiency and as an early warning system when equipment starts to fail and theinjection efficiency decreases.

  11. Effective teaching strategies in Australian multicultural classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1 Introduction@@ Australia's population is increasingly culturally diverse.The diverse composition of the Australian population is reflected in the ACT.The 1991 census showed 65,739 people counted in the ACT were bern overseas,representing 23.5% of the population.Almost 10% of the respondents to the census came from non-English - speaking countries.(1) The results from the 2001 census showed that of the 4,645,000 people in Victoria,almost one quarter (23.4%) were born overseas,represented 208 countries and spoke 151 languages.English was spoken at home by 75.3% of Victorians.(2) These numbers are reflected in our schools because students come from many cultural,educational and language backgrounds.The increasingly muhieultural populations in our schools present many challenges for schools and teachers,with regards to inclusive teaching strategies,language differences,muhieuhural curricular practices,racism issues and numerous other factors.

  12. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species. (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek


    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship.

  13. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)


    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  14. Australian Tropical Marine Micromolluscs: An Overwhelming Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter U. Middelfart


    Full Text Available Assessing the marine biodiversity of the tropics can be overwhelming, especially for the Mollusca, one of the largest marine phyla in the sea. With a diversity that can exceed macrofaunal richness in many groups, the micro/meiofaunal component is one of most overlooked biotas in surveys due to the time-consuming nature of collecting, sorting, and identifying this assemblage. We review trends in micromollusc research highlighting the Australian perspective that reveals a dwindling taxonomic effort through time and discuss pervasive obstacles of relevance to the taxonomy of micromolluscs globally. Since a high during the 1970s, followed by a smaller peak in 2000, in 2010 we observe a low in micromolluscan collection activity in Australia not seen since the 1930s. Although challenging, considered planning at each step of the species identification pathway can reduce barriers to micromolluscan research (e.g., role of types, dedicated sampling, integration of microscopy and genetic methods. We discuss new initiatives to trial these methods in Western Australia, an understudied region with high biodiversity, and highlight why micromolluscs are worth the effort. A number of important fields that would benefit from increased focus on this group (e.g., ecological gaps are considered. The methods and strategies for resolving systematic problems in micromolluscan taxonomy are available, only the desire and support to reverse the decline in knowledge remains to be found.

  15. Identification of leptomeningeal metastasis-related proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with breast cancer by a combination of MALDI-TOF, MALDI-FTICR and nanoLC-FTICR MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompp, A.; Dekker, L.; Taban, I.; Jenster, G.; Boogerd, W.; Bonfrer, H.; Spengler, B.; Heeren, R.M.A.; Sillevis Smitt, P.; Luider, T.M.


    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a devastating complication occurring in 5% of breast cancer patients. However, the current gold standard of diagnosis, namely microscopic examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is false-negative in 25% of patients at the first lumbar puncture. In a previous s

  16. Using geographic information system tools to improve access to MS specialty care in Veterans Health Administration. (United States)

    Culpepper, William J; Cowper-Ripley, Diane; Litt, Eric R; McDowell, Tzu-Yun; Hoffman, Paul M


    Access to appropriate and timely healthcare is critical to the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic diseases. In this study, we used geographic information system (GIS) tools to map Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their access to MS specialty care. We created six travel-time bands around VHA facilities with MS specialty care and calculated the number of VHA patients with MS who resided in each time band and the number of patients who lived more than 2 hours from the nearest specialty clinic in fiscal year 2007. We demonstrate the utility of using GIS tools in decision-making by providing three examples of how patients' access to care is affected when additional specialty clinics are added. The mapping technique used in this study provides a powerful and valuable tool for policy and planning personnel who are evaluating how to address underserved populations and areas within the VHA healthcare system.

  17. Biomarker discovery by CE-MS enables sequence analysis via MS/MS with platform-independent separation. (United States)

    Zürbig, Petra; Renfrow, Matthew B; Schiffer, Eric; Novak, Jan; Walden, Michael; Wittke, Stefan; Just, Ingo; Pelzing, Matthias; Neusüss, Christian; Theodorescu, Dan; Root, Karen E; Ross, Mark M; Mischak, Harald


    CE-MS is a successful proteomic platform for the definition of biomarkers in different body fluids. Besides the biomarker defining experimental parameters, CE migration time and molecular weight, especially biomarker's sequence identity is an indispensable cornerstone for deeper insights into the pathophysiological pathways of diseases or for made-to-measure therapeutic drug design. Therefore, this report presents a detailed discussion of different peptide sequencing platforms consisting of high performance separation method either coupled on-line or off-line to different MS/MS devices, such as MALDI-TOF-TOF, ESI-IT, ESI-QTOF and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, for sequencing indicative peptides. This comparison demonstrates the unique feature of CE-MS technology to serve as a reliable basis for the assignment of peptide sequence data obtained using different separation MS/MS methods to the biomarker defining parameters, CE migration time and molecular weight. Discovery of potential biomarkers by CE-MS enables sequence analysis via MS/MS with platform-independent sample separation. This is due to the fact that the number of basic and neutral polar amino acids of biomarkers sequences distinctly correlates with their CE-MS migration time/molecular weight coordinates. This uniqueness facilitates the independent entry of different sequencing platforms for peptide sequencing of CE-MS-defined biomarkers from highly complex mixtures.

  18. Proteiomic patterns for endometrial cancer using SELDI-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-rong ZHU; Wen-ying ZHANG; Li YU; Yan-hua ZHENG; Jun HU; Qin-ping LIAO


    Serum samples from endometrial cancer (EC) patients and healthy females were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) to discover the potential diagnostic biomarker for detection of EC. A preliminary training set of spectra derived from 40 EC patients and 30 healthy women were used to develop a proteomic model that effectively discriminated cancer patients from healthy women. The training set had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 92.5% in the EC detection. A blind test set, including 20 new cancer cases and 10 healthy women, was used to validate the sensitivity and specificity of this multivariate model, which had a corresponding results of 60% in specificity and 75% in sensitivity, respectively. The combination of SELDI-TOF-MS with bioinformatics tools could help find new biomarkers and establish the detection of EC with high sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Consensus recommendations for MS cortical lesion scoring using double inversion recovery MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geurts, J J G; Roosendaal, S D; Calabrese, M;


    Different double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences are currently used in multiple sclerosis (MS) research centers to visualize cortical lesions, making it difficult to compare published data. This study aimed to formulate consensus recommendations for scoring cortical lesions in patients with MS...

  20. Immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction associated with topical application of Australian tea tree oil. (United States)

    Mozelsio, Nancy B; Harris, Kathleen E; McGrath, Kris G; Grammer, Leslie C


    Australian tea tree oil has been used as a veterinary antiseptic for many years and, more recently, has been extended into human use. There have been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis and toxicity reactions, but it has never been implicated in immediate systemic hypersensitivity reactions. A 38-year-old man experienced immediate flushing, pruritus, throat constriction, and lightheadedness after topical application of tea tree oil. Our purpose was to determine whether this represented an immunoglobulin E (IgE)--mediated reaction. Skin-prick and intradermal testing was performed, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgG and IgE against tea tree oil. The patient had a positive wheal and flare reaction on intradermal testing with tea tree oil. All five patient controls were negative on skin testing. No specific IgG or IgE was detected. We present the first reported case of an immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction occurring after topical application of Australian tea tree oil, confirmed by positive wheal and flare reaction on skin testing.

