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  1. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

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    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  2. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

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    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  3. Hearing Status Survey in Define MS Patients

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    Davood Rostamian

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to survey the hearing status of the patients with definite MS. The results of this study may help to confirm the diagnosis and to improve our knowledge of different aspects of this disease and to optimize the treatment and rehabilitative techniques. Material & Methods: This study is performed in audiology clinic of rehabilitation science faculty of Iran medical science university as an assesive-analytic procedure in winter of 2000 in 40 MS patients (Referred from the MS clinic of Shohada Hospital of 20 to 45 years old. All the patients have no history of otologic problems. The results of conventional audiologist tests (PTA, SRT, SDS, imittance audiometry and ABR findings of MS patients were compared to the results of control group. Results: The differences between the means of low, high and mid frequency PTAve in MS patients and control group were statistically significant (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between two groups in the speech test's results, statistically. The results of ART test show statistically significant differences between experimental and control groups. The only differences in ABR results were seen for the absolute latency of the wave V and IPLs (I-V, III-V between two groups. The amplitude ratio of V/I in MS patients 1.5 was within the normal range (0.5 to 2. There was a statistically significant relationship between mean of mid frequency PTAve and prolongation of absolute latency of the wave V. The relationship between ABR and SDS and also between ART and ABR were not statistically significant. Finally, the results of this study suggested that low, high and mid frequency PTAve, ART, absolute latency of the wave V, and IPLs III-V, I-V can be used ascomplementory method to confirm the diagnosis of MS with other conventional methods such as: MRI, CSF analysis, SEP and VEP.

  4. Seasonal and Species Variation of the Hepatotoxin Indospicine in Australian Indigofera Legumes As Measured by UPLC-MS/MS.

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    Tan, Eddie T T; Materne, Christopher M; Silcock, Richard G; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Al Jassim, Rafat; Fletcher, Mary T

    2016-08-31

    Livestock industries have maintained a keen interest in pasture legumes because of the high protein content and nutritive value. Leguminous Indigofera plant species have been considered as having high feeding values to be utilized as pasture, but the occurrence of the toxic constituent indospicine in some species has restricted this utility. Indospicine has caused both primary and secondary hepatotoxicosis and also reproductive losses, but has only previously been determined in a small number of Indigofera species. This paper validates a high-throughput ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the indospicine content of various Indigofera species found in Australian pasture. Twelve species of Indigofera together with Indigastrum parviflorum plants were collected and analyzed. Of the 84 samples analyzed, *I. spicata (the asterisk indicates a naturalized species) contained the highest indospicine level (1003 ± 328 mg/kg DM, n = 4) followed by I. linnaei (755 ± 490 mg/kg DM, n = 51). Indospicine was not detected in 9 of the remaining 11 species and at only low levels (<10 mg/kg DM) in 2 of 8 I. colutea specimens and in 1 of 5 I. linifolia specimens. Indospicine concentrations were below quantitation levels for other Indigofera spp. (I. adesmiifolia, I. georgei, I. hirsuta, I. leucotricha, *I. oblongifolia, I. australis, and I. trita) and Indigastrum parviflorum. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that the indospicine content of I. linnaei is highly variable (from 159 to 2128 mg/kg DM, n = 51) and differs across both regions and seasons. Its first regrowth after spring rain has a higher (p < 0.01) indospicine content than growth following more substantial summer rain. The species collected include the predominant Indigofera in Australia pasture, and of these, only *I. spicata and I. linnaei contain high enough levels of indospicine to pose a potential toxic threat to grazing

  5. Patterns of care for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: experience from Australian sarcoma services

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Susie; Crowe, Philip; Gowda, Raghu; Joubert, Warren; Carey-Smith, Richard; Stalley, Paul; Desai, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the current management of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in the Australian health care setting. This study utilised the Australian sarcoma database to evaluate the patterns of care delivered to patients with advanced STS at Australian sarcoma services. Methods Prospectively collected data from six sarcoma centres in Australia were sourced to identify patients diagnosed with advanced STS between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Des...

  6. Organizational change, patient-focused care: an Australian perspective.

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    Braithwaite, J

    1995-08-01

    Hospitals throughout the world are attempting to improve organizational performance through a variety of means. The focus in this paper is on a leading teaching hospital in Australia for a review of current management strategy. In a time of shrinking resources, management adopted a multi-faceted change management program including restructuring the organization, becoming more patient-focused via a product-line management approach and emphasising efficiency and cost-reduction measures. The next stage in management thinking is to place greater emphasis on patient-focused care. It is concluded this has the propensity to yield substantial further benefits, including improved financial and quality of care outcomes, in the Australian as well as the British and wider Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) context. 'Professionally, we have committed ourselves to creating caring environments that promote healing. We cannot meet this goal until we make a commitment to be patient-focused and give up being nurse-focused or facility-focused' (Kerfort and LeClair, 1991). 'In a customer-driven [organization], the distribution of roles is different. The organization is decentralized, with responsibility delegated to those who until now have comprised the order-obeying bottom level of the pyramid. The traditional, hierarchical corporate structure, in other words, is beginning to give way to a flattened, more horizontal structure' (Carlzon, 1987). PMID:10151089

  7. Emotional Intelligence (EI of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS.

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    Mahsa Ghajarzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient's lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI in cases with MS.One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model.Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting than Secondary Progressive (SP ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001. Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI.Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness.

  8. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

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    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; OWJI, Mahsa; SAURAIAN, Mohammad Ali; NASER MOGHADASI, Abdorreza; AZIMI, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient’s lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. Methods One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Results Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, PMultiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Conclusion Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness. PMID:26060723

  9. Comparison of clozapine in nail and hair of psychiatric patients determined with LC-MS/MS.

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    Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping; Sun, Qi-Ran; Shen, Min

    2012-09-01

    As a keratinized material, nail recently has attracting researchers' attention in the pharmaceuticals analysis. There are comparatively limited studies concerning nail's xenobiotic determination and its mechanism. This article reported the development of a sensitive, specific and reproducible LC-MS/MS method, which could be as a foundation of other studies on drug determination in nail. It can also be regarded as the first report on organic drug in mainland China. Sixteen nail samples from volunteers, who were ingested clozapine for more than nine months, are confirmed positive after being analyzed by the method. It is found that contents of clozapine in the patients' nails are above the nanogram level. Besides, a comparative study of clozapine concentration in nails and hair was made, with a result that there exists a correlation between the two materials in terms of clozapine concentration. PMID:23227550

  10. Usability of patient experience surveys in Australian primary health care: a scoping review.

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    Gardner, Karen; Parkinson, Anne; Banfield, Michelle; Sargent, Ginny M; Desborough, Jane; Hehir, Kanupriya Kalia

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring patient experience is essential for stimulating innovation in health care and improving quality and accountability. Internationally, standardised approaches are used to collect patient experience information, but in Australian primary health care (PHC), little is known about which patient experience surveys are used and which aspects of experience they measure. This prevents routine inclusion of patient experience data in quality improvement or system performance measurement. A scoping review was undertaken to identify relevant surveys. Data on survey availability, psychometric properties, target population, method and frequency of administration were extracted. Survey items were mapped against six dimensions of patient experience described internationally. Ninety-five surveys were identified; 34 were developed for use in Australia. Surveys vary in content, size, aspects of experience measured and methods of administration. The quality of data collected and the extent to which it is used in quality improvement is unclear. Collection of patient experience data in Australian PHC is not well developed or standardised and there are few publicly available instruments. There is a need to clearly identify the purposes for which data are to be used and to develop an integrated approach that articulates these collections with other quality and performance data. Some options are discussed. PMID:27469275

  11. Chemical Profiling (HPLC-NMR & HPLC-MS, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Meroditerpenoids from the Southern Australian Marine Brown Alga Sargassum paradoxum

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    Robert Brkljača

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of a southern Australian marine brown alga, Sargassum paradoxum, resulted in the isolation and identification of four new (5, 9, 10, and 15 and nine previously reported (1, 2, 6–8, and 11–14 bioactive meroditerpenoids. HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS were central to the identification of a new unstable compound, sargahydroquinal (9, and pivotal in the deconvolution of eight (1, 2, 5–7, and 10–12 other meroditerpenoids. In particular, the complete characterization and identification of the two main constituents (1 and 2 in the crude dichloromethane extract was achieved using stop-flow HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS. This study resulted in the first acquisition of gHMBCAD NMR spectra in the stop-flow HPLC-NMR mode for a system solely equipped with a 60 μL HPLC-NMR flow cell without the use of a cold probe, microcoil, or any pre-concentration.

  12. No association between XMRV or related gammaretroviruses in Australian prostate cancer patients

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    Rezaei Simin D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a gammaretrovirus reported to be associated with prostate cancer (PC and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. While the association of XMRV with CFS and PC has recently been discredited, no studies have been performed in Australian patients to investigate the association between PC and XMRV or related murine leukemia virus (MLV in matched PC and normal tissue. Methods Genomic DNA (gDNA was purified from matched normal and cancer formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE prostate tissue from 35 Australian PC patients with Gleason scores ranging from 7 – 10. The presence of the ribonuclease L (RNase L polymorphism R462Q was determined by allele specific PCR. Samples were screened for XMRV and related murine leukemia virus (MLV variants by qPCR. Contaminating mouse DNA was detected using qPCR targeting mouse intracisternal A particle long terminal repeat DNA. Results gDNA was successfully purified from 94% (66/70 of normal and cancer FFPE prostate tissues. RNase L typing revealed 8% were homozygous (QQ, 60% were heterozygous (RQ and 32% were wild-type (RR for the RNase L mutation. None of the 66 samples tested were positive for XMRV or related MLV sequences using broad MLV or XMRV specific primers with detection sensitivities of 1 viral copy of MLV/XMRV and XMRV DNA, respectively. Conclusions Using highly sensitive qPCR we found no evidence of XMRV or related gammaretroviruses in prostate tissues from 35 Australian PC patients. Our findings are consistent with other studies demonstrating that XMRV is a laboratory contaminant that has no role in the aetiology of PC.

  13. MRI criteria for MS in patients with clinically isolated syndromes

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    Montalban, X.; Tintore, M.; Swanton, J.;

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have changed, mainly due to the incorporation of new MRI criteria. While the new criteria are a logical step forward, they are complex and-not surprisingly-a good working knowledge of them is not always evident among neurologi......In recent years, criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have changed, mainly due to the incorporation of new MRI criteria. While the new criteria are a logical step forward, they are complex and-not surprisingly-a good working knowledge of them is not always evident among...... isolated syndrome. Within the European multicenter collaborative research network that studies MRI in MS (MAGNIMS), a workshop was held in London in November 2007 to review information that may simplify the existing MS diagnostic criteria, while maintaining a high specificity that is essential to minimize...

  14. Butanolysis derivatization: improved sensitivity in LC-MS/MS quantitation of heparan sulfate in urine from mucopolysaccharidosis patients.

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    Trim, Paul J; Hopwood, John J; Snel, Marten F

    2015-09-15

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a complex oligosaccharide that is a marker of a number of diseases, most notably several of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). It is a very heterogeneous compound and its quantification at physiological concentrations in patient samples is challenging. Here, we demonstrate novel derivatization chemistry for depolymerization/desulfation and alkylation of HS based on butanolysis. The resultant alkylated disaccharides are quantifiable by LC-MS/MS. This new method is at least 70-fold more sensitive than a previously published methanolysis method. Disaccharide yield over time is compared for methanolysis, ethanolysis, and butanolysis. Maximum disaccharide concentration was observed after 2 h with butanolysis and 18 h with ethanolysis whereas a maximum was not reached over the 24 h of the experiment with methanolysis. The sensitivity of the new technique is illustrated by the quantification of HS in 5 μL urine samples from MPS patients and healthy controls. HS was quantifiable in all samples including controls. Disaccharide reaction products were further characterized using exact mass MS/MS. PMID:26301744

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of chronic fatigue- syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in Australian patients

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    Johnston SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Samantha C Johnston1,2 Donald R Staines1 Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik1,2 1National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, 2School of Medical Sciences, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia Background: No epidemiological investigations have previously been conducted in Australia according to the current clinical definitions of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME. The aim of this study was to describe sociodemographic and illness characteristics of Australian patients with CFS/ME.Methods: A cross-sectional survey on the medical history of patients enrolled in an Australian CFS/ME research database between April 2013 and April 2015. Participants were classified according to Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria.Results: A total of 535 patients diagnosed with CFS/ME by a primary care physician were identified. The mean age of all patients was 46.4 years (standard deviation 12.0; the majority were female (78.61%, Caucasian, and highly educated. Of these, 30.28% met Fukuda criteria. A further 31.96% met both Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria. There were 14.58% reporting chronic fatigue but did not meet criteria for CFS/ME and 23.18% were considered noncases due to exclusionary conditions. Within those meeting CFS/ME criteria, the most common events prior to illness included cold or flu, gastrointestinal illness, and periods of undue stress. Of the 60 symptoms surveyed, fatigue, cognitive, and short-term memory symptoms, headaches, muscle and joint pain, unrefreshed sleep, sensory disturbances, muscle weakness, and intolerance to extremes of temperature were the most commonly occurring symptoms (reported by more than two-thirds of patients. Significant differences in symptom occurrence between Fukuda- and International Consensus Criteria-defined cases were also identified.Conclusion: This is the first study to summarize sociodemographic and

  16. MRI criteria for MS in patients with clinically isolated syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montalban, X.; Tintore, M.; Swanton, J.;

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have changed, mainly due to the incorporation of new MRI criteria. While the new criteria are a logical step forward, they are complex and-not surprisingly-a good working knowledge of them is not always evident among neurologi...

  17. The detection of THC, CBD and CBN in the oral fluid of Sativex® patients using two on-site screening tests and LC-MS/MS.

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    Molnar, Anna; Fu, Shanlin; Lewis, John; Allsop, David J; Copeland, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Sativex(®) is an oromucosal spray used to treat spasticity in multiple sclerosis sufferers in some European countries, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. The drug has also recently been registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Sativex(®) contains high concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with the former being the subject of random roadside drug tests across Australia to detect cannabis use. This pilot study aims to determine whether or not patients taking Sativex(®) will test positive to THC using these roadside screening tests. Detectable levels of THC, CBD and cannabinol (CBN) in their oral fluid were also confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study was a double-blind, placebo controlled design. Oral fluid was tested prior to and immediately after dosing with either Sativex(®) or placebo at intervals up to 2h after the dose. Two Sativex(®) doses were studied. The low dose contained 5.4mg THC, the high dose 21.6mg THC. Results indicate that the primary screening test used in Australian roadside drug testing, the DrugWipe(®) II Twin, often gave a false negative response for THC, even with high concentrations present. However, secondary screening test, Cozart(®) DDS (used by police after a DrugWipe test gives a positive result), gave true positive results in all cases where patients were being treated with Sativex(®). Confirmatory testing showed high concentrations of THC and CBD (>5356ng/mL THC and >3826ng/mL CBD) in the oral fluid shortly after dosing and also elevated concentrations of CBN. Levels dropped quickly but remained at detectable concentrations (>67.6ng/mL) two hours after drug administration. The average concentration ratio of THC/CBD across all positive samples was 1.10 (%RSD 19.9) reflecting the composition of the Sativex(®) spray. In conclusion, Sativex(®) users may test positive for THC by

  18. Natalizumab-related anaphylactoid reactions in MS patients are associated with HLA class II alleles

    OpenAIRE

    De la Hera, Belén; Urcelay, Elena; Brassat, David; Chan, Andrew; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Salmen, Anke; Villar, Luisa Maria; Álvarez-Cermeño, José Carlos; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Fernández, Oscar; Oliver, Begoña; Saiz, Albert; Ara, Jose Ramón; Vigo, Ana G.; Arroyo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate potential associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles and the development of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with natalizumab. Methods: HLA class I and II genotyping was performed in patients with MS who experienced anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions and in patients who did not develop infusion-related allergic reactions following natalizumab administration. Results:...

  19. Allele frequencies of the third component of complement (C3) in MS patients.

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    Bulman, D E; Armstrong, H; Ebers, G C

    1991-01-01

    No difference was found in the allele frequency of C3 (third component of complement) in 129 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients compared with both 69 controls or with similar reported controls from the published literature. An association cannot be confirmed between C3 and MS.

  20. Mapping patient flow in a regional Australian emergency department: a model driven approach.

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    Martin, Mary; Champion, Robert; Kinsman, Leigh; Masman, Kevin

    2011-04-01

    Unified Modelling Language (UML) models of the patient journey in a regional Australian emergency department (ED) were used to develop an accurate, complete representation of ED processes and drive the collection of comprehensive quantitative and qualitative service delivery and patient treatment data as an evidence base for hospital service planning. The focus was to identify bottle-necks that contribute to over-crowding. Data was collected entirely independently of the routine hospital data collection system. The greatest source of delay in patient flow was the waiting time from a bed request to exit from the ED for hospital admission. It represented 61% of the time that these patients occupied ED cubicles. The physical layout of the triage area was identified as counterproductive to efficient triaging, and the results of investigations were often observed to be available for some time before clinical staff became aware. The use of independent primary data to construct UML models of the patient journey was effective in identifying sources of delay in patient flow, and aspects of ED activity that could be improved. The findings contributed to recent department re-design and informed an initiative to develop a business intelligence system for predicting impending occurrence of access block. PMID:21459349

  1. Exploring Self-Efficacy in Australian General Practitioners Managing Patient Obesity: A Qualitative Survey Study.

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    Ashman, Freya; Sturgiss, Elizabeth; Haesler, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Australian community, and general practitioners (GPs) are commonly approached by patients for assistance in losing weight. Previous studies have shown that GPs have low self-efficacy and low outcome expectation when it comes to managing overweight and obese patients, which affects their willingness to initiate and continue with weight counselling. This qualitative survey study aimed to explore the factors influencing confidence and behaviour in obesity management in GPs. Method. Twelve GPs recruited to deliver a pilot of an obesity management program participated in semistructured interviews, and interpretive analysis underpinned by social cognitive theory was performed on the transcripts. Results. Analysis identified five main themes: (1) perceived knowledge and skills, (2) structure to management approach, (3) the GP-patient relationship, (4) acknowledged barriers to weight loss and lifestyle change, and (5) prior experience and outcome expectation. Conclusions. GPs are likely to welcome tools which provide a more structured approach to obesity management. Shifting away from weight and BMI as sole yardsticks for success or failure and emphasising positive lifestyle changes for their own sake may improve GP self-efficacy and allow for a more authentic GP-patient interaction. PMID:27274872

  2. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression...... in longitudinal studies of MS patients, but little is known about the associated changes in cerebral neural function. METHODS: The authors studied 10 patients with clinically definite MS who underwent serial measurements of CMRglc, MRI T2-weighted total lesion area (TLA), and clinical evaluation of disability...... and parietal cortical areas. There was a statistically significant increase of disability (pMS is decreased significantly during a 2...

  3. Evaluating Mental (psychological Health in MS patients from Mozandran Province in 1386 (2007

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    Kiomars Niaz Azari3

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 10 Sep, 2008 ; Accepted 4 Mar, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: The most common weakness caused by a neurological disease is MS, in which the Milin membrane is decimalized, which brings a reduction in the neural message transfer. The neural message transfer stops, which causes an increased lack of sensitivity (non-stimulus physical disorders and central neural system involvement. This also causes various physical, psychological, relationship disorders, in addition to negative social and family behaviors for those who are needy. Due to the lack of research in the Mazandaran Province regarding psychological health of MS patients, there exist discrepancies resulting from research on the given subject around the world. This study, aims at determining the psychological health of the MS patients and its relationship to the field variables in the Mazandran Province.Materials and methods: The present study is of descriptive type and samples were MS patients who were members of the MS association from Mazandran Province. The sample consisted of 134 MS patients, who were under our study and had documented cases of MS, and were chosen among 700 MS patients randomly. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire, which consisted of field information and a standard questionnaire of GHQ, with 28 questions which were completed by patients.Results: The research showed that 17/9% had severe physical problems, 38/8% had severe social problems, 11/2% had high depression, and 14/9% with high anxiety. Based on the results of this study, statistical test showed a significant relationship between psychological health and educational levels (f=6/63, and critical f=2/68. However, the analysis of variance showed no relationship between MS and income levels. It should be noted, that our research findings showed a significant relationship (based on the independent t statistical test, between psychological health in 4 aspects with MS (t=5/06, p=0/05, df=132 and

  4. A pilot study to improve adherence among MS patients who discontinue treatment against medical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jared; Bruce, Amanda; Lynch, Sharon; Strober, Lauren; O'Bryan, Sean; Sobotka, Deborah; Thelen, Joan; Ness, Abigail; Glusman, Morgan; Goggin, Kathy; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-04-01

    Between 30 and 50% of MS patients may prematurely discontinue disease modifying therapies. Little research has examined how to best talk with patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether telephone counseling increases disease modifying therapy (DMT) re-initiation among nonadherent patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants were eligible if they had relapsing-remitting disease, had stopped taking a DMT, and had no plan to re-initiate treatment despite a provider recommendation. Following a baseline assessment, 81 patients were randomly assigned to either five 20 min, weekly sessions of Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MI-CBT) or Treatment as Usual (TAU) with brief education. At 10 weeks, patients initially assigned to TAU switched over to MI-CBT. Compared to patients in the TAU group, patients undergoing MI-CBT were significantly more likely to indicate they were re-initiating DMT (41.7 vs. 14.3%). These significant results were replicated among patients crossing over from TAU to MI-CBT. Treatment satisfaction was high, with 97% of participants reporting that they would recommend MI-CBT to other patients with MS. Results of this pilot study provide initial support for the use of MI-CBT among MS patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01925690.

  5. A pilot study to improve adherence among MS patients who discontinue treatment against medical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jared; Bruce, Amanda; Lynch, Sharon; Strober, Lauren; O'Bryan, Sean; Sobotka, Deborah; Thelen, Joan; Ness, Abigail; Glusman, Morgan; Goggin, Kathy; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-04-01

    Between 30 and 50% of MS patients may prematurely discontinue disease modifying therapies. Little research has examined how to best talk with patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether telephone counseling increases disease modifying therapy (DMT) re-initiation among nonadherent patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants were eligible if they had relapsing-remitting disease, had stopped taking a DMT, and had no plan to re-initiate treatment despite a provider recommendation. Following a baseline assessment, 81 patients were randomly assigned to either five 20 min, weekly sessions of Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MI-CBT) or Treatment as Usual (TAU) with brief education. At 10 weeks, patients initially assigned to TAU switched over to MI-CBT. Compared to patients in the TAU group, patients undergoing MI-CBT were significantly more likely to indicate they were re-initiating DMT (41.7 vs. 14.3%). These significant results were replicated among patients crossing over from TAU to MI-CBT. Treatment satisfaction was high, with 97% of participants reporting that they would recommend MI-CBT to other patients with MS. Results of this pilot study provide initial support for the use of MI-CBT among MS patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01925690. PMID:26563147

  6. ABOUT PATIENTS, "INVENTORS", JOURNALISTS, SCIENTISTS AND IRBs (TO SAY NOTHING OF THE INSTITUTIONS): CCSVI AND MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, M Antonella

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the Author analyzes her own experience as a member of the IRB that approved a trial to determine the efficacy of a disobstruction procedure of extracranial veins by means of angioplasty in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The so-called "liberation therapy" was proposed by an Italian vascular surgeon, who theorized a condition called "chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" (CCSVI) as playing a role in the pathogenesis of MS. This approval, given after an animated discussion amongst IRB members, lacked any solid scientific evidence of a causal relationship between CCSVI and MS, and was accepted despite the concerns about potential risks associated with the proposed therapy. Undoubtedly, considerable pressure was exerted on IRB by MS sufferers, who rushed off to get the surgery from the many clinics who offered liberation therapy.The remaining sense of bitter has raised a reflection on how to prevent similar future cases.

  7. Cortical reorganization during PASAT task in MS patients with preserved working memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn, C; Barros-Loscertales, A; Escudero, J; Belloch, V; Campos, S; Parcet, M A; Avila, C

    2006-06-01

    Cortical reorganization in multiple sclerosis (MS) is defined as a compensatory mechanism which requires MS patients to overactivate specific brain areas in order to perform the task as controls. To investigate this process with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) task, we selected 15 MS patients who performed the PASAT task within-normal limits and 10 healthy controls. Once selected, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain areas involved in PASAT performance in both groups. Results showed that the task activated the left frontal (BA6 and 9) and parietal cortex (BA7 and 40) in both groups, but MS patients showed a stronger activation in the left prefrontal cortex (BA9, 44 and 45) when compared with controls. These results confirmed those obtained post hoc by Audoin et al. [Audoin, B., Ibarrola, D., Ranjeva, J.P., Confort-Gouny, S., Malikova, I., Ali-Chérif, A.M., Pelletier, J., Cozzone, P., et al., 2003. Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during cognitive task at the earliest stage of MS. Hum. Brain Mapp. 20, 51-58], and we interpreted this as showing true cortical reorganization. PMID:16466933

  8. Increased Circulating Levels of Vitamin D Binding Protein in MS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Ottavio Rinaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (vitD low status is currently considered a main environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS etiology and pathogenesis. VitD and its metabolites are highly hydrophobic and circulate mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (DBP and with lower affinity to albumin, while less than 1% are in a free form. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the circulating levels of either of the two vitD plasma carriers and/or their relationship are altered in MS. We measured DBP and albumin plasma levels in 28 MS patients and 24 healthy controls. MS patients were found to have higher DBP levels than healthy subjects. Concomitant interferon beta therapy did not influence DBP concentration, and the difference with the control group was significant in both females and males. No significant correlation between DBP and albumin levels was observed either in healthy controls or in patients. These observations suggest the involvement of DBP in the patho-physiology of MS.

  9. Cortical reorganization during PASAT task in MS patients with preserved working memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn, C; Barros-Loscertales, A; Escudero, J; Belloch, V; Campos, S; Parcet, M A; Avila, C

    2006-06-01

    Cortical reorganization in multiple sclerosis (MS) is defined as a compensatory mechanism which requires MS patients to overactivate specific brain areas in order to perform the task as controls. To investigate this process with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) task, we selected 15 MS patients who performed the PASAT task within-normal limits and 10 healthy controls. Once selected, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain areas involved in PASAT performance in both groups. Results showed that the task activated the left frontal (BA6 and 9) and parietal cortex (BA7 and 40) in both groups, but MS patients showed a stronger activation in the left prefrontal cortex (BA9, 44 and 45) when compared with controls. These results confirmed those obtained post hoc by Audoin et al. [Audoin, B., Ibarrola, D., Ranjeva, J.P., Confort-Gouny, S., Malikova, I., Ali-Chérif, A.M., Pelletier, J., Cozzone, P., et al., 2003. Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during cognitive task at the earliest stage of MS. Hum. Brain Mapp. 20, 51-58], and we interpreted this as showing true cortical reorganization.

  10. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range.

  11. Three cases of herpes zoster radiculitis in MS patients treated with natalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamout, Bassem I; Abou Zeid, Nuhad; Taha, Ali J; Zeineddine, Maya M; Khoury, Samia J

    2016-09-01

    Natalizumab was the first FDA-approved monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report on 3 natalizumab-treated patients who developed herpes zoster infections. In addition to progressive multifocal leukoencephelopathy, other opportunistic infections have been rarely reported during Natalizumab treatment. We believe that clinicians need heightened awareness of these infections in view of the risks of serious complications.

  12. A descriptive model of patient readiness, motivators, and hepatitis C treatment uptake among Australian prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Yap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%-3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. CONCLUSION: This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there

  13. Multiple sclerosis documentation system (MSDS): moving from documentation to management of MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Kempcke, Raimar; Eulitz, Marco; Großmann, Lars; Suhrbier, Alexander; Thomas, Katja; Schultheiss, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    The long disease duration of multiple sclerosis and the increasing therapeutic options require a individualized therapeutic approach which should be carefully documented over years of observation. To switch from MS documentation to an innovative MS management, new computer- and internet-based tools could be implemented as we could demonstrate with the novel computer-based patient management system "multiple sclerosis management system 3D" (MSDS 3D). MSDS 3D allows documentation and management of visit schedules and mandatory examinations via defined study modules by integration of data input from various sources (patients, attending physicians and MS nurses). It provides forms for the documentation of patient visits as well as clinical and diagnostic findings. Information can be collected via interactive touch screens. Specific modules allow the management of highly efficacious treatments as natalizumab or fingolimod. MSDS can be used to transfer the documented data to databases as, e.g. the registry of the German MS society or REGIMS. MSDS has already been implemented successfully in clinical practice and is currently being evaluated in a multicenter setting. High-quality management and documentation are crucial for improvements in clinical practice and research work. PMID:23728704

  14. Practices of US health insurance companies concerning MS therapies interfere with shared decision-making and harm patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdette, Dennis N.; Hartung, Daniel M.; Whitham, Ruth H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The US Food and Drug Administration has registered 13 multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The medications are not interchangeable as they vary in route of administration, efficacy, and safety profile. Selecting the appropriate MS DMT for individual patients requires shared decision-making between patients and neurologists. To reduce costs, insurance companies acting through pharmacy benefit companies restrict access to MS DMTs through tiered coverage and other...

  15. A cross-sectional study assessing the self-reported weight loss strategies used by adult Australian general practice patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Sze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a significant public health concern. General practitioners (GPs see a large percentage of the population and are well placed to provide weight management advice. There has been little examination of the types of weight loss strategies used in Australian general practice patients. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the proportion of normal weight, overweight and obese general practice patients who report trying to lose weight in the past 12 months, the types of weight loss strategies and diets used as well as the proportion consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Methods Adult patients completed a touchscreen computer survey while waiting for their appointment. Responses from 1335 patients in twelve Australian practices are reported. Results A larger proportion of obese patients had tried to lose weight in the past 12 months (73% compared to those who were overweight (55% and normal weight (33%. The most commonly used strategy used was changing diet and increasing exercise in all BMI categories. Less than 10% used strategies such as prescription medication, over the counter supplements and consulted a weight loss specialist. Low calorie and low fat diets were the most frequently reported diets used to lose weight in those who were normal weight, overweight and obese. Overall, the proportion seeking GP advice was low, with 12% of normal weight, 15% of overweight and 43% of obese patients consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Conclusions A large proportion of overweight or obese patients have tried to lose weight and utilized strategies such as changing diet and increasing exercise. Most attempts however were unassisted, with low rates of consultation with GPs and weight loss specialists. Ways to assist overweight and obese general practice patients with their weight loss attempts need to be identified.

  16. AToMS: A Ubiquitous Teleconsultation System for Supporting AMI Patients with Prehospital Thrombolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. P. M. Correa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest population-based studies in the medical literature worldwide indicate that acute myocardial infarction (AMI patients still experience prolonged delay to be rescued, which often results in morbidity and mortality. This paper reports from a technological standpoint a teleconsultation and monitoring system named AToMS. This system addresses the problem of prehospital delivery of thrombolysis to AMI patients by enabling the remote interaction of the paramedics and a cardiologist available at a Coronary Care Unit (CCU. Such interaction allows the diagnosis of the patient eligibility to the immediate application of thrombolysis, which is meant to reduce the delay between the onset of symptoms and the eventual application of proper treatment. Such delay reduction is meant to increase the AMI patient's chances of survival and decrease the risks of postinfarction sequels. The teleconsultation is held with the support of wireless and mobile technologies, which also allows the cardiologist to monitor the patient while he/she is being taken to the nearest CCU. All exchanged messages among paramedics and cardiologists are recorded to render an auditable system. AToMS has been deployed in a first stage in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where the medical team involved in the project has conducted commissioned tests.

  17. Physiological and Thermal Responses of MS Patients to Head and Vest Cooling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal cooling systems are used to alleviate symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and to prevent increased core temperature during daily activities. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics and the physiologic changes produced by short term application of the stationary thermal control system used by most clinical institutions. The Life Enhancement Tech (LET) Mark VII portable cooling system and a lightweight Head-vest active cooling garment were used to cool the head and chest regions of 4 male and 3 female MS patients (30 to 66 yrs. old) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx. 24 C), were tested for 60 min. with the liquid cooling garment (LCG) operated at 50 F. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures, heart rate, respiration, and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc., Biolog ambulatory monitor. All temperature responses showed extreme variation among subjects. The cold-sensitive subject's rectal temperature increased initially in response to cooling; the heat sensitive subject's rectal temperature decreased. After 40 min. of cooling and during recovery, all subjects'rectal temperatures decreased. Oral temperatures began to decrease after 30 min. of cooling. After 60 min. of cooling, temperature drops ranged from approx. 0.3 - 0.8 C. Oral temperatures continued to decrease during recovery (approx. 0.2 C). The car temperature of the heat sensitive subject was increased after cooling, other subjects exhibited an ear temperature decrease (0.0 - 0.5 C). These data indicate that head and vest cooling may be used to reduce the oral temperatures of MS patients by the approximate amount needed for symptomatic relief as shown by other researchers. The combination of a small subject population and a large subject variance does not permit us to draw statistical

  18. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression in...... (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) over a period of approximately 2 years (three examinations). CMRglc was calculated using PET and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: The global cortical CMRglc decreased with time (p<0.001) and the most pronounced reductions of CMRglc were detected in frontal and...

