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Sample records for australian longitudinal study

  1. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

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    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  2. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

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    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  3. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

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    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Ecstasy use and depression: a 4-year longitudinal study among an Australian general community sample.

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    George, Amanda M; Olesen, Sarah; Tait, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal, population-based studies can better assess the relationship of ecstasy use with depression. We examined whether change in ecstasy use was associated with change in depressive symptoms/probable depression over a 4-year period, among a large Australian sample. The Personality and Total Health project is a longitudinal general community study of Australians from Canberra and Queanbeyan. Data from the youngest cohort when aged 24-30 (N = 2, 128) and 4 years later (N = 1, 977) was included. The Goldberg depression scale and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms and probable depression, respectively. Multilevel growth models also considered demographics, psychosocial characteristics, and other drug use. Ecstasy use was not associated with long-term depressive symptoms or greater odds of depression in multivariate analyses. Users had more self-reported depressive symptoms when using ecstasy compared to not using. However, differences between people who had and had not ever used ecstasy largely accounted for this. Other factors were more important in the prediction of depression. It would be premature to conclude that ecstasy use is not related to the development of long-term depressive symptoms, given the relatively low level of ecstasy and other drug use in this community sample. Results showed that other factors need to be considered when investigating ecstasy use and depression.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of ISP Reactions to Australian Internet Content Regulation Laws

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    Sigi Goode

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a longitudinal study which surveys a targeted selection of Australian ISPs to determine both initial and subsequent effects of and attitudes towards the legislation. The paper observes that, initially, ISPs were generally opposed to the legislation, offering stiff opposition to its introduction. The initial results suggested dissatisfaction with the legislation on the part of ISPs, and foreshadowed adverse effects on the online industry. Concerns were also raised that the legislation would not be effective. Two years later, however, ISPs had generally observed little change in operations, arguing that the legislation had had little overall effect. The study also raises a number of interesting issues that are outside the scope of this paper. These issues merit further research.

  6. Early mathematical competencies and later achievement: insights from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

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    MacDonald, Amy; Carmichael, Colin

    2017-11-01

    International research suggests that early mathematical competence predicts later mathematical achievement. In this article, we explore the relationship between mathematical competencies at 4-5 years, as measured by teacher ratings, and later results on Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) numeracy tests. Data from a nationally representative sample of 2343 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) are examined. In line with international studies, we report moderate correlations between preschool-entry mathematics and later NAPLAN numeracy test results. However, analysis of individual growth trajectories indicates that early mathematics predicts the initial (Year 3) level, but not subsequent growth. This suggests that early mathematical competencies are important for enhancing achievement in early schooling, but that the quality of mathematics education provided in the schooling years is critical for future development.

  7. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

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    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  8. Employment conditions and maternal postpartum mental health: results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

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    Cooklin, Amanda R; Canterford, Louise; Strazdins, Lyndall; Nicholson, Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Maternal postpartum mental health is influenced by a broad range of risk and protective factors including social circumstances. Forty percent of Australian women resume employment in the first year postpartum, yet poor quality employment (without security, control, flexibility or leave) has not been investigated as a potential social determinant of maternal psychological distress. This paper examines whether poor quality jobs are associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum psychological distress. Data were collected from employed mothers of infants ≤12 months (n = 1,300) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Logistic regression analyses estimated the association between job quality and maternal psychological distress, adjusting for prior depression, social support, quality of partner relationship, adverse life events and sociodemographic characteristics. Only 21% of women reported access to all four optimal job conditions. After adjustment for known risk factors for poor maternal mood, mothers were significantly more likely to report psychological distress (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77) with each reduction in the number of optimal employment conditions. Interventions for maternal postpartum affective disorders are unlikely to be successful if major risk factors are not addressed. These results provide strong evidence that employment conditions are associated with maternal postpartum mood, and warrant consideration in psychosocial risk assessments and interventions.