  1. Australian managed entry scheme: a new manageable process for the reimbursement of new medicines? (United States)

    Wonder, Michael; Backhouse, Martin E; Sullivan, Sean D


    The global prescription medicines industry argues that it needs high prices for new medicines to meet ever-increasing development costs. While many payers are prepared to pay high prices if they represent good value for money, they first need to feel assured that the value for money estimates are robust. Insofar as new medicines enter the market with limited and uncertain data relating to their performance in normal clinical practice, the value for money case for some medicines may well be driven largely by assumptions than by empirical evidence. The concern to manufacturers is that payers respond to this uncertainty by listing the product at a lower price (which may not satisfy the producer) or not listing the product until more evidence is available (which may not satisfy clinicians and patients). Is there a solution that will satisfy all key stakeholders? Will clinicians and patients continue to have timely access to new medicines and will payers have sustainable reimbursement systems? Will the industry continue to be rewarded with high prices for new medicines so long as they represent good value for money? In 2011, the Australian Government introduced a managed entry scheme whereby the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee will recommend the listing of a new medicine at a price justified by the existing evidence, pending the availability of more conclusive evidence of cost-effectiveness to support its continued listing at a higher price. This commentary examines the Australian Government's managed entry scheme and issues that are likely to arise from its implementation.

  2. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians? (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John


    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  3. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists – an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoti


    Full Text Available Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professionalpractice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australianpharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-countermedications. This review aims to identify Australian studiesinvolving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing.Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacistprescribing were identified and considered in the context ofits implementation internationally. Australian studies havemainly focused on the attitudes of community and hospitalpharmacists towards such an expansion. Studies evaluatingthe views of Australian consumers and pharmacy clients werealso considered. The available Australian literature indicatedsupport from pharmacists and pharmacy clients for anexpanded pharmacist prescribing role, with preference fordoctors retaining a primary role in diagnosis. Australianpharmacists and pharmacy client’s views were also inagreement in terms of other key issues surrounding expandedpharmacist prescribing. These included the nature of anexpanded prescribing model, the need for additional trainingfor pharmacists and the potential for pharmacy clients gainingimproved medication access, which could be achieved withinan expanded role that pharmacists could provide. Currentevidence from studies conducted in Australia providesvaluable insight to relevant policymakers on the issue ofpharmacist prescribing in order to move the agenda ofpharmacist prescribing forwards.

  4. Influence of Northwest Cloudbands on Southwest Australian Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Telcik


    Full Text Available Northwest cloudbands are tropical-extratropical feature that crosses the Australian continent originating from Australia’s northwest coast and develops in a NW-SE orientation. In paper, atmospheric and oceanic reanalysis data (NCEP and Reynolds reconstructed sea surface temperature data were used to examine northwest cloudband activity across the Australian mainland. An index that reflected the monthly, seasonal, and interannual activity of northwest cloudbands between 1950 and 1999 was then created. Outgoing longwave radiation, total cloud cover, and latent heat flux data were used to determine the number of days when a mature northwest cloudband covered part of the Australian continent between April and October. Regional indices were created for site-specific investigations, especially of cloudband-related rainfall. High and low cloudband activity can affect the distribution of cloudbands and their related rainfall. In low cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands were mostly limited to the south and west Australian coasts. In high cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands penetrated farther inland, which increased the inland rainfall. A case study of the southwest Australian region demonstrated that, in a below average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall was limited to the coast. In an above average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall occurred further inland.

  5. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)


    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  6. A simple dried blood spot method for therapeutic drug monitoring of the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, and their active metabolites using LC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Berm, E J J; Paardekooper, J; Brummel-Mulder, E; Hak, E; Wilffert, B; Maring, J G


    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) is considered useful in patients with major depressive disorder, since these drugs display large individual differences in clearance, and the therapeutic windows of these drugs are relatively small. We developed an assay for determination of amitriptyline (ATP), nortriptyline (NTP), imipramine (IMP), desipramine (DSP) clomipramine (CMP) and desmethyl-clomipramine (DCMP) in dried blood spots (DBS). A fast and robust LC-MS/MS method was developed and analytically validated for simultaneous determination of ATP, NTP, IMP, DSP, CMP, and DCMP in DBS. Six mm circles were punched out from DBS collected on Whatman DMPK-C paper and mixed with acetonitrile: methanol 1:3 containing the internal standard. The extract was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Total LC-MS/MS runtime was 4.8 min. The assay was linear in the range 20-500 µg/L for all compounds. Overall-assay accuracy and precision were15% negative bias for all compounds. Punching at the perimeter of the blood spot instead of the center was associated with a positive bias. A good correlation was found between patients plasma and DBS samples of ATP, NTP and DMCP, but not for CMP. In addition, proportional differences were found. This LC-MS/MS method was analytically validated for determination of TCAs in DBS. Future validation will focus on the clinical application of the method.

  7. MOMA GC-MS coupling (United States)

    Buch, A.; Pinnick, V. T.; Grand, N.; Szopa, C.; Danell, R.; Lustrement, B.; Freissinet, C.; van Amerom, F. H.; Raulin, F.; Glavin, D. P.; Stalport, F.; Coll, P. J.; Arevalo, R. D.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Goesmann, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.


    The joint ESA-Roscosmos Exo-Mars-2018 rover mission seeks the signs of past or present life on Mars. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. Central to MOMA instrumentation is a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) which provides the unique ability to characterize a broad range of compounds allowing chemical analyses of volatile and non-volatile species. The Gas chromatograph and the oven have been built at LATMOS/LISA (France) and at MPS (Germany) respectively whereas the mass spectrometer has been built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA). Both instruments have been tested separately first and have been coupled in order to test the efficiency of the future MOMA GC-MS instrument. The main objective of the second step has been to test the quantitative response of both instruments while they are coupled and to characterize the combined instrument detection limit for several compounds. A final experiment has been done in order to test the feasibility of the separation and detection of a mixture contained in a soil sample introduced in the MOMA oven.

  8. Anti-staphylococcal activity of C-methyl flavanones from propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) and fruit resins of Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae). (United States)

    Massaro, C F; Katouli, M; Grkovic, T; Vu, H; Quinn, R J; Heard, T A; Carvalho, C; Manley-Harris, M; Wallace, H M; Brooks, P


    Propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria, Meliponini) originating from Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae) fruit resins was tested for its antimicrobial activities as well as its flavonoid contents. This study aimed at the isolation, structural elucidation and antibacterial testing of flavanones of C. torelliana fruit resins that are incorporated into stingless bee propolis. Flavanones of this study were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, EI-MS, ESI-MS and HR-MS. The results indicated known C-methylated flavanones namely, 1 (2S)-cryptostrobin, its regioisomer 2 (2S)- stroboponin, 3 (2S)- cryptostrobin 7-methyl ether, and 6 (2S)- desmethoxymatteucinol, and known flavanones 4 (2S)- pinostrobin and 5 (2S)- pinocembrin as markers for C. torelliana fruit resins and one propolis type. Ethanolic preparations of propolis were shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and to a lesser extent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). C. torelliana flavanones inhibited the growth of S. aureus therefore contributing to the antibacterial effects observed for Australian stingless bee propolis extracts.