  19. Physiologic and Functional Responses of MS Patients to Body Cooling Using Commercially Available Cooling Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Personal cooling systems are widely used in industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. Increasingly they are also used by heat sensitive multiple sclerosis (HSMS) patients to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. There are a variety of cooling systems commercially available to the MS community. However, little information is available regarding the comparative physiological changes produced by routine operation of these various systems. The objective of this study was to document and compare the patient response to two passive cooling vests and one active cooling garment. The Life Enhancement Technology, Inc. (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems (MCS) Change of Phase garment, and the Steele Vest were each used to cool 13 male and 13 female MS subjects (31 to 67 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approximately 22 C), were tested with one of the cooling garments. Oral, fight and left ear temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. An-n, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. Each subject was given a series of subjective and objective evaluation tests before and after cooling. The LET and Steele vests test groups had similar, significant (P less than 0.01) cooling effects on oral and ear canal temperature, which decreased approximately 0.4 C, and 0.3 C, respectively. Core temperature increased (N.S.) with all three vests during cooling. The LET vest produced the coldest (P less than 0.01) skin temperature. Overall, the LET vest provided the most improvement on subjective and objective performance measures. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all MS patients. Cooling with the LET active garment configuration resulted in the lowest body temperatures for the MS subjects; cooling with

  20. Lipidomic analysis of plasma, erythrocytes and lipoprotein fractions of cardiovascular disease patients using UHPLC/MS, MALDI-MS and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holčapek, Michal; Červená, Blanka; Cífková, Eva; Lísa, Miroslav; Chagovets, Vitaliy; Vostálová, Jitka; Bancířová, Martina; Galuszka, Jan; Hill, Martin

    2015-05-15

    Differences among lipidomic profiles of healthy volunteers, obese people and three groups of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients are investigated with the goal to differentiate individual groups based on the multivariate data analysis (MDA) of lipidomic data from plasma, erythrocytes and lipoprotein fractions of more than 50 subjects. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UHPLC) column coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is used for the quantitation of four classes of polar lipids (phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and lysophosphatidylcholines), normal-phase UHPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS (NP-UHPLC/APCI-MS) is applied for the quantitation of five classes of nonpolar lipids (cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, sterols, 1,3-diacylglycerols and 1,2-diacylglycerols) and the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is tested for the fast screening of all lipids without a chromatographic separation. Obtained results are processed by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (orthogonal partial least squares) MDA approaches to highlight the largest differences among individual groups and to identify lipid molecules with the highest impact on the group differentiation. PMID:25855318

  1. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin in serum of multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Zeng, Tianmei; Gao, Shouhong; Xia, Tianyi; Huang, Lifeng; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-08-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant neoplastic serum-cell disorder, has been a serious threat to human health. The determination of 6 commonly used drug concentrations, including thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin, in MM patients was of great clinical interest. Herein, we reported a method for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of the above therapeutics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method with solid phase extraction. Analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge(®) BEH C18 column (2.5μm, 2.1 mm×50mm), with formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at flow rate 0.3mL/min. All analytes showed good correlation coefficients (r>0.996), and LLOQ of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin were 4, 2, 2, 2, 2 and 2ng/mL, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions and stability were expressed as variation coefficients within 15% and relative error less than 15%. Dilution effect, carryover and incurred sample reanalysis were investigated according to the 2015 edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia guidelines, as US FDA (2013, revision 1) required. The LC-MS/MS based assay described in this article may improve future clinical studies evaluating common therapeutics for MM treatment. PMID:27336703

  2. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Francis J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not

  3. Multiplex MALDI-TOF MS detection of mitochondrial variants in Brazilian patients with hereditary optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilde da Silva-Costa, Sueli; Balieiro, Juliane Cristina; Fernandes, Marcela Scabello Amaral; Alves, Rogério Marins; Guerra, Andrea Trevas Maciel; Marcondes, Ana Maria; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by bilateral vision loss. More than 95% of LHON cases are associated with one of the three main mtDNA mutations: G11778A, T14484C, and G3460A. The other 5% of cases are due to other rare mutations related to the disease. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and spectrum of LHON mtDNA mutations, including the haplogroup, in a cohort of Brazilian patients with optic neuropathy and to evaluate the usefulness of iPLEX Gold/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology in detecting LHON mutations. Methods We analyzed a total of 101 patients; 67 had a clinical diagnosis of LHON and 34 had optic neuropathy of unknown etiology. Direct sequencing and iPLEX Gold/MALDI-TOF MS were used to screen for the most common pathogenic point mutations in LHON, together with the rare mutations G3733A, C4171A, T10663C, G14459A, C14482G, A14495G, C14568T, and C14482A. Results We identified mutations in 36 patients, of whom 83.3% carried the G11778A mutation and 16.7% carried the T14484C mutation. In individuals with mutations, the haplogroups found were L1/L2, L3, C, R, U, D, and H. Rare mutations were not detected in any of the patients analyzed. Conclusions The frequencies of the main LHON mutations were similar to those previously reported for Latin America. A different frequency was found only for the A3460G mutation. The most frequent haplogroups identified were of African origin. The iPLEX Gold/MALDI-TOF MS technology proved to be highly accurate and efficient for screening mutations and identifying the haplogroups related to LHON. The MassArray platform, combined with other techniques, enabled definitive diagnosis of LHON in 36% (36/101) of the cases studied. PMID:27582625

  4. Evidence that the ancestral haplotype in Australian hemochromatosis patients may be associated with a common mutation in the gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.H.G.; Powell, L.W.; Leggett, B.A. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Hemochromatosis (HC) is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism for which neither the gene nor biochemical defect have yet been identified. The aim of this study was to look for clinical evidence that the predominant ancestral haplotype in Australian patients is associated with a common mutation in the gene. We compared indices of iron metabolism and storage in three groups of HC patients categorized according to the presence of the ancestral haplotype (i.e., patients with two copies, one copy, and no copies of the ancestral haplotype). We also examined iron indices in two groups of HC heterozygotes (those with the ancestral haplotype and those without) and in age-matched controls. These analyses indicate that (i) HC patients with two copies of the ancestral haplotype show significantly more severe expression of the disorder than those with one copy or those without, (ii) HC heterozygotes have partial clinical expression, which may be influenced by the presence of the ancestral haplotype in females but not in males, and (iii) the high population frequency of the HC gene may be the result of the selective advantage conferred by protecting heterozygotes against iron deficiency. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination on a dried blood spot of multiple analytes relevant for treatment monitoring in patients with tyrosinemia type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Malvagia, Sabrina; Materazzi, Serena; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Boenzi, Sara; Martinelli, Diego; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2012-01-17

    Tyrosinemia type 1 is caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. The enzymatic defect impairs the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate, causing accumulation of succinylacetone which induces severe liver and kidney dysfunction along with mutagenic changes and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment is based on nitisinone (NTBC), an enzymatic inhibitor which suppresses succinylacetone production. NTBC, which has dramatically changed the disease course improving liver and kidney functions and reducing risk of liver cancer, causes a side effect of the increase of tyrosine levels. Treatment is therefore based on the combination of NTBC with a protein-restricted diet to prevent the potential toxicity of excessive tyrosine accumulation. Long-term therapy requires a careful monitoring in blood of NTBC levels along with other disease biomarkers, which include succinylacetone, and a selected panel of circulating aminoacids. We have developed a straightforward and fast MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of NTBC, succinylacetone, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine on a dried blood spot requiring a 2 min run. A single assay suitable for quantitative evaluation of all biochemical markers is of great advance over conventional methods, especially in pediatric patients, since it reduces laboratory costs and blood sampling, is less invasive and particularly suitable for pediatric patients, and allows easier storage and shipping. PMID:22148291

  6. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination on a dried blood spot of multiple analytes relevant for treatment monitoring in patients with tyrosinemia type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Malvagia, Sabrina; Materazzi, Serena; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Boenzi, Sara; Martinelli, Diego; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2012-01-17

    Tyrosinemia type 1 is caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. The enzymatic defect impairs the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate, causing accumulation of succinylacetone which induces severe liver and kidney dysfunction along with mutagenic changes and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment is based on nitisinone (NTBC), an enzymatic inhibitor which suppresses succinylacetone production. NTBC, which has dramatically changed the disease course improving liver and kidney functions and reducing risk of liver cancer, causes a side effect of the increase of tyrosine levels. Treatment is therefore based on the combination of NTBC with a protein-restricted diet to prevent the potential toxicity of excessive tyrosine accumulation. Long-term therapy requires a careful monitoring in blood of NTBC levels along with other disease biomarkers, which include succinylacetone, and a selected panel of circulating aminoacids. We have developed a straightforward and fast MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of NTBC, succinylacetone, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine on a dried blood spot requiring a 2 min run. A single assay suitable for quantitative evaluation of all biochemical markers is of great advance over conventional methods, especially in pediatric patients, since it reduces laboratory costs and blood sampling, is less invasive and particularly suitable for pediatric patients, and allows easier storage and shipping.

  7. A Novel Rapid MALDI-TOF-MS-Based Method for Measuring Urinary Globotriaosylceramide in Fabry Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Fahad J.; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Hughes, Derralynn A.; Ward, Douglas G.

    2016-04-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-galactosidase A, resulting in the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in various organs. Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and its isoforms and analogues have been identified and quantified as biomarkers of disease severity and treatment efficacy. The current study aimed to establish rapid methods for urinary Gb3 extraction and quantitation. Urine samples from 15 Fabry patients and 21 healthy control subjects were processed to extract Gb3 by mixing equal volumes of urine, methanol containing an internal standard, and chloroform followed by sonication and centrifugation. Thereafter, the lower phase was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the relative peak areas of the internal standard and four major species of Gb3 determined. The results showed high reproducibility with intra- and inter-assay coefficients variation of 9.9% and 13.7%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/μL and the limit of quantitation was 0.30 ng/μL. Total urinary Gb3 levels in both genders of classic Fabry patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Gb3 levels in Fabry males were higher than in Fabry females (p = 0.08). We have established a novel assay for urinary total Gb3 that takes less than 15 min from start to finish.

  8. Economic costs of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia among patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in European and Australian clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weycker Derek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic implications of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN in European and Australian clinical practice are largely unknown. Methods Data were obtained from a European (97% and Australian (3% observational study of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL receiving CHOP (±rituximab chemotherapy. For each patient, each cycle of chemotherapy within the course, and each occurrence of FN within cycles, was identified. Patients developing FN in a given cycle (“FN patients”, starting with the first, were matched to those who did not develop FN in that cycle (“comparison patients”, irrespective of subsequent FN events. FN-related healthcare costs (£2010 were tallied for the initial FN event as well as follow-on care and FN events in subsequent cycles. Results Mean total cost was £5776 (95%CI £4928-£6713 higher for FN patients (n = 295 versus comparison patients, comprising £4051 (£3633-£4485 for the initial event and a difference of £1725 (£978-£2498 in subsequent cycles. Among FN patients requiring inpatient care (76% of all FN patients, mean total cost was higher by £7259 (£6327-£8205, comprising £5281 (£4810-£5774 for the initial hospitalization and a difference of £1978 (£1262-£2801 in subsequent cycles. Conclusions Cost of chemotherapy-induced FN among NHL patients in European and Australian clinical practice is substantial; a sizable percentage is attributable to follow-on care and subsequent FN events.

  9. Effect of Health Literacy on Quality of Life amongst Patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease in Australian General Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alejandro González-Chica

    Full Text Available Appropriate understanding of health information by patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD is fundamental for better management of risk factors and improved morbidity, which can also benefit their quality of life.To assess the relationship between health literacy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD, and to investigate the role of sociodemographic and clinical variables as possible confounders.Cross-sectional study of patients with IHD recruited from a stratified sample of general practices in two Australian states (Queensland and South Australia between 2007 and 2009. Health literacy was measured using a validated questionnaire and classified as inadequate, marginal, or adequate. Physical and mental components of HRQoL were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF12 questionnaire. Analyses were adjusted for confounders (sociodemographic variables, clinical history of IHD, number of CVD comorbidities, and CVD risk factors using multiple linear regression.A total sample of 587 patients with IHD (mean age 72.0±8.4 years was evaluated: 76.8% males, 84.2% retired or pensioner, and 51.4% with up to secondary educational level. Health literacy showed a mean of 39.6±6.7 points, with 14.3% (95%CI 11.8-17.3 classified as inadequate. Scores of the physical component of HRQoL were 39.6 (95%CI 37.1-42.1, 42.1 (95%CI 40.8-43.3 and 44.8 (95%CI 43.3-46.2 for inadequate, marginal, and adequate health literacy, respectively (p-value for trend = 0.001. This association persisted after adjustment for confounders. Health literacy was not associated with the mental component of HRQoL (p-value = 0.482. Advanced age, lower educational level, disadvantaged socioeconomic position, and a larger number of CVD comorbidities adversely affected both, health literacy and HRQoL.Inadequate health literacy is a contributing factor to poor physical functioning in patients with IHD. Increasing health literacy

  10. Acute effects of alemtuzumab infusion in patients with active relapsing-remitting MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katja; Eisele, Judith; Rodriguez-Leal, Francisco Alejandro; Hainke, Undine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Alemtuzumab exerts its clinical efficacy by its specific pattern of depletion and repopulation of different immune cells. Beyond long-term immunologic and clinical data, little is known about acute changes in immunologic and routine laboratory parameters and their clinical relevance during the initial alemtuzumab infusion. Methods: Fifteen patients with highly active MS were recruited. In addition to parameters including heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and monitoring of adverse events, complete blood cell count, liver enzymes, kidney function, acute-phase proteins, serum cytokine profile, complement activation, peripheral immune cell distribution, and their potential of cytokine release were investigated prior to and after methylprednisolone and after alemtuzumab on each day of alemtuzumab infusion. Results: After the first alemtuzumab infusion, both the total leukocyte and granulocyte counts markedly increased, whereas lymphocyte counts dramatically decreased. In addition to lymphocyte depletion, cell subtypes important for innate immunity also decreased within the first week after alemtuzumab infusion. Although patients reported feeling well, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin peaked at serum levels consistent with septic conditions. Increases in liver enzymes were detected, although kidney function remained stable. Proinflammatory serum cytokine levels clearly rose after the first alemtuzumab infusion. Alemtuzumab led to impaired cytokine release ex vivo in nondepleted cells. Normal clinical parameters and mild adverse events were presented. Conclusions: Dramatic immunologic effects were observed. Standardized infusion procedure and pretreatment management attenuated infusion-related reactions. Alemtuzumab-mediated effects led to artificially altered parameters in standard blood testing. We recommend clinical decision-making based on primarily clinical symptoms within the first alemtuzumab treatment week. PMID:27213173

  11. Research of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients Based on the LC-MS Metabonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-xia Ma; Xing-yue Yang; Gang Guo; Dong-qing Du; Yan-pu Yu; Shu-zhong Gao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque) and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao). After three menstrual cycles’ treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results....

  12. Evaluation of Hepcidin Isoforms in Hemodialysis Patients by a Proteomic Approach Based on SELDI-TOF MS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliviero Olivieri; Antonio Lupo; Nicola Martinelli; Albino Poli; Nicola Tessitore; Valeria Bedogna; Annalisa Castagna; Federica Zaninotto; Domenico Girelli; Natascia Campostrini

    2010-01-01

    The hepatic iron regulator hormone hepcidin consists, in its mature form, of 25 amino acids, but two other isoforms, hepcidin-20 and hepcidin-22, have been reported, whose biological meaning remains poorly understood. We evaluated hepcidin isoforms in sera from 57 control and 54 chronic haemodialysis patients using a quantitative proteomic approach based on SELDI-TOF-MS. Patients had elevated serum levels of both hepcidin-25 and hepcidin-20 as compared to controls (geometric means: 7.52 versu...

  13. Absence of MxA induction by interferon beta in patients with MS reflects complete loss of bioactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, D.; Sellebjerg, F.; Sorensen, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) appearing during treatment with interferon (IFN) beta reduce or in high concentrations abolish bioactivity and therapeutic efficacy. In vivo MxA induction by IFNbeta is used as a marker of biologic response....... The corresponding number of IFNbeta-regulated genes in NAb-positive patients was zero. CONCLUSION: In neutralizing antibody (NAb)-positive patients without an MxA response, we were not able to detect differential expression of any of the 1077 interferon (IFN) beta-regulated genes identified in NAb-negative patients...

  14. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  15. Referring patients to specialists: A structured vignette survey of Australian and British GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Hooi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia and in the United Kingdom (UK access to specialists is sanctioned by General Practitioners (GPs. It is important to understand how practitioners determine which patients warrant referral. Methods A self-administered structured vignette postal survey of General Practitioners in Western Australia and the United Kingdom. Sixty-four vignettes describing patients with colorectal symptoms were constructed encompassing six clinical details. Nine vignettes, chosen at random, were presented to each individual. Respondents were asked if they would refer the patient to a specialist and how urgently. Logistic regression and parametric tests were used to analyse the data Results We received 260 completed questionnaires. 58% of 'cancer vignettes' were selected for 'urgent' referral. 1632/2367 or 69% of all vignettes were selected for referral. After adjusting for clustering the model suggests that 38.4% of the variability is explained by all the clinical variables as well as the age and experience of the respondents. 1012 or 42.8 % of vignettes were referred 'urgently'. After adjusting for clustering the data suggests that 31.3 % of the variability is explained by the model. The age of the respondents, the location of the practice and all the clinical variables were significant in the decision to refer urgently. Conclusion GPs' referral decisions for patients with lower bowel symptoms are similar in the two countries. We question the wisdom of streaming referrals from primary care without a strong evidence base and an effective intervention for implementing guidelines. We conclude that implementation must take into account the profile of patients but also the characteristics of GPs and referral policies.

  16. Assessment and management of serotonin syndrome in a simulated patient study of Australian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Methods: Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was ‘not feeling well’. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. Results: The simulated patient’s agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148 of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148 of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient’s symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148 and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148. A total of 33.8% (50/148 of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52 of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148 of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148 of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148 did not recommend non-prescription medicines. Conclusion: While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient’s symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies

  17. Telephone-administered psychotherapy for depression in MS patients: moderating role of social support

    OpenAIRE

    Beckner, Victoria; Howard, Isa; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). While psychotherapy is an effective treatment for depression, not all individuals benefit. We examined whether baseline social support might differentially affect treatment outcome in 127 participants with MS and depression randomized to either Telephone-administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (T-CBT) or Telephone-administered Emotion-Focused Therapy (T-EFT). We predicted that those with low social support would improve more ...

  18. Recurrence of chest wall hydatid cyst disease involving the thoracic spine in an Australian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Su Thet; Li, Yingda; Shepherd, Sarah; Daniel, Santosh; Poonnoose, Santosh; McDonald, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Hydatid disease involving the spine is a relatively uncommon occurrence. The cestode Echinococcus granulosus is the primary pathogen associated with hydatid disease and most patients present with signs and symptoms of spinal cord compression depending on the location of the spinal involvement. We present a rare case of recurrent hydatid disease with extensive hemithorax involvement, including the thoracic spine, associated with spinal cord compression. This case highlights the role of staged and minimally invasive spine surgery in spinal hydatid disease with spinal cord compression, the importance of ongoing medical treatment and long term follow-up. PMID:27050921

  19. An Australian mixed methods pilot study exploring students performing patient risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Simone J; Golder, Janet; Cant, Robyn P; Davidson, Zoe E

    2016-06-01

    Clinical placement shortages and rising costs have created demand to provide low-resource, high value student learning opportunities. Malnutrition screening provides a vehicle for achieving this. A mixed methods explanatory sequential intervention study investigated time costs, and students' perceptions of preparedness after performing routine patient screening tasks, as well as students' overall views on their feelings of confidence and preparedness when commencing their first clinical placements. Pre-clinical student dietitians commencing initial placements participated (n=58), with 16 of these forming a subgroup who performed malnutrition screening tasks while the others attended usual placement orientation. The time saved when students undertook screening tasks usually assigned to nurses was substantial. Questionnaires revealed that student perceived confidence increased in the screening group when compared with controls. Focus group themes included "anxiety and confidence," "learning in the clinical learning environment," "communication skill development," and "the pre-placement screening experience." Students performing routine patient-screening tasks prior to initial clinical placement has potential cost savings for healthcare organizations and was perceived to be valuable for learning. PMID:26685779

  20. Recurrence or rebound of clinical relapses after discontinuation of natalizumab therapy in highly active MS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Petersen, Thor;

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have reported flare-up of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity after cessation of natalizumab, increasing to a level beyond the pre-natalizumab treatment level. Our aim was to describe the development in clinical disease activity following cessation of natalizumab therapy...

  1. Enhancing the management of deteriorating patients with Australian on line e-simulation software: Acceptability, transferability, and impact in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Louise; Chan, Maggie Mee Kie; Cooper, Simon; Pang, Michelle Tsz Ha; Tiwari, Agnes

    2016-09-01

    International concerns relating to healthcare professionals' failure to rescue deteriorating patients exist. Web-based training programs have been developed and evaluated in Western settings but further testing is required before application in non-Western countries, as traditional modalities of learning may differ between cultures. We trialed an Australian English language online simulation program for the management of deteriorating patients, Feedback Incorporating Review and Simulation Techniques to Act on Clinical Trends (FIRST(2) ACTWeb), to test cultural acceptability, transferability, and educational impact. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental evaluation of the FIRST(2) ACTWeb program with final year nursing students from a Bachelor of Nursing program at the University of Hong Kong. Participants completed pre-course and post-course tests, three interactive scenarios, and program evaluations. The program was positively evaluated, with significant improvements in knowledge, skills, self-rating of performance, confidence, and competence. Outcomes were comparable to earlier evaluations with Australian students, demonstrating that an interactive simulation-based program of patient deterioration management has cultural and language acceptability and transferability across communities with significant educational impact. PMID:27103595

  2. Nurse staff allocation by nurse patient ratio vs. a computerized nurse dependency management system: a comparative cost analysis of Australian and New Zealand hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Liza; Plummer, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Coding, costing, and accounting for nursing care requirements in Australian public and private hospitals lacks systematic research. Nurse costing for two nurse staffing allocation methods--nurse patient ratios and a computerized nurse dependency management system--were compared. Retrospective nursing workload management data were obtained from hospital information systems in 21 acute care public and private hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Descriptive statistics, cost analysis, and cost modeling were conducted for 103,269 shifts of nursing care. The comparison of costs for nursing staff by nurse-patient ratios and by a computerized nurse dependency management system demonstrated differences. The provision of nursing care using the computerized nurse dependency management system was, overall, lower in cost than for nurse-patient ratios.

  3. Self-reported quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: preliminary results based on the Polish MS Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brola W

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Waldemar Brola,1 Piotr Sobolewski,2 Małgorzata Fudala,1 Stanisław Flaga,3 Konrad Jantarski,4 Danuta Ryglewicz,5 Andrzej Potemkowski6 1Department of Neurology, Specialist Hospital, Końskie, 2Department of Neurology, Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital, Sandomierz, 3AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, 4Swietokrzyski Regional Branch of the Polish National Health Fund (NFZ, Kielce, 5First Department of Neurology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, 6Department of Psychology, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland Background: The aim of the study was to analyze selected clinical and sociodemographic factors and their effects on the quality of life (QoL of multiple sclerosis (MS patients registered in the Polish MS Registry.Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study performed in Poland. Data on personal and disease-specific factors were collected between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015, via the web portal of the Polish MS Registry. All patients were assessed by a physician and asked to complete the Polish language versions of the following self-evaluation questionnaires: EuroQol 5-Dimensions, EuroQoL Visual Analog Scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were performed to determine the factors associated with QoL.Results: The study included 2,385 patients (female/male ratio 2.3:1 with clinically confirmed MS (mean age 37.8±9.2 years. Average EuroQol 5-Dimensions index was 0.72±0.24, and the mean EuroQoL Visual Analog Scale score was 64.2±22.8. The average Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale score was 84.6±11.2 (62.2±18.4 for physical condition and 23.8±7.2 for mental condition. Lower QoL scores were significantly associated with higher level of disability (odds ratio [OR], 0.932; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.876–0.984; P=0.001, age >40 years (OR, 1.042; 95% CI, 0.924–1.158; P=0.012, longer disease duration (OR, 0.482; 95% CI, 0.224–0.998; P=0

  4. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  5. Evaluation of Hepcidin Isoforms in Hemodialysis Patients by a Proteomic Approach Based on SELDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Campostrini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic iron regulator hormone hepcidin consists, in its mature form, of 25 amino acids, but two other isoforms, hepcidin-20 and hepcidin-22, have been reported, whose biological meaning remains poorly understood. We evaluated hepcidin isoforms in sera from 57 control and 54 chronic haemodialysis patients using a quantitative proteomic approach based on SELDI-TOF-MS. Patients had elevated serum levels of both hepcidin-25 and hepcidin-20 as compared to controls (geometric means: 7.52 versus 4.69 nM, and 4.06 versus 1.76 nM, resp., P<.05 for both. The clearance effects of a single dialysis session by different dialysis techniques and membranes were also investigated, showing an average reduction by 51.3% ± 29.2% for hepcidin-25 and 34.2% ± 28.4% for hepcidin-20 but only minor differences among the different dialysis modalities. Measurement of hepcidin isoforms through MS-based techniques can be a useful tool for better understanding of their biological role in hemodialysis patients and other clinical conditions.

  6. Is bronchial wall imaging affected by temporal resolution? Comparative evaluation at 140 and 75 ms in 90 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, Antoine; Tacelli, Nunzia; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); Flohr, Thomas [Computed Tomography, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim (Germany); Duhamel, Alain [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Biostatistics (EA 2694), Lille (France)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of temporal resolution (TR) on cardiogenic artefacts at the level of bronchial walls. Ninety patients underwent a dual-source, single-energy chest CT examination enabling reconstruction of images with a TR of 75 ms (i.e., optimized TR) (Group 1) and 140 ms (i.e., standard TR) (Group 2). Cardiogenic artefacts were analyzed at the level of eight target bronchi, i.e., right (R) and left (L) B1, B5, B7, and B10 (total number of bronchi examined: n = 720). Cardiogenic artefacts were significantly less frequent and less severe in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p < 0.0001) with the highest scores of discordant ratings for bronchi in close contact with cardiac cavities: RB5 (61/90; 68 %); LB5 (66/90; 73 %); LB7 (63/90; 70 %). In Group 1, 78 % (560/720) of bronchi showed no cardiac motion artefacts, whereas 22 % of bronchi (160/720) showed artefacts rated as mild (152/160; 95 %), moderate (7/160; 4 %), and severe (1/160; 1 %). In Group 2, 70 % of bronchi (503/720) showed artefacts rated as mild (410/503; 82 %), moderate (82/503; 16 %), and severe (11/503; 2 %). At 75 ms, most bronchi can be depicted without cardiogenic artefacts. (orig.)

  7. Neutralizing antibodies hamper IFNbeta bioactivity and treatment effect on MRI in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Tscherning, MD; Kahr Mathiesen, Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    We measured neutralizing antibodies (NABs) and the in vivo biologic response to interferon-beta on neopterin and beta(2)-microglobulin blood levels. All NAB-negative patients had an in vivo biologic response (full or partial), whereas all high-level positive patients had no response. High-level N...

  8. Fatigue, mood and quality of life improve in MS patients after progressive resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Petersen, T;

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue occurs in the majority of multiple sclerosis patients and therapeutic possibilities are few. Fatigue, mood and quality of life were studied in patients with multiple sclerosis following progressive resistance training leading to improvement of muscular strength and functional capacity. Fa...

  9. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) mutations identified by MS/MS-based prospective screening of newborns differ from those observed in patients with clinical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Dobrowolski, S F; O'Reilly, L;

    2001-01-01

    deficiency who comply with a simple dietary treatment suggest that MCAD deficiency is a candidate in prospective screening of newborns. Therefore, several such screening programs employing analysis of acylcarnitines in blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are currently used worldwide....... In addition, a large number of rare disease-causing mutations have been identified and characterized. There is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation. High 985A-->G carrier frequencies in populations of European descent and the usual avoidance of recurrent disease episodes by patients diagnosed with MCAD...

  10. AUSTRALIAN COMPETITION AND CONSUMER COMMISSION v ACN 117 372 915: SHOULD CONSUMER LAW REGULATE DOCTOR-PATIENT RELATIONS IN A CORPORATISED HEALTH CARE SYSTEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Pyman, Ella; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In April 2015, North J of the Federal Court of Australia made a finding of unconscionable conduct against Advanced Medical Institute, a promoter and provider of erectile dysfunction treatment, in a case concerning unfair contract terms (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission vACN 117 372 915 Pty Ltd (in liq) (formerly Advanced Medical Institute Pty Ltd) [2015] FCA 368). The contract required a minimum 12-month commitment, with costs exceeding treatments available from general practitioners, and made refunds available only after all possible treatment plans were exhausted which included penile injections. This column analyses that case, particularly in respect to the consumer law standards of practice under which it was litigated. Those standards refer to patients as "consumers" yet North J made extensive reference to the Good Medical Practice: A Code of Conduct for Doctors in Australia, a text which refers to "patients", as evidence of what constitutes appropriate professional conduct or practice for the health profession. This column considers whether legislative and judicial categorisation of patients (a class of people presumptively suffering, sick and vulnerable) as "consumers" undermines the formal and informal protections accorded to patients under normative systems of medical ethics such as those represented by the Code. The case, it is argued, also illuminates the contemporary tensions between the ethical, legal and human rights standards required of doctors in their treatment of patients and the commercial interests of businesses. PMID:26554198

  11. AUSTRALIAN COMPETITION AND CONSUMER COMMISSION v ACN 117 372 915: SHOULD CONSUMER LAW REGULATE DOCTOR-PATIENT RELATIONS IN A CORPORATISED HEALTH CARE SYSTEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Pyman, Ella; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In April 2015, North J of the Federal Court of Australia made a finding of unconscionable conduct against Advanced Medical Institute, a promoter and provider of erectile dysfunction treatment, in a case concerning unfair contract terms (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission vACN 117 372 915 Pty Ltd (in liq) (formerly Advanced Medical Institute Pty Ltd) [2015] FCA 368). The contract required a minimum 12-month commitment, with costs exceeding treatments available from general practitioners, and made refunds available only after all possible treatment plans were exhausted which included penile injections. This column analyses that case, particularly in respect to the consumer law standards of practice under which it was litigated. Those standards refer to patients as "consumers" yet North J made extensive reference to the Good Medical Practice: A Code of Conduct for Doctors in Australia, a text which refers to "patients", as evidence of what constitutes appropriate professional conduct or practice for the health profession. This column considers whether legislative and judicial categorisation of patients (a class of people presumptively suffering, sick and vulnerable) as "consumers" undermines the formal and informal protections accorded to patients under normative systems of medical ethics such as those represented by the Code. The case, it is argued, also illuminates the contemporary tensions between the ethical, legal and human rights standards required of doctors in their treatment of patients and the commercial interests of businesses.

  12. CCR5Δ32 Polymorphism Associated with a Slower Rate Disease Progression in a Cohort of RR-MS Sicilian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia D'Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS disease is carried through inflammatory and degenerative stages. Based on clinical feaures, it can be subdivided into three groups: relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, and primary progressive MS. Multiple sclerosis has a multifactorial etiology with an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and autoimmune inflammatory mechanism in which play a key role CC-chemokines and its receptors. In this paper, we studied the frequency of CCR5 gene Δ32 allele in a cohort of Sicilian RR-MS patients comparing with general Sicilian population. Also, we evaluate the association between this commonly polymorphism and disability development and age of disease onset in the same cohort. Our results show that presence of CCR5Δ32 is significantly associated with expanded disability status scale score (EDSS but not with age of disease onset.

  13. Determination of morphine, codeine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in saliva of substance-abuse patients using HPLC/MS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva represents an alternative specimen for substances abuse determination in toxicology. Hence, the aim of this study was to optimize a method for saliva specimen preparation for heroin metabolites, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-mam, and codeine determination by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS, and to apply this method on saliva samples taken from the patients. Methods. Saliva specimen was prepared using liqiud/liquid extraction of morphine, codeine and 6- mam by mixture of chloroform and isopropanol (9 : 1; v/v. Extracts were analysed by HPLC/MS technique: separation column Waters Spherisorb® 5 μm, ODS2, 4.6 × 100 mm; mobile phase: ammonium acetate : acetonitile (80 : 20; v/v, mobile phase flow rate 0.3 mL/min; mass detection range: 100-400 m/z. Regression and correlation analyses were performed with the probalility level of 0.05. Concentrations of morphine, codeine and 6-mam were determined in saliva samples of the patients with “opiates” in urine identified by the test strips. Results. Calibration for each analysed substance was done in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mg/L and the coefficient of correlation was R2 > 0.99. We obtained following calibration curves: y = 385531x + 14584; y = 398036x + 31542; and y = 524162x - 27105, for morphine, codeine and 6-mam, respectively. Recovery for morphine and codeine determination was 99%, while for 6- mam it was 94%. Limits of detection and quantification of a proposed method were 0.01 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. Concentration of morphine in the saliva of the heroin users ranged between 0.54 and 5.82 mg/L, concentration of codeine between 0.05 and 5.33, and 6-mam between 0.01 and 0.68 mg/L. A statistically significant correlation between codeine and 6-mam concentrations was obtained. Conclusion. A proposed HPLC/MS method for morphine, codeine and 6-mam determination in saliva is accurate, simple, cheap and suitable for routine analysis and

  14. A GC-MS urinary quantitative metabolomics analysis in depressed patients treated with TCM formula of Xiaoyaosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Sheng; Peng, Guo-Jiang; Wu, Yan-Fei; Zhou, Jian-Jun; Xiang, Huan; Gao, Xiao-Xia; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Qin, Xue-Mei; Du, Guan-Hua

    2016-07-15

    Xiaoyaosan, one of the best-known traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, has been widely used in China for the treatment of mental disorders such as depression. Although both clinical application and animal experiments indicate that Xiaoyaosan has an obvious antidepressant effect, the mechanism still remains unclarified, and there are few studies quantitatively measured the biomarkers of Xiaoyaosan treatment by metabolomics to determination. In this study, 25 depressed patients and 33 healthy volunteers were recruited. A GC-MS based metabolomics approach and the multivariate statistical methods were used for analyzing the urine metabolites of depressed patients before and after treatment compared with healthy controls. Then the biomakers through metabolomics determination were carried out the quantitative analysis. In total, 5 metabolites were identified as the potential diseased and therapeutic biomarkers of depression and Xiaoyaosan. Alanine, citrate and hippurate levels were significantly increased in the urine samples from depressed patients compared with healthy controls, while phenylalanie and tyrosine levels were significantly decreased. However, after Xiaoyaosan treatment for 6 weeks, phenylalanie and tyrosine levels were significantly increased (pdepression and the ability to adjust the neurotransmitters to obtain the best treated response and also could regulate the metabolism of amino acids and promote to produce energy meet the needs of the body. PMID:26733091

  15. IFNbeta-1a treatment and reestablishment of Th1 regulation in MS patients: dose effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Patrizia; Totaro, Rocco; Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Russo, Tomassina; Carolei, Antonio; Adorno, Domenico

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relationships between clinical and pharmacologic parameters and the Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine network in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with differing doses of interferon-beta1a (IFN-beta1a). Their results show that low doses are ineffective but that high doses restore Th1 regulation of the maturation and activation of monocytes, T cells, immature dendritic cells, dendritic cells, and T regulatory cells for central and peripheral self-tolerance. Interaction between interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 p70, and IL-6 production appears to play an important role in the control of the maturation and activation states of dendritic cells and T regulatory cells, and is at the basis of the benefit of high doses. The results also indicate that the physiologic mechanisms involved in aging help immunologic reestablishment in IFNbeta-1a-treated patients. Finally, it would appear that the failure of IFNbeta-1a therapy to resolve multiple sclerosis completely is due to the suppression of IL-12 p70 mechanisms (responsible for the physiologic deletion of self-reactive cells) in activation conditions, probably by IFNbeta-1a itself.

  16. Natalizumab in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with progre...

  17. EG-02CORRELATION OF MGMT PROMOTER METHYLATION STATUS ANALYSIS USING 6 MS-MLPA PROBES AND CLINICAL RESPONSE OF TEMOZOLOMIDE IN GLIOBLASTOMA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakkert, Michelle; de Leng, Wendy; de Weger, Roel; Willems, Stefan; Spliet, Wim; van Hecke, Wim; de Vos, Filip

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: For patients diagnosed with Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is an important predictive factor for treatment with temozolomide (TMZ). MGMT reverses the toxic effect of alkylating chemotherapies like TMZ, therefore absence of the MGMT protein, due to promoter hypermethylation, results in greater tumor response and prolonged survival. MGMT methylation status can be determined using Methylation Specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MS-MLPA). Previous research has documented the predictive value of MGMT MS-MLPA probe mix ME011-A1 containing 3 MGMT probes, but no documentation is available for the current commercially available MS-MLPA probe mix ME011-B containing 6 MGMT probes. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of MGMT promoter methylation status for GBM patients using the ME011-B probe mix. METHODS: Patients were included if diagnosed with GBM and treated with TMZ. Retrospectively 102 patients were evaluated for MGMT promoter methylation using the MS-MLPA probe mix ME011-B. Methylation status was compared to clinical outcome to determine the predictive value of MS-MLPA promoter methylation status determined by ME011-B probes. Comparison of methylation status with clinical response was also used to determine which combination of probes provides the best prediction of the response to TMZ. RESULTS: Preliminary MS-MLPA results of 79 patients indicate that the number of patients with promoter hypermethylation in tumors ranges from 15%-67% depending on the probe using a cut-off value of >25%. However, when eliminating the lowest and highest probe and calculating the mean, 65% of the tumors show hypermethylation. CONCLUSION: MGMT promoter methylation status was determined using MS-MLPA probe mix ME011-B, results indicate that over half of the patients diagnosed with GBM might benefit from TMZ therapy. Obtaining clinical response of patients and further

  18. Research of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients Based on the LC-MS Metabonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xia Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao. After three menstrual cycles’ treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results. The VAS of two groups decreased with different descending range. Herb-partitioned moxibustion upregulated 20α-dihydroprogesterone, pregnenolone, prostaglandin E2 and γ-aminobutyric acid and downregulated the content of estrone and prostaglandin H2, while acupuncture upregulated pregnenolone and 20α-dihydroprogesterone and downregulated 2-methoxyestradiol-3-methylether, 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid and 6-keto-prostaglandin. Discussion. It was effective in relieving the abdominal pain by these two therapies. Herb-partitioned moxibustion is superior to acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhea, which could be related to regulating the endocrine hormone.

  19. Research of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients Based on the LC-MS Metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Xia; Yang, Xing-Yue; Guo, Gang; Du, Dong-Qing; Yu, Yan-Pu; Gao, Shu-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque) and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao). After three menstrual cycles' treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results. The VAS of two groups decreased with different descending range. Herb-partitioned moxibustion upregulated 20α-dihydroprogesterone, pregnenolone, prostaglandin E2 and γ-aminobutyric acid and downregulated the content of estrone and prostaglandin H2, while acupuncture upregulated pregnenolone and 20α-dihydroprogesterone and downregulated 2-methoxyestradiol-3-methylether, 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid and 6-keto-prostaglandin. Discussion. It was effective in relieving the abdominal pain by these two therapies. Herb-partitioned moxibustion is superior to acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhea, which could be related to regulating the endocrine hormone. PMID:26229545

  20. Mapping and Identification of the Urine Proteome of Prostate Cancer Patients by 2D PAGE/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kiprijanovska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteome analysis of the urine has shown that urine contains disease-specific information for a variety of urogenital system disorders, including prostate cancer (PCa. The aim of this study was to determine the protein components of urine from PCa patients. Urine from 8 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa was analyzed by conventional 2D PAGE. The MS identification of the most prominent 125 spots from the urine map revealed 45 distinct proteins. According to Gene Ontology, the identified proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes, majority of them are secreted (71%, and half of them are enzymes or transporters. Comparison with the normal urine proteome revealed 11 proteins distinctive for PCa. Using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we have found 3 proteins (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase rififylin, tumor protein D52, and thymidine phosphorylase associated with cellular growth and proliferation (p=8.35×10-4-3.41×10-2. The top network of functional associations between 11 proteins was Cell Death and Survival, Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction, and System Development and Function (p=10-30. In summary, we have created an initial proteomic map of PCa patient’s urine. The results from this study provide some leads to understand the molecular bases of prostate cancer.

  1. Proteomic biomarkers predicting lymph node involvement in serum of cervical cancer patients. Limitations of SELDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Gorp Toon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymph node status is not part of the staging system for cervical cancer, but provides important information for prognosis and treatment. We investigated whether lymph node status can be predicted with proteomic profiling. Material & methods Serum samples of 60 cervical cancer patients (FIGO I/II were obtained before primary treatment. Samples were run through a HPLC depletion column, eliminating the 14 most abundant proteins ubiquitously present in serum. Unbound fractions were concentrated with spin filters. Fractions were spotted onto CM10 and IMAC30 surfaces and analyzed with surface-enhanced laser desorption time of flight (SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS. Unsupervised peak detection and peak clustering was performed using MASDA software. Leave-one-out (LOO validation for weighted Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LSSVM was used for prediction of lymph node involvement. Other outcomes were histological type, lymphvascular space involvement (LVSI and recurrent disease. Results LSSVM models were able to determine LN status with a LOO area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC of 0.95, based on peaks with m/z values 2,698.9, 3,953.2, and 15,254.8. Furthermore, we were able to predict LVSI (AUC 0.81, to predict recurrence (AUC 0.92, and to differentiate between squamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas (AUC 0.88, between squamous and adenosquamous carcinomas (AUC 0.85, and between adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas (AUC 0.94. Conclusions Potential markers related with lymph node involvement were detected, and protein/peptide profiling support differentiation between various subtypes of cervical cancer. However, identification of the potential biomarkers was hampered by the technical limitations of SELDI-TOF MS.

  2. Fast and Highly Selective LC-MS/MS Screening for THC and 16 Other Abused Drugs and Metabolites in Human Hair to Monitor Patients for Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background:To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine,

  3. Measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using closed gas loop GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, M; Langejuergen, J; Gaida, A; Holz, O; Schuchardt, S; Hohlfeld, J M; Zimmermann, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to its high sensitivity, compact size and low cost ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has the potential to become a point-of-care breath analyzer. Therefore, we developed a prototype of a compact, closed gas loop IMS with gas chromatographic (GC) pre-separation and high resolving power of R  =  90. In this study, we evaluated the performance of this GC-IMS under clinical conditions in a COPD study to find correlations between VOCs (10 ppbv to 1 ppmv) and COPD. Furthermore, in order to investigate possible correlations between ultra-low concentrated breath VOCs (0.1 pptv to 1 ppbv) and COPD, a modified mass spectrometer (MS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and GC pre-separation (GC-APCI-MS) was used. The GC-IMS has been used in 58 subjects (21 smokers with moderate COPD, 12 ex-smokers with COPD, 16 healthy smokers and 9 non-smokers). GC-APCI-MS data were available for 94 subjects (21 smokers with moderate COPD, 25 ex-smokers with COPD, 25 healthy smokers and 23 non-smokers). For 44 subjects, a comparison between GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS data could be performed. Due to service intervals, subject availability and corrupt data, patient numbers were different for GC-APCI-MS and GC-IMS measurements. Using GC-IMS, three VOCs have been found showing a significant difference between healthy controls and patients with COPD. In the GC-APCI-MS data, we only observed one distinctive VOC, which has been identified as 2-pentanone. This proof-of-principle study shows the potential of our high-resolution GC-IMS in the clinical environment. Due to different linear dynamic response ranges, the data of GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS were only comparable to a limited extent. PMID:27058460

  4. Standisation of I-131 treatment of Graves` disease in Australian patients, with an intent to optimise radiation dose and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D.; Lan, L.; Allen, L.; Thomas, P. [John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: This study was part of an international multi-centre randomised outcome study under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the aim of standardising iodine-131 (I-131) therapy in Graves disease. Following Hunter Area Ethics Committee approval, patients were enrolled into the study and investigated by clinical assessment, biochemistry, immunology, thyroid ultrasound, technetium 99m thyroid scintigraphy and 24 hour I- 131 uptake measurement. Patients were randomised into two treatment groups: those receiving 60 Gy or 90 Gy thyroid doses of radioiodine. Outcome was determined clinically and biochemically. All patients tolerated radioiodine therapy well. Five patients had clinical exacerbation of thyrotoxicosis after radioiodine but only two required modification of therapy. At six months after radioiodine, 47% of patients remained hyperthyroid, 40 were euthyroid and 13% were hyperthyroid. Four of the hyperthyroid patients were re-treated with additional radioiodine. Significantly more patients who received a 90 Gy thyroid dose became hypothyroid compared to those who received 60 Gy, and significantly more patient who received 60 Gy remained hyperthyroid compared to those who received 90 Gy. Serial thyroid function tests demonstrated transient hypothyroidism in 47% of patients at 1-3 months after radioiodine treatment, most likely representing thyroid stunning. It is concluded that 90 Gy is an insufficient thyroid dose to render more than 53% of patients euthyroid or hypothyroid at 6 months after radioiodine therapy after such therapy a longer period may be required to achieve euthyroidism, during which most patients may require additional therapy with anti-thyroid medications

  5. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of ketoconazole in human plasma: Application to a clinical study of the exposure to ketoconazole in patients after topical administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keli; Wu, Yao; Chi, Zhiyan; Shu, Chang; Li, Lingjun; Wei, Jun; Tao, Lei; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-09-01

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of ketoconazole in human plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a single step liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate. The chromatography separation was carried out on a Hedera CN (150mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column with isocratic elution using acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid (45:55, v/v) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion electrospray ionization mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions of 531.2→489.3 and 286.1→217.1 for ketoconazole and letrozole (the internal standard), respectively. The method exhibited good linearity over the concentration range of 0.01-12ng/mL for ketoconazole. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy of ketoconazole were all within the acceptable criteria. The method was successfully applied to a clinical study of the exposure to ketoconazole in Chinese seborrheic dermatitis patients after topical administration of two ketoconazole formulations of foam and lotion, respectively. The study results showed that there was little systemic absorption of ketoconazole in patients for the two formulations, and the ketoconazole foam and lotion are safe therapeutic drugs for seborrheic dermatitis patients. PMID:27379747

  6. Behandling av gangfunksjon ved MS

    OpenAIRE

    Unsvåg, Helene Halsteinli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Background: Fampyra is a potassium channel blocker that reduces the leakage through ion-channels. Fampyra is approved for use in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have walking difficulties. Previous studies have shown that Fampyra can have a positive effect on walking speed in patients with MS. Objectives: To investigate the effect of Fampyra in a group of MS patients and see the effect on walking speed and endurance. In addition, we wanted to examine whether factors such as...

  7. Effect of Health Literacy on Quality of Life amongst Patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease in Australian General Practice

    OpenAIRE

    David Alejandro González-Chica; Zandile Mnisi; Jodie Avery; Katherine Duszynski; Jenny Doust; Philip Tideman; Andrew Murphy; Jacquii Burgess; Justin Beilby; Nigel Stocks

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate understanding of health information by patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is fundamental for better management of risk factors and improved morbidity, which can also benefit their quality of life. Objectives To assess the relationship between health literacy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and to investigate the role of sociodemographic and clinical variables as possible confounders. Methods Cross-sectio...

  8. Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hammad; Guy, Rebecca J.; Wand, Handan; Read, Tim RH; Regan, David G.; Grulich, Andrew E.; Christopher K Fairley; Donovan, Basil

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal ...

  9. Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Attending the MS Clinic at Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, UAE: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Alsaadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are reported to be prevalent in patients with MS, with prevalence rates ranging from 20% to 50%. Unfortunately, the rates, patterns, and risk factors are not well studied in our Middle East region, and, to our knowledge, not at all in UAE. Using standardized screening tools, we observed that 17% and 20% of 80 patients seen in MS clinic had scores consistent with major depression and anxiety disorders, respectively, at a rate that was not statistically different when compared to age and sex matched controls. None of the studied variables including duration of the disease, EDSS scores, age, gender, and the level of education had any significant correlation with the rates of both disorders. Almost two-thirds of the patients with scores consistent with major depression and anxiety were not on antidepressant and antianxiety medications.

  10. A Rapid and Sensitive UPLC-MS/MS-Method for the Separation and Quantification of Branched-Chain Amino Acids from Dried Blood Samples of Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Fingerhut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Newborn screening for MSUD is a special challenge since patients with MSUD can metabolically decompensate rapidly without adequate treatment within the first two weeks of life. However, the screening method does not detect the actual marker metabolite (alloisoleucine specifically, but only as part of the group of the other isobaric amino acids leucine, isoleucine and hydroxyproline. We describe a sensitive and rapid second-tier UPLC-MS/MS method to determine branched-chain amino acids from the initial extraction of the screening sample. Quantification is based on a seven-point calibration curve. Reference ranges (mean ± SD in µmol/L were determined from 179 normal, not pre-selected samples from the newborn screening: leucine: 72 ± 27; isoleucine: 37 ± 19; valine: 98 ± 46; hydroxyproline: 23 ± 13. The concentration of alloisoleucine was below the detection limit in about 55% of the cases, and the highest concentration was 1.9 µmol/L. In all 30 retrospectively studied screening samples from patients with confirmed MSUD the concentration of alloisoleucine was significantly increased. In 238 samples with false-positive newborn screening due to a significant increase in the combined concentration of leucine + isoleucine + alloisoleucine + hydroxyproline (400 to >4000 µmol/L, alloisoleucine was below 6.5 µmol/L (n = 57 or not detectable (n = 181. The application of this assay markedly reduces the false-positive rate and the associated anxiety and costs. It is also suitable for routinely monitoring blood spots of patients with MSUD.

  11. Self-reported sleep problems, but not fatigue, lead to decline in sustained attention in MS patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Kastrup, A.; Grothues, O.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: According to the compensation theory, fatigue in MS results from efforts to compensate for a reduction in capacity due to demyelination or neurodegeneration. Recently, it has been argued that fatigue may result from poor sleep. Both explanations predict a worsening of fatigue and a cognit

  12. Motor training programs of arm and hand in patients with MS according to different levels of the ICF: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spooren Annemie IF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper extremity plays an important role in daily functioning of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS and strongly influences their quality of life. However, an explicit overview of arm-hand training programs is lacking. The present review aims to investigate the training components and the outcome of motor training programs for arm and hand in MS. Methods A computerized systematic literature search in 5 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane was performed using the following Mesh terms: Multiple Sclerosis, Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Training, Exercise, Patient-Centered Care, Upper Extremity, Activities of Daily Living, Motor Skills, Motor Activity, Intervention Studies and Clinical Trial. The methodological quality of the selected articles was scored with the Van Tulder Checklist. A descriptive analyses was performed using the PICO principle, including scoring of training components with the calculation of Hedges’g effect sizes. Results Eleven studies were eligible (mean Van Tulder-score = 10.82(SD2.96. Most studies reported a specific improvement in arm hand performance at the ICF level that was trained at. The mean number of training components was 5.5(SD2.8 and a significant correlation (r = 0.67; p  Conclusion Motor training programs (both at the ICF body function and activity level have shown to improve arm and hand performance in MS in which the value of the training specificity was emphasized. To optimize upper extremity training in MS the component ‘client-centred’ and ‘exercise progression’ may be important. Furthermore, given the importance attributed to the components ‘distribution based practice’, ‘feedback’ and ‘random practice’ in previous research in stroke patients, the use of these components in arm hand training should be explored in future research.

  13. Discrepancy in MALDI-TOF MS identification of uncommon Gram-negative bacteria from lower respiratory secretions in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulWahab A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Atqah AbdulWahab,1,2 Saad J Taj-Aldeen,3 Emad Bashir Ibrahim,3 Eman Talaq,4 Marawan Abu-Madi,4 Rashmi Fotedar5 1Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3Microbiology Division, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 4Department of Health Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 5Biotechnology Center, Ministry of Environment, Doha, Qatar Introduction: Early identification of microbial organisms from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF is important to guide therapeutic decisions. The objective was to compare the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS relative to the conventional phenotypic method in identifying common bacterial isolates, including nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria, in a cohort of patients with CF. Methods: A total of 123 isolates from 50 patients with CF representing 14 bacterial species from respiratory specimens were identified using MALDI-TOF MS in parallel with conventional phenotypic methods. Discrepancies were confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequencing in five Gram-negative isolates. Results: The MALDI-TOF MS managed to identify 122/123 (99.2% bacterial isolates to the genus level and 118/123 (95.9% were identified to the species level. The MALDI-TOF MS results were 100% consistent to the species level with conventional phenotypic identification for isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and other uncommon organisms such as Chryseobacterium gleum and Enterobacter cloacae. The 5/123 (4.6% isolates misidentified were all Gram-negative bacteria. The isolation of E. cloacae and Haemophilus paraphrohaemolyticus may extend the

  14. The GBA, DYRK1A and MS4A6A polymorphisms influence the age at onset of Chinese Parkinson patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuan; Tang, Bei-Sha; Wang, Ya-Qin; Kang, Ji-Feng; Li, Kai; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Qi-Ying; Xu, Qian; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Guo, Ji-Feng

    2016-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is known as the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The precise pathogenic mechanism of PD remains unclear, but genetic and environmental factors are widely recognized to be associated with it. Although many associated genes have been discovered, they account for only a few PD patients. Recently, there are growing evidences indicating that patients with PD and AD share similarities in clinical features, pathology and genetic risks. However, no study has been conducted on the relations between AD associated genes and age at onset (AAO) of PD. In this study, we have detected 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 AD genome wide association studies top hit genes and 4 SNPs in 4 PD-cognitive impairment related genes among 297 Chinese PD patients. Through the linear regression analysis, we identified the significant associations of the GBA L444P mutation and DYRK1A rs8126696 T allele with the earlier AAO in PD patients, and the A allele at MS4A6A rs610932 with the delayed AAO of PD. This is the first report of significant associations of DYRK1A and MS4A6A SNPs and the AAO of PD. On account of their effects both in AD and PD, it is indicated that AD and PD possibly share some common pathways. PMID:27085534

  15. Implementing evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients with mild traumatic brain injuries in Australian emergency care departments: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild head injuries commonly present to emergency departments. The challenges facing clinicians in emergency departments include identifying which patients have traumatic brain injury, and which patients can safely be sent home. Traumatic brain injuries may exist with subtle symptoms or signs, but can still lead to adverse outcomes. Despite the existence of several high quality clinical practice guidelines, internationally and in Australia, research shows inconsistent implementation of these recommendations. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed implementation intervention to increase the uptake of three key clinical recommendations regarding the emergency department management of adult patients (18 years of age or older) who present following mild head injuries (concussion), compared with passive dissemination of these recommendations. The primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing the percentage of patients for which appropriate post-traumatic amnesia screening is performed. Methods/design The design of this study is a cluster randomised trial. We aim to include 34 Australian 24-hour emergency departments, which will be randomised to an intervention or control group. Control group departments will receive a copy of the most recent Australian evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the acute management of patients with mild head injuries. The intervention group will receive an implementation intervention based on an analysis of influencing factors, which include local stakeholder meetings, identification of nursing and medical opinion leaders in each site, a train-the-trainer day and standardised education and interactive workshops delivered by the opinion leaders during a 3 month period of time. Clinical practice outcomes will be collected retrospectively from medical records by independent chart auditors over the 2 month period following

  16. MS Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

    2005-11-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  17. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Vitamin D3 in MS: Subgroup Analysis of Patients with Baseline Disease Activity Despite Interferon Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Åivo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a subgroup analysis of the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial with vitamin D3 in MS. In the overall study population, there were 34 patients in the vitamin D arm and 32 patients in the placebo arm. All the patients were using interferon-β-1b (IFNB therapy. The subgroup consisted of 15 patients in the vitamin D arm and 15 patients in the placebo arm, who had either at least one relapse during the year preceding the study or enhancing T1 lesions at the baseline MRI scan. We measured the total number of MRI T1 enhancing lesions, the number of new/enlarging T2 lesions and T2 lesion volume (BOD (mm3, EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, annual relapse Rate (ARR, timed 25-foot walk (T25FW, and timed 10-foot tandem walk (TT10W at baseline and at 12 months in the vitamin D-treated and in the placebo-treated patients. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of T1 enhancing lesions, a smaller T2 lesion volume growth and less new/enlarging T2 brain MRI lesions in the vitamin D3-treated than in the placebo-treated subgroup patients. The MRI results were slightly more pronounced in the subgroup than in the overall study population.

  18. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  19. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  20. The Australian National University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2007-01-01

    The Australian National University was established by Federal Parliament in 1946 with a mission to bring credit to the nation and to be one of the world’s great universities.It was the country’s only full-time research university at the time,and had no undergraduate teaching responsibilities.

  1. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  2. Survey of a community-based infusion program for Australian patients with rheumatoid arthritis requiring treatment with tocilizumab: patient characteristics and drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voight L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Louisa VoightCoast Joint Care, Maroochydore, Queensland, AustraliaBackground: Tocilizumab is an effective therapy for patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis that is administered by infusion over one hour every 4 weeks. The community-based infusion (ACTiv program was introduced to Australia in August 2010 to provide accessible and convenient treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis who require tocilizumab. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of patients in the ACTiv program, patient satisfaction, and patient-perceived benefits and concerns with the ACTiv program, and drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns.Methods: A voluntary self-administered survey was given to all 608 patients in the ACTiv program between January 27, 2011 and March 31, 2011.Results: A total of 351 surveys were returned completed, giving a response rate of 58% (351/608. Most patients in the ACTiv program were women aged 40–64 years, with a mean disease duration of 13.7 years and moderate disability, who had been in the ACTiv program for ≥5 months. Most patients (88%, 302/342 were either very satisfied or satisfied with the ACTiv program and believed that they were very unlikely or somewhat unlikely to switch from the ACTiv program (64%, 214/335. The most important benefit was the reassurance of receiving treatment from a trained nurse in a professional medical environment (33%, 102/309. The most important concern was the fear of side effects (48%, 134/280. The main drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns of patients were health profile, previous medication experience, and length of treatment time in the program.Conclusion: The ACTiv program is used by patients of various ages, family life situations, and locations. Patient satisfaction with the program is high, which enables patients to benefit from long-term use of tocilizumab

  3. Feasibility of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to ICP-MS for the characterization of wear metal particles and metalloproteins in biofluids from hip replacement patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Harrington, Chris F.; Kearney, Jacque-Lucca;

    2015-01-01

    or other elements, but the current analytical methods used to investigate the processes involved do not provide sufficient information to understand the size or composition of the wear particles generated in vivo. In this qualitative feasibility study, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled...... of the Cr-, Co- and Mo-containing wear particles in a hip aspirate sample were in the range 40–150 nm. Off-line spICP-MS was used to confirm these findings for the Co- and Cr-containing nanoparticles. Whilst limited in scope, the results are sufficient to show the interaction of ions with transport proteins...... and give an indication of particle size, providing useful pathological indices. As such, the methods indicate a new way forward for in vivo investigation of the processes which lead to tissue necrosis and hip loosening in patients with MoM hip replacements....

  4. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  5. Metabolic profiling of plasma from cardiac surgical patients concurrently administered with tranexamic acid:DI-SPME-LC-MS analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Bojko; Marcin Wąsowicz; Janusz Pawliszyn

    2014-01-01

    A metabolic profile of plasma samples from patients undergoing heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and concurrent administration of tranexamic acid was determined. Direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME), a new sampling and sample preparation tool for metabolomics, was used in this study for the first time to investigate clinical samples. The results showed alteration of diverse compounds involved in different biochemical pathways. The most significant contribution in changes induced by surgery and applied pharmacotherapy was noticed in metabolic profile of lysophospholipids, triacylglycerols, mediators of platelet aggregation, and linoleic acid metabolites. Two cases of individual response to treatment were also reported.

  6. Antigen Specificity of Clonally Expanded and Receptor Edited Cerebrospinal Fluid B cells from Patients with Relapsing Remitting MS

    OpenAIRE

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; O’Connor, Kevin C.; Cameron, Elizabeth; Jowdry, Andrea; Ward, E. Sally; Frohman, Elliot; Racke, Michael K.; Monson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    We re-engineered the immunoglobulin rearrangements from clonally expanded CSF B cells of three Multiple Sclerosis patients as Fab fragments, and used three methods to test for their Ag-specificity. Nine out of ten Fab fragments were reactive to Myelin Basic Protein (MBP). The one Fab that did not react to MBP was a product of receptor editing. Two of the nine MBP-reactive Fabs were also reactive to GFAP and CNPase, indicating that these clones were polyreactive. Targeting the mechanisms that ...

  7. Huntington disease in indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panegyres, P K; McGrath, F

    2008-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) in indigenous Australians is a poorly analysed and difficult problem. This study addresses the issue of HD in remote indigenous Australian populations in the north-west of Western Australia. Proband identification, clinical assessment, neurogenetic studies and pedigree analysis led to the discovery of HD in the 63-year-old male proband and his family. HD in remote indigenous Australian communities is a challenging diagnostic and management problem compounded by the complexity of distance. PMID:18290828

  8. Determination of Docetaxel and Paclitaxel in Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Application in Breast Cancer Patients%LC-MS/MS法测定血浆中多西他赛和紫杉醇浓度及在乳腺癌患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵苏; 陈冰; 杨婉花

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish an LC-MS/MS method for determining the concentrations of docetax-el and paclitaxel in plasma of breast cancer patients. Methods: Docetaxel and paclitaxel were used as the internal standard for each other. A sample of 100μL human plasma was extracted by using 1 mL of terta-butyl methyl ether. The upper organic layer was dried under nitrogen flow. The residue was reconstituted with mobile phase and then injected for LC-MS/MS analysis. The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 analytical column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 3.5μm) at 40℃. Samples were eluted using a mobile phase consisting of 0.4% formic acid water / 0.4% formic acid acetonitrile solution (20∶80, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min-1. Detection and quantitation were performed by electrospray ionization in the positive ionization mode by multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 808.5 → m/z 527.2 for docetaxel and m/z 854.3 → m/z 569.4 for paclitaxel. Results: The linear ranges of docetaxel and paclitaxel were, respectively, 5.0-1000 ng·mL-1 and 1.0-500 ng·mL-1 with LLOQ at 5.0 ng·mL-1 and 1.0 ng·mL-1. The intra-and inter-day RSDs were all within 15% at low, moderate and high concentrations. The mean extract re-coveries were 65.9%-84.3% for docetaxel and 90.4%-106.5% for paclitaxel. Conclusion: The method es-tablished is rapid, sensitive, accurate and reliable for the determination of docetaxel and paclitaxel in hu-man plasma. The method is useful for the therapeutic drug monitoring of docetaxel and paclittaxel, and can be applied in pharmacokinetic study of the drugs in Chinese breast cancer patients.%目的:建立一种快速、灵敏的液相色谱-串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)法检测乳腺癌患者血浆中多西他赛、紫杉醇的浓度。方法:多西他赛和紫杉醇互为内标,血浆样品100μL加入1 mL叔丁基甲醚萃取,分离有机相,以氮气吹干后流动相复溶进样。色谱柱为Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18(2.1 mm

  9. Progression in familial and nonfamilial MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Heerings, Marco; Heersema, Dorothea; Mostert, Jop; De Keyser, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the timing of secondary or primary progression is different between patients with familial and nonfamilial multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Information on the family history of 313 patients with MS was taken from our prospective hospital-based database. We used Kapla

  10. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Wallis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin’s model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  11. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  12. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  13. An Australian Sense of Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Burney

    2009-01-01

    Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.

  14. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  15. COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) for selecting at-risk patients for spirometry: a cross-sectional study in Australian general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Anthony J; Hasan, Iqbal; Crockett, Alan J; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Zwar, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using the COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) as a selection tool for spirometry could potentially improve the efficiency and accuracy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis in at-risk patients. Aim: To identify an optimal single cut point for the CDQ that divides primary care patients into low or high likelihood of COPD, with the latter group undergoing spirometry. Methods: Former or current smokers aged 40–85 years with no prior COPD diagnosis were invited to ...

  16. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Make a donation Search v What Is MS? Definition of MS What Causes MS? Who Gets MS? ... Stay Informed About the Society Vision Careers Leadership Cultural Values Financials News Press Room MS Prevalence Charitable ...

  17. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC).

  18. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Genotype and Haplotype Investigation of Natural Killer Cells from an Australian Population of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, T. K.; Brenu, E. W.; Staines, D. R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes encode for activating and inhibitory surface receptors, which are correlated with the regulation of Natural Killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity. Reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity has been consistently reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients, and KIR haplotypes and allelic polymorphism remain to be investigated. The aim of this article was to conduct a pilot study to examine KIR genotypes, haplotypes, and allelic polymorphism in CFS/ME patients and nonfatigued controls (NFCs). Comparison of KIR and allelic polymorphism frequencies revealed no significant differences between 20 CFS/ME patients and 20 NFCs. A lower frequency of the telomeric A/B motif (P < 0.05) was observed in CFS/ME patients compared with NFCs. This pilot study is the first to report the differences in the frequency of KIR on the telomeric A/B motif in CFS/ME patients. Further studies with a larger CFS/ME cohort are required to validate these results. PMID:27346947

  19. Optimizing Stroke Prevention in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Computerized Antithrombotic Risk Assessment Tool in Australian General Practice, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker J.; Hilmer, Sarah N.; Krass, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinicians have expressed a need for tools to assist in selecting treatments for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a computerized antithrombotic risk assessment tool (CARAT) on general practitioners’ prescribing of antithrombotics for patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods A prospective, cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 4 regions (in rural and urban settings) of general practice in New South Wales, Australia (January 2012–June 2013). General practitioner practices were assigned to an intervention arm (CARAT) or control arm (usual care). Antithrombotic therapy prescribing was assessed before and after application of CARAT. Results Overall, the antithrombotic therapies for 393 patients were reviewed by 48 general practitioners; we found no significant baseline differences in use of antithrombotics between the control arm and intervention arm. Compared with control patients, intervention patients (n = 206) were 3.1 times more likely to be recommended warfarin therapy (over any other treatment option; P benefits of these new therapy options. PMID:27418212

  20. ASA24-Australian Version (Under Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a consortium of Australian Researchers is adapting the ASA24 system to the Australian context to account for variations in food consumed, portion sizes, and nutrient composition.

  1. Development of a label-free LC-MS/MS strategy to approach the identification of candidate protein biomarkers of disease recurrence in prostate cancer patients in a clinical trial of combined hormone and radiation therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Combined hormone and radiation therapy (CHRT) is one of the principle curative regimes for localised prostate cancer (PCa). Following treatment, many patients subsequently experience disease recurrence however; current diagnostics tests fail to predict the onset of disease recurrence. Biomarkers that address this issue would be of significant advantage.

  2. Australian Cosmic Ray Modulation Research

    CERN Document Server

    Duldig, M L

    2000-01-01

    Australian research into variations of the cosmic ray flux arriving at the Earth has played a pivotal role for more than 50 years. The work has been largely led by the groups from the University of Tasmania and the Australian Antarctic Division and has involved the operation of neutron monitors and muon telescopes from many sites. In this paper the achievements of the Australian researchers are reviewed and future experiments are described. Particular highlights include: the determination of cosmic ray modulation parameters; the development of modelling techniques of Ground Level Enhancements; the confirmation of the Tail-In and Loss-Cone Sidereal anisotropies; the Space Ship Earth collaboration; and the Solar Cycle latitude survey.

  3. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  4. Immunomodulatory treatments and cognition in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mückschel, M; Beste, C; Ziemssen, T

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive impairments occur frequently and early in multiple sclerosis (MS) and contribute significantly to a reduced quality of life of patients with MS. Executive functions (EFs) play a pivotal role for the behavioral adaption to the environment and are also crucial for compensatory processes of cognitive impairments. Disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) are effective in reducing the frequency of relapses and slow the disease progression in MS. The effects of DMDs on cognitive impairments were reviewed with a special focus on EFs. Most studies show some beneficial effects of DMDs on cognition in MS, but the evidence for effects on EFs is sparse. Additionally, most studies suffer from methodological issues, small sample sizes and learning effects. We discuss that EFs may constitute a viable cognitive endpoint for cognitive impairments in MS, which could foster the early detection of subtle cognitive changes in MS. PMID:27580907

  5. The role of EBV in MS pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2006-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of MS. Human herpesviruses, notably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human endogenous retroviruses are factors associated with MS. EBV association is found in epidemiological surveys where late EBV infection...... confers a higher risk of MS, and EBV reactivation also appears to be linked to disease activity in early MS. MS patients have elevated anti-EBV antibody responses, both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular mimicry is found between certain EBV and myelin epitopes in the cell-mediated immune response....... EBV cannot stand alone as a causal factor of MS, but is likely to play an indirect role as an activator of the underlying disease process....

  6. Fraction of IL-10+ and IL-17+ CD8 T cells is increased in MS patients in remission and during a relapse, but is not influenced by immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, E; Thewissen, M; Knippenberg, S; Smolders, J; Muris, A-H; Menheere, P; Tervaert, J W Cohen; Hupperts, R; Damoiseaux, J

    2013-05-15

    In the present study, circulating proportions of CD8(+) T (Tc) cell subsets, including IL-17 (Tc17) and IL-10 (Tc10) producing cells, were assessed in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and a possible effect of beta interferon (IFN-β), glatiramer acetate (GA), and vitamin D (VitD) on these cell subsets was investigated. We show that both Tc17 and Tc10 cell fractions are elevated in the circulation of RRMS patients in remission compared to healthy subjects and that these Tc subsets remain unaffected by current immune modulating regimens. PMID:23517930

  7. Significance of MRI Perivascular Spaces in MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of perivascular Virchow-Robin spaces was investigated in 45 multiple sclerosis (MS patients and 30 healthy controls, in a study at Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, and Goethe University, Frankfurt.