  9. On the utility of data from the International HapMap Project for Australian association studies. (United States)

    Stankovich, Jim; Cox, Charles J; Tan, Rachel B; Montgomery, Douglas S; Huxtable, Stewart J; Rubio, Justin P; Ehm, Margaret G; Johnson, Laura; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Speed, Terence P; Roses, Allen D; Bahlo, Melanie; Foote, Simon J


    We compare patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for 633 SNPs in two regions between samples collected in two Australian states and HapMap samples collected from Utah residents of Northern and Western (NW) European ancestry (CEU). Patterns of LD in the Australian and HapMap samples are similar, and tag SNPs chosen using HapMap genotypes perform almost as well on Australian samples as tags chosen using Australian genotypes.

  10. The role of EBV in MS pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove


    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of MS. Human herpesviruses, notably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human endogenous retroviruses are factors associated with MS. EBV association is found in epidemiological surveys where late EBV infection ....... EBV cannot stand alone as a causal factor of MS, but is likely to play an indirect role as an activator of the underlying disease process.......Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of MS. Human herpesviruses, notably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human endogenous retroviruses are factors associated with MS. EBV association is found in epidemiological surveys where late EBV infection...

  11. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Walsh, Mark [Mater Hospital and Lady Cilento Children' s Hospital Medical Imaging Department, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Francis, Joshua R. [Royal Darwin Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Darwin (Australia)


    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  12. Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research: Creating Spaces for Action (United States)

    Goodyear, Peter


    This paper provides some background information about the Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research initiative: a joint program of work sponsored by the Australian Association for Research in Education and the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In addition, it offers some broader analysis of the contexts within which…

  13. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013 (United States)

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn


    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  14. Values-Based Education in Schools in the 2000s: The Australian Experience (United States)

    Leichsenring, Andrew


    This thesis explores the teaching of values in Australian schools through a framework established by the Australian Federal government during the 2000s. This paper focuses on: the approaches employed by the Australian Federal government in the implementation of Values Education; and the application of cases of values-based education utilized by…

  15. Estimating the Social Rate of Return to Education for Indigenous Australians. (United States)

    Junankar, P. N.; Liu, J.


    Compares estimates of the social rate of return to education of Indigenous Australians with those of non-Indigenous Australians. Finds that social rate of return is higher for Indigenous Australians than for non-Indigenous. Draws implications for public policy. (Contains 4 tables and 32 references.)(PKP)

  16. The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette


    The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous…

  17. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.


    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  18. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.


    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  19. Renal biopsy findings among Indigenous Australians: a nationwide review. (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Samuel, Terence; Mott, Susan A; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla S; Fogo, Agnes B; Dowling, John P; Hughson, Michael D; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Pugsley, David J; Kirubakaran, Meshach G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F


    Australia's Indigenous people have high rates of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. To define renal disease among these people, we reviewed 643 renal biopsies on Indigenous people across Australia, and compared them with 249 biopsies of non-Indigenous patients. The intent was to reach a consensus on pathological findings and terminology, quantify glomerular size, and establish and compare regional biopsy profiles. The relative population-adjusted biopsy frequencies were 16.9, 6.6, and 1, respectively, for Aboriginal people living remotely/very remotely, for Torres Strait Islander people, and for non-remote-living Aboriginal people. Indigenous people more often had heavy proteinuria and renal failure at biopsy. No single condition defined the Indigenous biopsies and, where biopsy rates were high, all common conditions were in absolute excess. Indigenous people were more often diabetic than non-Indigenous people, but diabetic changes were still present in fewer than half their biopsies. Their biopsies also had higher rates of segmental sclerosis, post-infectious glomerulonephritis, and mixed morphologies. Among the great excess of biopsies in remote/very remote Aborigines, females predominated, with younger age at biopsy and larger mean glomerular volumes. Glomerulomegaly characterized biopsies with mesangiopathic changes only, with IgA deposition, or with diabetic change, and with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This review reveals great variations in biopsy rates and findings among Indigenous Australians, and findings refute the prevailing dogma that most indigenous renal disease is due to diabetes. Glomerulomegaly in remote/very remote Aboriginal people is probably due to nephron deficiency, in part related to low birth weight, and probably contributes to the increased susceptibility to kidney disease and the predisposition to FSGS.

  20. Putting recommendations into practice: Australian rheumatologists' opinions on leflunomide use in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Hopkins, Ashley M; Wiese, Michael D; O'Doherty, Catherine E; Proudman, Susanna M


    Leflunomide is the most recently introduced conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in Australia. It has several unique methods for initiation, unique monitoring recommendations and a distinctive cessation protocol in the event of serious toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate initiation and monitoring practices of Australian rheumatologists using leflunomide. A survey was emailed twice, approximately 3 months apart to 332 rheumatologist members of the Australian Rheumatology Association. Wave analysis was used to assess evidence of non-response bias. The response rate to the survey was 20% and there was no difference between the responses of waves 1 and 2. Fifty percent of the respondents indicated that 20 mg once daily was the initial dose of leflunomide that they most commonly prescribed, 45% indicated 10 mg once daily, whilst only 3% preferred to initiate leflunomide at 100 mg daily for 2-3 days followed by 10 mg once a day as recommended when first marketed. Of the responders, 12% had used doses above 20 mg daily and 70% had used alternate daily dosing with leflunomide. In a patient taking leflunomide with an ALT or AST >3 times the ULN on two or more blood tests, 75% of responders indicated they would stop leflunomide immediately and 20% would follow cessation by administering a cholestyramine washout. The choice of initial leflunomide dose among responding Australian rheumatologists varied considerably, although most preferred not to use the loading dose. Despite the recommendation of clinical guidelines, the use of a cholestyramine washout procedure for hepatic toxicity is not universal.

  1. Tocilizumab and multiple sclerosis: a causal relationship? Clinical Commentary on the case report entitled--MS arising during Tocilizumab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Comabella, Manuel


    This clinical commentary discusses on the potential relationship between multiple sclerosis (MS) and tocilizumab in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who developed MS while on treatment with this anti-interleukin-6 agent.

  2. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono


    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  3. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P


    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  4. Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013. (United States)

    Cowling, Carleigh S; Liu, Bette C; Snelling, Thomas L; Ward, James S; Kaldor, John M; Wilson, David P


    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013. Data are collected from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities designated at-risk for endemic trachoma within New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. The World Health Organization grading criteria were used to diagnose cases of trachoma in Aboriginal children, with jurisdictions focusing screening activities on the 5-9 years age group; but some children in the 1-4 and 10-14 years age groups were also screened. The prevalence of trachoma within a community was used to guide treatment strategies as a public health response. Aboriginal adults aged 40 years or over were screened for trichiasis. Screening coverage for the estimated population of children aged 5-9 years and adults aged 40 years or over in at-risk communities required to be screened in 2013 was 84% and 30%, respectively. There was a 4% prevalence of trachoma among children aged 5-9 years who were screened. Of communities screened, 50% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 33% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment was required in 75 at-risk communities screened. Treatment coverage for active cases and their contacts varied between jurisdictions from 79% to 100%. Trichiasis prevalence was 1% within the screened communities.