  8. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  9. Australian uranium and the election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international and national complexities of the situation in Australia over the question of mining of the country's large and rich uranium deposits are explored with especial reference to the pending general election. The present position is ironical since access to low cost uranium would give a welcome boost to the nuclear industry which is enthusiastically supported by the Australian prime minister and his colleagues yet the Australian government is unable to promote mining as rapidly as it would like because of the international commitments it has made to provide a justification for its policy. (U.K.)

  10. Enlightenment of the Australian Policies of Hospice Care for Chronic Disease Patients on China%澳大利亚慢性病患者临终关怀政策对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 黄莉

    2015-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is attached with increasingly more importance now,and hospice care for chronic disease patients has become an important issue in public health service. In China,research on hospice care started late,thus hospice care for chronic disease patients has been rarely mentioned. Australia has made great achievement in this area,with effective governmental support,active public participation,a large number of relative agencies and diverse patterns of service. By analyzing the Australian policies of hospice care for chronic disease patients,the study aims to provide suggestions for the formulation of relevant policies in China. A pattern of hospice care with Chinese characteristics should be explored,and social security system of China should be improved,in order to speed up the development of the cause of hospice care in China.%慢性病的防治工作已逐渐被公共卫生事业所重视,对慢性病患者的临终关怀也成了主要焦点。中国对临终关怀的研究起步本身较晚,因此,对慢性病患者的临终关怀更是少有提及。澳大利亚慢性病患者的临终关怀取得较大发展,呈现出政府重视、民众参与度高、机构数量大、服务多样等特点。通过对澳大利亚慢性病患者临终关怀政策的分析,为中国制定慢性病患者临终关怀政策提出建议,探索有中国特色的临终关怀模式,健全中国的社会保障体系,加快中国临终关怀事业的发展。

  11. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  12. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  13. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; Jingjing; Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.……

  14. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jingjing; Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.

  15. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  16. Nursing churn and turnover in Australian hospitals: nurses perceptions and suggestions for supportive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Angela J; Stasa, Helen; Roche, Michael A; Homer, Caroline S. E.; Duffield, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to reveal nurses’ experiences and perceptions of turnover in Australian hospitals and identify strategies to improve retention, performance and job satisfaction. Nursing turnover is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety, increase health care costs and impact on staff morale. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Ter...

  17. Physical Exercise and MS Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Stenager, E

    2009-01-01

    in a number of physiological functions, which ultimately can lead to functional improvements that have a positive effect on a patients daily life. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing research, to provide clinicians with some easily administrable recommendations for the application of exercise......The use of physical exercise programmes in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a controversial issue for many years. During the last decade, however, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements...

  18. The influence of nutritional intervention on the MS patient's metabolism%营养干预对代谢综合征患者脂代谢影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓峰; 吴升; 吴敏魁; 许秀娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the influence of nutritional intervention on the MS patient's body weight index and the blood fats. Methods 300 patients with MS were divided into the nutrition intervention group and the control group by using the pair design. The patients in nutrition intervention group were carried nutrition intervention for 4 weeks according to the hypoglycemia load food selection principle. The patients in control group were carried a healthy education about diet and exercise. Compared the change of BMI, total cholesterol( TC ),triglyceride( TG ), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol( HDL-C )and low density lipoproteincholesterol( LDL-C ). Results BMI and TG were decreased before and after nutrition intervention. The significant difference was observed between the two groups ( P < 0.01 ). There were significances in statistics. No significant difference was observed in TC,HDL-C and LDL-C between groups. Conclusion The results were suggested that nutrition interventions can assist in reducing BMI and the blood fats of MS patients.%目的 研究营养干预对代谢综合征(MS)患者脂代谢的影响作用.方法 将确诊的300例MS患者采用配对设计的方法分为干预组和对照组.干预组:由医师开出营养处方,营养师通过互动平台,依据低血糖负载食物选择原则,进行标准化营养干预4周;对照组:由医师进行1次以饮食和运动指导为主的健康教育.4周后,比较两组血清胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)等生化指标及BMI的变化.结果干预组试验后较干预前BMI、TG明显下降(P0.05).结论 依据低血糖负载食物选择原则的营养干预有助于MS患者的体质量控制和脂代谢紊乱的改善.

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tamoxifen using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchu, Simone M; Lynch, Kara L; Wu, Alan H B

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used widely in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (ER+). Therapeutic monitoring of tamoxifen, and its metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDTam) and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen), may be clinically useful for guiding treatment decisions. Two significant barriers to tamoxifen efficacy are: (1) variability in conversion of tamoxifen into the potent antiestrogenic metabolite, endoxifen, and (2) poor compliance and adherence to tamoxifen therapy. Therapeutic monitoring can be used to address both of these issues. Low levels of endoxifen indicate either poor compliance or poor metabolism of tamoxifen. Low tamoxifen levels would suggest poor compliance while a low ratio of endoxifen to NDTam would be indicative of poor metabolism. Solid phase extraction of patient serum followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection enables rapid, accurate, detection of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, and endoxifen. PMID:22767121

  20. The influence of the sample matrix on LC-MS/MS method development and analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco Arjan

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide personalized patient treatment, a large number of analytical procedures is needed to measure a large variety of drugs in various human matrices. The analytical technique used for this research is Liquid Chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). E

  1. The Australian RSI debate: stereotyping and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintner, J L

    1995-07-01

    The vehement scientific debate which took place in Australia in the 1980s over the epidemic of the chronic cervicobrachial pain syndrome known as repetition strain injury (RSI) was remarkable for the accompanying social commentary offered by many of the medical participants. This commentary was to have a profound effect on relationships between individual doctors and their patients with RSI. It reflected and reinforced the prevailing stereotypes within Australian society, not only of working women, but also of recipients of workers' compensation payments. On the other hand, some of the medical responses to the epidemic were severely criticized by social scientists who analysed the epidemic. In the process of such criticism, a number of stereotypes of doctors were also reinforced. PMID:7626774

  2. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; van Schaik, Katherine D; Aoun, Samar M.; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods: In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient a...

  3. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  4. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  5. Australian network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  6. Treatment optimization in MS: Canadian MS Working Group updated recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Mark S; Selchen, Daniel; Arnold, Douglas L; Prat, Alexandre; Banwell, Brenda; Yeung, Michael; Morgenthau, David; Lapierre, Yves

    2013-05-01

    The Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Working Group (CMSWG) developed practical recommendations in 2004 to assist clinicians in optimizing the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. The CMSWG convened to review how disease activity is assessed, propose a more current approach for assessing suboptimal response, and to suggest a scheme for switching or escalating treatment. Practical criteria for relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression and MRI were developed to classify the clinical level of concern as Low, Medium and High. The group concluded that a change in treatment may be considered in any RRMS patient if there is a high level of concern in any one domain (relapses, progression or MRI), a medium level of concern in any two domains, or a low level of concern in all three domains. These recommendations for assessing treatment response should assist clinicians in making more rational choices in their management of relapsing MS patients. PMID:23603165

  7. A review of statistical estimators for risk-adjusted length of stay: analysis of the Australian and new Zealand intensive care adult patient data-base, 2008–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran John L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the analysis of length-of-stay (LOS data, which is characteristically right-skewed, a number of statistical estimators have been proposed as alternatives to the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS regression with log dependent variable. Methods Using a cohort of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 2008–2009, 12 different methods were used for estimation of intensive care (ICU length of stay. These encompassed risk-adjusted regression analysis of firstly: log LOS using OLS, linear mixed model [LMM], treatment effects, skew-normal and skew-t models; and secondly: unmodified (raw LOS via OLS, generalised linear models [GLMs] with log-link and 4 different distributions [Poisson, gamma, negative binomial and inverse-Gaussian], extended estimating equations [EEE] and a finite mixture model including a gamma distribution. A fixed covariate list and ICU-site clustering with robust variance were utilised for model fitting with split-sample determination (80% and validation (20% data sets, and model simulation was undertaken to establish over-fitting (Copas test. Indices of model specification using Bayesian information criterion [BIC: lower values preferred] and residual analysis as well as predictive performance (R2, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC, mean absolute error [MAE] were established for each estimator. Results The data-set consisted of 111663 patients from 131 ICUs; with mean(SD age 60.6(18.8 years, 43.0% were female, 40.7% were mechanically ventilated and ICU mortality was 7.8%. ICU length-of-stay was 3.4(5.1 (median 1.8, range (0.17-60 days and demonstrated marked kurtosis and right skew (29.4 and 4.4 respectively. BIC showed considerable spread, from a maximum of 509801 (OLS-raw scale to a minimum of 210286 (LMM. R2 ranged from 0.22 (LMM to 0.17 and the CCC from 0.334 (LMM to 0.149, with MAE 2.2-2.4. Superior residual behaviour was

  8. Research Output of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Abbot; Hristos Doucouliagos

    2003-01-01

    Research plays an important role in underpinning a country’s economic and social life. Universities are at the centre of the research and human capital generating process. The aim of this paper is to explore the links between research output, research income, academic and non-academic labour and some of the characteristics of Australian universities. The results indicate that research income, academic staff and post-graduates are all positively associated with research output. There are notic...

  9. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  10. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    OpenAIRE

    Richard White

    2012-01-01

    Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fadin...

  11. Living with Advanced MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Download now Download now Resource Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program The Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate ... Informed About the Society Vision Careers Leadership Cultural Values Financials News Press Room MS Prevalence Charitable Ratings ...

  12. MS Based Metabonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, Elizabeth J.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-03-01

    Metabonomics is the latest and least mature of the systems biology triad, which also includes genomics and proteomics, and has its origins in the early orthomolecular medicine work pioneered by Linus Pauling and Arthur Robinson. It was defined by Nicholson and colleagues in 1999 as the quantitative measurement of perturbations in the metabolite complement of an integrated biological system in response to internal or external stimuli, and is often used today to describe many non-global types of metabolite analyses. Applications of metabonomics are extensive and include toxicology, nutrition, pharmaceutical research and development, physiological monitoring and disease diagnosis. For example, blood samples from millions of neonates are tested routinely by mass spectrometry (MS) as a diagnostic tool for inborn errors of metabolism. The metabonome encompasses a wide range of structurally diverse metabolites; therefore, no single analytical platform will be sufficient. Specialized sample preparation and detection techniques are required, and advances in NMR and MS technologies have led to enhanced metabonome coverage, which in turn demands improved data analysis approaches. The role of MS in metabonomics is still evolving as instrumentation and software becomes more sophisticated and as researchers realize the strengths and limitations of current technology. MS offers a wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and reproducible, quantitative analysis. These attributes are essential for addressing the challenges of metabonomics, as the range of metabolite concentrations easily exceeds nine orders of magnitude in biofluids, and the diversity of molecular species ranges from simple amino and organic acids to lipids and complex carbohydrates. Additional challenges arise in generating a comprehensive metabolite profile, downstream data processing and analysis, and structural characterization of important metabolites. A typical workflow of MS-based metabonomics is shown in Figure

  13. Prediction of outcome of non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and bortezomib by time-course MALDI-TOF-MS serum peptide profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, J.; Pham, T.V.; Knol, J.C.; Giaccone, G.; Jimenez, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Only a minority of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit from chemotherapy. Serum peptide profiling of NSCLC patients was performed to investigate patterns associated with treatment outcome. Using magnetic bead-assisted serum peptide capture coupled to matrix-

  14. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Insurance & Financial Information Living with Advanced MS Employment Resources for Specific Populations Find Programs & Services in ... Living with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure Focus on Employment (.pdf) Download Brochure Working with MS (.pdf) Download ...

  15. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Learn More Learn More Research in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Learn More Learn ... Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Diagnosing RRMS Treating RRMS Research in RRMS Discover More Here are a few ...

  16. Differentiation of manuka honey from kanuka honey and from jelly bush honey using HS-SPME-GC/MS and UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitlich, Nicole; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Speer, Karl

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, pollen-identical pure manuka and kanuka honeys and an Australian jelly bush honey were analyzed for the nonvolatiles by UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS and for the volatiles by HS-SPME-GC/MS. A chromatographic profile matchup by means of characteristic marker compounds achieved a clear discrimination between manuka, kanuka, and jelly bush honey. UHPLC-PDA profiles of manuka honey show leptosin, acetyl-2-hydroxy-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanate, 3-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-penta-1,4-dione, kojic acid, 5-methyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, and two unknown compounds as prominent, kanuka honey was characterized by 4-methoxyphenyllactic acid, methyl syringate, p-anisic acid, and lumichrome. 2-Methylbenzofuran, 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, and 2'-methoxyacetophenone were markant volatiles for manuka honey, whereas kanuka honey was characterized by 2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1,4-dione, phenethyl alcohol, p-anisaldehyde, and an unknown compound in HS-SPME-GC/MS. The jelly bush honey differed from the manuka honey by higher contents of 2-methoxybenzoic acid and an individual unknown substance in the PDA profile and by lower intensities of 2'-methoxyacetophenone, higher concentrations of cis-linalool oxide, and 3,4,5-trimethylphenol in the HS-SPME-GC/MS profile.

  17. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} (Samarium-153 EDTMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, N.R.; Whitwell, J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Australian Radioisotopes

    1997-10-01

    Quadramet{sup T} (Samarium-153 EDTMP) has been shown overseas to be potentially useful in the palliation of painful osteoblastic skeletal metastases and has been approved this year for general marketing in the USA. Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) has licensed this product from the Australian patent holders, Dow Chemical. Within the facilities of ARI, a hot cell has been dedicated to this product and fitted out to manufacture it weekly on a cycle related to the operating cycle of the Australian reactor HIFAR. Due to neutron flux limitations of HIFAR, the local formulation has an elemental Samarium content up to 200{mu}g/mL whereas the overseas formulation has a level of 20-46{mu}g/mL. All other specifications of the two products are essentially the same. In 1995 and 1996 a small clinical trial with 19 patients was held which demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic behaviour was also essentially the same by measuring blood clearance rates and skeletal uptake dynamics. Soft tissue uptake was also qualitatively determined. The ARI version is now the subject of an application for general marketing within Australia. Some useful characteristics of this agent are: almost complete excretion or fixation in the skeleton within 6 hours, rapid onset of clinical effect, applicability in most cases where an abnormal diagnostic bone scan correlates with painful sites, dosage can be tailored to individual patient uptake due to easy dose measurement and retreatment is quite possible. The use of this class of agents in pain palliation continues to increase. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} provides a further option in the management of these difficult cases

  18. Australian manufacture of QuadrametTM (Samarium-153 EDTMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QuadrametT (Samarium-153 EDTMP) has been shown overseas to be potentially useful in the palliation of painful osteoblastic skeletal metastases and has been approved this year for general marketing in the USA. Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) has licensed this product from the Australian patent holders, Dow Chemical. Within the facilities of ARI, a hot cell has been dedicated to this product and fitted out to manufacture it weekly on a cycle related to the operating cycle of the Australian reactor HIFAR. Due to neutron flux limitations of HIFAR, the local formulation has an elemental Samarium content up to 200μg/mL whereas the overseas formulation has a level of 20-46μg/mL. All other specifications of the two products are essentially the same. In 1995 and 1996 a small clinical trial with 19 patients was held which demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic behaviour was also essentially the same by measuring blood clearance rates and skeletal uptake dynamics. Soft tissue uptake was also qualitatively determined. The ARI version is now the subject of an application for general marketing within Australia. Some useful characteristics of this agent are: almost complete excretion or fixation in the skeleton within 6 hours, rapid onset of clinical effect, applicability in most cases where an abnormal diagnostic bone scan correlates with painful sites, dosage can be tailored to individual patient uptake due to easy dose measurement and retreatment is quite possible. The use of this class of agents in pain palliation continues to increase. Australian manufacture of QuadrametTM provides a further option in the management of these difficult cases

  19. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...

  20. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the philosophy

  1. A global history of Australian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brett M

    2011-01-01

    Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in a variety of climates and ecological conditions. Five non-biological factors largely determined the success of these attempts to grow Australian trees: the abundance or paucity of natural forests, state power, the amount of scientific research directed to planting Australian trees, the cost of labor, and the ability to utilize hardwood timbers and bark. This paper compares the use of Australian trees in Australia, India, and South Africa to demonstrate that biology was not the determining factor in the long-term success of many Australian genera and species. PMID:20665086

  2. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  3. Recent developments in the Australian housing market

    OpenAIRE

    James Bond

    2003-01-01

    Housing plays an important role in Australia’s economic growth and in the welfare of Australians. This article examines developments in the Australian housing market over recent years. It argues that investors have played an increasingly important role in the housing market for both detached houses and apartments.

  4. SAR by MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOFSTADLER; Steven

    2001-01-01

    RNAs have recently emerged as an exciting new target for small molecule therapeutics. Conventional HTS discovery strategies measuring disruption of RNAprotein interactions have proven unsuccessful. We describe a ligand-based drug discovery strategy that addresses the inherent difficulties RNA targets. The strategy is based on: 1) using a MS spectrometry (MS)-based assay to measure the affinity of compounds for a target; 2) performing competitive binding experiments and molecular modeling with the motifs to determine the binding site(s) of the ligands; 3) design and synthesis of derivatives of interesting binders to establish the linking sites; 4) identifying the appropriate linker group using MS; 5) fusing motifs into a more complex structure to afford higher affinity compounds. Example of applying this strategy to identify new classes of lead molecules with affinity and specificity for ribosomal RNA targets will be presented.  ……

  5. SAR by MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ RNAs have recently emerged as an exciting new target for small molecule therapeutics. Conventional HTS discovery strategies measuring disruption of RNAprotein interactions have proven unsuccessful. We describe a ligand-based drug discovery strategy that addresses the inherent difficulties RNA targets. The strategy is based on: 1) using a MS spectrometry (MS)-based assay to measure the affinity of compounds for a target; 2) performing competitive binding experiments and molecular modeling with the motifs to determine the binding site(s) of the ligands; 3) design and synthesis of derivatives of interesting binders to establish the linking sites; 4) identifying the appropriate linker group using MS; 5) fusing motifs into a more complex structure to afford higher affinity compounds. Example of applying this strategy to identify new classes of lead molecules with affinity and specificity for ribosomal RNA targets will be presented.

  6. Using geographic information system tools to improve access to MS specialty care in Veterans Health Administration

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Culpepper, II, PhD, MA; Diane Cowper-Ripley, PhD; Eric R. Litt, BA; Tzu-Yun McDowell, MA; Paul M. Hoffman, MD

    2010-01-01

    Access to appropriate and timely healthcare is critical to the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic diseases. In this study, we used geographic information system (GIS) tools to map Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their access to MS specialty care. We created six travel-time bands around VHA facilities with MS specialty care and calculated the number of VHA patients with MS who resided in each time band and the number of patient...

  7. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  8. Australian developments in marine science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  9. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  10. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  11. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  12. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  13. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  14. Malignant otitis externa: An Australian case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish a clinicopathological profile of malignant otitis externa (MOE) in an Australian tertiary referral institution. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort outcomes study. METHODS: 24 patients were identified with MOE between January 1998 and July 2007. Patients were classified into Radiological Grades I-IV. Laboratory investigations Including C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and average glucose level over admission were recorded. RESULTS: Radiological Grade was significantly associated with duration of therapy (rank correlation 0.57, p = 0.004). CRP was a useful indicator confirming disease resolution. Diabetics with MOE had elevated average blood sugar levels during their Hospital admission (p < 0.001) and had poor overall glycaemic control represented by Elevated HBA1c scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant otitis externa is a rare disease, which is best managed in a multidisciplinary team setting. This practical grading system can be used to predict the duration of therapy at time of diagnosis, which enables the efficient utilisation of Hospital resources. Poorly controlled diabetics are more susceptible to developing. MOE than diabetics with satisfactory glycaemic control and may represent a subgroup of more brittle diabetics. CRP combined with appropriate clinical and radiological investigations is useful in assessing disease resolution.

  15. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G.J.; Class, Thomas J.; Costa Pinheiro, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For L

  16. Human herpesviruses and MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2007-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in MS pathogenesis; the human herpesviruses (HHV) are likely candidates for such factors. HHV share a number of properties: they are almost ubiquitous, they are highly prevalent worldwide, they all cause latent infections and...

  17. Managing Progressive MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area of assistive devices for personal hygiene and bathroom adjustments that make toilet functions more effective and safe. They have extensive practical information on devices and techniques. 27 | Managing Progressive MS If you need help with basic activities, get advice and inform ...

  18. ICP-MS Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, April J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eiden, Gregory C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This is a short document that explains the materials that will be transmitted to LLNL and DNN HQ regarding the ICP-MS Workshop held at PNNL June 17-19th. The goal of the information is to pass on to LLNL information regarding the planning and preparations for the Workshop at PNNL in preparation of the SIMS workshop at LLNL.

  19. EG-02CORRELATION OF MGMT PROMOTER METHYLATION STATUS ANALYSIS USING 6 MS-MLPA PROBES AND CLINICAL RESPONSE OF TEMOZOLOMIDE IN GLIOBLASTOMA PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fakkert, Michelle; de Leng, Wendy; de Weger, Roel; Willems, Stefan; Spliet, Wim; Van Hecke, Wim; De Vos, Filip

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: For patients diagnosed with Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is an important predictive factor for treatment with temozolomide (TMZ). MGMT reverses the toxic effect of alkylating chemotherapies like TMZ, therefore absence of the MGMT protein, due to promoter hypermethylation, results in greater tumor response and prolonged survival. MGMT methylation status can be determined using Methylation Specific Multiplex Ligat...

  20. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  1. An increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in US patients with Merkel cell carcinoma versus Australian patients: A clinical clue to a different mechanism of pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Romi; Amber, Kyle T; Nouri, Keyvan

    2016-08-01

    The US and Queensland populations both demonstrate an increased risk of secondary malignancies following the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). A recent Queensland study failed to demonstrate a significantly increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in these patients. In contrast, using the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we demonstrate there is an increased risk in CLL and NHL following the diagnosis of MCC in the USA. We hypothesise that this difference may be a result of a differing pathogenesis. PMID:25801041

  2. Prevalence, risk factors and genotypes of hepatitis B infection among HIV-infected patients in the State of MS, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A cross-sectional study on prevalence of HBV and HDV infection, risk factors and genotype distribution of HBV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil. Methods: Serum samples of 848 participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc and hepatitis surface antibody (anti-HBs. HBsAg positive samples were tested for anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HCV, and total anti-HDV. HBsAg and anti-HBc positive were subjected to DNA extraction. Viral DNA was amplified by semi-nested PCR for the regions pre-S/S and then purified and genotyped/subgenotyped by direct sequencing. Student's t-test, chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare variables and to evaluate association between HBV positivity (defined as anti-HBc and/or HBsAg positivity and risk factors. Results: Among the 848 HIV infected patients investigated 222 had serological markers of HBV infection. The prevalence rate of HIV-HBV coinfection was 2.5% (21/848; 95% CI: 1.4–3.5%; 484 (57.1% patients were susceptible for HBV infection. There were no cases of anti-HDV positive and only one (0.1% anti-HCV-positive case among the HIV-HBV coinfected patients. Male gender, increasing age, family history of hepatitis, use of illicit drug, and homosexual activity were independent factors associated with HBV exposure. The phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene region revealed the presence of genotypes D (76.9%, F (15.4% and A (7.7% in the study sample. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the low prevalence of HIV-HBV infection and also highlights the need for early vaccination against HBV as well as testing for HBV, HCV and HDV in all HIV-infected individuals.

  3. Divergent Trends of Anti-JCPyV Serum Reactivity and Neutralizing Activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Patients during Treatment with Natalizumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diotti, Roberta Antonia; Capra, Ruggero; Moiola, Lucia; Caputo, Valeria; De Rossi, Nicola; Sangalli, Francesca; Martinelli, Vittorio; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo; Mancini, Nicasio

    2016-01-01

    The association between natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is established, but a reliable clinical risk stratification flow-chart is lacking. New risk factors are needed, such as the possible role of the anti-JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) neutralizing antibody. In this pilot study, we analyzed this parameter during natalizumab treatment. Sequential sera of 38 multiple sclerosis patients during their first year of natalizumab treatment were collected, and grouped according to the number of infusions. For 11 patients, samples were also available after 24 infusions (T24), when progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) risk is higher. The reactivity against VP1, the main JCPyV surface protein, and the anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity were evaluated. During the first year, a lack of correlation between anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity was observed: a significant decrease in anti-JCPyV antibody response was observed (p = 0.0039), not paralleled by a similar trend in the total anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity (p = 0.2239). This lack of correlation was even more evident at T24 when, notwithstanding a significant increase in the anti-JCPyV response (p = 0.0097), a further decrease of the neutralizing activity was observed (p = 0.0062). This is the first study evidencing, prospectively, the lack of correlation between the anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity during natalizumab treatment. PMID:27164128

  4. Divergent Trends of Anti-JCPyV Serum Reactivity and Neutralizing Activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS Patients during Treatment with Natalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Antonia Diotti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The association between natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is established, but a reliable clinical risk stratification flow-chart is lacking. New risk factors are needed, such as the possible role of the anti-JC polyomavirus (JCPyV neutralizing antibody. In this pilot study, we analyzed this parameter during natalizumab treatment. Sequential sera of 38 multiple sclerosis patients during their first year of natalizumab treatment were collected, and grouped according to the number of infusions. For 11 patients, samples were also available after 24 infusions (T24, when progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML risk is higher. The reactivity against VP1, the main JCPyV surface protein, and the anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity were evaluated. During the first year, a lack of correlation between anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity was observed: a significant decrease in anti-JCPyV antibody response was observed (p = 0.0039, not paralleled by a similar trend in the total anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity (p = 0.2239. This lack of correlation was even more evident at T24 when, notwithstanding a significant increase in the anti-JCPyV response (p = 0.0097, a further decrease of the neutralizing activity was observed (p = 0.0062. This is the first study evidencing, prospectively, the lack of correlation between the anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity during natalizumab treatment.

  5. Divergent Trends of Anti-JCPyV Serum Reactivity and Neutralizing Activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Patients during Treatment with Natalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diotti, Roberta Antonia; Capra, Ruggero; Moiola, Lucia; Caputo, Valeria; De Rossi, Nicola; Sangalli, Francesca; Martinelli, Vittorio; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo; Mancini, Nicasio

    2016-01-01

    The association between natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is established, but a reliable clinical risk stratification flow-chart is lacking. New risk factors are needed, such as the possible role of the anti-JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) neutralizing antibody. In this pilot study, we analyzed this parameter during natalizumab treatment. Sequential sera of 38 multiple sclerosis patients during their first year of natalizumab treatment were collected, and grouped according to the number of infusions. For 11 patients, samples were also available after 24 infusions (T24), when progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) risk is higher. The reactivity against VP1, the main JCPyV surface protein, and the anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity were evaluated. During the first year, a lack of correlation between anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity was observed: a significant decrease in anti-JCPyV antibody response was observed (p = 0.0039), not paralleled by a similar trend in the total anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity (p = 0.2239). This lack of correlation was even more evident at T24 when, notwithstanding a significant increase in the anti-JCPyV response (p = 0.0097), a further decrease of the neutralizing activity was observed (p = 0.0062). This is the first study evidencing, prospectively, the lack of correlation between the anti-JCPyV antibody response and its neutralizing activity during natalizumab treatment. PMID:27164128

  6. Evaluation of Tamoxifen and metabolites by LC-MS/MS and HPLC Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, D.D.; Flatt, S.W.; Wu, A.H.B.; Pruitt, M.A.; Rock, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggests that quantification of serum or plasma levels of tamoxifen and the metabolites of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (endoxifen), Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4HT), N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (ND-tam) is a clinically useful tool in the assessment and monitoring of breast cancer status in patients taking adjuvant tamoxifen. A liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was used to measure the blood levels of tamoxifen and the metabo...

  7. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  8. Australian news media framing of medical tourism in low- and middle-income countries: a content review

    OpenAIRE

    Imison, Michelle; Schweinsberg, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourism – travel across international borders for health care – appears to be growing globally, with patients from high-income nations increasingly visiting low- and middle-income countries to access such services. This paper analyses Australian television and newspaper news and current affairs coverage to examine how medical tourism and these destinations for the practice are represented to media audiences. Methods Electronic copies of Australian television (n = 66) and ne...

  9. Cognitive impairment in MS: rehabilitation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, P; Rosti-Otajärvi, E

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in 45%-70% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Like other symptoms of MS, cognitive deficits are highly variable. Slowed information processing and memory and learning dysfunction are regarded as the most frequent cognitive deficits in MS. Both white and gray matter damages have been suggested to contribute to cognitive impairments in MS. There is no direct relationship between cognitive deficits and physical disability, disease duration or course of the disease. In addition to cognitive impairments, neuropsychiatric symptoms are observed in MS, the most common being alterations in mood state. Neurobehavioral deficits have multidimensional effects on the activities of daily living and quality of life. Consequently, attention should be paid to early diagnosis and treatment. Based on studies on cognitive retraining and more multimodal neuropsychological rehabilitation, both approaches show promise in the treatment of cognitive impairments and their harmful effects. This review introduces the frequency and characteristics of cognitive impairments, as well as main findings on the effects of neuropsychological rehabilitation in MS. PMID:27580900

  10. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  11. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    OpenAIRE

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  14. Male Sex Is Independently Associated with Faster Disability Accumulation in Relapse-Onset MS but Not in Primary Progressive MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ann Ribbons

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis is more common in women than men and females have more relapses than men. In a large international cohort we have evaluated the effect of gender on disability accumulation and disease progression to determine if male MS patients have a worse clinical outcome than females.Using the MSBase Registry, data from 15,826 MS patients from 25 countries was analysed. Changes in the severity of MS (EDSS were compared between sexes using a repeated measures analysis in generalised linear mixed models. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to test for sex difference in the time to reach EDSS milestones 3 and 6 and the secondary progressive MS.In relapse onset MS patients (n = 14,453, males progressed significantly faster in their EDSS than females (0.133 vs 0.112 per year, P<0.001,. Females had a reduced risk of secondary progressive MS (HR (95% CI = 0.77 (0.67 to 0.90 P = 0.001. In primary progressive MS (n = 1,373, there was a significant increase in EDSS over time in males and females (P<0.001 but there was no significant sex effect on the annualized rate of EDSS change.Among registrants of MSBase, male relapse-onset patients accumulate disability faster than female patients. In contrast, the rate of disability accumulation between male and female patients with primary progressive MS is similar.

  15. Determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam by LC-MS/MS in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy%液相色谱-串联质谱法测定连续肾脏替代治疗患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿华; 程龙妹; 曲恒燕; 郝光涛; 刘泽源; 夏鹄

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a sensitiv e and specific LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT). Methods Cefuroxime axetil was used as the internal standard,the plasma samples were separated on an WatersAtlantis dC18 column (150 mm× 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with ESI was used as the detector and operated in the mode of multiple reaction monitoring.Quantitive analysis of[M-H]-ions were m/z 644.1→528.1(cefoperazone), m/z 231.8→188.0(sulbactam) and m/z 509.3→206.9(the internal standard, IS), respectively. Results The linear range of cefoperazone and sulbactam in human plasma and ultrafiltrate were(10-500) and(6-300)μg/ml, respectively. Extraction recoveries were more than 90.0%, and intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The matrix effect of plasma and ultrafiltrate showed that the matrix effect of the two media had little influence on the measurement of cefoperazone, sulbactam and IS. Conclusion The method is simple, fast, and highly sensitive. The two drugs can be detected simultaneously in the same sample. It is appropriate to monitor drug concentration in plasma and ultrafiltrate of the patients undergone CRRT. Sieving coefficient could be calculated and provide an accurate basis for dose adjustment.%目的:建立液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定连续肾脏替代治疗(continuous renal replacement therapy, CRRT)患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度。方法以头孢呋辛酯为内标,采用WatersAtlantis dC18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5.0μm)进行分离,通过串联质谱仪,以多反应监测方式进行测定。用于定量分析的离子对分别是m/z 644.1→528.1(头孢哌酮)、m/z 231.8→188.0(舒巴坦)和m/z 509.3→206.9〔头孢呋辛酯,内标(IS)〕。结果头孢哌酮在10~500

  16. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  17. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  18. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  19. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Are Associated With Worse Performance on Objective Cognitive Tests in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sarah A; Rosehart, Heather; Pantazopoulos, Koula

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depressive symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and are known to interact in non-MS populations. This retrospective chart review examined this relationship in a relapsing-remitting MS population. A significant difference on measures of processing speed/working memory and visual-spatial memory was found in MS patients with anxiety compared with nonanxious MS patients, while a significant difference was found on measures of processing speed, visual-spatial memory and executive function in MS patients with depressive symptoms compared with those without. Further research is needed to determine the causal relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. PMID:26569152

  20. Nutrition and general practice: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, A

    1997-06-01

    Australia has a government-subsidized, private medical system in which general practitioners (GPs) form the core component of primary care. There are approximately 20,000 active GPs and 80% of the population consults a GP each year. A new vocational register of GPs has been set up that requires training in general practice, followed by formal continuing education. I briefly review sources of information about Australian GPs' practices and knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition. About 15-17% of GPs say they have a special interest in nutrition (20% of female GPs and 13% of male GPs). The main conditions for which advice is given are heart disease, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. The extent of nutrition counseling by GPs is considerably less than might be expected from the strength of their statements about the importance of nutrition and long-term health. Obstacles to nutrition counseling are lack of time, lack of confidence, and inadequate nutrition knowledge, the last documented by objective testing. GPs express interest in learning more about nutrition (which may be partly driven by consumer pressure) but there is still little coherent teaching on the subject, specifically tailored for GPs. When asked their preferences for nutrition education, GPs tend to prefer educational material (such as diet charts) to give to patients. PMID:9174498

  1. Childhood onset MS and MS during Pregnancy Rinze Frederik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Neuteboom (Rinze)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractChapter 1, the introduction, summarizes current knowledge regarding two special and different situations in multiple sclerosis (MS): Childhood onset MS and MS during pregnancy. Chapter 2 describes the clinical (chapter 2.1-2.3) and biological studies (chapter 2.4-2.6) on pregnancy and M

  2. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  3. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  4. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  5. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  6. New horizons: Australian nurses at work in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kirsty

    2014-06-01

    More than 3000 nurses from Australia served with the Australian Army Nursing Service or the British nursing services during World War I. These nurses served in various theatres of war including Egypt, France, India, Greece, Italy and England. They worked in numerous roles including as a surgical team nurse close to the front working under fire; nursing on hospital ships carrying the sick and wounded; or managing hospital wards overrun with patients whilst dealing with a lack of hospital necessities. The skills and roles needed to be a military nurse significantly differed to the skills required to nurse in Australia.