  5. Knee Osteoarthritis: Use of investigations and non-operative management in the Australian primary care setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bopf


    Full Text Available BackgroundOsteoarthritis affects 15% of Australians or around 3.2 millionpeople. This figure will rise owing to the ageing of theAustralian population. Over 38000 knee arthroplasties areperformed each year in Australia. There are limited resourcesfor arthroplasty and ever increasing numbers of patients withosteoarthritis of the knee that will ultimately require one. It istherefore important to promptly diagnose the condition andutilise simple, efficacious management options to alleviatesuffering for patients and the overburdened health system.Evaluation of current investigations and management incomparison with published guidelines is the first step.MethodNinety-five patients with 100 symptomatic knees referredfrom their GP with a provisional diagnosis of osteoarthritis,were surveyed on the investigations and management theyhad received prior to presentation. The results were thencompared with accepted clinical guidelines.ResultsThere is a disparity between the clinical guidelines and theresults of the survey from clinical practice. 27.5% of patientshad not undertaken the gold standard weight bearingradiograph prior to presentation. 6% of patients did not havea plain radiograph at all. Simple efficacious treatmentswith high levels of evidence such as physiotherapy andweight loss had only been utilised in 41% and 58%respectively. 55% had used glucosamine which is notrecommended in the guidelines.ConclusionA better awareness of the rationale for investigations byGPs and improved communication between specialistsand GPs can prevent duplication of resources andminimise the costs of investigations. Increased awarenessof the efficacy of simple treatment modalities canincrease their utilisation. Streamlining of investigation andmanagement requires a multidisciplinary approach andboth patient and service provider education.

  6. Quantitation of melatonin and n-acetylserotonin in human plasma by nanoflow LC-MS/MS and electrospray LC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Carter, Melissa D; Calcutt, M Wade; Malow, Beth A; Rose, Kristie L; Hachey, David L


    Melatonin (MEL) and its chemical precursor N-acetylserotonin (NAS) are believed to be potential biomarkers for sleep-related disorders. Measurement of these compounds, however, has proven to be difficult due to their low circulating levels, especially that of NAS. Few methods offer the sensitivity, specificity and dynamic range needed to monitor MEL and its precursors and metabolites in small blood samples, such as those obtained from pediatric patients. In support of our ongoing study to determine the safety, tolerability and PK dosing strategies for MEL in treating insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorder, two highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assays were developed for the quantitation of MEL and precursor NAS at pg/mL levels in small volumes of human plasma. A validated electrospray ionization (ESI) method was used to quantitate high levels of MEL in PK studies, and a validated nanospray (nESI) method was developed for quantitation of MEL and NAS at endogenous levels. In both assays, plasma samples were processed by centrifugal membrane dialysis after addition of stable isotopic internal standards, and the components were separated by either conventional LC using a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (2.1 × 100  mm, 3.5 µm) or on a polyimide-coated, fused-silica capillary self-packed with 17 cm AquaC18 (3 µm, 125 Å). Quantitation was done using the SRM transitions m/z 233 → 174 and m/z 219 → 160 for MEL and NAS, respectively. The analytical response ratio versus concentration curves were linear for MEL (nanoflow LC: 11.7-1165  pg/mL, LC: 1165-116,500  pg/mL) and for NAS (nanoflow LC: 11.0-1095  pg/mL).

  7. Current multiple sclerosis treatments have improved our understanding of MS autoimmune pathogenesis. (United States)

    Martin, Roland; Sospedra, Mireia; Rosito, Maria; Engelhardt, Britta


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults. When MS is not treated, it leads to irreversible and severe disability. The etiology of MS and its pathogenesis are not fully understood. The recent discovery that MS-associated genetic variants code for molecules related to the function of specific immune cell subsets is consistent with the concept of MS as a prototypic, T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease targeting the CNS. While the therapeutic efficacy of the currently available immunomodulatory therapies further strengthen this concept, differences observed in responses to MS treatment as well as additional clinical and imaging observations have also shown that the autoimmune pathogenesis underlying MS is much more complex than previously thought. There is therefore an unmet need for continued detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of disease-relevant adaptive immune cells and tissues directly derived from MS patients to unravel the immune etiology of MS in its entire complexity. In this review, we will discuss the currently available MS treatment options and approved drugs, including how they have contributed to the understanding of the immune pathology of this autoimmune disease.

  8. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations. (United States)

    Collingham, Lizzie


    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas.

  9. Design and Implementation of the Australian National Data Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Treloar


    Full Text Available Normal 0 This paper will describe the genesis and realisation of the Australian National Data Service (ANDS. It will commence by outlining the context within which ANDS was conceived, both in the international research and Australian research support domains. It will then describe the process that brought about the ANDS vision and the principles that informed the realisation of that vision. The paper will then outline each of the four ANDS programs (Developing Frameworks, Providing Utilities, Seeding the Commons, and Building Capabilities while also discussing particular items of note about the approach ANDS is taking. The paper concludes by briefly examining related work in the UK and US.

  10. Cerebral lateralization determines hand preferences in Australian parrots. (United States)

    Brown, Culum; Magat, Maria


    Individual preference for the use of one limb over the other to explore the environment or manipulate objects is common trait among vertebrates. Here, we explore the hypothesis that limb preference is determined by the engagement of a particular cerebral hemisphere to analyse certain stimuli. We recorded the eye and foot preferences of 322 individuals from 16 species of Australian parrots while investigating potential food items. Across all species, eye preferences explained 99 per cent of the variation in foot use in Australian parrots. The vast majority of species showed significant relationships between eye and foot preferences at the population level.

  11. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong


    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori......We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show...

  12. A composite study of onset of the Australian summer monsoon (United States)

    Hendon, Harry H.; Liebmann, Brant


    The circulation changes that accompany an onset (defined as the first occurrence of wet 850-mb westerly winds at Darwin, Australia) of the Australian summer monsoon are documented by a composite study for the years 1957-1987. Composites of atmospheric fields at stations in and about the Australian tropics are constructed relative to the onset data at Darwin. It is shown that the composite onset is dominated by a slow eastward migration of a deep-baroclinic convective circulation displaced south of the equator. This propagating anomaly exhibited many features of the so-called 40-50 day oscillation, including an upper level anticyclone that accompanies the convective anomaly.

  13. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  14. Triple Quadrupole Versus High Resolution Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative LC-MS/MS Analysis of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Human Serum (United States)

    Geib, Timon; Sleno, Lekha; Hall, Rabea A.; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.