  7. The National Medical Cyclotron - An Australian experience in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) in the early 1990's was the practical outcome of a vision, held by nuclear medicine professionals, to complement the available neutron-rich radionuclides produced in Australia, with neutron-deficient radionuclides. The NMC is operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in collaboration with the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH) in Sydney where the PET department is able to use the short-lived radiotracers to good advantage. Neutron-deficient radionuclides, are also produced by the NMC laboratories. The cyclotron-generated radionuclides are used in over 70,000 patient studies per year

  8. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  9. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  10. Stress in the Indo-Australian plate

    OpenAIRE

    Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.; R. Wortel

    1986-01-01

    We modelled the state of stress in the Indo-Australian plate in order to investigate quantitatively variations observed in tectonic style. The numerical procedure incorporates the dependence of slab pull and ridge push on the age of the oceanic lithosphere. Estimates are presented for the average net resistive forces at the Himalayan collision zone, the suction force acting on the overriding Indo-Australian plate segment at the Tonga-Kermadec trench and the drag at the base of the lithosphere...

  11. Ownership of Australian Equities and Corporate Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Black; Joshua Kirkwood

    2010-01-01

    Australian financial and non-financial companies tap capital markets – particularly equity and bond markets – to source funds from households, foreign investors and domestic institutional investors. Foreign investors supply around half of these funds, with institutional investors providing most of the remainder; households’ direct holdings are comparatively modest. During the financial crisis, foreign investors’ appetite for Australian assets remained strong, underpinned by the streng...

  12. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  13. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Matters Library & Education Programs Find Support Insurance & Financial Information Living with Advanced MS Employment Resources for Specific ... and problems with cognition (learning and memory or information processing). People with progressive forms of MS are ...

  14. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services in Your Area Living Well with MS Health and Wellness Family and Relationships Mobility & Accessibility Personal ... For Professionals Researchers Physicians Nurses Rehabilitation Professionals Mental Health Professionals Health and Wellness Professionals What Is MS? ...

  15. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  16. Peripheral nerves injury of electrophysiology and pathology in MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li runjin; Qian zhimin; Chen ping

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We report the EMG and pathological features of sural nerve biopsy of 12 patients with MS. The pathological of thesel 1 patients demonstrated demyelination injury of peripheral nerves.METHODS Twelve cases abnomaly are screened with EMG from60 cases MS. Sural nerve biopsy were analyzed by HE AND loyez, and electron microscopy. RESULTS EMG showed slow of MCV in 9 patients and SCV in 7 patients. Myelinated fibers was the presence in 8 sural nerve biopsy patients and most striking demyelinating fibers, regeneration of myelinated fibers. CONCLUSION Ms is characterized by demyelinating disorder limited to the CNS.There are,howeve ,the results of this study sugee that combine with PNS demyelinating injury in MS may be more frequent than is generally assumed.

  17. Quantitative lipopolysaccharide analysis using HPLC/MS/MS and its combination with the limulus amebocyte lysate assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Gautier, Thomas; Sali, Wahib; Adrie, Christophe; Choubley, Hélène; Charron, Emilie; Lalande, Caroline; Le Guern, Naig; Deckert, Valérie; Monchi, Mehran; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Lagrost, Laurent

    2015-07-01

    Quantitation of plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) might be used to document Gram-negative bacterial infection. In the present work, LPS-derived 3-hydroxymyristate was extracted from plasma samples with an organic solvent, separated by reversed phase HPLC, and quantitated by MS/MS. This mass assay was combined with the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) bioassay to monitor neutralization of LPS activity in biological samples. The described HPLC/MS/MS method is a reliable, practical, accurate, and sensitive tool to quantitate LPS. The combination of the LAL and HPLC/MS/MS analyses provided new evidence for the intrinsic capacity of plasma lipoproteins and phospholipid transfer protein to neutralize the activity of LPS. In a subset of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, with documented infection but with a negative plasma LAL test, significant amounts of LPS were measured by the HPLC/MS/MS method. Patients with the highest plasma LPS concentration were more severely ill. HPLC/MS/MS is a relevant method to quantitate endotoxin in a sample, to assess the efficacy of LPS neutralization, and to evaluate the proinflammatory potential of LPS in vivo. PMID:26023073

  18. Fluctuations of MS births and UV-light exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, F.; Smolders, J.; Trojano, M.; Lepore, V.; Zwanikken, C.; Amato, M. P.; Grand'Maison, F.; Butzkueven, H.; Marrosu, M.; Duquette, P.; Comi, G.; Izquierdo, G.; Grammond, P.; Lus, G.; Petersen, T.; Bergamaschi, R.; Giuliani, G.; Boz, C.; Coniglio, G.; Van Pesch, V.; Lechner-Scott, J.; Cavalla, P.; Granella, F.; Avolio, C.; Fiol, M.; Poehlau, D.; Saladino, M. L.; Gallo, P.; Deri, N.; Oleschko Arruda, W.; Paine, M.; Ferro, M.; Barnett, M.; Cabrera-Gomez, J. A.; Slee, M.; Moore, F.; Shaw, C.; Petkovska-Boskova, T.; Rutherford, M.; Engelsen, O.; Damoiseaux, J.; Hupperts, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are more frequently born in spring when compared to autumn. Fluctuation of UV-light has been hypothesized to drive this phenomenon. Aim To assess the correlation between fluctuation of sunlight and birth season in persons with MS. Methods For this rec

  19. REGULATION OF AUSTRALIAN MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: LESSONS FROM THREE CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; McKenna, Michael; Rayner, Johanna; Hawes, Jazmin

    2016-03-01

    In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2016] HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. This legislation was previously heavily criticised by the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. The third concerns the deregistration of Tareq Kamleh, an Australian doctor of German-Palestinian heritage who came to public attention on ANZAC Day 2015 with his appearance online in a propaganda video for the Islamic State terrorist organisation al-Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa'al Sham, also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh. Australia's professional regulatory system should presumptively respect professional virtues, such as loyalty to the relief of individual patient suffering, when dealing with doctors (whether in Australia or ISIS-occupied Syria) working under regimes whose principles appear inconsistent with those of ethics and human rights. PMID:27323633

  20. Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Liza

    2012-02-01

    Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations. PMID:22257324

  1. Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Liza

    2012-02-01

    Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations.

  2. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  3. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  4. MS/MS/MS reveals false positive identification of histone serine methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junmei; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Zhihong; Xing, Gang; Wysocka, Joanna; Zhao, Yingming

    2010-01-01

    Methylation of lysine and arginine residues is known to play a key role in regulating histone structure and function. However, methylation of other amino acid residues in histones has not been previously described. Using exhaustive nano-HPLC/MS/MS and blind protein sequence database searches, we tentatively assigned methylation to serine 28 of histone H3 from calf thymus. The assignment was in agreement with our stringent manual verification rules, co-elution in HPLC/MS/MS with its correspond...

  5. Survival and mortality rates among Danes with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Stenager, Egon; Hansen, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    Long-term survival and trends in overall and cause-specific excess mortality among people with MS have been studied using the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, which contains information about all Danish MS patients since the mid-20th Century. A total of 4254 deaths among approximately 10......,000 people with MS, representing more than 200,000 person-years of observation, have been analysed. Overall, mortality was almost three times higher and life expectancy 10 years less among people with MS than for the general population. However, excess mortality has declined significantly since 1950....

  6. LC-MS and MS/MS in the analysis of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulot, M.; Domon, B.; Grossenbacher, H.; Guenat, C.; Maerki, W.; Müller, D. R.; Richter, W. J.

    1993-03-01

    Applicability and performance of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) is demonstrated for protein analysis. ESIMS is applied in conjunction with on-line HPLC (LC-ESlMS) and direct tandem mass spectrometry (positive and negative ion mode ESlMS/MS) to the structural characterization of a recombinant protein (r-hirudin variant 1) and a congener phosphorylated at threonine 45 (RP-1).

  7. Marine biodiversity in the Australian region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Butler

    Full Text Available The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System, but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas.

  8. Differential diagnoses to MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Friis, Tina; Modvig, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    of 643 patients were included in the study. Apart from ON, the most frequent diagnoses were tumors (n = 15), ischemic or hypertensive neuropathies (n = 13), and retinal or choroid disorders (n = 9). Six patients were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica. Rarer causes of visual loss were infections (n = 5...

  9. CT-Guided Trigeminal Neuralgia in MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Multiple sclerosis has nonspecific"nsigns in MR images and clinic and also has pain,"none of the pain syndromes in MS cases is trigeminal"nneuralgia. 12 patients of our 38 trigeminal neuralgic"npatients etiology were known as MS cases. All of them"nwere young (20-40 years old."nIntroduction: Multiple sclerosis diagnosis is by clinic,"nMRI, CSF electrophoresis and evocked potensial tests."nImaging diagnostis is not suggestive and specific but in"nthis article we show imaging help not only in diagnosis"nalso in treatment of complications. Trigeminal neuralgia"nis the worse clinical condition in M.S patients and may"npush them to addiction or suicide."nMaterials and Methods: X-ray CT machine is used for"nguidance of L.P or coaxial 10cm needle with 22G, local"nanesthesia and ethanol injection. One time treatment"nmade for all patients and they were pain free after"ninterventional drug injection. 5-6 cc bupivicain 0.5%"nand 3-4cc ethanol 96% are used for treatment."nResults: All patients were pain free and very happy"nafter treatment. One of them had pain for 12 years"nand had tried all the other treatments with no good"nresponse. No complication was seen in our treatments."n15 to 20 minutes time is needed for each examination"nor treatment."nConclusion: Despite known MS cases and relative"ndrug therapies for patients it is not possible to treat"ntrigeminal paint except using interventional therapy"nand CT-guidance is exactive and easy. There was"nno complication except irritation in the middle ear"nbecause of Eustachian tube compression by injected"nvolume of drugs

  10. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  11. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists - an Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kreshnik Hoti; Jeffery Hughes; Bruce Sunderland

    2011-01-01

    Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professional practice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australian pharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-counter medications. This review aims to identify Australian studies involving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing. Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacist prescribing were identified and considered in the context of its implementation internationally. Australian studies have mainly focused on the attitudes of com...

  12. A survey of resilience, burnout, and tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice registrars

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke Georga PE; Doust Jenny A; Steele Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Burnout and intolerance of uncertainty have been linked to low job satisfaction and lower quality patient care. While resilience is related to these concepts, no study has examined these three concepts in a cohort of doctors. The objective of this study was to measure resilience, burnout, compassion satisfaction, personal meaning in patient care and intolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice (GP) registrars. Methods We conducted a paper-based cross-sectional...

  13. Economic costs associated with an MS relapse

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, K.

    2014-09-01

    This was an prospective audit composed of medical chart review and patient questionnaire. Relapses were stratified into 3 groups: low, moderate and high intensity. Age, gender, MS subtype, disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score, disease modifying therapy (DMT) use and employment status were recorded. Direct costs included GP visits, investigations, clinic visit, consultations with medical staff, medication and admission costs. Indirect costs assessed loss of earnings, partner\\'s loss of earnings, childcare, meals and travel costs.

  14. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  15. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  16. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  17. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  18. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  19. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  20. Innovative methodology to transfer conventional GC-MS heroin profiling to UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrus, B; Broséus, J; Guillarme, D; Lebrun, P; Hubert, P; Veuthey, J-L; Esseiva, P; Rudaz, S

    2011-03-01

    Nowadays, in forensic laboratories, heroin profiling is frequently carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This analytical technique is well established, provides good sensitivity and reproducibility, and allows the use of large databases. Despite those benefits, recently introduced analytical techniques, such as ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), could offer better chromatographic performance, which needs to be considered to increase the analysis throughput for heroin profiling. With the latter, chromatographic conditions were optimized through commercial modeling software and two atmospheric pressure ionization sources were evaluated. Data obtained from UHPLC-MS/MS were thus transferred, thanks to mathematical models to mimic GC-MS data. A calibration and a validation set of representative heroin samples were selected among the database to establish a transfer methodology and assess the models' abilities to transfer using principal component analysis and hierarchical classification analysis. These abilities were evaluated by computing the frequency of successful classification of UHPLC-MS/MS data among GC-MS database. Seven mathematical models were tested to adjust UHPLC-MS/MS data to GC-MS data. A simplified mathematical model was finally selected and offered a frequency of successful transfer equal to 95%.

  1. Australian clinical guidelines for radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Health Protection Committee oversees national health protection priorities in: communicable disease outbreaks; chemical, biological or radiological incidents; mass casualty incidents; and deployment of Australian health teams overseas. The Australian Clinical Guidelines for a Radiological Event to complement existing national guidelines on chemical agents, anthrax, and smallpox. Other prompts included the need to revise the ARPANSA Guidance Manual, Medical Management of Individuals Involved in Radiation Accidents, 2000, and the requirement for specific therapeutic information regarding the indications and use of radiological decorporation agents held as part of the National Medical Stockpile. Matters identified by clinicians requiring specific guidance included: basic understanding of radiation; an approach to dose assessment; specific thresholds for initiating decorporation and other therapy; the role of gastric lavage, as contemporary practice considers this ineffective for other toxicological indications. rationale for, and detailed description of pulmonary lavage; advice on prenatal exposure to radiation; protocols for biodosimetry and other laboratory analysis. The objective was to produce a plain language guidance document for Australian clinicians on the diagnosis and management of radiation injury. It was to be based on evaluation of existing Australian documents, a literature review and consultation of appropriate specialists. Content areas included human health effects of radiation, scenario-based risk assessment and risk management, pre-hospital and hospital systems of care, management of specific injury types, radionuclide pathophysiology and decorporation protocols, biodosimetry options, individual psychological support 'and public health information, and Australian responsibilities under the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network, of the World Health Organization. The range of resources utilised in preparing the

  2. SU-E-P-03: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, a Bespoke National Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, I; Lye, J; Alves, A [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Vic (Australia); Lehmann, J [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Kenny, J [Epworth HealthCare, Richmond, VIC (Australia); Dunn, L [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Kron, T [Peter MacCallum Cancer Instit., Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, (ACDS) was a pilot program to enable the Australian Government to determine whether a locally designed audit program was suitable for mitigating dosimetric error risk to radiotherapy patients within Australia. The outcomes from four years of operations will be presented and discussed with a focus why and how the pilot requirements were met. The consequnces of success will be considered, the lessons learnt from the pilot program and how they are impacting the future ACDS design, operation and engagement with stakeholders. Methods: The ACDS was designed over 2010/11 by experts drawn from the three professions in consultation with the national Department of Health. The list of outcomes required over a three year pilot was expressed in a Memorandum of Understanding, (MoU) between Health and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which hosted the ACDS. Results: The ACDS has achieved all the MoU requirements. This paper describes how the staff within the ACDS engaged with the professional clinical workforce and provided a successful and functioning audit service. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses within the MoU and the ACDS structure and how the ACDS resolved a number of conflicting issues. It identifies the successes within the ACDS and how these were achieved. It provides details to assist and advise those seeking to design or modify national or regional auditing programs. Finally the paper reviews potential futures for the ACDS. Conclusion: The raw number of audits and outcomes indicate that the ACDS has met the MoU auditing requirements. The reasons for the ACDS’ success are highly dependent on: attracting quality staff who can respond with agility to changing situations, a high level of communication with the professional community, a high level of engagement by the community and an interested and engaged Federal Department. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service is a

  3. SU-E-P-03: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, a Bespoke National Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, (ACDS) was a pilot program to enable the Australian Government to determine whether a locally designed audit program was suitable for mitigating dosimetric error risk to radiotherapy patients within Australia. The outcomes from four years of operations will be presented and discussed with a focus why and how the pilot requirements were met. The consequnces of success will be considered, the lessons learnt from the pilot program and how they are impacting the future ACDS design, operation and engagement with stakeholders. Methods: The ACDS was designed over 2010/11 by experts drawn from the three professions in consultation with the national Department of Health. The list of outcomes required over a three year pilot was expressed in a Memorandum of Understanding, (MoU) between Health and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which hosted the ACDS. Results: The ACDS has achieved all the MoU requirements. This paper describes how the staff within the ACDS engaged with the professional clinical workforce and provided a successful and functioning audit service. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses within the MoU and the ACDS structure and how the ACDS resolved a number of conflicting issues. It identifies the successes within the ACDS and how these were achieved. It provides details to assist and advise those seeking to design or modify national or regional auditing programs. Finally the paper reviews potential futures for the ACDS. Conclusion: The raw number of audits and outcomes indicate that the ACDS has met the MoU auditing requirements. The reasons for the ACDS’ success are highly dependent on: attracting quality staff who can respond with agility to changing situations, a high level of communication with the professional community, a high level of engagement by the community and an interested and engaged Federal Department. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service is a

  4. The ethical commitment of Australian radiographers: Does medical dominance create an influence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a lack of awareness and openness surrounding ethical debate in Diagnostic Radiography literature and culture, perpetuated in part by the historical growth of the technical realm of radiography, radiology and medicine. Hence, the impact of Australian radiographers' current level of professional autonomy, combined with the influence of medical dominance and radiographers' ethical commitment was undocumented. This study investigated the role, importance and attitudes of Australian radiographers towards ethics through a qualitative study following a grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Australian. A conceptual framework mapping the causal conditions affecting the ethical commitment was developed. This study argues that a number of internal and external variables weave an intricate fabric of poor identity, subservience and negative workplace culture. Australian radiographers, whist attempting to set a standard of ethical commitment, are hindered by difficulties of medical dominance, relatively poor professional autonomy and difficulty in accepting responsibility. The presence of private radiology enterprise and the association between patient referral and money has eroded the radiographer-patient relationship and introduced the potential for unethical practice in the radiographer-radiologist-referring practitioner relationship

  5. Attitudes of Australian nurses to information technology in the workplace: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Robert; Soar, Jeffrey; Buikstra, Elizabeth; Fallon, Tony; Hegney, Desley

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the views of Australian nurses as to their use of computers in the workplace. Data were collected by questionnaires mailed to 10,000 members of the 150,000-member Australian Nursing Federation, which represents 60% of the Australian nursing workforce. The response rate was 43.3%. Computer use was 20% by assistants in nursing, rising to 75% by enrolled nurses and to more than 95% by RNs. Principal uses for the computers by the nurses were for access to patients' records and for internal communication. Most respondents (79%) agreed that the use of computers had improved information access. Only 9.4% considered that adoption of a national electronic health record would not be useful to healthcare. Fewer than 5% stated that they have no interest in computers, and 87% considered that their age was never or rarely a barrier to their use of the technology. However, not all aspects of computer introduction to nursing were positive. The proportions of respondents who considered that the use of computers had made their work easier, reduced duplication of data entry, and reduced errors in handing patient data were only 42%, 32%, and 31%, respectively. Results demonstrate a positive attitude toward information technology by Australian nurses but identify issues that must be addressed to support continued interest and engagement. PMID:21685837

  6. The ethical commitment of Australian radiographers: Does medical dominance create an influence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Sarah [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: s.lewis@fhs.usyd.edu.au; Heard, Robert [School of Behavioural and Community Health Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Robinson, John [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); White, Karolyn [Centre for Values and Ethics and the Law in Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Poulos, Ann [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)

    2008-05-15

    There is a lack of awareness and openness surrounding ethical debate in Diagnostic Radiography literature and culture, perpetuated in part by the historical growth of the technical realm of radiography, radiology and medicine. Hence, the impact of Australian radiographers' current level of professional autonomy, combined with the influence of medical dominance and radiographers' ethical commitment was undocumented. This study investigated the role, importance and attitudes of Australian radiographers towards ethics through a qualitative study following a grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Australian. A conceptual framework mapping the causal conditions affecting the ethical commitment was developed. This study argues that a number of internal and external variables weave an intricate fabric of poor identity, subservience and negative workplace culture. Australian radiographers, whist attempting to set a standard of ethical commitment, are hindered by difficulties of medical dominance, relatively poor professional autonomy and difficulty in accepting responsibility. The presence of private radiology enterprise and the association between patient referral and money has eroded the radiographer-patient relationship and introduced the potential for unethical practice in the radiographer-radiologist-referring practitioner relationship.

  7. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  8. A review of linked health data in Australian nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Sradha; Webster, Angela C; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Linked health data bring together data about one person from varying sources such as administrative health datasets, death registries and clinical registries using a process that maintains patient privacy. Linked health data have been used for burden of disease estimates and health-care planning and is being increasingly use as a research methodology to study health service utilisation and patient outcomes. Within Australian nephrology, there has been limited understanding and use of linked health data so far, but we expect that with the increasing availability of data and the growing complexity of health care, the use of such data will expand. This is especially pertinent for the growing elderly population with advanced kidney disease, who are poorly represented in other types of research studies. This article summarizes the history of linked health data in Australia, the nature of available datasets in Australia, the methods of access to these data, privacy and ethical issues, along with strengths, limitations and implications for the future.

  9. Hydrogen Rearrangement Rules: Computational MS/MS Fragmentation and Structure Elucidation Using MS-FINDER Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kind, Tobias; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yukihira, Daichi; Tanaka, Wataru; Cajka, Tomas; Saito, Kazuki; Fiehn, Oliver; Arita, Masanori

    2016-08-16

    Compound identification from accurate mass MS/MS spectra is a bottleneck for untargeted metabolomics. In this study, we propose nine rules of hydrogen rearrangement (HR) during bond cleavages in low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). These rules are based on the classic even-electron rule and cover heteroatoms and multistage fragmentation. We evaluated our HR rules by the statistics of MassBank MS/MS spectra in addition to enthalpy calculations, yielding three levels of computational MS/MS annotation: "resolved" (regular HR behavior following HR rules), "semiresolved" (irregular HR behavior), and "formula-assigned" (lacking structure assignment). With this nomenclature, 78.4% of a total of 18506 MS/MS fragment ions in the MassBank database and 84.8% of a total of 36370 MS/MS fragment ions in the GNPS database were (semi-) resolved by predicted bond cleavages. We also introduce the MS-FINDER software for structure elucidation. Molecular formulas of precursor ions are determined from accurate mass, isotope ratio, and product ion information. All isomer structures of the predicted formula are retrieved from metabolome databases, and MS/MS fragmentations are predicted in silico. The structures are ranked by a combined weighting score considering bond dissociation energies, mass accuracies, fragment linkages, and, most importantly, nine HR rules. The program was validated by its ability to correctly calculate molecular formulas with 98.0% accuracy for 5063 MassBank MS/MS records and to yield the correct structural isomer with 82.1% accuracy within the top-3 candidates. In a test with 936 manually identified spectra from an untargeted HILIC-QTOF MS data set of human plasma, formulas were correctly predicted in 90.4% of the cases, and the correct isomer structure was retrieved at 80.4% probability within the top-3 candidates, including for compounds that were absent in mass spectral libraries. The MS-FINDER software is freely available at http

  10. Hydrogen Rearrangement Rules: Computational MS/MS Fragmentation and Structure Elucidation Using MS-FINDER Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kind, Tobias; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yukihira, Daichi; Tanaka, Wataru; Cajka, Tomas; Saito, Kazuki; Fiehn, Oliver; Arita, Masanori

    2016-08-16

    Compound identification from accurate mass MS/MS spectra is a bottleneck for untargeted metabolomics. In this study, we propose nine rules of hydrogen rearrangement (HR) during bond cleavages in low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). These rules are based on the classic even-electron rule and cover heteroatoms and multistage fragmentation. We evaluated our HR rules by the statistics of MassBank MS/MS spectra in addition to enthalpy calculations, yielding three levels of computational MS/MS annotation: "resolved" (regular HR behavior following HR rules), "semiresolved" (irregular HR behavior), and "formula-assigned" (lacking structure assignment). With this nomenclature, 78.4% of a total of 18506 MS/MS fragment ions in the MassBank database and 84.8% of a total of 36370 MS/MS fragment ions in the GNPS database were (semi-) resolved by predicted bond cleavages. We also introduce the MS-FINDER software for structure elucidation. Molecular formulas of precursor ions are determined from accurate mass, isotope ratio, and product ion information. All isomer structures of the predicted formula are retrieved from metabolome databases, and MS/MS fragmentations are predicted in silico. The structures are ranked by a combined weighting score considering bond dissociation energies, mass accuracies, fragment linkages, and, most importantly, nine HR rules. The program was validated by its ability to correctly calculate molecular formulas with 98.0% accuracy for 5063 MassBank MS/MS records and to yield the correct structural isomer with 82.1% accuracy within the top-3 candidates. In a test with 936 manually identified spectra from an untargeted HILIC-QTOF MS data set of human plasma, formulas were correctly predicted in 90.4% of the cases, and the correct isomer structure was retrieved at 80.4% probability within the top-3 candidates, including for compounds that were absent in mass spectral libraries. The MS-FINDER software is freely available at http://prime.psc.riken.jp/ .

  11. Socially responsible genetic research with descendants of the First Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy

  12. If you can't comply with dialysis, how do you expect me to trust you with transplantation? Australian nephrologists' views on indigenous Australians' 'non-compliance' and their suitability for kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kate

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Indigenous Australians suffer markedly higher rates of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD but are less likely than their non-Indigenous counterparts to receive a transplant. This difference is not fully explained by measurable clinical differences. Previous work suggests that Indigenous Australian patients may be regarded by treating specialists as 'non-compliers', which may negatively impact on referral for a transplant. However, this decision-making is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate: whether Indigenous patients are commonly characterised as 'non-compliers'; how estimations of patient compliance factor into Australian nephrologists' decision-making about transplant referral; and whether this may pose a particular barrier for Indigenous patients accessing transplants. Methods Nineteen nephrologists, from eight renal units treating the majority of Indigenous Australian renal patients, were interviewed in 2005-06 as part of a larger study. Thematic analysis was undertaken to investigate how compliance factors in specialists' decision-making, and its implications for Indigenous patients' likelihood of obtaining transplants. Results Specialists commonly identified Indigenous patients as both non-compliers and high-risk transplant candidates. Definition and assessment of 'compliance' was neither formal nor systematic. There was uncertainty about the value of compliance status in predicting post-transplant outcomes and the issue of organ scarcity permeated participants' responses. Overall, there was marked variation in how specialists weighed perceptions of compliance and risk in their decision-making. Conclusion Reliance on notions of patient 'compliance' in decision-making for transplant referral is likely to result in continuing disadvantage for Indigenous Australian ESKD patients. In the absence of robust evidence on predictors of post-transplant outcomes, referral decision-making processes

  13. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to single-particle ICP-MS for the simultaneous characterization of AgNPs and determination of dissolved Ag in plasma and blood of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mičetić, Ivan; Benetti, Federico; Manodori, Laura; Cairns, Warren R L

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in medical devices as innovative antibacterial agents, but no data are currently available on their chemical transformations and fate in vivo in the human body, particularly on their potential to reach the circulatory system. To study the processes involving AgNPs in human plasma and blood, we developed an analytical method based on hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in single-particle detection mode. An innovative algorithm was implemented to deconvolute the signals of dissolved Ag and AgNPs and to extrapolate a multiparametric characterization of the particles in the same chromatogram. From a single injection, the method provides the concentration of dissolved Ag and the distribution of AgNPs in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, mass-derived diameter, number and mass concentration. This analytical approach is robust and suitable to study quantitatively the dynamics and kinetics of AgNPs in complex biological fluids, including processes such as agglomeration, dissolution and formation of protein coronas. The method was applied to study the transformations of AgNP standards and an AgNP-coated dressing in human plasma, supported by micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES) speciation analysis and imaging, and to investigate, for the first time, the possible presence of AgNPs in the blood of three burn patients treated with the same dressing. Together with our previous studies, the results strongly support the hypothesis that the systemic mobilization of the metal after topical administration of AgNPs is driven by their dissolution in situ. Graphical Abstract Simplified scheme of the combined analytical approach adopted for studying the chemical dynamics of AgNPs in human plasma/blood.

  14. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to single-particle ICP-MS for the simultaneous characterization of AgNPs and determination of dissolved Ag in plasma and blood of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mičetić, Ivan; Benetti, Federico; Manodori, Laura; Cairns, Warren R L

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in medical devices as innovative antibacterial agents, but no data are currently available on their chemical transformations and fate in vivo in the human body, particularly on their potential to reach the circulatory system. To study the processes involving AgNPs in human plasma and blood, we developed an analytical method based on hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in single-particle detection mode. An innovative algorithm was implemented to deconvolute the signals of dissolved Ag and AgNPs and to extrapolate a multiparametric characterization of the particles in the same chromatogram. From a single injection, the method provides the concentration of dissolved Ag and the distribution of AgNPs in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, mass-derived diameter, number and mass concentration. This analytical approach is robust and suitable to study quantitatively the dynamics and kinetics of AgNPs in complex biological fluids, including processes such as agglomeration, dissolution and formation of protein coronas. The method was applied to study the transformations of AgNP standards and an AgNP-coated dressing in human plasma, supported by micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES) speciation analysis and imaging, and to investigate, for the first time, the possible presence of AgNPs in the blood of three burn patients treated with the same dressing. Together with our previous studies, the results strongly support the hypothesis that the systemic mobilization of the metal after topical administration of AgNPs is driven by their dissolution in situ. Graphical Abstract Simplified scheme of the combined analytical approach adopted for studying the chemical dynamics of AgNPs in human plasma/blood. PMID:26396079

  15. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  16. The implementation of diagnostic reference levels to Australian radiology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At the presen time, there is no national surveillance of the increasing ionising radiation dose to the population from diagnostic imaging procedures. As the number of procedures undertaken is increasing, it is expected that the population dose will also increase. A substantial component of that contribution is from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) systems. The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) estimates that the growth in MDCT scans, based on Medicare Benefits Sch due data, is increasing at approximately 9% per annum, with over 2 million DCT scans being performed in 2009. The caput effective dose (mSv) from this modality is expected to be approaching 1.2 mSv per annum. If cu nt dose-detriment models are accurate, the risk of induction of carcinogenic detriment from current MDCT scanning patterns is a significant public health issue that requires a concerted and ongoing response. For the application of ionising radiation in medicine, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends the conservative philosophy of Justification and Optimisation via the measurement of 'Diagnostic Reference Levels' to limit the potential overexposure of patients and decrease the overall population burden. The Australian government has commissioned ARPANSA to survey, calculate and construct representative national diagnostic reference levels for diagnostic imaging modalities that use ionising radiation. This will be achieved in close consultation with the professional organisations who represent the professionals responsible for the use of ionising radiation in diagnostic imaging.

  17. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-01

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the `Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1—monochromatic and white—to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  18. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Stay Informed Corporate Support Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Home What Is MS? Types of ... resources. Start Here Start Here Colophon Join Us Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Pinterest MS Connection Stay Informed ...

  19. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G J; Class, Thomas J; Pinheiro, Nathalie Costa

    2016-02-17

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For LC-MS/MS, sample preparation involved an ultrafiltration followed by chromatography on an anion exchange column. The analysis by GC-MS/MS involved an extraction step, cleanup on a cation exchange column, and derivatization with heptafluorobutanol and trifluoroacetic acid anhydride. Both methods were newly developed for breast milk and are able to quantify glyphosate residues at concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL. The methods were applied to quantify glyphosate levels in 114 breast milk samples, which had been collected from August to September of 2015 in Germany. The mothers participated at their own request and thus do not form a representative sample. In none of the investigated samples were glyphosate residues above the limit of detection found.

  20. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Special Events Corporate Support Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Home What Is MS? Types of ... resources. Start Here Start Here Colophon Join Us Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Pinterest MS Connection Stay Informed ...

  1. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy. PMID:10537568

  2. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  3. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  4. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  5. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  6. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  7. Anglo-Australian Observatory August 2009 newsletter

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbie, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The August 2009 edition of the AAO newsletter contains articles on observations of the lunar impact of the Kaguya satellite, mapping the ISM towards Omega Centauri, early results from the Anglo-Australian Rocky Planet search, details of a new AAOmega observing mode, the new telescope control system and a number of regular features.

  8. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  9. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  10. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  11. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with draft…

  12. Indigenous Australian Artworks in Intercultural Contact Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Eleanore Wildurger

    2009-01-01

    This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998), by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my arg ument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I wil l argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural und erstanding and competence.

  13. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB...

  14. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  15. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  16. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  17. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  18. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  19. Stress in the Indo-Australian plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Wortel, R.

    1986-01-01

    We modelled the state of stress in the Indo-Australian plate in order to investigate quantitatively variations observed in tectonic style. The numerical procedure incorporates the dependence of slab pull and ridge push on the age of the oceanic lithosphere. Estimates are presented for the average ne

  20. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  1. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  2. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  3. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  4. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  5. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  6. Scholarly Communication Costs in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, John W

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and application of a model used to estimate the costs of scholarly communication (i.e. scholarly publishing and related activities) in Australian higher education. A systems perspective was used to frame a review of the literature on the costs involved in the entire scholarly communication value chain and…

  7. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  8. Clinically meaningful performance benchmarks in MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Scagnelli, John; Pula, John H.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify and validate clinically meaningful Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) performance benchmarks in individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 159 MS patients first identified candidate T25FW benchmarks. To characterize the clinical meaningfulness of T25FW benchmarks, we ascertained their relationships to real-life anchors, functional independence, and physiologic measurements of gait and disease progression. Candidate T25FW benchmarks were then prospectively validated in 95 subjects using 13 measures of ambulation and cognition, patient-reported outcomes, and optical coherence tomography. Results: T25FW of 6 to 7.99 seconds was associated with a change in occupation due to MS, occupational disability, walking with a cane, and needing “some help” with instrumental activities of daily living; T25FW ≥8 seconds was associated with collecting Supplemental Security Income and government health care, walking with a walker, and inability to do instrumental activities of daily living. During prospective benchmark validation, we trichotomized data by T25FW benchmarks (10 seconds) ranges of performance. PMID:24174581

  9. Subsidized optimal ART for HIV-positive temporary residents of Australia improves virological outcomes: results from the Australian HIV Observational Database Temporary Residents Access Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy Petoumenos; Jo Watson; Bill Whittaker; Jennifer Hoy; Don Smith; Lisa Bastian; Robert Finlayson; Andrew Sloane; Wright, Stephen T.; Hamish McManus; Law, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HIV-positive (HIV+) temporary residents living in Australia legally are unable to access government subsidized antiretroviral treatment (ART) which is provided via Medicare to Australian citizens and permanent residents. Currently, there is no information systematically being collected on non-Medicare eligible HIV+ patients in Australia. The objectives of this study are to describe the population recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) Temporary Residents A...

  10. Qualitative identification of rodenticide anticoagulants by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleberg, Robert A; Homan, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Rodenticide anticoagulants are used in the control of rodent populations. In addition to accidental ingestions in humans, such agents have also been used for homicidal and suicidal purposes. There are two major groups of rodenticide anticoagulants - hydroxycoumarins and indanediones. Before the advent of LC-MS/MS, analysis for such agents was relegated to such techniques as TLC and HPLC with nonspecific modes of detection. LC-MS/MS has been used to determine any given number of rodenticide anticoagulants in animal tissues, foods, plasma, etc. Use of this technique allows for the simultaneous identification of individual compounds within both classes of rodenticide anticoagulants. The LC-MS/MS method presented allows for simultaneous qualitative identification of brodifacoum, bromadiolone, chlorphacinone, dicumarol, difenacoum, diphacinone, and warfarin in blood, serum, and plasma using ESI in the negative mode. Two transitions are monitored for each analyte after a simple sample preparation. Chromatographic separation is accomplished using a gradient of ammonium hydroxide in water and ammonium hydroxide in methanol. Chloro-warfarin is used as internal standard. PMID:22767114

  11. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fibers themselves. During these inflammatory attacks, activated immune cells cause small, localized areas of damage which produce ... MRI) scans, and these lesions contain more inflammatory cells. People with primary progressive MS (PPMS) tend to ...

  12. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 20s and 30s (although it can occur in childhood or later adulthood), while the onset of PPMS ... progressive forms of MS are more likely to experience gradually worsening problems with walking and mobility, along ...

  13. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicines For Clinicians Resources & Support Family Matters Library & Education Programs Find Support Insurance & Financial Information Living with Advanced MS Employment Resources for Specific Populations Find Programs & Services in ...

  14. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Home What Is MS? ... RRMS) Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this article Overview RRMS – the most common disease course – ...

  15. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... working effectively. How does RRMS differ from progressive types of MS? While RRMS is defined by attacks ... bowel and bladder problems, and problems with cognition (learning and memory or information processing). People with progressive ...

  16. MS Disease-Modifying Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better, they can be looked upon as an investment in the future. Clinical studies have demonstrated that ... org or 1-800-344-4867. The Society publishes many other resources about various aspects of MS. ...

  17. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... membranes surrounding nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS)), as well as the nerve fibers themselves. ... and problems with cognition (learning and memory or information processing). People with progressive forms of MS are ...

  18. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you and your MS care provider discuss your treatment options and expected outcomes. For example: If you ... will likely want to consider a more aggressive treatment approach than if there were no evidence of ...

  19. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CIS) Newly Diagnosed Diagnosing Tools Other Conditions to Rule Out For Clinicians Treating MS Comprehensive Care Find ... inflammation. People with RRMS tend to have more brain lesions — also called plaques or scars — on magnetic ...

  20. Medical negligence and wrongful birth actions: Australian developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K

    1997-10-01

    Wrongful birth actions aim to compensate litigants who are negligently deprived by health professionals of their right to reproductive choice. Access to safe and legal abortion is integral to the action and wrongful birth claims in the United Kingdom have been facilitated by the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended). The recent Australian case CES v Superclinics (1995) 38 NSWLR 47 shows how judicial confusion about the legality of abortion can result in judges condoning medical negligence. The Superclinics case also suggests that doctors are not required to provide pregnant women with the same standard of care as other patients. These developments show that law can become incoherent and health professionals can act negligently with impunity when reproductive choice does not have a secure legal foundation. PMID:9358354

  1. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  2. Management of people with acute low-back pain: a survey of Australian chiropractors

    OpenAIRE

    Walker Bruce F; French Simon D; Page Matthew J; O'Connor Denise A; McKenzie Joanne E; Beringer Katherine; Murphy Kerry; Keating Jenny L; Michie Susan; Francis Jill J; Green Sally E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Chiropractors commonly provide care to people with acute low-back pain (LBP). The aim of this survey was to determine how chiropractors intend to support and manage people with acute LBP and if this management is in accordance with two recommendations from an Australian evidence-based acute LBP guideline. The two recommendations were directed at minimising the use of plain x-ray and encouraging the patient to stay active. Methods This is a cross sectional survey of chiro...

  3. Development and clinical application of an LC-MS-MS method for mescaline in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnstad, Kristian; Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof

    2008-04-01

    Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethylamine) is an hallucinogenic psychoactive substance present in several species of cacti. Mescaline has a documented use dating back 5700 years. In more recent years, the interest in hallucinogenic designer drugs such as ecstasy has also triggered interest in the naturally occurring mescaline. This study was undertaken to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the screening and confirmation of mescaline in human urine samples and to apply this method to routine testing in patient samples. For the screening procedure, chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5-microm HyPURITY C(18) column, using a methanol gradient in ammonium acetate buffer. The MS-MS analysis was performed using selected reaction monitoring; the transitions monitored were m/z 212.3 --> m/z 180.3 for mescaline and m/z 221.3 --> m/z 186.3 for the deuterated internal standard (mescaline-d(9)). The detection limit for mescaline in urine matrix was 3-5 microg/L, the upper limit of quantification was 10,000 microg/L, and the total coefficient of variation for spiked samples containing 10 to 1025 microg/L was mescaline (m/z 212.3 --> m/z 195.2) was monitored. The LC-MS-MS method was found to be sensitive and specific for the routine detection of mescaline in urine. Among 462 urine samples collected from young people with alcohol or drug problems, 32% were positive for illicit drugs, but none for mescaline.

  4. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  5. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  6. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  7. Development of a national burn network: providing a co-ordinated response to a burn mass casualty disaster within the Australian health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Robertson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of terrorist activity ever present since the incidents in Bali and Jakarta, the Australian health system must be prepared to manage another mass burn casualty disaster. The Australian and New Zealand Burns Association (ANZBA highlighted the lack of a national burn disaster response before the 2000 Olympics. With the limited number of burn beds available and the protracted length of stay after such injuries, any state or territory could be overwhelmed with relatively few patient admissions. In 2002, the Australian Health Minister's Conference called for a solution. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the process and development of the Australian National Burn Network, which underpins the National Burn Disaster Response (AUSBURNPLAN.

  8. Inventories in the Australian business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This Economics Research Note examines inventories in the business cycle for Australia covering the period since the mid 1980s. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) defines inventories as all materials etc., work in progress and finished goods owned by a business, whether held at locations of the business or elsewhere. These items are usually held by businesses in anticipation of a product’s sale. Inventory investment is counted as an additional contribution to gross domestic product (...

  9. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, th...

  10. Assessing the Research Performance of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Worthington, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies new classifications of Australian universities based on their total and per-academic staff research outputs using the data for the period 1998-2002. We define research performance in terms of audited numbers of PhD completions, publications and grants (in accordance with rules established by the Department of Education, Science and Training). Our analysis indicates that (a) the highest achievers consists of the seven Group of Eight (Go8) universities; (b) the top-three...

  11. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Hearfield; Brian Dollery

    2009-01-01

    In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more...

  12. The Australian Credit Default Swap Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Fabbro

    2011-01-01

    The Australian credit default swap (CDS) market has been increasingly used by financial institutions to trade and manage credit risk. As a result, there has been greater use of the market as a source of credit risk pricing information. Similarities between CDS and bonds allow pricing in the two markets to be compared. However, the CDS market has a greater tendency at times to be affected by poor liquidity, which complicates the interpretation of CDS pricing, particularly when there are large ...

  13. New Measures of Australian Corporate Credit Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Ivailo Arsov; Matthew Brooks; Mitch Kosev

    2013-01-01

    Australian corporations access bond markets both domestically and offshore. Despite this, there is a lack of publicly available data on bond market conditions faced by non-financial corporations (NFCs). This gap in the data is particularly apparent at longer maturities where the low level of bond issuance, especially in the domestic market, makes it difficult to gauge the long-term credit spreads faced by resident issuers. To address this lack of data, the article presents a method for estima...

  14. Ownership Structure and Corporate Performance: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Fishman; Gerard Gannon; Russell Vinning

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the relationship between ownership structure and corporate performance for fifty firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange during 2002-2003. The study initially tests a two equation model similar to that in the existing literature, but is distinguished from prior literature by subsequently reclassifying leverage. By categorising leverage as an endogenous variable, an examination of the relationship between ownership and performance is undertaken through ordinar...

  15. Australian Eager to Enter China's LNG Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han

    2002-01-01

    @@ Australian Trade Minister Mark Vaile made a trip to China, Japan and Republic of Korea in mid-April in an attempt to locate potential users for LNG from the northwestern continental shelf of the country.Australia has made tenacious efforts for the annual 3-million-ton LNG supply project in China's Guangdong Province. In addition, Australia also hopes to have more users in Japan and Republic of Korea.

  16. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) is a joint venture between the Australian mining industry through the Australian Mineral Industries Research Association Ltd. (AMIRA) and three of the organizations working most actively in this area in Australia: CSIRO Minesite Rehabilitation Research Program; University of Queensland Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation; and Curtin University Mulga Research Centre. The ACMRR was established in July 1993 to provide a national framework to conduct Strategic Research into minesite rehabilitation. It is an industry led and funded initiative. The Goals of the Centre include: to conduct strategic research into minesite rehabilitation to provide sustainable environmental solutions which are acceptable to industry, government and the community; to be recognized as a center of excellence undertaking commissioned research on minesite rehabilitation in an independent and thorough manner; to provide scientific and technological foundations to facilitate industry and government in setting acceptable standards; to act as networking and communications focus; and to enhance education and training in minesite rehabilitation. Strategic Research Programs in: Water Systems--downstream surface and groundwater quality; Land--the long-term behavior and stability of constructed landforms; Ecosystems--the long-term sustainability of constructed landforms; Waste--the long-term treatment and disposal of waste products; will allow the ACMRR to achieve these goals through specific research projects in these areas, developed with industry sponsors. This paper will discuss their progress to date, research projects underway, and plans for the future

  17. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  18. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  19. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  20. Effects of exercise on fitness and cognition in progressive MS: a randomized, controlled pilot trial

    OpenAIRE

    Briken, S.; Gold, S M; S. Patra; Vettorazzi, E; Harbs, D.; Tallner, Alexander; Ketels, G.; Schulz, K. H.; Heesen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exercise may have beneficial effects on both well-being and walking ability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise is shown to be neuroprotective in rodents and may also enhance cognitive function in humans. It may, therefore, be particularly useful for MS patients with pronounced neurodegeneration. Objective: To investigate the potential of standardized exercise as a therapeutic intervention for progressive MS, in a randomized-controlled pilot trial. Methods: Patients with pr...

  1. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  2. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  3. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  4. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  5. Feasibility of implementing routine nutritional screening for older adults in Australian general practices: a mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamirudin, Aliza Haslinda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; Bonney, Andrew; Potter, Jan; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Hodgkins, Adam; Albert, George; Ghosh, Abhijeet; Dalley, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition screening in older adults is not routinely performed in Australian primary care settings. Low awareness of the extent of malnutrition in this patient group, lack of training and time constraints are major barriers that practice staff face. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of including a validated nutrition screening tool and accompanying nutrition resource kit for use with older patients attending general practice. Secondary aims were to assess nutrition-re...

  6. Method-MS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometric determination methods, such as alpha spectrometry require long counting times when low activities are to be determined. Mass spectrometric techniques as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) have shown several advantages compared to traditional methods when measuring long-lived radionuclides. Mass spectrometric methods for determination of very low concentrations of elemental isotopes, and thereby isotopic ratios, have been developed using a variety of ion sources. Although primarily applied to the determination of the lighter stable element isotopes and radioactive isotopes in geological studies, the techniques can equally well be applied to the measurement of activity concentrations of long-lived low-level radionuclides in various samples using 'isotope dilution' methods such as those applied in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to the low specific activity of long-lived radionuclides, many of these are more conveniently detected using mass spectrometric techniques. Mass spectrometry also enables the individual determination of Pu-239 and Pu-240, which cannot be obtained by alpha spectrometry. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) are rapidly growing techniques for the ultra-trace analytical determination of stable and long-lived isotopes and have a wide potential within environmental science, including ecosystem tracers and radio ecological studies. Such instrumentation, of course needs good radiochemical separation, to give best performance. The objectives of the project is to identify current needs and problems within low-level determination of long-lived radioisotopes by ICP-MS, to perform intercalibration and development and improvement of ICP-MS methods for the measurement of radionuclides and isotope ratios and to develop new methods based on modified separation chemistry applied to new auxiliary

  7. Method-MS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Popic, J.M. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Science (UMB), Isotope Lab. (Norway)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Salminen, S. (Univ. of Helsinki (UH) (Finland)); Nygren, U. (Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden)); Sigmarsson, O.; Palsson, S.E. (Univ. of Iceland/Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland))

    2011-05-15

    Radiometric determination methods, such as alpha spectrometry require long counting times when low activities are to be determined. Mass spectrometric techniques as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) have shown several advantages compared to traditional methods when measuring long-lived radionuclides. Mass spectrometric methods for determination of very low concentrations of elemental isotopes, and thereby isotopic ratios, have been developed using a variety of ion sources. Although primarily applied to the determination of the lighter stable element isotopes and radioactive isotopes in geological studies, the techniques can equally well be applied to the measurement of activity concentrations of long-lived low-level radionuclides in various samples using 'isotope dilution' methods such as those applied in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to the low specific activity of long-lived radionuclides, many of these are more conveniently detected using mass spectrometric techniques. Mass spectrometry also enables the individual determination of Pu-239 and Pu-240, which cannot be obtained by alpha spectrometry. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) are rapidly growing techniques for the ultra-trace analytical determination of stable and long-lived isotopes and have a wide potential within environmental science, including ecosystem tracers and radio ecological studies. Such instrumentation, of course needs good radiochemical separation, to give best performance. The objectives of the project is to identify current needs and problems within low-level determination of long-lived radioisotopes by ICP-MS, to perform intercalibration and development and improvement of ICP-MS methods for the measurement of radionuclides and isotope ratios and to develop new methods based on modified separation chemistry applied to new

  8. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  9. What Do We Know about the Chancellors of Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Bernard; Petzall, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    This research attempts to explore the key social characteristics and demographics of Australian chancellors to determine who they are and where they come from. The chancellor of an Australian university wields an enormous amount of power, from overseeing the appointment of the Vice-Chancellor (VC) to fulfilling various statutory requirements.…

  10. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  11. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  12. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  13. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  14. The Teaching of First Year Economics in Australian Universities*

    OpenAIRE

    Nilss Olekalns

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys current pedagogical practice in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics and microeconomics in Australian universities. Survey results are presented detailing lecturers’ approaches to their teaching over 2001 and other aspects of their teaching environment. A comparison of the content and methodology of the main textbooks used in Australian introductory economic courses is also presented.

  15. An Australian Story: School Sustainability Education in the Lucky Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Zarin; Venville, Grady; Longnecker, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents a case study involving a Perth primary school accompanied on its sustainability journey by Millennium Kids Inc, a local not-for-profit community organisation. Tension between the school's sustainability focus, its prestige as an elite private school and a "lucky country" mentality frames the Australian-ness of this…

  16. Educational and Institutional Flexibility of Australian Educational Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurville, Simon; O'Grady, Thomas; Mayall, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide context for papers in this special issue on Australasian e-learning. The paper aims to examine the background to Australian flexible and transnational education and to evaluate the educational and intuitional flexibility of three typical products of the Australian educational software industry.…

  17. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  18. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  19. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  20. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  1. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region. (author)

  2. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology (ASNT) was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region

  3. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  4. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  5. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  6. Fast LC-MS/MS analysis of tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus and cyclosporin A in dried blood spots and the influence of the hematocrit and immunosuppressant concentration on recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; Uges, Donald R. A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method for the analysis of four immunosuppressants in dried blood spot (DBS) samples to facilitate therapeutic drug monitoring for transplant patients outside the hospital. An 8 mm disc from the central part of the DBS was punched, extracted and followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The meth

  7. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  8. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  9. A Rapid Screening Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Native Australian Food Plants Using Multiplexed Detection with Active Flow Technology Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Janaka Rochana Rupesinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional techniques for identifying antioxidant and phenolic compounds in native Australian food plants are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a multiplexed detection technique that reduces analysis time without compromising separation performance. This technique is achieved using Active Flow Technology-Parallel Segmented Flow (AFT-PSF columns. Extracts from cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora leaves were analysed via multiplexed detection using an AFT-PSF column with underivatised UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy (MS, and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• derivatisation for antioxidants as detection methods. A number of antioxidant compounds were detected in the extracts of each leaf extract.

  10. Determination of drugs in hair using GC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, M

    1997-01-17

    An important task for the forensic toxicologist and expert witness is the detection of the noxa in biological matrices. Because of this, the identification and quantification of residues of illegal drugs in human hair is still of growing interest. Utilizing the advantages of GC/MS/MS testing human hair is performed for most common drugs of abuse like heroin and other opioides, cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine derivatives. Analyzing hair specimens for substances that present a toxicological risk is another challenge. Several quality control parameters must be observed to avoid false positive or false negative results and to gain additional information. Blank sample, blank hair as well as the combined wash extracts are tested for the presence of the relevant compounds within every series. Careful evaluation of the findings can provide an approximate measure of the intensity of drug use in the majority of cases.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Australian echidna [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Australian echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Prototheria Tachygloss...us_aculeatus_L.png Tachyglossus_aculeatus_NL.png Tachyglossus_aculeatus_S.png Tachyglossus_aculeat...us_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=NS ...

  12. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Nunan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated for distance education in university teaching and learning in Australia.

  13. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  14. Nuclear geophysiology: Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock introduced the term 'geophysiology' to describe the holistic study of the Earth systems. By analogy with medicine, and the corresponding field of nuclear medicine, 'nuclear geophysiology' describes the application of nuclear techniques to Earth system science. Injections of radioisotopes into the Earth's systems occur naturally and continuously, while artificial radionuclides have been injected at times as a result of human activities. Here, we provide some examples of Australian investigations into the physiology of the Earth derived from the study of these isotopes. (author)

  15. Stress in the Indo-Australian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetingh, Sierd; Wortel, Rinus

    1986-12-01

    We modelled the state of stress in the Indo-Australian plate in order to investigate quantitatively variations observed in tectonic style. The numerical procedure incorporates the dependence of slab pull and ridge push on the age of the oceanic lithosphere. Estimates are presented for the average net resistive forces at the Himalayan collision zone, the suction force acting on the overriding Indo-Australian plate segment at the Tonga-Kermadec trench and the drag at the base of the lithosphere. Our modelling shows a concentration of compressive stresses of the order of 3-5 kbar in the Ninetyeast Ridge area; the effects of the compressive resistance associated with Himalayan collision and subduction of young lithosphere off the northern part of the Sunda arc are focused in this region. The stress field as calculated gives a consistent explanation for the observed concentration of seismic activity (Stein and Okal, 1978) and significant deformation in the oceanic crust (Weissel et al., 1980; McAdoo and Sandwell, 1985) in the area. The calculated stress field in the area adjacent to the Southeast and Central India ridges is characterized by tension parallel to the spreading axis. This explains the concentration of near-ridge normal faulting seismicity (with T-axes subparallel to the spreading ridge) in the Indian Ocean as recently observed by Bergman et al. (1984) and Wiens and Stein (1984). The regional stress field along the strike of the Sunda arc varies from compression seaward of and parallel to the Sumatra trench segment, to tension perpendicular to the Java-Flores segment. This explains the selective occurrence of well developed grabens seaward off the Java-Flores segment of the trench, observed by Hilde (1983). Our modelling shows that the observed rotation of the stress field (Denham et al., 1979) in the Australian continent is mainly the consequence of its geographic position relative to the surrounding trench segments and the variations of the forces acting

  16. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  17. Australian human and parrot Chlamydia psittaci strains cluster within the highly virulent 6BC clade of this important zoonotic pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branley, James; Bachmann, Nathan L.; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S. A.; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere. PMID:27488134

  18. Australian human and parrot Chlamydia psittaci strains cluster within the highly virulent 6BC clade of this important zoonotic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branley, James; Bachmann, Nathan L; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere. PMID:27488134

  19. Analysis of Marine Biotoxins Using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Bernd; Erler, Katrin; Krock, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Different clinical types of algae-related poisoning have attracted scientific and commercial attention: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Bioassays are common methods for the determination of marine biotoxins. However, biological tests are not completely satisfactory, mainly due to the low sensitivity and the absence of specialized variations. In this context LC-MS methods replaced HPLC methods with optical detectors, allowing both effective seafood control and monitoring of phytoplankton in terms of the different groups of marine biotoxins. This chapter describes state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantitation of different classes of phycotoxins in shellfish matrices. These classes include the highly hydrophilic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has been shown to be useful in the separation of PSP toxins and is described in detail within this chapter. Another important class of phycotoxins is diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. This group traditionally comprises okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), and yessotoxins (YTXs). The most recently described shellfish poisoning syndrome, azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) is caused by azaspiracids, which in turn are diarrhetic, but usually are treated separately as AZP. The last group of regulated shellfish toxins is the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid, produced by species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

  20. Analysis of Marine Biotoxins Using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Bernd; Erler, Katrin; Krock, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Different clinical types of algae-related poisoning have attracted scientific and commercial attention: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Bioassays are common methods for the determination of marine biotoxins. However, biological tests are not completely satisfactory, mainly due to the low sensitivity and the absence of specialized variations. In this context LC-MS methods replaced HPLC methods with optical detectors, allowing both effective seafood control and monitoring of phytoplankton in terms of the different groups of marine biotoxins. This chapter describes state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantitation of different classes of phycotoxins in shellfish matrices. These classes include the highly hydrophilic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has been shown to be useful in the separation of PSP toxins and is described in detail within this chapter. Another important class of phycotoxins is diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. This group traditionally comprises okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), and yessotoxins (YTXs). The most recently described shellfish poisoning syndrome, azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) is caused by azaspiracids, which in turn are diarrhetic, but usually are treated separately as AZP. The last group of regulated shellfish toxins is the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid, produced by species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. PMID:26108513

  1. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  2. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  3. 24 CFR Appendix Ms-2 to Part 3500 - Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT Pt. 3500, App. MS-2 Appendix MS-2 to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500 MS Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  4. 24 CFR Appendix Ms-1 to Part 3500 - Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT Pt. 3500, App. MS-1 Appendix MS-1 to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500 MS Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  5. Analytical Method Details (MS): SE24_MS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE24_MS1 LC-FTICR-MS Analysis (Positive) LC, Agilent 1200 series (Agilent); MS, Sol...sample (1 uL) was analyzed using LC-FTICR-MS (LC, Agilent 1200 series; MS, Bruker Daltonics solarix 7.0 T).

  6. Stopping immunomodulatory medications in MS: Frequency, reasons and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, W O; Weinshenker, B G

    2015-09-01

    Prolonged periods of disease quiescence during long term treatment of patients with clinically isolated syndrome and MS may prompt consideration of discontinuing disease-modifying therapy (DMT). We reviewed pertinent studies to identify the frequency and reasons for discontinuation of DMT. PMID:26346792

  7. The potential for an Australian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of uranium and its part upgrading to enriched uranium for export could be equivalent to 20-25 per cent of Australia's future export income from coal. Australia could be supplying 15,000 tonnes U/yr. and enrichment services of 2.5 million SWU/yr. by 2000. The principles of nuclear energy, nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle are described and the relationship between nuclear power and the requirements for uranium and the other steps in the fuel cycle is discussed. Estimates are given of the future world supply-demand balance for each step in the fuel cycle. A survey is made of world uranium resources and fuel cycle upgrading facilities. The costs of production and pricing are assessed in relation to the potential for an Australian industry. Comments are made on the possibility that Australia could provide the repository for both low-level radioactive waste from small countries and the bulk of the world's high level waste. The impact of a uranium industry on the Australian economy is discussed

  8. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  9. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis.

  10. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  11. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour Stuart

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  12. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  13. Analysis of 136 pesticides in avocado using a modified QuEChERS method with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkasem, Narong; Ollis, Lisa W; Harmon, Tiffany; Lee, Sookwang; Mercer, Greg

    2013-03-13

    A simple and high-throughput screening method for the analysis of 136 pesticides in avocado ( Persea americana ) by LC-(+)-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS is presented. A modified QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to improve the extraction recovery of highly lipophilic pesticides. Extracts from minced avocados after acetonitrile (MeCN) extraction were directly injected to LC-MS/MS, whereas other GC-amenable compounds were treated with the modified QuEChERS procedure for GC-MS/MS analysis. The average recoveries for 79 pesticides quantified by LC-MS/MS at 10, 50, and 200 ng/g fortifying levels were 86.1% or better (with maximum RSD at 9.2%), whereas GC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated 70.2% or better (RSD < 18%) for average recovery from 57 compounds at the same spike levels. The application of LC- and GC-MS/MS combined with the improved extraction procedures led to the current method, which can quantitate these pesticides even if they are present in avocados below the targeted action level by FDA. This method demonstrated the improved recovery of several challenging lipophilic pesticides in highly fat-rich avocados. PMID:23362971

  14. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G;

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the associ......Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated...... the association of HLA alleles and KIR ligands according to OCB status in MS patients (n=3876). Specific KIR ligands were associated with patients when compared to controls (n=3148), supporting a role for NK cells in MS pathogenesis. HLA class I alleles and KIR ligands did not differ between OCB phenotypes...

  15. STRATEGIC MOTIVATIONS OF AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND MANUFACTURING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Tahir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We empirically investigate how different location-specific variables and strategic motives influenced Australian and New Zealand (ANZ firms' ownership strategy choices in foreign markets between 1998 and 2008. This study is the first to analyse how strategic motives and ownership-specific, location-specific, and internalisation variables have influenced the ownership structure choices of ANZ firms in foreign markets. The results indicate that large market potential and low levels of cultural distance increase the probability that ANZ manufacturing firms will undertake wholly owned subsidiary (WOS ownership structures and market-seeking (MS and/or efficiency-seeking (ES foreign direct investment (FDI. Low exchange rate fluctuation increases the probability that ANZ manufacturing firms will undertake WOS-type risk reduction-seeking (RRS FDI.

  16. Cloud point extraction for analysis of antiretrovirals in human plasma by UFLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Hunzicker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical methodology based on cloud point extraction (CPE coupled to Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS was developed for analysis of Abacavir (ABC, Efavirenz (EFV, Lamivudine (3 TC and Nelfinavir (NFV in human plasma. It is the first time that CPE was used for extraction of antiretrovirals (ARV from plasma. The effects of relevant physic-chemical variables on analytical response of each ARV, including pH, surfactant concentration, equilibration time and temperature, were study and optimized; as well as its coupling to UFLC-ESI-MS/MS. Under optimized conditions, the resulting methodology was as follows: a 500 μL aliquot of human plasma was diluted with 2 mL deionized water in a 10 mL centrifuge tube. A 500 μL aliquot Triton X-114 5% w/v was added and homogenized using a vortex stirrer. The resulting cloudy solution was kept at 65 °C for 20 min for promoting the condensation of surfactant micelles. Then it was centrifuged at 3000 × g for 5 min for separation of the surfactant-rich phase. After discarding the aqueous supernatant, 400 μL ACN were added to the remaining surfactant rich phase and centrifuged in order to precipitate proteins and separate them. A 150 μL aliquot of the supernatant was transferred to 2 mL vial and further diluted with 400 μL deionized water. A 30 μL aliquot of the so-prepared solution was injected and analyzed into the UFLC-MS/MS. The method detection limits for ABC, EFV, 3 TC and NFV under optimized conditions were 31, 77, 57 and 21 ng mL−1, respectively. The RSD% for the studied analytes were <15%, except at the LOQ, which were <19%. Recovery values ranged from 81 to 107%. The proposed methodology was successfully applied for the analysis of ABC, EFV, 3 TC and NFV in human plasma within the concentration range of 43–6816, 125–4992, 81–3248 and 49–7904 ng mL−1, respectively. Under optimized working conditions the proposed

  17. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  18. Slovenia as a locale in contemporary Australian verse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the writer Patrick White had worked on his novels for a short while also at Lake Bled in Slovenia at Hotel "Toplice", just like Agatha Christie did at Lake Bohinj, Slovenia has only recently come to feature in mainstream Australian literature, more precisely in contemporary Australian poetry. It should be stressed that Slovenia is thus no longer present only in Slovene migrant poetry written in Australia as has so far been the case: it entered the major contemporary Australian anthologies. This testifies to the fact that Slovenia no longer belongs to the uncharted part of Central Europe on the geographical and consequently also on the Australian literary map. Rather than that Slovenia increasingly makes part of an average Australian 'Grand Tour' travel itinerary in Europe; it has thus become present in the Australian cultural consciousness. In this light two recent Australian poems with Slovenia as a literary locale are discussed, Andrew Taylor's "Morning in Ljubljana" I and Susan Hampton's poem "Yugoslav Story".

  19. Relationship Between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) Infection and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in Southeast of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Motalleb; Nima Sanadgol; Ebrahim Shahraki; Jasem Estakhr

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are one of the most common, well-known pathogenic agents in the development of peptic ulcers. Some investigators have shown a relationship between H. pylori and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, this relationship is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the association between H. pylori infection and MS. In a prospective case-control study, we studied 78 patients with MS and 123 Healthy Blood Donors (HBDs) for bacterial DNA detection and antibod...

  20. Capillary telangiectasia mimicking an active inflammatory MS-lesion in repetitive cMRIs

    OpenAIRE

    Harzheim, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Michael Harzheim1, Claudia Gemmel1, Bernd Sommer2, Ulf Kallweit1, Dieter Pöhlau11MS Center, Department of Neurology, Kamillus-Klinik, Asbach, Germany; 2Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Bad Honnef, GermanyAbstract: Repetitive cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed lesions typical of multiple sclerosis (MS) with one Gd-enhancing focus in the left parietal cerebrum which correlated to the clinical symptoms of a secondary progressive female MS patient. Since this Gd-enhancing ...

  1. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m-3. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  3. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing additi

  4. Selenium speciation analysis of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus selenoprotein by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical methods for selenium (Se) speciation were developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Separations of selenomethionine (Se-Met) and sel...

  5. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. ...

  6. Life with quintuplets: transitioning GeMS into regular operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrel, Vincent; Van Dam, Marcos A.; Neichel, Benoît; Vidal, Fabrice; Sivo, Gaetano; Marin, Eduardo; Montes, Vanessa; Serio, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Trujillo, Chadwick; Rambold, William N.; Gigoux, Pedro; Galvez, Ramon; Moreno, Cristian; Araujo Hauck, Constanza; Vucina Parga, Tomislav; Donahue, Jeff; Marchant, Claudio; Gausachs, Gaston; Collao, Fabian; Carrasco Damele, Eleazar R.; Pessev, Peter; Lopez, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope in Cerro Pachon is the first sodium Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system with multiple guide stars. It uses five LGSs and two deformable mirrors (DMs) to measure and compensate for distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence. After its 2012 commissioning phase, it is now transitioning into regular operations. Although GeMS has unique scientific capabilities, it remains a challenging instrument to maintain, operate and upgrade. In this paper, we summarize the latest news and results. First, we describe the engineering work done this past year, mostly during our last instrument shutdown in 2013 austral winter, covering many subsystems: an erroneous reconjugation of the Laser guide star wavefront sensor, the correction of focus field distortion for the natural guide star wavefront sensor and engineering changes dealing with our laser and its beam transfer optics. We also describe our revamped software, developed to integrate the instrument into the Gemini operational model, and the new optimization procedures aiming to reduce GeMS time overheads. Significant software improvements were achieved on the acquisition of natural guide stars by our natural guide star wavefront sensor, on the automation of tip-tilt and higher-order loop optimization, and on the tomographic non-common path aberration compensation. We then go through the current operational scheme and present the plan for the next years. We offered 38 nights in our last semester. We review the current system efficiency in term of raw performance, completed programs and time overheads. We also present our current efforts to merge GeMS into the Gemini base facility project, where night operations are all reliably driven from our La Serena headquarter, without the need for any spotter. Finally we present the plan for the future upgrades, mostly dedicated toward improving the performance and reliability of the

  7. Determination of sterigmatocystin in feed by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Alberto; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    An LC-MS/MS method is proposed for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals and feed. The method is based on a solid-liquid extraction and a dilute-and-shoot approach. Accuracy and precision were established at the LOQ (1 μg kg(-1)); the mean overall recovery (n = 6) was 98%, with a confidence interval of 3.8% and a CV% of 3.7%. Accuracy and precision were also assessed at three other concentration levels (2.03, 5.07 and 10.14 μg kg(-1); six replicates per level). The mean overall recovery (n = 24, LOQ included) was 99% with a confidence interval of 0.8% and a CV% of 1.9%. The method was then applied to 14 naturally incurred feed samples. Aflatoxin B1 was present in the range 28.7-240.1 µg kg(-1), while lower concentrations of sterigmatocystin were found (0.7-2.2 µg kg(-1)). This method may represent a valuable choice, ensuring a high level of accuracy and precision, as well as high-throughput performance. Therefore, it meets the recent EFSA opinion recommendation in terms of availability of fast and sensitive methods (recommended LOQ = 1.5 μg kg(-1)) in order to increase data collection to allow for the assessment of dietary exposure. PMID:26471726

  8. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  9. An Empirical Analysis of Australian Gold Mining Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Dirk G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the exposure of Australian gold-mining firms to changes in the gold price, the stock market and the Australian dollar - US dollar exchange rate. The empirical analysis uses daily, weekly and monthly data of all gold-mining firms in the S&P/ASX All Ordinaries Gold Index for the period from January 1980 to December 2010 and finds that the average gold beta is 0.67 for gold denominated in US dollar and 0.38 for gold denominated in Australian dollars. The study also finds subst...