    We describe a systematic comparison of high and low resolution LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum. Identical sample preparation, chromatography separations, electrospray ionization sources, precursor ion selection, and ion activation were used; the two assays differed only in the implemented final mass analyzer stage; viz. high resolution quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) versus low resolution triple quadrupole instruments. The results were assessed against measured concentration levels from a routine clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. Isobaric interferences prevented the simple use of TOF-MS spectra for extraction of accurate masses and necessitated the application of collision-induced dissociation on the QqTOF platform. The two mass spectrometry assays provided very similar analytical figures of merit, reflecting the lack of relevant isobaric interferences in the MS/MS domain, and were successfully applied to determine the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for patients with chronic liver disease.

  15. Profiling cytosine oxidation in DNA by LC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Samson-Thibault, Francois; Madugundu, Guru S; Gao, Shanshan; Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard


    Spontaneous and oxidant-induced damage to cytosine is probably the main cause of CG to TA transition mutations in mammalian genomes. The reaction of hydroxyl radical (·OH) and one-electron oxidants with cytosine derivatives produces numerous oxidation products, which have been identified in large part by model studies with monomers and short oligonucleotides. Here, we developed an analytical method based on LC-MS/MS to detect 10 oxidized bases in DNA, including 5 oxidation products of cytosine. The utility of this method is demonstrated by the measurement of base damage in isolated calf thymus DNA exposed to ionizing radiation in aerated aqueous solutions (0-200 Gy) and to well-known Fenton-like reactions (Fe(2+) or Cu(+) with H(2)O(2) and ascorbate). The following cytosine modifications were quantified as modified 2'-deoxyribonucleosides upon exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation in aqueous aerated solution: 5-hydroxyhydantoin (Hyd-Ura) > 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHUra) > 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OHCyt) > 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrouracil (Ura-Gly) > 1-carbamoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-oxoimidazolidine (Imid-Cyt). The total yield of cytosine oxidation products was comparable to that of thymine oxidation products (5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (Thy-Gly), 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantotin (Hyd-Thy), 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (5-HmUra), and 5-formyluracil (5-ForUra)) as well as the yield of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua). The major oxidation product of cytosine in DNA was Hyd-Ura. In contrast, the formation of Imid-Cyt was a minor pathway of DNA damage, although it is the major product arising from irradiation of the monomers, cytosine, and 2'-deoxycytidine. The reaction of Fenton-like reagents with DNA gave a different distribution of cytosine derived products compared to ionizing radiation, which likely reflects the reaction of metal ions with intermediate peroxyl radicals or hydroperoxides. The analysis of the main cytosine oxidation products will help elucidate the complex

  16. ICP-MS and elemental tags for the life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesen, Charlotte


    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied for the analysis of biomolecules due to its high sensitivity, wide linear dynamic range, and multielement capabilities. However, outside the elemental MS community the potential of this technique, e.g. for life sciences applications, is not yet fully exploited. Thus, the development of ICP-MS-based (immuno) assays for a wide range of medical (cancer diagnostics, cisplatin toxicity studies), biochemical (DNA microarray, single cell analysis), and environmental (analysis of comestible goods) applications was accomplished by utilization of chemical labels. Laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was employed for the direct analysis of solid samples like microarrays and thin tissue sections. An immunoassay was developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) determination in wine, and ICP-MS detection was compared to conventional photometry by gold nanoparticle tagging and horseradish peroxidase, respectively. Detection limits of the assay were optimized to 0.003 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and the quantification range was 0.01-1 {mu}g L{sup -1} for both methods. For LA-ICP-MS-based DNA microarray detection, gold nanoparticle tags were specifically introduced via a streptavidin-biotin linkage. In immunohistochemistry (IHC), up to 20 tumor markers are routinely evaluated for one patient and thus, a common analysis results in a series of time consuming staining procedures. Hence, LA-ICP-MS was elaborated as a detection tool for a novel, multiplexed IHC analysis of tissue sections. Different lanthanides were employed for the simultaneous detection of up to three tumor markers (Her 2, CK 7, and MUC 1) in a breast cancer tissue. Additionally, iodine was employed as a labeling reagent, and a new LA-ICP-MS method for single cell and cell nucleus imaging was developed at 4 {mu}m laser spot size. Iodine was also applied as a new internal standard for tissue samples. Moreover, Pt-protein complexes separated by an optimized 1D and 2D gel

  17. Course diversity within South Australian secondary schools as a factor of successful transition and retention within Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wright


    Full Text Available There has long been a disparity in the provision of curriculum within Australian secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate whether diversity within schools alters students’ university experiences. While much of the existing literature focuses on each aspect individually, this paper attempts to clarify a link between these factors by focussing on the transition process. A theoretical analysis of key concepts surrounding a web of inter-related issues, including student satisfaction, interest and motivation frames the quantitative data collection. The methodology employed consists of analysing a balanced sample of South Australian secondary schools, from an array of different locations, SES groupings and sizes, and an acknowledgement of previous studies into the first year experience within Australian Universities. The findings suggest that there is a disparity between learning areas in school curricula and an inherent link has been established with issues such as student attrition and dissatisfaction in universities.

  18. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2014. (United States)

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daley, Denise A; Thin Lee, Yung; Pearson, Julie C; Robinson, J Owen; Nimmo, Graeme R; Collignon, Peter; Howden, Benjamin P; Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D


    From 1 January to 31 December 2014, 27 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2014 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the isolates. Overall, 18.8% of the 2,206 SAB episodes were methicillin resistant, which was significantly higher than that reported in most European countries. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 23.4%, which was significantly higher than the 14.4% mortality associated with methicillin-sensitive SAB (P important that antimicrobial resistance patterns in community and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.

  19. The relationship between MRI and PET changes and cognitive disturbances in MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Jønsson, Agnete; Kahr Mathiesen, Henrik;


    Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is present in approximately 50% of the patients. Only moderate correlations have been found between cognitive dysfunction and T2 lesion load, black holes or atrophy. Cognitive dysfunction in MS is probably related to the overall disease burden...... grey matter. Measurements of global NAA using multi-slice EPSI is a new promising method for measurement of the global neuron capacity and can be repeated with only little discomfort and without any risk for the patient....

  20. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard


    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  1. Urinary nitrite/nitrate ratio measured by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS as a tool to screen for urinary tract infections. (United States)

    Chao, Mu-Rong; Shih, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chang, Yuan-Jhe; Lin, Bo-Huei; Hu, Chiung-Wen


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infection. Traditionally, the presence of white blood cells and microorganisms in the urine provides objective evidence for UTI diagnosis. Here, we describe the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure the nitrite and nitrate levels in urine and investigate the potential of this method for UTI diagnosis. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode. After adding (15)N-labeled internal standards and derivatizing with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN), the urinary nitrite content was directly analyzed by LC-MS/MS, whereas the urinary nitrate was first reduced to nitrite before derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis. The derivatization of nitrite and enzymatic reduction of nitrate were optimized. This method was then applied to 241 healthy subjects and 73 UTI patients. Optimization tests revealed that 1 mL of crude urine required at least 6.25 μmol of DAN to completely derivatize nitrite and 2.5 U of nitrate reductase to completely reduce nitrate to nitrite. Urinary analysis showed that the urinary concentration of nitrite and the nitrite/nitrate ratio were higher in UTI patients than in healthy subjects. Compared with the dipstick-based urinary nitrite test and using LC-MS/MS to determine the nitrite concentration (sensitivity: 23-25%), the nitrite/nitrate ratio was significantly more sensitive (95%) and exhibited a satisfactory specificity (91%) in the screening of UTIs. Taken together, the nitrite/nitrate ratio, which reflects the reducing ability of pathogenic bacteria, could be a better method for the diagnosis of UTIs that is not subject to variations in urine specimen quality.