  10. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  11. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  12. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  13. Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to produce effective implants, the materials used must be biocompatible. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material similar to the mineral component of teeth and bone which is often used for orbital implants and bone graft applications. HAp can be manufactured from corals via hydrothermal conversion. Coral is particularly useful as a starting material for hydroxyapatite production because of its porous nature. When a porous structure is used tissue ingrowth can occur readily and hence an excellent mechanical bond can be achieved. A large pore size and a high degree of pore interconnections are desirable implant properties. In the present paper a comparison of the properties of four different species of Australian coral has been made to determine the most favourable species to use as a starting material for hydrothermal conversion.

  14. Proteiomic patterns for endometrial cancer using SELDI-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-rong ZHU; Wen-ying ZHANG; Li YU; Yan-hua ZHENG; Jun HU; Qin-ping LIAO

    2008-01-01

    Serum samples from endometrial cancer (EC) patients and healthy females were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) to discover the potential diagnostic biomarker for detection of EC. A preliminary training set of spectra derived from 40 EC patients and 30 healthy women were used to develop a proteomic model that effectively discriminated cancer patients from healthy women. The training set had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 92.5% in the EC detection. A blind test set, including 20 new cancer cases and 10 healthy women, was used to validate the sensitivity and specificity of this multivariate model, which had a corresponding results of 60% in specificity and 75% in sensitivity, respectively. The combination of SELDI-TOF-MS with bioinformatics tools could help find new biomarkers and establish the detection of EC with high sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Commercialization of Australian advanced infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, John; Brown, Allen; Woods, William F.

    1995-09-01

    For several decades, the main thrust in infrared technology developments in Australia has been in two main sensor technologies: uncooled silicon chip printed bolometric sensors pioneered by DSTO's Kevin Liddiard, and precision engineered high quality Cadmium Mercury Telluride developed at DSTO under the guidance of Dr. Richard Hartley. In late 1993 a low cost infrared imaging device was developed at DSTO as a sensor for guided missiles. The combination of these three innovations made up a unique package that enabled Australian industry to break through the barriers of commercializing infrared technology. The privately owned company, R.J. Optronics Pty Ltd undertook the process of re-engineering a selection of these DSTO developments to be applicable to a wide range of infrared products. The first project was a novel infrared imager based on a Palmer scan (translated circle) mechanism. This device applies a spinning wedge and a single detector, it uses a video processor to convert the image into a standard rectangular format. Originally developed as an imaging seeker for a stand-off weapon, it is producing such high quality images at such a low cost that it is now also being adapted for a wide variety of other military and commercial applications. A technique for electronically stabilizing it has been developed which uses the inertial signals from co-mounted sensors to compensate for platform motions. This enables it to meet the requirements of aircraft, marine vessels and masthead sight applications without the use of gimbals. After tests on a three-axis motion table, several system configurations have now been successfully operated on a number of lightweight platforms, including a Cessna 172 and the Australian made Seabird Seeker aircraft.

  16. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P

    2014-12-31

    In 2013, there were 143 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network (NNN). This was the lowest number of laboratory confirmed IMD cases referred to the NNN since the inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed IMD is notifiable in Australia. There were 149 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2013. Meningococcal serogrouping was determined for 139/143 laboratory confirmed IMD cases; 74.8% (104 cases) were serogroup B infections; 5.8% (8 cases) were serogroup C infections; 8.6% (12 cases) were serogroup W135; and 10.8% (15 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed, respectively, in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years). Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over where serogroup Y predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was low, and has been proportionally stable over recent years. The number of IMD cases caused by W135 and Y serogroups was similar to previous years but the proportion has increased with the overall reduction in numbers of IMD cases. Molecular typing was performed on 92 of the 93 IMD isolates, and 23 of the 50 cases confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing. In 2013, the most common porA genotype circulating in Australia was P1.7-2,4. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was observed in 78.5% of isolates.

  17. The Performance of Western Australian Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck

    2008-01-01

    <正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.

  18. Nuclear techniques in Australian animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the production of domestic animals is frequently depressed by the climatic and ecological conditions. These negative effects can be overcome to a great extent by improved methods of animal and land management. In animal research, nuclear techniques are playing an important role in the study of different aspects of nutrition, metabolism, reproduction and health of domestic animals. In response to the need expressed by Member States for more information on these techniques, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA's Division of Technical Assistance organized a study tour to Australia, a country which has developed considerable expertise in agricultural and animal research. The purpose of the study tour was to enable veterinary and animal scientists and administrators from developing countries in Asia and the Far East to observe at first hand the ways in which animal production, particularly meat, milk and wool, can be increased in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fourteen senior scientists and research directors from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand) participated. The counterpart organizations in Australia were the Australian Development Assistance Agency (ADAA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The chief programmer and co-ordinator of the study tour was John E. Vercoe, officer-in-charge of CSIRO's Tropical Cattle Research Centre in Rockhampton, and a former IAEA staff member. The tour was financed by the United Nations Development Programme. The participants visited research facilities of universities, national and state laboratories and commercial cattle producers. The tour started at Sydney and proceeded north along the east coast of Australia to Townsville. On the way, major stops were made in Armidale, Grafton, Wollongbar, Brisbane and Rockhampton. In Rockhampton, a

  19. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  20. Consensus recommendations for MS cortical lesion scoring using double inversion recovery MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geurts, J J G; Roosendaal, S D; Calabrese, M;

    2011-01-01

    Different double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences are currently used in multiple sclerosis (MS) research centers to visualize cortical lesions, making it difficult to compare published data. This study aimed to formulate consensus recommendations for scoring cortical lesions in patients with MS...

  1. Australian immunisation registers: established foundations and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, L K; Crawford, N W; Rowles, G; Buttery, J P

    2012-01-01

    The National Immunisation Program Schedule in Australia is formulated and funded nationally under the population-wide Medicare system. The policy is implemented by the eight state and territory jurisdictions. The national immunisation registers consist of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR), and, more recently, the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. Moreover, a variety of jurisdiction-based registers and primary care practice software systems exist, which interact with the national registers. General practitioners can obtain reports listing patients under seven years attending their practice and recorded as 'not fully immunised', and immunisation coverage rates for their practice linked to government incentives through Medicare. A 2011 report documents national coverage of 91.8% fully immunised at 12 months, and 92.6% at 24 months. The HPV register provides information on vaccination coverage with the potential to link with a register of cervical cancer screening results. Limitations of current national register include inability to easily access immunisation histories beyond seven years of age, and issues of underreporting and timeliness, which impact significantly the immunisation coverage estimates. The linkage of these registers with healthcare outcome data will further enhance public health outcomes by enabling rapid, population-level vaccine safety and effectiveness investigations in a nation with a track record as an 'early adopter' of new childhood vaccines.

  2. Australian immunisation registers: established foundations and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, L K; Crawford, N W; Rowles, G; Buttery, J P

    2012-01-01

    The National Immunisation Program Schedule in Australia is formulated and funded nationally under the population-wide Medicare system. The policy is implemented by the eight state and territory jurisdictions. The national immunisation registers consist of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR), and, more recently, the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. Moreover, a variety of jurisdiction-based registers and primary care practice software systems exist, which interact with the national registers. General practitioners can obtain reports listing patients under seven years attending their practice and recorded as 'not fully immunised', and immunisation coverage rates for their practice linked to government incentives through Medicare. A 2011 report documents national coverage of 91.8% fully immunised at 12 months, and 92.6% at 24 months. The HPV register provides information on vaccination coverage with the potential to link with a register of cervical cancer screening results. Limitations of current national register include inability to easily access immunisation histories beyond seven years of age, and issues of underreporting and timeliness, which impact significantly the immunisation coverage estimates. The linkage of these registers with healthcare outcome data will further enhance public health outcomes by enabling rapid, population-level vaccine safety and effectiveness investigations in a nation with a track record as an 'early adopter' of new childhood vaccines. PMID:22551464

  3. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Confidence of Australian General Practice Registrars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl A. Nowson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and confidence were assessed in General Practice Registrars (GPRs throughout Australia. Of approximately 6,000 GPRs invited to complete a nutrition survey, 93 respondents (2% completed the online survey, with 89 (20 males, 69 females providing demographic and educational information. Fifty-one percent had graduated from medical school within the last two years. From a list of 11 dietary strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk, respondents selected weight loss (84%, reducing saturated fats (90%, a maximum of two alcoholic drinks/day (82%, and increasing vegetables (83% as “highly appropriate” strategies, with only 51% indicating that salt reduction was “highly appropriate.” Two-thirds of registrars felt “moderately” (51% or “very” confident (16% providing nutrition advice. Most of them (84% recalled receiving information during training, but only 34% recalled having to demonstrate nutritional knowledge. The results indicate that this group of Australian GPRs understood most of the key dietary recommendations for reducing cardiovascular risk but lacked consensus regarding the recommendation to reduce salt intake and expressed mixed levels of confidence in providing nutritional advice. Appropriate nutrition education before and after graduation is recommended for GPRs to ensure the development of skills and confidence to support patients to make healthy dietary choices and help prevent chronic diseases.

  4. Management Communication for the New Millennium: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Harry T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses management communications in the general area of identity, and the Australian situation involving management communication scholarship, management communication education, and the future of the field in Australia. (NH)

  5. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  6. Primary postpartum haemorrhage in an Australian tertiary hospital: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amanda; Birch, Mary-Rose; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Katz, Sue; Wang, Yueping Alex

    2005-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal birth at an Australian tertiary hospital, and to investigate risk factors for primary PPH at this hospital. A case-control study of women delivering vaginally at a tertiary hospital from February to June 2003 was performed. Demographic, antenatal, intrapartum, treatment and outcome data were abstracted from patient records. The study population comprised 125 cases and 125 controls, with a primary PPH rate of 12.1 per 100 vaginal births. Risk factors on multivariate analysis were past history of PPH, second stage labour > 60 min, forceps delivery, and incomplete placenta/ragged membranes. PMID:15904450

  7. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Woods John A; Katzenellenbogen Judith M; Davidson Patricia M; Thompson Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google ...

  8. Australian Power: Can renewable technologies change the dominant industry view?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynette Molyneaux; Craig Froome; Liam Wagner; John Foster

    2012-01-01

    With carbon dioxide the major contributor to anthropogenic climate change, being required to reduce the carbon emissions from burning coal for electricity presents a systemic shock to Australian power. The Australian government is committed to the development of its coal seam gas resources for export to lucrative world markets and to transition domestic power generation to greater resilience by moving away from a reliance on coal to lower-emissions intensive gas. Using a commercially availabl...

  9. Structural impediments to TQM in Australian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, P; Carnegie, M

    1995-01-01

    The culture of quality called for by total quality management (TQM) has much to recommend it. Australian experience, however, suggests that it is not something that can easily be added to the profession-based structures and cultures prevailing in most Australian hospitals. Implementing TQM is not just a matter of advocating it. The institutional transformation implied by TQM requires additional action on multiple fronts, both internal and external to the hospital.

  10. Nucleonic gauges in the Australian mining and exploration industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-line and in-situ nucleonic analysis systems have found widespread application in the Australian metalliferous mineral and coal industries. The rapid and reliable response of these systems has led to improved exploration and better control of mining and mineral processing. This paper reviews both types of nucleonic control system (on-line and in-situ) available in Australian exploration and mining market. (author)

  11. Going Places: Praxis and Pedagogy in Australian Cultural Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Rey; Golnar Nabizadeh

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the pedagogical value of praxis in maintaining the relevance of cultural studies in the Australian academic environment. Following its highly politicised beginnings at the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, we consider whether traditional classroom practices are commensurate with the contemporary expectations of students and staff. As a working model of the current Australian university climate, we consider the discipline group of English and Cultural ...

  12. Raja Junankar, Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    DOUGLAS, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy is a compilation of academic articles written by P.N. Junankar and coauthors on the topic of immigration in Australia. From the effects of immigration on Australia’s economy to the Australian labor market environment immigrants encounter, this book addresses important questions regarding immigration that are relevant to any economy.Keywords. Australia, International migration, International economics.JEL. F00, F22,...

  13. How Big is the Speculative Component in Australian Share Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Black; Patricia Fraser; Nicolaas Groenewold

    2001-01-01

    Using 20 years of Australian quarterly data, this paper decomposes Australian share prices into their fundamental and speculative components. To do this we derive the fundamental share-price-output ratio and, hence, the fundamental share price from a resticted vector-autoregressive model relating the aggregate real share-price index to real output. Our estimates use different assumptions regarding shareholders required real rate of return. Our results imply that a significant speculative comp...

  14. Aboriginal Placenames : Naming and re-naming the Australian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hercus, Luise; Koch, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases,...

  15. The World's First and Newest Organic Magazines are Australian

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2009-01-01

    Australia was an early adopter and advocate for organic farming. The world's first farming organisation to adopt "organic" into its title was the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (1944-1955). The Society published the Organic Farming DIgest, starting in April 1946. The Organic Farming Digest was the first "organic" agriculture journal in the world to be published by an association. The Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society and the Organic Farming Digest both predat...

  16. "A deep fragrance of academia": the Australian Tobacco Research Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, S; Carter, S.; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To review the history of the tobacco industry supported Australian Tobacco Research Foundation (ATRF)(1970–1994) for evidence of the industry's use of the Foundation to further its objectives that "more research was needed" on smoking and health and to promulgate the view that nicotine was not addictive. (2) To review efforts by public health advocates to discredit the ATRF as a public relations tool used by the Australian industry.

  17. Global Production Sharing in the Australian Automotive Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kishor Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on global production sharing by investigating the experience of the Australian automotive industry, which has experienced significant structural change following trade liberalisation. Our analysis indicates that the globalisation of the world economy, together with developments in transport and communication, has significantly increased the importance of the global production network in the Australian automotive industry, leading to a substantial rise ...

  18. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Therese A. O'Sullivan; Trevor A. Mori; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H; Carole E. Parker; Vivian, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach...

  19. Screening the dykes of Oz: lesbian representation on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirne, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a survey of lesbian representation in Australian-made television programming. Beginning with the 1970s, when Australia led the Anglophone world in terms of queer representation on television, the article discusses major instances of queer women appearing on Australian television including in such shows as Prisoner, Home & Away, Neighbours, All Saints, The Secret Life of Us, Last Man Standing, and Kick. PMID:19197661

  20. Comparing Australian and US Corporate Default Risk using Quantile Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, David E.; Akhmad R. Kramadibrata; Powell, R. J.; Abhay Kumar Singh

    2011-01-01

    The severe bank stresses of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) have underlined the importance of understanding and measuring extreme credit risk. The Australian economy is widely considered to have fared much better than the US and most other major world economies. This paper applies quantile regression and Monte Carlo simulation to the Merton structural credit model to investigate the impact of extreme asset value fluctuations on default probabilities of Australian companies in comparison to ...

  1. Australians with osteoarthritis: satisfaction with health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources

    OpenAIRE

    Basedow, Martin; Hibbert,Peter; Hooper,Tamara; Runciman, William; Esterman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Martin Basedow,1 Peter Hibbert,1 Tamara Hooper,1 William Runciman,1 Adrian Esterman,2 1School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of Australian patients who suffer from osteoarthritis (OA) with their health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources. Methods: A self-administered questionnair...

  2. A Delphi study on research priorities in radiation therapy: The Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapists (RTs) need to engage more in research to establish an evidence base for their daily practice. However, RTs world-wide conduct little research themselves, although positive moves have been made in some countries. This project is the second stage of a Delphi process aimed at prioritising RT areas of research interest. A questionnaire was constructed using responses to a previous questionnaire which identified the research interests of Australian RTs. Fifty-three Research Areas were identified from these responses and grouped into 12 categories such as 'imaging in radiation therapy', 'symptom management', 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment'. The survey was sent to all Australian departments of radiation oncology, and RTs were asked to form interest groups to discuss and prioritise the Research Areas. There was a 50% response rate (18 of 36 departments surveyed). The highest ranked research Category was 'imaging in radiation therapy'. Six of the top 10 ranked Research Areas were within Central RT practice ('imaging in radiation therapy'; 'symptom management'; 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment') and the other four were within broader RT practice ('diversification, recognition and other professional issues'; and 'management and staff issues'). Patient Care was also considered to be an area requiring more research. This prioritization of Research Areas and categories provides a useful list of future research for RTs, which will enable them to decide whether their research ideas are a high priority, and spend less time deciding on a relevant research topic that needs investigation in their own workplaces.

  3. Pain in Portuguese patients with multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela eSeixas; Maria José eSá; Vasco eGalhardo; Joana eGuimarães; Deolinda eLima

    2011-01-01

    Early reports often ignored pain as an important symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Pain prevalence figures in MS from European countries other than Portugal range between 40% and 65%. To our knowledge there is no published data in English on pain in MS in Portugal. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, with an emphasis on pain, of 85 MS patients followed-up in a Portuguese hospital, contributing to pain epidemiology in MS. Patients were interviewed sequentially after the...

  4. Proposed layout features of an Australian proton treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From a theoretical point of view protons offer the best possible physical dose distribution for many radiotherapy treatment scenarios. However, proton generation of sufficient energy for treatment (about 250MeV) requires a large accelerator and is more expensive than conventional radiotherapy. Therefore the present project aimed at determining the desired configuration for a proton radiotherapy treatment facility in Australia. This is part of a proposal to introduce proton radiotherapy to Australia by the Australian Proton Project Group. It is assumed that a proton centre is build as a dedicated national radiotherapy facility. In this context and to be economically viable it must be large enough to treat well in excess of 1000 patients per year on several treatment stations. When building a proton treatment facility, it is essential to make use of all state-of-the-art features such as spot scanning techniques in order to offer patients a significant improvement in dose distribution compared to advanced conventional treatment techniques such as conformal and/or intensity modulated X-ray radiotherapy. As the potential useful life of a proton treatment unit is of the order of 20 years, it must be designed in a flexible way to allow upgrading as technology advances. The proposed facility includes at least one rotating gantry for isocentric beam delivery and stationary beam lines delivering protons between 70 and 250MeV energy. Features such as proton radiography and in situ PET treatment verification should be considered as a potential upgrade for future expansion. Other commercial activities (eg. radiation hardness testing) which could contribute to the running costs of the facility and scientific research out of the normal treatment hours is to be considered in the final design. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  5. Triple Quadrupole Versus High Resolution Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative LC-MS/MS Analysis of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Timon; Sleno, Lekha; Hall, Rabea A.; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a systematic comparison of high and low resolution LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum. Identical sample preparation, chromatography separations, electrospray ionization sources, precursor ion selection, and ion activation were used; the two assays differed only in the implemented final mass analyzer stage; viz. high resolution quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) versus low resolution triple quadrupole instruments. The results were assessed against measured concentration levels from a routine clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. Isobaric interferences prevented the simple use of TOF-MS spectra for extraction of accurate masses and necessitated the application of collision-induced dissociation on the QqTOF platform. The two mass spectrometry assays provided very similar analytical figures of merit, reflecting the lack of relevant isobaric interferences in the MS/MS domain, and were successfully applied to determine the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for patients with chronic liver disease.

  6. Supplier-induced demand: reconsidering the theories and new Australian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeffrey R J; Peacock, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the evidence and several of the key arguments associated with the theory of supplier-induced demand (SID). It proposes a new theory to explain how ethical behaviour is consistent with SID. The purpose of a theory of demand and one criterion for the evaluation of a theory is the provision of a plausible explanation for the observed variability in service use. We argue that Australian data are not easily explained by orthodox possible explanation. We also argue that, having revisited the theory of SID, the agency relationship between doctors and patients arises not simply because of asymmetrical information but from an asymmetrical ability and willingness to exercise judgement in the face of uncertainty. It is also argued that the incomplete demand shift that must occur following an increase in the doctor supply is readily explained by the dynamics of market adjustment when market information is incomplete and there is non-collusive professional (and ethical) behaviour by doctors. Empirical evidence of SID from six Australian data sets is presented and discussed. It is argued that these are more easily explained by SID than by conventional demand side variables. We conclude that once the uncertainty of medical decision making and the complexity of medical judgements are taken into account, SID is a more plausible theory of patient and doctor behaviour than the orthodox model of demand and supply. More importantly, SID provides a satisfactory explanation of the observed pattern and change in the demand for Australian medical services, which are not easily explained in the absence of SID.

  7. ICP-MS and elemental tags for the life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesen, Charlotte

    2012-08-07

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied for the analysis of biomolecules due to its high sensitivity, wide linear dynamic range, and multielement capabilities. However, outside the elemental MS community the potential of this technique, e.g. for life sciences applications, is not yet fully exploited. Thus, the development of ICP-MS-based (immuno) assays for a wide range of medical (cancer diagnostics, cisplatin toxicity studies), biochemical (DNA microarray, single cell analysis), and environmental (analysis of comestible goods) applications was accomplished by utilization of chemical labels. Laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was employed for the direct analysis of solid samples like microarrays and thin tissue sections. An immunoassay was developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) determination in wine, and ICP-MS detection was compared to conventional photometry by gold nanoparticle tagging and horseradish peroxidase, respectively. Detection limits of the assay were optimized to 0.003 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and the quantification range was 0.01-1 {mu}g L{sup -1} for both methods. For LA-ICP-MS-based DNA microarray detection, gold nanoparticle tags were specifically introduced via a streptavidin-biotin linkage. In immunohistochemistry (IHC), up to 20 tumor markers are routinely evaluated for one patient and thus, a common analysis results in a series of time consuming staining procedures. Hence, LA-ICP-MS was elaborated as a detection tool for a novel, multiplexed IHC analysis of tissue sections. Different lanthanides were employed for the simultaneous detection of up to three tumor markers (Her 2, CK 7, and MUC 1) in a breast cancer tissue. Additionally, iodine was employed as a labeling reagent, and a new LA-ICP-MS method for single cell and cell nucleus imaging was developed at 4 {mu}m laser spot size. Iodine was also applied as a new internal standard for tissue samples. Moreover, Pt-protein complexes separated by an optimized 1D and 2D gel

  8. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  9. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  10. Modelling seasonality in Australian building approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M Karamujic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of seasonal influences on Australian housing approvals, represented by the State of Victoria[1] building approvals for new houses (BANHs. The prime objective of BANHs is to provide timely estimates of future residential building work. Due to the relevance of the residential property sector to the property sector as whole, BANHs are viewed by economic analysts and commentators as a leading indicator of property sector investment and as such the general level of economic activity and employment. The generic objective of the study is to enhance the practice of modelling housing variables. In particular, the study seeks to cast some additional light on modelling the seasonal behaviour of BANHs by: (i establishing the presence, or otherwise, of seasonality in Victorian BANHs; (ii if present, ascertaining is it deterministic or stochastic; (iii determining out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications; and (iv speculating on possible interpretation of the results. To do so the study utilises a structural time series model of Harwey (1989. The modelling results confirm that the modelling specification allowing for stochastic trend and deterministic seasonality performs best in terms of diagnostic tests and goodness of fit measures. This is corroborated with the analysis of out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications, which showed that the models with deterministic seasonal specification exhibit superior forecasting capabilities. The paper also demonstrates that if time series are characterized by either stochastic trend or seasonality, the conventional modelling approach[2] is bound to be mis-specified i.e. would not be able to identify statistically significant seasonality in time series.According to the selected modeling specification, factors corresponding to June, April, December and November are found to be significant at five per cent level

  11. Observation on Clinical Efficacy of Chinese Medicine Yitangkang on MS Patients with Phlegm-Heat Accumulation and IGR from the Perspective of Blood Pressure Stratification%从血压分层的角度观察益糖康对痰热互结型并有IGR的代谢综合征患者的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红谨; 郭建彪; 秦伟锋; 连捷; 王宏涛; 朱克; 冀天威; 石岩; 杨宇峰; 王莉; 张冰冰; 刘小溪; 刘亮; 徐鹏; 姜楠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The perspective from the blood pressure stratification was for observing the clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine Yitangkang in MS patients with phlegm-heat accumulation and IGR, and explore the efficacy mechanism and the relationship between blood pressure and MS with IGR. Methods: 165 cases of the MS with IGR were randomly divided into treatment group and placebo group. Chinese medicine Yitangkang was given for 12 weeks,and after treatment FPG,2Hpg,TG,TC,HDL-C and BMI were measured. Results: (1) Compared with that before treatment, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of treatment group and placebo group were significantly improved ( P < 0. 01) ,but the treatment group was significantly superior to the placebo group. (2) When blood pressure was not stratified, Chinese medicine Yitangkang can lower FPG,2hPG, BMI,TC, HDL-C and LDL-C (P<0.01,P<0.05). When BP≥140mmHg/90mmHg,Chinese medicine Yitangkang can reduce FPG,2hPG,BMI,TC, and LDL-C (P <0. 01 ,P <0. 05 ) ;BP < 140mmHg/90mmHg, Chinese medicine Yitangkang can lower FPG,2hPG and BIM(P< 0. 01, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: (1) High blood pressure type is the main in the phlegm-heat accumulation syndrome of MS patients with IGR. (2)Chinese medicine Yitangkang can significantly improve the patients'2hPG,TC,TG,blood pressure and BMI,but it has better efficacy on the hypertensive patients'FPG,2hPG and BMI.%目的:从血压分层的角度观察益糖康治疗并有IGR的MS患者的临床疗效,并探讨疗效的机制及并有IGR的MS与血压之间的关系.方法:把收治的痰热互结型并有IGR的代谢综合征患者165例,随机分成治疗组和安慰剂组,给予益糖康治疗12周后,测量FPG、2hPG、TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C、BMI.结果:(1)与治疗前比较,治疗组和安慰剂组的收缩压和舒张压均有明显改善,P<0.01,但组间比较治疗组明显优于安慰剂组,P<0.01;(2)血压未分层时,中药益糖康能降低空腹血糖、餐后血

  12. Injection Efficiency Monitor for the Australian Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassool R. P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Synchrotron AS is moving towards a continuous injection mode called top-up. During top-up the linac and booster synchrotron injection system will be in continuous operation rather than usedevery eight hours the way they are used at present. In order to monitor the performance of the injection system areal-time injection efficiency monitoring system has been developed. The system consists of several Fast CurrentTransformers [1] and matching digitisers [2] and is designed to count every beam pulse and measure the transmission efficiency through the whole accelerator complex. After calibrating the system using a properly matchedFaraday Cup at the electron gun, a transmission efficiency is then calculated at each stage of transferring the beamfrom 90 keV out of the gun to 3 GeV in the storage ring. The system is used to optimise the injection process inorder to maximise the injection efficiency and as an early warning system when equipment starts to fail and theinjection efficiency decreases.

  13. Effective teaching strategies in Australian multicultural classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芳卉

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction@@ Australia's population is increasingly culturally diverse.The diverse composition of the Australian population is reflected in the ACT.The 1991 census showed 65,739 people counted in the ACT were bern overseas,representing 23.5% of the population.Almost 10% of the respondents to the census came from non-English - speaking countries.(1) The results from the 2001 census showed that of the 4,645,000 people in Victoria,almost one quarter (23.4%) were born overseas,represented 208 countries and spoke 151 languages.English was spoken at home by 75.3% of Victorians.(2) These numbers are reflected in our schools because students come from many cultural,educational and language backgrounds.The increasingly muhieultural populations in our schools present many challenges for schools and teachers,with regards to inclusive teaching strategies,language differences,muhieuhural curricular practices,racism issues and numerous other factors.

  14. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  15. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship. PMID:27436735

  16. Australians Abroad: Narrative Paths and Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Nooy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although commonly characterized as an immigrant nation, Australia has been shaped just as importantly by the overseas journeys of its people, and the liminal experiences thus provided have not only been self-defining and defining of the other, but at times nation-defining. This special issue proposes a multidisciplinary analysis of Australian travellers and expatriates past and present: the reasons for and destinations of their travel, its impact on their identity, the roles they play, their writings and reflections, their linguistic and intercultural competence. Clusters of travellers to particular destinations give rise to narrative patterns which solidify into templates, the narrative equivalent of the beaten track. The essays that follow highlight both discursive grooves and off-piste accounts that challenge the patterns. In both cases, the emphasis in the essays is on the travellers’ active engagement in the experience and on their negotiation of existing discourses. For even those who follow the trail invest it with personal meanings.

  17. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  18. The colorful language of Australian flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Martin; Stayton, C Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G

    2014-01-01

    The enormous increase in phylogenetic information in recent years has allowed many old questions to be reexamined from a macroevolutionary perspective. We have recently considered evolutionary convergence in floral colors within pollination syndromes, using bird-pollinated species in Australia. We combined quantitative measurements of floral reflectance spectra, models of avian color vision, and a phylogenetic tree of 234 Australian species to show that bird-pollinated flowers as a group do not have colors that are significantly different from the colors of insect-pollinated flowers. However, about half the bird-pollinated flowers have convergently evolved a narrow range of colors with dominant long-wavelength reflection far more often than would be expected by chance. These convergent colors would be seen as distinctly different from other floral colors in our sample when viewed by honeyeaters (family Meliphagidae), birds with a phylogenetically ancestral type of color vision and the dominant avian pollinators in Australia. Our analysis shows how qualitative ideas in natural history, like the concept of pollination syndromes, can be given more precise definition and rigorous statistical testing that takes into account phylogenetic information. PMID:25346795

  19. Enantioselective analysis of etodolac in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to clinical pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda Silva, Carolina; Rocha, Adriana; Tozatto, Eduardo; da Silva, Lucienir Maria; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Lanchote, Vera Lucia

    2016-02-20

    Etodolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with preferential inhibition of cyclooxigenase-2 and is widely used in the management of pain in patients with inflammatory arthritis. Etodolac is available as a racemic mixture of (-)-(R)-Etodolac and (+)-(S)-Etodolac; cyclooxigenases inhibition is attributed to (+)-(S)-Etodolac. According to our knowledge, this is the first method for determination of etodolac enantiomers in plasma using LC-MS/MS. Plasma extraction were performed with 25μL of plasma and 1mL of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (95:5); racemic ibuprofen was used as internal standard. Resolution of enantiomers were performed in a Chiralcel(®)OD-H column; deprotonated [M-H](-) and their respective ion products were monitored at transitions of 286>242 for etodolac enantiomers and 205>161 for ibuprofen. The quantitation limit was 3.2ng/mL for both enantiomers in plasma. The method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics of etodolac enantiomers after the administration of a 300 and 400mg dose of racemic drug to a healthy volunteer. Analysis of plasma samples showed higher plasma concentration of (-)-(R)-Etodolacfor both doses (300mg dose: AUC(0-∞)49.80 versus 4.55ugh/mL;400mg dose: AUC(0-∞) 63.90 versus 6.00ugh/mL) with an (R)-(+)/(S)-(-) ratio of approximately 11.

  20. Simultaneous determination of fludarabine and clofarabine in human plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liusheng; Lizak, Patricia; Dvorak, Christopher C; Aweeka, Francesca; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2014-06-01

    A method for quantification of fludarabine (FDB) and clofarabine (CFB) in human plasma was developed with an API5000 LC-MS/MS system. FDB and CFB were extracted from EDTA plasma samples by protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. Briefly, 50 μL plasma sample was mixed with 25 μL internal standard (50 ng/mL aqueous 2-Cl-adensosine) and 25 μL 20% trichloroacetic acid, centrifuged at 25,000 × g (20,000 rpm) for 3 min, and then transfered to an autosampler vial. The extracted sample was injected onto an Eclipse extend C18 column (2.1 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) and eluted with 1mM NH4OH (pH 9.6) - acetonitrile in a gradient mode. Electrospray ionization in positive mode (ESI(+)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used, and ion pairs 286/134 for FDB, 304/170 for CFB and 302/134 for the internal standard were selected for quantification. The retention times were typically 3.72 min for FDB, 4.34 min for the internal standard, 4.79 min for CFB. Total run time was 10 min per sample. Calibration range was 0.5-80 ng/mL for CFB and 2-800 ng/mL for FDB. The method was applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study in pediatric patients. PMID:24820973

  1. Quantitation of brinzolamide in dried blood spots by a novel LC-QTOF-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foivas, Anargyros; Malenović, Anđelija; Kostić, Nađa; Božić, Marija; Knežević, Miroslav; Loukas, Yannis L; Dotsikas, Yannis

    2016-02-01

    In the current study, a rapid and sensitive LC-QTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of brinzolamide in dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated. This novel sample collection, storage and transfer technique was suitable for analyzing a drug with high distribution into red blood cells and negligible plasma levels. The method included an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol and 10mM ammonium formate (90:10, v/v) and detection in positive electrospray mode (ESI+). The flow rate was adjusted to 0.350mL/min yielding retention times of 1.7min for both brinzolamide and internal standard (IS) rabeprazole on a Cyano analytical column, respectively. The validation of the proposed method over the concentration range 0.500-20.0μg/mL was performed in compliance with EMEA and FDA guidelines, assessing all major performance characteristics. Inter- and intra- assay precisions were less than 14%, while inter- and intra- assay accuracies varied from 92.2 to 111%. No matrix effect was observed and the mean brinzolamide extraction recovery was 93.5%. The method was successfully applied to real DBS samples from patients in steady state condition, receiving brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension 1% (w/v) for several months. Initial concentrations were corrected due to hematocrit effect, using image processing algorithm written in Matlab. PMID:26669612

  2. Application of GelC-MS/MS to Proteomic Profiling of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Preparation of Peptides for Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paemanee, Atchara; Wikan, Nitwara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-01-01

    Gel-enhanced liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) is a labor intensive, but relatively straightforward methodology that generates high proteome coverage which can be applied to the proteome analysis of a range of starting materials such as cells or patient specimens. Sample proteins are resolved electrophoretically in one dimension through a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel after which the lanes are sliced into sections. The sections are further diced and the gel cubes generated are subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion. The resultant peptides can then be analyzed by tandem mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins by database searching. The methodology can routinely detect several thousand proteins in one analysis. The protocol we describe here has been used with both cells in culture that have been infected with chikungunya virus and specimens from Chikungunya fever patients. This protocol details the process for generating peptides for subsequent mass spectroscopic and bioinformatic analysis. PMID:27233271

  3. Quantitative analysis of thymosin α1 in human serum by LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Cynthia W.; Rudolph, Alfred; Li, Yang; Tan, Beijing; FitzGerald, Thomas J.; Beck, Stephen R.; Li, Yong-Xi

    2000-01-01

    1 high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to measure the thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) concentration in human serum. Tα1 in human serum was determined by solid phase extraction and reverse phase LC-MS/MS. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system interfaced with the MS/MS system with a Turbo Ion spray interface. Positive ion detection and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were used for this human serum quantitation. Ei...