  2. Newborn screening for galactosemia by a second-tier multiplex enzyme assay using UPLC-MS/MS in dried blood spots. (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Jun, Sun-Hee; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jin Q; Song, Junghan


    Galactosemia is one of the most important inherited metabolic disorders detected by newborn screening tests. Abnormal results during screening should be confirmed by enzyme activity assays. Recently, we developed a multiplex enzyme assay for galactosemia in erythrocytes using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). In this study, we proposed a second-tier multiplex enzyme assay for galactosemia that can be directly applied to dried blood spots (DBSs). Supernatants from two rehydrated-punched 3.2-mm DBSs were incubated with a reaction mixture containing [¹³C6]galactose, [¹³C2]galactose-1-phosphate, and UDP-glucose as substrates for three galactose-metabolizing enzymes. After a 4-hour incubation, the end products from the combined reaction mixture, [¹³C6]galactose-1-phosphate, UDP-[¹³C2]galactose, and UDP-galactose, were simultaneously measured using UPLC-MS/MS. Substrates, products, and internal standards from the mixture of the three enzyme reactions were clearly separated in the UPLC-MS/MS system, with an injection cycle time of 10 min. Intra- and inter-assay imprecisions of the UPLC-MS/MS were 8.4-14.8% and 13.2-15.7% CV, respectively. Enzyme activities in DBSs from 37 normal individuals and 10 patients with enzyme deficiencies were analyzed. DBSs from galactosemia patients showed consistently lower enzyme activities as compared to those of normal individuals. In conclusion, multiplex enzyme assays using UPLC-MS/MS can be successfully applied to DBS analysis. This method allows a fast and effective second-tier test for newborns showing abnormal screening results.

  3. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir in chronic hepatitis B: Australian real world experience (United States)

    Lovett, Grace C; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David M; Holmes, Jacinta A; Chen, Robert; Demediuk, Barbara; Shaw, Gideon; Bell, Sally J; Desmond, Paul V; Thompson, Alexander J


    AIM To evaluate the long-term treatment outcomes of tenofovir therapy in patients in a real world Australian tertiary care setting. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes among treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients receiving a minimum 3 mo tenofovir therapy through St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne, Australia. We included patients receiving tenofovir [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)] monotherapy, as well as patients treated with TDF in combination with a second antiviral agent. Patients were excluded if they demonstrated human immune-deficiency virus/hepatitis C virus/hepatitis delta virus coinfection or were less than 18 years of age. We considered virological and biochemical response, as well as safety outcomes. Virological response was determined by measurement of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA using sensitive assays; biochemical response was determined via serum liver function tests; histological response was determined from liver biopsy and fibroscan; safety analysis focused on glomerular renal function and bone mineral density. The primary efficacy endpoint was complete virological suppression over time, defined by HBV DNA < 20 IU/mL. Secondary efficacy endpoints included rates of biochemical response, and HB e antigen (HBeAg)/HB surface antigen loss and seroconversion over time. RESULTS Ninety-two patients were identified who fulfilled the enrolment criteria. Median follow-up was 26 mo (range 3-114). Mean age was 46 (24-78) years, 64 (70%) were male and 77 (84%) were of Asian origin. 55 (60%) patients were treatment-naïve and 62 patients (67%) were HBeAg-negative. Complete virological suppression was achieved by 45/65 (71%) patients at 12 mo, 37/46 (80%) at 24 mo and 25/28 (89%) at 36 mo. Partial virological response (HBV DNA 20-2000 IU/mL) was achieved by 89/92 (96.7%) of patients. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between virological suppression at end of follow-up and baseline HBV DNA

  4. Investigation and Sensory Characterization of 1,4-Cineole: A Potential Aromatic Marker of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wine. (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Tempère, Sophie; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Deloire, Alain; de Revel, Gilles; Schmidtke, Leigh M


    This work reports the quantitation and sensory characterization of 1,4-cineole in red wine for the first time. A headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed to quantitate 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole in 104 commercial Australian red wines. 1,4-Cineole was detected in all of the wines analyzed, with concentrations ranging from 0.023 to 1.6 μg/L. An important varietal effect was observed, with concentrations of 1,4-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon wines (mean of 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) significantly higher than in Shiraz (0.07 ± 0.04 μg/L) and Pinot Noir (0.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) wines. Regional variations of both cineole isomer concentrations have been measured between wines originating from different Australian regions. Sensory studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.54 μg/L 1,4-cineole in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine, to produce a final concentration of 0.63 μg/L, was perceived significantly by a sensory panel (p wines and may be potential markers of regional typicality of these wines.

  5. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Hamada


    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  6. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.


    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  7. Evaluation of the uptake of the Australian standardized terminology and definitions for texture modified foods and fluids. (United States)

    Jukes, Sarah; Cichero, Julie A Y; Haines, Terrence; Wilson, Christina; Paul, Kate; O'Rourke, Michelle


    This paper discusses the uptake of standardized terminology and definitions for texture modified foods and fluids. The Australian dietetic and speech-language pathology associations endorsed national standards in 2007. This project sought to determine the barriers and enablers for use of the national standards in clinical practice. Cross-sectional online surveys were developed, including open- and closed-response questions. The surveys targeted different professional groups in Australia including speech-language pathologists, dietitians, nurses, and food service personnel. Australian accredited universities were contacted to determine penetration of the standards. A total of 574 surveys were received. Sixty-five per cent of respondents indicated full implementation, 23% partial implementation, and 10% no implementation of the standards in their workplace. Speech-language pathologists and dietitians were most likely to have championed implementation of the standards. Barriers to implementation included: lack of knowledge about the standards, time, and resistance to change. Enablers included: encouragement to use the standards and 'buy-in' from stakeholders. Benefits of implementation included: consistent terminology and perceived improvements in patient safety. It was concluded that the standards have been successfully implemented in a majority of facilities and Australian universities. This study provides insight into the complexity of introducing and managing change in healthcare environments.

  8. Enantioselective analysis of etodolac in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to clinical pharmacokinetics. (United States)

    de Miranda Silva, Carolina; Rocha, Adriana; Tozatto, Eduardo; da Silva, Lucienir Maria; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Lanchote, Vera Lucia


    Etodolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with preferential inhibition of cyclooxigenase-2 and is widely used in the management of pain in patients with inflammatory arthritis. Etodolac is available as a racemic mixture of (-)-(R)-Etodolac and (+)-(S)-Etodolac; cyclooxigenases inhibition is attributed to (+)-(S)-Etodolac. According to our knowledge, this is the first method for determination of etodolac enantiomers in plasma using LC-MS/MS. Plasma extraction were performed with 25μL of plasma and 1mL of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (95:5); racemic ibuprofen was used as internal standard. Resolution of enantiomers were performed in a Chiralcel(®)OD-H column; deprotonated [M-H](-) and their respective ion products were monitored at transitions of 286>242 for etodolac enantiomers and 205>161 for ibuprofen. The quantitation limit was 3.2ng/mL for both enantiomers in plasma. The method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics of etodolac enantiomers after the administration of a 300 and 400mg dose of racemic drug to a healthy volunteer. Analysis of plasma samples showed higher plasma concentration of (-)-(R)-Etodolacfor both doses (300mg dose: AUC(0-∞)49.80 versus 4.55ugh/mL;400mg dose: AUC(0-∞) 63.90 versus 6.00ugh/mL) with an (R)-(+)/(S)-(-) ratio of approximately 11.

  9. The Lived Experience of Lupus Flares: Features, Triggers, and Management in an Australian Female Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marline L. Squance


    Full Text Available Individuals living with lupus commonly experience daily backgrounds of symptoms managed to acceptable tolerance levels to prevent organ damage. Despite management, exacerbation periods (flares still occur. Varied clinical presentations and unpredictable symptom exacerbation patterns provide management and assessment challenges. Patient perceptions of symptoms vary with perceived impact, lifestyles, available support, and self-management capacity. Therefore, to increase our understanding of lupus’ health impacts and management, it was important to explore lupus flare characteristics from the patient viewpoint. Lupus flares in 101 Australian female patients were retrospectively explored with the use of a novel flare definition. Qualitative methods were used to explore patient-perceived flare symptoms, triggers, and management strategies adopted to alleviate symptom exacerbations. A mean of 29.9 flare days, with 6.8 discrete flares, was experienced. The study confirmed that patients perceive stress, infection, and UV light as flare triggers and identified new potential triggers of temperature and weather changes, work, and chemical exposure from home cleaning. The majority of flares were self-managed with patients making considered management choices without medical input. Barriers to seeking medical support included appointment timings and past negative experiences reflecting incongruence between clinician and patient views of symptom impact, assessment, and ultimately flare occurrence.

  10. Observation on Clinical Efficacy of Chinese Medicine Yitangkang on MS Patients with Phlegm-Heat Accumulation and IGR from the Perspective of Blood Pressure Stratification%从血压分层的角度观察益糖康对痰热互结型并有IGR的代谢综合征患者的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红谨; 郭建彪; 秦伟锋; 连捷; 王宏涛; 朱克; 冀天威; 石岩; 杨宇峰; 王莉; 张冰冰; 刘小溪; 刘亮; 徐鹏; 姜楠


    Objective: The perspective from the blood pressure stratification was for observing the clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine Yitangkang in MS patients with phlegm-heat accumulation and IGR, and explore the efficacy mechanism and the relationship between blood pressure and MS with IGR. Methods: 165 cases of the MS with IGR were randomly divided into treatment group and placebo group. Chinese medicine Yitangkang was given for 12 weeks,and after treatment FPG,2Hpg,TG,TC,HDL-C and BMI were measured. Results: (1) Compared with that before treatment, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of treatment group and placebo group were significantly improved ( P < 0. 01) ,but the treatment group was significantly superior to the placebo group. (2) When blood pressure was not stratified, Chinese medicine Yitangkang can lower FPG,2hPG, BMI,TC, HDL-C and LDL-C (P<0.01,P<0.05). When BP≥140mmHg/90mmHg,Chinese medicine Yitangkang can reduce FPG,2hPG,BMI,TC, and LDL-C (P <0. 01 ,P <0. 05 ) ;BP < 140mmHg/90mmHg, Chinese medicine Yitangkang can lower FPG,2hPG and BIM(P< 0. 01, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: (1) High blood pressure type is the main in the phlegm-heat accumulation syndrome of MS patients with IGR. (2)Chinese medicine Yitangkang can significantly improve the patients'2hPG,TC,TG,blood pressure and BMI,but it has better efficacy on the hypertensive patients'FPG,2hPG and BMI.%目的:从血压分层的角度观察益糖康治疗并有IGR的MS患者的临床疗效,并探讨疗效的机制及并有IGR的MS与血压之间的关系.方法:把收治的痰热互结型并有IGR的代谢综合征患者165例,随机分成治疗组和安慰剂组,给予益糖康治疗12周后,测量FPG、2hPG、TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C、BMI.结果:(1)与治疗前比较,治疗组和安慰剂组的收缩压和舒张压均有明显改善,P<0.01,但组间比较治疗组明显优于安慰剂组,P<0.01;(2)血压未分层时,中药益糖康能降低空腹血糖、餐后血

  11. Analytical Method Details (MS): SE51_MS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE51_MS01 mQTL analysis UPLC-QTOF Premier (Waters) and UPLC-TQS (Waters) UPLC-QTOF-MS...(Matsuda et al., 2009; Sawada et al., 2009a). After cutting off the low intensity data of MS2Ts, 702 MS... the optimal collision energy for MS2Ts, collision induced dissociation fragmentation analyses at six energy...less than 10% (analytical replicates = 3). Finally, 342 SRM conditions for MS2Ts were successfully assigned ...into z-scores of binary logarithms after missing values were replaced with 0.1. T

  12. Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Porter


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition By Deidre Slattery. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xvii + 302 pp. AU$ 45.00, US$ 35.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30171-3.

  13. The Big Australian Speech Corpus (The Big ASC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, M.; Tran, D.; Togneri, R.; Rose, P.; Powers, D.M.; Onslow, M.; Loakes, D.E.; Lewis, T.W.; Kuratate, T.; Kinoshita, Y.; Kemp, N.; Ishihara, S.; Ingram, J.C.; Hajek, J.T.; Grayden, D.B.; Goecke, R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Estival, D.; Epps, J.R.; Dale, R.; Cutler, A.; Cox, F.M.; Chetty, G.; Cassidy, S.; Butcher, A.R.; Burnham, D.; Bird, S.; Best, C.T.; Bennamoun, M.; Arciuli, J.; Ambikairajah, E.