  4. Apert Syndrome: Outcomes From the Australian Craniofacial Unit's Birth to Maturity Management Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, David J; Anderson, Peter; Flapper, Walter; Syme-Grant, Jonathan; Santoreneos, Steven; Moore, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The complex, progressive, multisystem nature of Apert syndrome presents many challenges to managing surgeons. Based on the pioneering work of Paul Tessier, the senior author developed a multidisciplinary birth to maturity management protocol for Apert syndrome. Between 1975 and 2014 the Australian Craniofacial Unit has treated 174 Apert syndrome patients and 28 have completed full protocol management. This paper reviews the scientific contribution made to the management of Apert syndrome by the Australian Craniofacial Unit, the development and evolution of the protocol and presents comprehensive data on the surgical and nonsurgical craniofacial interventions, and outcomes for the 28 patients who have completed the programme; 26 had normal visual acuity, 22 had normal hearing, 20 achieved normal or nearly normal speech, 24 a functional class I occlusion, 18 completed mainstream schooling of whom at least 8 went on to tertiary education, at least 13 gained employment and 15 developed good social groups. These outcomes equal or exceed those presented by other authors and provide compelling evidence of the value of protocol management in clinical outcomes, in addition to their value in international collaboration, and scientific development of future therapeutic strategies for the management of Apert syndrome. PMID:27380568

  5. Anti-staphylococcal activity of C-methyl flavanones from propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) and fruit resins of Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, C F; Katouli, M; Grkovic, T; Vu, H; Quinn, R J; Heard, T A; Carvalho, C; Manley-Harris, M; Wallace, H M; Brooks, P

    2014-06-01

    Propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria, Meliponini) originating from Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae) fruit resins was tested for its antimicrobial activities as well as its flavonoid contents. This study aimed at the isolation, structural elucidation and antibacterial testing of flavanones of C. torelliana fruit resins that are incorporated into stingless bee propolis. Flavanones of this study were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, EI-MS, ESI-MS and HR-MS. The results indicated known C-methylated flavanones namely, 1 (2S)-cryptostrobin, its regioisomer 2 (2S)- stroboponin, 3 (2S)- cryptostrobin 7-methyl ether, and 6 (2S)- desmethoxymatteucinol, and known flavanones 4 (2S)- pinostrobin and 5 (2S)- pinocembrin as markers for C. torelliana fruit resins and one propolis type. Ethanolic preparations of propolis were shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and to a lesser extent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). C. torelliana flavanones inhibited the growth of S. aureus therefore contributing to the antibacterial effects observed for Australian stingless bee propolis extracts. PMID:24704551

  6. LC-MS/MS in the elucidation of an isomer of the recreational drug methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine: methylenedioxy dimethylamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteele, Sofie R Vande; Bouche, Marie-Paule L; Van Bocxlaer, Jan F

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the surplus value of a quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration TOF mass spectrometer, coupled to a liquid chromatographic separation system, for the unequivocal identification and structural elucidation of an unknown compound in the field of designer drugs. In a patient sample set (blood, tissues, vitreous humor, etc.), analyzed with a dedicated liquid chromatographic-fluorescence detection method for the determination of methylenedioxy amphetamine, methylenedioxy methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), a "strange" inexplicable peak appeared at a retention time not corresponding to any of our reference materials. Based on the identical excitation and emission wavelengths in detection, and a retention behavior comparable to MDEA, it was assumed that this unknown compound was an isomer of the recreational drug MDEA. With a simple and straightforward methodological crossover between LC fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS, additional information for structural elucidation was easily obtained. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (fluorescence detection part) and on a Hypersil BDS phenyl column (mass spectrometric detection part). MS showed that the unknown compound's molecular mass was identical to that of MDEA, and, in addition, its fragmentation pattern too proved quite similar to that of MDEA. A thorough literature overview and study of the fragmentation pattern by means of the MS/MS spectrum led to an evidence-based hypothesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDDM) being the unknown compound. To confirm this hypothesis, MDDM was synthesized and its presence in our biological sample was finally demonstrated by co-injection with alternatively synthesized MDDM and MDEA. This application shows the synergism between LC and MS in the elucidation of unknown compounds, nevertheless emphasizing the essence of chromatographic separation when dealing with isomers. PMID:16224967

  7. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  8. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists – an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professionalpractice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australianpharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-countermedications. This review aims to identify Australian studiesinvolving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing.Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacistprescribing were identified and considered in the context ofits implementation internationally. Australian studies havemainly focused on the attitudes of community and hospitalpharmacists towards such an expansion. Studies evaluatingthe views of Australian consumers and pharmacy clients werealso considered. The available Australian literature indicatedsupport from pharmacists and pharmacy clients for anexpanded pharmacist prescribing role, with preference fordoctors retaining a primary role in diagnosis. Australianpharmacists and pharmacy client’s views were also inagreement in terms of other key issues surrounding expandedpharmacist prescribing. These included the nature of anexpanded prescribing model, the need for additional trainingfor pharmacists and the potential for pharmacy clients gainingimproved medication access, which could be achieved withinan expanded role that pharmacists could provide. Currentevidence from studies conducted in Australia providesvaluable insight to relevant policymakers on the issue ofpharmacist prescribing in order to move the agenda ofpharmacist prescribing forwards.

  9. Mechanics, Problems and Contributions of Tertiary Strategic Alliance: The Case of 22 Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffu, Kojo; Mamman, Aminu

    1999-01-01

    A study of international strategic alliances involving 22 Australian universities indicates that a majority of universities have frameworks for internationalization initiatives, with top institutional management instrumental in initiating joint ventures with overseas institutions despite limited resources. Australian universities believe they…

  10. A Comparison of nLC-ESI-MS/MS and nLC-MALDI-MS/MS for GeLC-based Protein Identification and iTRAQ-based Shotgun Quantitative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of nLC-ESI-MS/MS in shotgun proteomics experiments and GeLC-MS/MS analysis is well accepted and routinely available in most proteomics laboratories. However, the same cannot be said for nLC-MALDI MS/MS, which has yet to experience such widespread acceptance despite the fact that the MALDI t...

  11. A Comparison of nLC-ESI-MS/MS and nLC-MALDI-MS/MS for GeLC-based Protein Identification and iTRAQ-based Shotgun Quantitative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of nLC-ESI-MS/MS in shotgun proteomics experiments and GeLC-MS/MS analysis is well accepted and routinely available in most proteomics laboratories. The same can not be said for nLC-MALDI MS/MS which has yet to experience such wide spread acceptance. This is not totally surprising given th...

  12. What place for ▾ cannabis extract in MS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition that is estimated to affect around 60,000 people in England and Wales, with a lifetime risk in the UK of 1 in 1,000.(1,2) Spasticity (an increase in muscle tone) is a common symptom of MS, resulting in muscle spasms, immobility, disturbed sleep and pain.(3,4) Complex drug combinations are sometimes necessary to manage symptoms of MS, but these are often only partially effective and associated with unacceptable side effects.(5) Cannabis extract containing delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) and cannabidiol are the principal extracts from the cannabis plant present in a licensed preparation (▾Sativex - GW Pharma Ltd), the first cannabinoid preparation to be approved for medical use. Sativex has been licensed "for symptom improvement in adult patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to MS who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy".(6) Here we review the evidence for cannabis extract and its place in the treatment of the condition. PMID:23241565

  13. An improved method of sample preparation on AnchorChip targets for MALDI-MS and MS/MS and its application in the liver proteome project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xumin; Shi, Liang; Shu, Shaokung;

    2007-01-01

    An improved method for sample preparation for MALDI-MS and MS/MS using AnchorChip targets is presented. The method, termed the SMW method (sample, matrix wash), results in better sensitivity for peptide mass fingerprinting as well as for sequencing by MS/MS than previously published methods. The ...

  14. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilsdonk, Iris D.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Lopez-Soriano, Alexandra; Jong, Marcus C. de; Graaf, Wolter L. de; Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, HZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Polman, Chris H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geurts, Jeroen J.G. [VU University, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  15. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  16. Water Management at Australian Uranium Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian uranium operations are located in widely different climates, ranging from monsoonal conditions at the Ranger uranium mine in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory to semi-arid conditions in inland South Australia, where the Olympic Dam and Beverley operations are located. This paper describes the range of water management strategies that are in place or planned to deal with the varying issues facing Australia's three operations. For Olympic Dam, the strategies are focused on water conservation and reuse, and evaporation of the acidic liquor arising from the leach process. Net water usage at an in situ operation such as Beverley is considerably less than comparable underground or open pit mines as acidic leach liquor is recycled in the wellfields, and there is no water loss with tailings. However, bleeds are required to maintain control of wellfield balance and to limit the buildup of impurities. The disposal of the bleed stream into the mining aquifer via wells must be balanced carefully to ensure that it does not impact on mining or wellfield management. Water management at Ranger has evolved considerably during its almost 25-year operating life. This is particularly the case over the last 8 years with the development of pit 3 and the deposition of tailings into the mined out pit 1. These changes, which have significantly increased the catchment area from which runoff water must be collected and managed, and the recent higher-than-average rainfall combined with the further expansion of pit 3 now have the potential to move the site water balances into significant surplus. To address this risk, ERA has successfully investigated processes at the pilot plant scale that would complement the capacity of existing passive pond water treatment systems by allowing the treatment and release of pond and/or process waters. These processes, which are part of a number of strategies currently being considered for implementation at the Ranger site

  17. MS/MS studies for the selective detection of isomeric biogenic VOCs using a Townsend Discharge Triple Quadrupole Tandem MS and a PTR-Linear Ion Trap MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed MS/MS investigations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC using a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS equipped with a Townsend Discharge ion source and a Proton Transfer Reaction Linear Ion Trap (PTR-LIT mass spectrometer. Both instruments use H2O chemical ionization to produce protonated molecular ions. Here we report a study of the application of these instruments to determine methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR and a series of monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, myrcene, ocimene and sesquiterpenes (humulene and farnesene. Both instruments achieved sub-ppb detection limits in the single MS mode and in the MS/MS mode for differentiating MVK and MACR. Collision induced dissociation (CID of protonated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes was studied under the high-energy, single-to-few collision conditions of the QqQ-MS instrument and under the low-energy, multiple collision conditions of the PTR-LIT. Differences and similarities in the breakdown curves obtained are discussed. In addition, we performed MS4 of protonated limonene to illustrate the analytical power of the PTR-LIT. In spite of the progress we have made, the selective on-line mass-spectrometric detection of individual monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes in complex mixtures currently does not yet seem to be possible.

  18. A requirement for Australian research: access to 'big science' facilities, a report by the Australian National Committee for crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of 'Big Science' research facility - synchrotron radiation sources and intense neutron beams - are now recognised as essential resources for a wide range of research activities in chemistry, physics and biology. The cost of such facilities and the lack of a sufficiently large user base will probably preclude their construction in Australia in the foreseeable future. The needs of Australian crystallographers for access to such facilities are assessed. In relation to synchrotron radiation sources, the Committee considered only the question of access to such facilities overseas. In relation to neutron beam sources, the Committee's inquiries included not only the question of access to powerful facilities overseas but also the special problems which confront Australian crystallographers as a result of the obsolescence of the HIFAR reactor. The arguments about, and options for, funding Australian use of facilities overseas are presented. The Committee concluded there is a strong case for the purchase of a beam-line at an overseas synchrotron radiation facility and a strong, though less urgent, case for substantial Australian involvement in an overseas neutron beam facility. The Committee recommended that the Australian HIFAR reactor be refurbished in its present shell, retaining the present flux and power levels, and that in the upgrading of the neutron scattering instrumentation at HIFAR special consideration be given to including items which are sufficiently specialised to attract the international neutron scattering community

  19. LC/MS/MS method for analysis of E2 series prostaglandins and isoprostanes

    OpenAIRE

    Brose, Stephen A.; Thuen, Brock T.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.

    2011-01-01

    15-series prostaglandins (PGE2s) and isoprostanes (isoPGE2s) are robust biomarkers of oxidative stress, possess potent biological activity, and may be derived through cyclooxygenase or free radical pathways. Thus, their quantification is critical in understanding many biological processes where PG, isoPG, or oxidative stress are involved. LC/MS/MS methods allow a highly selective, sensitive, simultaneous analysis for prostanoids without derivatization. However, the LC/MS/MS methods currently ...

  20. LC-MS/MS in the Clinical Laboratory – Where to From Here?

    OpenAIRE

    Grebe, Stefan KG; Singh, Ravinder J

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has seen enormous growth in clinical laboratories during the last 10–15 years. It offers analytical specificity superior to that of immunoassays or conventional high performance/pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for low molecular weight analytes and has higher throughput than gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Drug/Toxicology and Biochemical Genetics/Newborn Screening laboratories were at the vanguard of clinical LC-MS/M...

  1. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  2. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  3. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Walsh, Mark [Mater Hospital and Lady Cilento Children' s Hospital Medical Imaging Department, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Francis, Joshua R. [Royal Darwin Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Darwin (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  4. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  5. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  6. Positioning the School in the Landscape: Exploring Black History with a Regional Australian Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a project establishing an Indigenous Australian artists-in-residence program at a regional Australian primary school to foreground its Black History. Primary school students worked with Indigenous Australian story tellers, artists, dancers and musicians to explore ways in which they could examine print and non-print texts for…

  7. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  8. Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research: Creating Spaces for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides some background information about the Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research initiative: a joint program of work sponsored by the Australian Association for Research in Education and the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In addition, it offers some broader analysis of the contexts within which…

  9. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  10. Comparison of 7 Published LC-MS/MS Methods for the Simultaneous Measurement of Testosterone, Androstenedione, and Dehydroepiandrosterone in Serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büttler, Rahel M; Martens, Frans; Fanelli, Flaminia;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, LC-MS/MS was stated to be the method of choice to measure sex steroids. Because information on the mutual agreement of LC-MS/MS methods is scarce, we compared 7 published LC-MS/MS methods for the simultaneous measurement of testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandros...

  11. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantifying clofarabine triphosphate concentrations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaowei; Lu, Youming; Zhong, Dafang; Zhang, Yifan; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-01

    Clofarabine triphosphate is an intracellular active metabolite of clofarabine. In the present study, we developed and validated a rapid, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) for quantifying clofarabine triphosphate concentrations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were isolated from blood using the Ficoll gradient centrifugation method. Chromatographic separation was performed on a CN column using an isocratic mobile phase comprising acetonitrile/5mM ammonium acetate with 0.001% ammonium hydroxide (20/80, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.60 mL/min. Detection was carried out by MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using a negative electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated in concentration ranges of 1.25-100 ng/10(7) cells with acceptable accuracy and precision using 50 μL of cell extract. Clofarabine triphosphate was stable in a series of stability studies with bench-top, auto-sampler, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The validated method was successfully used to measure the concentrations of clofarabine triphosphate in PBMCs from cancer patients treated with clofarabine. PMID:24529342

  12. Analysis of Hydrolysis Reaction of N-Phosphorylphenylalanine by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shu-Xia; ZHANG Jian-Chen; LIAO Xin-Cheng; ZHAO Yu-Fen

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hydrolysis procedure of N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl phenylalanine (DIPP-Phe) has been studied by HPLCESI-MS. The hydrolysis products and intermediate were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that (HO)(i-PrO)P(O)Phe was intermediate in the hydrolysis process.

  13. Analytical Method Details (MS): SE15_MS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE15_MS1 LC-Orbitrap-MS ESI positive method 1 Agilent1100 HPLC (Agilent), LTQ-Orbitrap (Thermo Fisher Scient...ific) LC-Orbitrap-MS ESI Positive Harvested sample is frozen by liquid N2 and groun

  14. Analytical Method Details (MS): SE48_MS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available data directed analysis (FastDDA), which is rapid automated, intelligent MS/MS data acquisition for targeted qualitative analyses. ... ...e temperature of 120 ℃, and CID energy ramped from 10 to 50 eV. Tandem MS analysis was performed using fast

  15. Recently developed GC/MS and LC/MS methods for determining NSAIDs in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, M; Petrovic, M; Barceló, D

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals have become major targets in environmental chemistry due to their presence in aquatic environments (following incomplete removal in wastewater treatment or point-source contaminations), threat to drinking water sources and concern about their possible effects to wildlife and humans. Recently several methods have been developed for the determination of drugs and their metabolites in the lower nanogram per litre range, most of them using solid-phase extraction (SPE) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME), derivatisation and finally gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES/MS/MS). Due to the elevated polarity of non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), analytical techniques based on either liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a previous derivatisation step are essential. The most advanced aspects of current GC-MS, GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methodologies for NSAID analysis are presented.

  16. Metabolomics data normalization with EigenMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Karpievitch

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated. Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (p<0.05 as compared to only 1840 metabolite signals in the raw data. Our results support the use of singular value decomposition-based normalization for metabolomics data.

  17. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume

  18. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  19. Forward contracts in electricity markets: The Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward contracts play a vital role in all electricity markets, and yet the details of the market for forward contracts are often opaque. In this paper we review the existing literature on forward contracts and explore the contracting process as it operates in Australia. The paper is based on interviews with participants in Australia's National Electricity Market (NEM). The interviews were designed to understand the contracting process and the practice of risk management in the Australian energy-only pool market. This survey reveals some significant gaps between the assumptions made in the academic literature and actual practice in the Australian market place

  20. An empirical investigation of Australian Stock Exchange data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, William K.

    2004-10-01

    We present an empirical study of high frequency Australian equity data examining the behaviour of distribution tails and the existence of long memory. A method is presented allowing us to deal with Australian Stock Exchange data by splitting it into two separate data series representing an intraday and overnight component. Power-law exponents for the empirical density functions are estimated and compared with results from other studies. Using the autocorrelation and variance plots we find there to be a strong indication of long-memory type behaviour in the absolute return, volume and transaction frequency.

  1. The Australian black coal industry: productivity commission inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    February 1999 saw the release of the final report of the Productivity Commission's inquiry into the Australian black coal industry. The report is a comprehensive examination of the state of play of the Australian coal industry, drawing from the Commission's own research, submissions from a range of stakeholders and the results of a benchmarking study which compared Australia's performance with world's best practice. Essentially, the report finds that recent reforms have improved productivity and some parts of the industry now perform very well. However, the report finds that further changes to federal industry awards and state legislation and regulation could significantly improve the performance of the industry overall

  2. Cerebral lateralization determines hand preferences in Australian parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum; Magat, Maria

    2011-08-23

    Individual preference for the use of one limb over the other to explore the environment or manipulate objects is common trait among vertebrates. Here, we explore the hypothesis that limb preference is determined by the engagement of a particular cerebral hemisphere to analyse certain stimuli. We recorded the eye and foot preferences of 322 individuals from 16 species of Australian parrots while investigating potential food items. Across all species, eye preferences explained 99 per cent of the variation in foot use in Australian parrots. The vast majority of species showed significant relationships between eye and foot preferences at the population level.

  3. Design and Implementation of the Australian National Data Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Treloar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 This paper will describe the genesis and realisation of the Australian National Data Service (ANDS. It will commence by outlining the context within which ANDS was conceived, both in the international research and Australian research support domains. It will then describe the process that brought about the ANDS vision and the principles that informed the realisation of that vision. The paper will then outline each of the four ANDS programs (Developing Frameworks, Providing Utilities, Seeding the Commons, and Building Capabilities while also discussing particular items of note about the approach ANDS is taking. The paper concludes by briefly examining related work in the UK and US.

  4. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingham, Lizzie

    2009-09-01

    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas.

  5. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new...... insights into cross-cultural similarities and differences, into elaboration likelihood differences among consumer segments, and show how the involvement construct may be used as basis for communication development....

  6. A composite study of onset of the Australian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Harry H.; Liebmann, Brant

    1990-01-01

    The circulation changes that accompany an onset (defined as the first occurrence of wet 850-mb westerly winds at Darwin, Australia) of the Australian summer monsoon are documented by a composite study for the years 1957-1987. Composites of atmospheric fields at stations in and about the Australian tropics are constructed relative to the onset data at Darwin. It is shown that the composite onset is dominated by a slow eastward migration of a deep-baroclinic convective circulation displaced south of the equator. This propagating anomaly exhibited many features of the so-called 40-50 day oscillation, including an upper level anticyclone that accompanies the convective anomaly.

  7. Bioanalysis of dried saliva spot (DSS) samples using detergent-assisted sample extraction with UHPLC-MS/MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Zeng, Jianing; Ji, Qin C; Angeles, Aida; Aubry, Anne-Francoise; Basdeo, Shenita; Buzescu, Adela; Landry, Ishani Savant; Jariwala, Navin; Turley, Wesley; Burrell, Richard; Arnold, Mark E

    2016-08-31

    Dried saliva spot (DSS) sampling is a non-invasive sample collection technique for bioanalysis that can be potentially implemented at the patient's home. A UHPLC-MS/MS assay was developed using detergent-assisted sample extraction to quantify BMS-927711, a drug candidate in development for the treatment of migraines, in human DSS. By implementing DSS sampling at the patients' home, the bioanalytical sample collection for pharmacokinetic evaluation can be done at the time of the acute migraine attack without the need for clinical visits. DSS samples were prepared by spotting 15 μL of liquid saliva onto regular Whatman FTA™ DMPK-C cards and verified with a UV lamp (at λ 254 nm or 365 nm) during DSS punching. The 4-mm DSS punches in a 96-well plate were sonicated with 200 μL of [(13)C2, D4]-BMS-927711 internal standard (IS) solution in 20/80 MeOH/water for 10 min, followed by sonication with 50 μL of 100 mM NH4OAc with 1.0% Triton-X-100 (as detergent) prior to liquid-liquid extraction with 600 μL EtOAc/Hexane (90:10). UHPLC-MS/MS was performed with an Aquity(®) UPLC BEH C18 Column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) on a Triple Quad™ 5500 mass spectrometer. The assay was linear with a concentration range from 2.00 to 1000 ng mL(-1) for BMS-927711 in human saliva. The intra- and inter-assay precision was within 8.8% CV, and the accuracy was within ±6.7% Dev of the nominal concentration values. This UHPLC-MS/MS assay has been successfully applied to determine the drug's pharmacokinetics within a clinical study. For the first time, we observed BMS-927711 exposure in human DSS, confirming the suitability of this sampling technique for migraine patients to use at home. Detergent-assisted extraction with Triton-X-100 could be very useful in DSS or other dried matrix spot (DMS) assays to overcome low or inconsistent analyte recovery issues.

  8. Accuracy of 18F-Fluorodeodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) in characterisation of indeterminate pulmonary masses: Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Indeterminate pulmonary masses are a common clinical problem. There are no Australian data on the accuracy of PET for this indication. We evaluated PET in 50 consecutive patients without a confident diagnosis of malignancy on CT. Blinded reading of PET images both with and without attenuation correction was used to diagnose malignancy using qualitative criteria incorporating lesion size. Tumour to background ratios and standardised uptake values (where available) were also calculated. PET had a positive predictive value of 32/35 (91%), negative predictive value of 14/15 (93%), sensitivity of 32/33 (97%), specificity of 14/17 (82%) and accuracy of 46/50 (92%). False positives occurred with active tuberculosis (n=2) and sarcoidosis (n=1), while a small bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was false negative. Use of semi-quantitative analysis did not improve accuracy. PET successfully classified 21/23 patients with failed or inconclusive tissue diagnosis, 8/9 patients with a definitive tissue diagnosis and 17/18 patients without biopsy or bronchoscopy. PET found evidence of nodal or distant metastases in 11/32 (34%) true positive cases. We conclude that in Australia, as found internationally, PET is an accurate tool for characterisation of indeterminate pulmonary masses or nodules. In our patient population a PET diagnosis of malignancy would provide sufficient evidence for definitive management once active TB is excluded. It also provides additional useful staging information. In the Australian population PET has a sufficiently high negative predictive value to avoid percutaneous biopsy, but in such cases we recommend serial CT follow-up to confirm no growth of the lesion. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Course diversity within South Australian secondary schools as a factor of successful transition and retention within Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There has long been a disparity in the provision of curriculum within Australian secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate whether diversity within schools alters students’ university experiences. While much of the existing literature focuses on each aspect individually, this paper attempts to clarify a link between these factors by focussing on the transition process. A theoretical analysis of key concepts surrounding a web of inter-related issues, including student satisfaction, interest and motivation frames the quantitative data collection. The methodology employed consists of analysing a balanced sample of South Australian secondary schools, from an array of different locations, SES groupings and sizes, and an acknowledgement of previous studies into the first year experience within Australian Universities. The findings suggest that there is a disparity between learning areas in school curricula and an inherent link has been established with issues such as student attrition and dissatisfaction in universities.

  10. Health Care Spending: Changes in the Perceptions of the Australian Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing demand for services and rising health care costs create pressures within the Australian health care system and result in higher health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs for consumers. Objective To measure changes in consumer views on the quality of the Australian health care system, contributors to rising costs and attitudes towards managing these costs. Methods Two computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in 2006 (533 respondents) and 2015 (1318 respondents) and results compared. Results More respondents in 2015 rated the Australian health care system ‘very adequate’ than in 2006 (22.3% vs 8.3%; Odds Ratio OR 3.2, 99% CI 2.1, 5.1) with fewer ‘concerned’ or ‘fairly concerned’ about the health care costs (69.0% vs 85.7%; OR 0.37, 99% CI 0.25, 0.53). The 2015 respondents were more likely to identify new treatments for cancer (77% vs 65.7%; OR 1.75, 99% CI 1.30, 2.35) and community expectations for access to the latest technologies (73.8% vs 67%; OR 1.39, 99% CI 1.04, 1.86) as contributors to rising health care costs. While more 2015 respondents agreed that patients should pay a greater part of the health care costs, this remained a minority view (37.9% vs 31.7%; OR 1.32, 99% CI 0.99, 1.76). They were less likely to agree that doctors should offer medical treatments regardless of the cost and chance of benefit (63.6% vs 82.9%; OR 0.36, 99% CI 0.25, 0.50). Conclusions Satisfaction with the Australian health care system has increased over time. Consumers recognise the cost pressures and have lower expectations that all services should be provided regardless of their costs and potential benefit. Public consultation on the allocation of health care resources and involvement in health care decision-making remains important. There should be community consultation about the principles and values that should guide resource allocation decisions. PMID:27294518

  11. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  12. The Lived Experience of Lupus Flares: Features, Triggers, and Management in an Australian Female Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marline L. Squance

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living with lupus commonly experience daily backgrounds of symptoms managed to acceptable tolerance levels to prevent organ damage. Despite management, exacerbation periods (flares still occur. Varied clinical presentations and unpredictable symptom exacerbation patterns provide management and assessment challenges. Patient perceptions of symptoms vary with perceived impact, lifestyles, available support, and self-management capacity. Therefore, to increase our understanding of lupus’ health impacts and management, it was important to explore lupus flare characteristics from the patient viewpoint. Lupus flares in 101 Australian female patients were retrospectively explored with the use of a novel flare definition. Qualitative methods were used to explore patient-perceived flare symptoms, triggers, and management strategies adopted to alleviate symptom exacerbations. A mean of 29.9 flare days, with 6.8 discrete flares, was experienced. The study confirmed that patients perceive stress, infection, and UV light as flare triggers and identified new potential triggers of temperature and weather changes, work, and chemical exposure from home cleaning. The majority of flares were self-managed with patients making considered management choices without medical input. Barriers to seeking medical support included appointment timings and past negative experiences reflecting incongruence between clinician and patient views of symptom impact, assessment, and ultimately flare occurrence.

  13. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  14. Headaches in multiple sclerosis patients might imply an inflammatorial process.

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    Jan Möhrke

    Full Text Available Recent studies on Multiple Sclerosis (MS pathology mention the involvement of "tertiary B cell follicles" in MS pathogenesis. This inflammatory process, which occurs with interindividually great variance, might be a link between MS pathology and headaches. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of headaches and of subtypes of headaches (migraine, cluster, tension-type headache [TTH] in an unselected MS collective and to compile possibly influencing factors. Unselected MS patients (n = 180 with and without headache were examined by a semi-structured interview using a questionnaire about headache, depression and the health status. Additionally clinical MS data (expanded disability state score [EDSS], MS course, medication, disease duration were gathered. N = 98 MS patients (55.4% reported headaches in the previous 4 weeks. We subsequently grouped headache patients according to the IHS criteria and detected 16 (16.3% MS patients suffering from migraine (migraine with aura: 2 [2%]; migraine without aura: 14 [14.3%], 23 (23.5% suffering from TTH and none with a cluster headache. Thus, headaches of 59 (60.2% MS patients remained unclassified. When comparing MS patients with and without headaches significant differences in age, gender, MS course, physical functioning, pain and social functioning occurred. MS patients with headaches were significantly younger of age (p = 0.001, female (p = 0.001 and reported more often of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS and relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS instead of secondary chronic progressive MS (SCP. EDSS was significantly lower in MS patients suffering from headaches compared to the MS patients without headaches (p = 0.001. In conclusion headache in MS patients is a relevant symptom, especially in early stages of the MS disease. Especially unclassified headache seems to represent an important symptom in MS course and requires increased attention.

  15. Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Giles Lynne C; Glonek Gary FV; Moore Vivienne M; Davies Michael J; Luszcz Mary A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 1,031 women aged 65-103 years). We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with...

  16. Investigation and Sensory Characterization of 1,4-Cineole: A Potential Aromatic Marker of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Tempère, Sophie; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Deloire, Alain; de Revel, Gilles; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-10-21

    This work reports the quantitation and sensory characterization of 1,4-cineole in red wine for the first time. A headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed to quantitate 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole in 104 commercial Australian red wines. 1,4-Cineole was detected in all of the wines analyzed, with concentrations ranging from 0.023 to 1.6 μg/L. An important varietal effect was observed, with concentrations of 1,4-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon wines (mean of 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) significantly higher than in Shiraz (0.07 ± 0.04 μg/L) and Pinot Noir (0.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) wines. Regional variations of both cineole isomer concentrations have been measured between wines originating from different Australian regions. Sensory studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.54 μg/L 1,4-cineole in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine, to produce a final concentration of 0.63 μg/L, was perceived significantly by a sensory panel (p wines and may be potential markers of regional typicality of these wines.

  17. Blending work-integrated learning with distance education in an Australian radiation therapy advanced practice curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced practice for radiation therapists has been a part of the international landscape for several years; however formal implementation into the Australian health care system is yet to happen. Despite this, three short course radiation therapy advanced practitioner programs have been established by an Australian tertiary institution in response to clinical service needs at several organisations. This paper describes the rationale for curriculum design and development of the program materials, the small-scale implementation of the programs at pilot sites, and the evolution of the curriculum to be available to registered radiation therapists nationally. Each program has been designed around a specific clinical role, where flexibility of delivery to busy practitioners was central to the decision to offer them via distance education. The curriculum comprises theoretical units of study which run in parallel to and underpin clinical practice units, where advanced competence in the specific area of practice is overseen by an experienced radiation oncologist mentor. Given the nature of the disparate clinical services requiring an advanced radiation therapy practitioner, the workplace learning component of the course is individually negotiated at a local level. Outcomes suggest that the flexible clinically based training underpinned by a distance education academic curriculum is able to support the development of advanced radiation therapy practitioners responsive to local service need, and ultimately may improve the patient experience

  18. Solitary pulmonary nodules: cost-savings indicated by Australian experience with FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To date, decision tree analyses demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of PET in Australia have been constrained by the need to use overseas values for diagnostic performance and disease prevalence. This study uses Australian PET experience to estimate the cost-savings produced by incorporation of FDG-PET into diagnostic algorithms for characterisation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Values for disease prevalence and diagnostic accuracy of PET from a combined series of 89 SPNs from the Wesley Hospital and Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute were applied to two previously published decision tree models. Procedure costs were derived from the Medicare Benefits Schedule and DRG Cost Weights for Australian public hospitals. A cost of $1200 was assigned to PET. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of disease prevalence and PET cost on the cost savings produced by each strategy. The values for disease prevalence (0.54), PET sensitivity (92%) and specificity (95%) from the combined series indicated cost savings per patient of $774 and $554 for the two decision trees. PET would remain cost-saving for values of prevalence up to 0.90 and 0.76, and PET costs of $1974 and $1967, for each model respectively. FDG-PET evaluation of SPNs would produce cost-savings within Australia even with substantial variations in disease prevalence and PET costs. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. How acceptable are primary health care nurse practitioners to Australian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rhian; Forrest, Laura; Ward, Nathaniel; McCracken, James; Cox, Darlene; Derrett, Julie

    2013-01-01

    International evidence indicates that nurses working in primary care can provide effective care and achieve positive health outcomes for patients similar to that provided by doctors. Nurse practitioners employed in primary health care perform some tasks previously exclusive to the GP role due to their advanced skills, knowledge and training. In November 2010 Medicare provider rights and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme rights were provided for nurse practitioners working in private practice, and in collaboration with a medical practitioner. However, there is limited evidence about how acceptable nurse practitioners are to Australian consumers and what knowledge consumers have of the nurse practitioner role in the delivery of primary health care. The aim of this study was to examine Australian health care consumers' perceptions of nurse practitioners working in primary health care. This paper reports on the results of seven focus groups (n = 77 participants) conducted around Australia. Focus groups participants were asked how acceptable nurse practitioners are as provides of primary health care. Although there was some confusion about the role of nurse practitioners and how this role differed from other primary health care nurses, participants in the focus groups were very positive about nurse practitioners and would find them acceptable in providing primary health care.

  20. Australian Women’s Fertility Experiences prior to a Termination of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research aimed to investigate the fertility management of women aged over 30 years prior to a termination of pregnancy (TOP to inform primary health care service delivery providers and policy makers. Design. An ethically approved, two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used. This paper reports on part of that study. Setting. The study was conducted in five South Australian TOP clinics. Patients. Women aged over 30 years attending for a TOP in 2009 were invited to participate. Interventions. The Contraception Sexual Attitude Questionnaire (modified version of women attending termination of pregnancy services was used. Main Outcomes Measures. Quantitative data analysis utilized SPSS V16 where simple descriptive statistics were described. Results. There were 101 questionnaire respondents where 70.5% were Australian women, predominantly married and with children. Women used contraception but experienced method failure, were beginning a new method, or were afraid of side effects. Risk-taking behaviours were reported such as putting the possibility of pregnancy out of their mind, getting carried away and not thinking of pregnancy risk, or frequently having unprotected intercourse. Conclusion. Service delivery needs to include age specific programs, and policy makers need to include policies which are adequately funded and evaluated. Further research is required to provide greater depth of knowledge in this area.