    Under an ARC Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities (LIEF) grant, speech science and technology experts from across Australia have joined forces to organise the recording of audio-visual (AV) speech data from representative speakers of Australian English in all capital cities and some regi

  14. Sexuality Education School Policy for Australian GLBTIQ Students (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany Mary; Hillier, Lynne


    Education is state-run in Australia, and within each of the eight states and territories there are both government and independent schooling systems. This paper details the position of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (GLBTIQ) students within Australian education policy documents nationally, focusing on the three largest…

  15. GLBTIQ Teachers in Australian Education Policy: Protections, Suspicions, and Restrictions (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Gray, Emily; Harris, Anne


    Recognition of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status by the United Nations has led to the development of new policies concerning homophobia and transphobia in educational contexts. This paper examines new Australian education policies impacting gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer…

  16. Ethical Blind Spots in Leading for Learning: An Australian Study (United States)

    Bezzina, Michael


    Purpose: This study aims to explore the dynamics by which exposure to a moral rationale is given expression in schools, and how this is perceived as impacting on teaching, leadership practice and student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 11 Australian schools were part of a project in which they were supported in applying a…

  17. Developing Sustainable Language Learning Pathways: An Australian Initiative (United States)

    Chesterton, Paul; Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa


    This paper reports some key findings from an external evaluation of an innovative programme for foreign and heritage languages in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW). The programme, entitled the Languages Continuity Initiative (LCI), was funded by the NSW Department of Education and Training and involved over 200 schools in its initial…

  18. Language Experiences of Preverbal Children in Australian Childcare Centres (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice


    This paper explores the language experiences of preverbal infants in Australian childcare centres with the aim of examining cultural regulation within the childcare context. Language is defined as a social and communicative act that is related to the development of voluntary action (Vygotsky 1962; Lock 1980; Leontiev 1994). The study uses…

  19. [The Australian nurses in France during the Great War]. (United States)

    Smith, Neil


    Australia was dragged into the First World War due to its status as a dominion of the British Empire. High numbers of nurses, both civilian and military, served during this conflict, notably in France, reflecting the surge of support and sympathy felt by Australians for the country.

  20. Asian Students: Their Experiences and Perceptions of Australian Universities. (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.; And Others


    A survey of 111 Asian students attending three South Australian universities found varied reasons for studying in Australia, four distinct student segments, but no dominant selection criteria. About one-quarter experienced communication problems, homesickness, or loneliness. Study-related difficulties varied, related to segment. A large minority…

  1. Australian Curriculum Reform II: Health and Physical Education (United States)

    Lynch, Timothy


    It is implied by governing organizations that Australia is presently experiencing its first national curriculum reform, when as the title suggests it is the second. However, until now Australian states and territories have been responsible for the education curriculum delivered within schools. The present national curriculum reform promises one…

  2. Motivational Postures and Compliance with Environmental Law in Australian Agriculture (United States)

    Bartel, Robyn; Barclay, Elaine


    Motivational posture theory is applied and extended to the context of Australian agriculture and environmental regulation. Regulatory failure in this area has been observed but little was known of the compliance attitudes and behaviours of farmers prior to this study. Agriculture covers over 60% of Australia's land surface so this information is…

  3. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education. (United States)

    Winn, Philip


    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  4. Australian Primary In-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Geography (United States)

    Preston, Lou


    This paper reports on the second part of a two pronged qualitative investigation that examines the ways in which Australian primary teachers conceptualise geography and geography teaching. In the first part of the project, 47 pre-service primary teachers were surveyed. In this paper, I draw on interviews with six in-service primary teachers to…

  5. Australian Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Geography (United States)

    Preston, Lou


    This article reports on the results of a survey of Australian primary pre-service teachers' experiences, conceptions and perceptions of geography. Research was conducted with two cohorts of undergraduate primary pre-service teachers; one group in second year and another in the final year of a four-year teacher education course. The findings show…

  6. Hong Kong and Australian Seniors: Views of Aging and Learning (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Tam, M.; Buys, Laurie; Chui, Ernest Wing-tak


    This article reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants and 39 participants in Hong Kong who either did or did not engage in organized learning in the last 6 months. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the experiences and perspectives of these…

  7. The Directive Communication of Australian Primary School Principals (United States)

    De Nobile, John


    Directive communication is a key leadership practise in schools. However, very little direct attention has been given to this important feature of the school communication system. The purpose of the research reported here was to produce a richer description of directive communication in the context of Australian primary schools, and in so doing,…

  8. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language (United States)

    Power, Des


    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  9. The Social and Lifestyle Characteristics of Australian Orienteers. (United States)

    Hogg, David


    A survey of 1,296 members of the Orienteering Federation of Australia indicates that Australian orienteers are well educated, have well-paid professional jobs, possess a strong commitment to a healthy lifestyle, and are generally interested in outdoor activities. Most were introduced to orienteering through personal contact with family members and…

  10. Rethinking Leadership in the Academy: An Australian Case (United States)

    Bianchini, Stefano; Maxwell, Tudor; Dovey, Ken


    As with higher education institutions in other Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Australian universities are facing significant challenges. One particular challenge is that of the declining quality of the teaching and learning experience within the academy. This paper describes an attempt to sustain the quality of a…

  11. The Challenging Australian Policy Context for University Engagement (United States)

    Barker, Karen


    Despite the current broad agreement amongst Australian universities that engagement is now a core activity, the implications of that commitment are yet to be fully realised. The difficulties many universities face in articulating engagement as a strategic priority begin with the conceptual and definitional issues around the third mission and its…

  12. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language (United States)

    Power, Des


    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  13. Student Engagement and Departure Intention: An Australian University Perspective (United States)

    Jackling, Beverley; Natoli, Riccardo


    This study addresses the departure intentions of an Australian university business student cohort that is characterised by high levels of diversity in pre-entry attributes. The study investigates the level of student engagement using the academic and social integration components of the Student Engagement Questionnaire (SEQ) based on Tinto's model…

  14. Non-Technical Skill Gaps in Australian Business Graduates (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Chapman, Elaine


    Purpose: The need for "job-ready" graduates has catalysed the development of non-technical skills in higher education institutions worldwide. Continued criticism of business school outcomes has provoked this examination of non-technical skill deficiencies in Australian business graduates. The purpose of this paper is to compare findings with…

  15. The Rise and Fall of the Australian DBA (United States)

    Kortt, Michael A.; Pervan, Simon J; Hogan, Owen


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the drivers behind the rise and fall of the Australian Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) and to assess its future. Design/methodology/approach: Data covering the period 1993-2013 was sourced from the Commonwealth Department of Education and Training to provide a comprehensive…

  16. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner (Agnes)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will pro

  17. Resistance to L2 Pragmatics in the Australian ESL Context (United States)

    Davis, John McE.


    The study examines how learner biases toward a particular national type of English affect interlanguage pragmatics. Specifically, this study assesses the degree to which Korean ESL (English as a second language) students' preferences for North American English influence their willingness to use Australian-English routines while studying in…

  18. The Australian Environment: Visions, Imperatives and Classroom Realities. (United States)

    Fien, John


    Explores five alternative visions of the Australian environment through a brief environmental history. Presents imperatives for geography education to help students become socially responsible and ecologically sensitive including: (1) developing an environmental ethic; (2) teaching about the impact of the political economy on the environment; and…

  19. Australian Students' Perceptions of Racial Attitudes in the United States. (United States)

    Evans, Anna M.; Evans, Virden; Evans, Adeline L.


    This survey of the perceptions of Australian high school students toward racism in America indicates that a majority knew little about cultural diversity; had various cultural backgrounds; were influenced more by television than other forms of media; and believed African Americans do not have equal access to education, equal opportunity to…

  20. Donation after cardiac death : are Australian emergency clinicians supportive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, C. H.; Neate, S. L.; Weiland, T. J.; Hickey, B. B.; Jelinek, G. A.


    To improve organ donation processes and outcomes, many Australian hospitals have introduced donation after cardiac death (DCD) following the 2010 publication of the National Protocol for DCD. As emergency clinicians play a significant role in identifying potential DCD donors, it is critical to asses