  9. Children's sleep patterns from 0 to 9 years: Australian population longitudinal study.

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    Price, Anna M H; Brown, Judith E; Bittman, Michael; Wake, Melissa; Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    To provide accurate population normative data documenting cross-sectional, age-specific sleep patterns in Australian children aged 0-9 years. The first three waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two cohorts recruited in 2004 at ages 0-1 years (n=5107) and 4-5 years (n=4983), and assessed biennially. Children with analysable sleep data for at least one wave. At every wave, parents prospectively completed 24-h time-use diaries for a randomly selected week or weekend day. 'Sleeping, napping' was one of the 26 precoded activities recorded in 15-min time intervals. From 0 to 9 years of age, 24-h sleep duration fell from a mean peak of 14 (SD 2.2) h at 4-6 months to 10 (SD 1.9) h at 9 years, mainly due to progressively later mean sleep onset time from 20:00 (SD 75 min) to 21:00 (SD 60 min) and declining length of day sleep from 3.0 (SD 1.7) h to 0.03 (SD 0.2) h. Number and duration of night wakings also fell. By primary school, wake and sleep onset times were markedly later on weekend days. The most striking feature of the centile charts is the huge variation at all ages in sleep duration, sleep onset time and, especially, wake time in this normal population. Parents and professionals can use these new centile charts to judge normalcy of children's sleep. In future research, these population parameters will now be used to empirically determine optimal child sleep patterns for child and parent outcomes like mental and physical health.

  10. Data linkage in an established longitudinal cohort: the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

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    Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J

    2016-07-15

    The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be

  11. Mental health, sexual identity, and interpersonal violence: Findings from the Australian longitudinal Women's health study.

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    Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-09-30

    We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities

  12. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study

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    Taren Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i waist circumference (WC and (ii waist-to-height ratio (WtHR across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (βboys  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14; βgirls  −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05 and WtHR (βboys  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01; βgirls  −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49. Associations among boys were contingent upon age (p  valuesage∗green  space40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys.

  13. The relationship of bilingualism to cognitive decline: The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

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    Mukadam, Naaheed; Jichi, Fatima; Green, David; Livingston, Gill

    2018-02-01

    We wished to clarify the link between bilingualism and cognitive decline, and examine whether improved executive function due to bilingualism may be a factor in preventing cognitive decline. We used the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing which collected data on 2087 participants aged over 65 over 20 years. We compared baseline demographics, health, and social characteristics between bilingual and non-bilingual participants. We used linear mixed models analysis to explore the effect of bilingualism on MMSE score over time and linear regression to explore the effect of bilingualism on baseline MMSE scores, controlling for pre-specified potential confounders. Bilingual participants had lower baseline MMSE scores than the non-bilingual population (mean difference = -2.3 points; 95% confidence intervals = 1.56-2.90). This was fully explained by education and National Adult Reading Test scores (17.4; standard deviation [SD] =7.7 versus 28.1; SD = 8.2) which also partly explained baseline executive function test scores differences. Bilingual and non-bilingual participants did not differ in MMSE decline over time (-0.33 points, P = 0.31) nor on baseline tests of executive function (-0.26, P = 0.051). In this cohort, education rather than bilingualism was a predictor of MMSE score, and being bilingual did not protect from cognitive decline. We conclude that bilingualism is complex, and when it is not the result of greater educational attainment, it does not always protect from cognitive decline. Neuroprotective effects of bilingualism over time may be attributable to the precise patterns of language use but not to bilingualism per se. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

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    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  15. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

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    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  16. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study

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    Bronwyn Brew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. Methods The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline. Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Results Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β −0.33, 95 % CI −0.53, −0.13 and wellbeing (β −0.21(95 % CI −0.35, −0.06 than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98. All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97. Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 % or mental health needs (75 % and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Conclusions Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health

  17. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study.

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    Brew, Bronwyn; Inder, Kerry; Allen, Joanne; Thomas, Matthew; Kelly, Brian

    2016-09-15

    Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline). Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β -0.33, 95 % CI -0.53, -0.13) and wellbeing (β -0.21(95 % CI -0.35, -0.06) than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98). All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP) or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97). Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 %) or mental health needs (75 %) and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health professionals should be supported.

  18. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

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    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  19. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 56A

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    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY):…

  20. Sleep apnoea in Australian men: disease burden, co-morbidities, and correlates from the Australian longitudinal study on male health

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    Chamara Visanka Senaratna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common disorder with under-rated clinical impact, which is increasingly being recognised as having a major bearing on global disease burden. Men are especially vulnerable and become a priority group for preventative interventions. However, there is limited information on prevalence of the condition in Australia, its co-morbidities, and potential risk factors. Methods We used data from 13,423 adult men included in the baseline wave of Ten to Men, an Australian national study of the health of males, assembled using stratified cluster sampling with oversampling from rural and regional areas. Those aged 18–55 years self-completed a paper-based questionnaire that included a question regarding health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea, physical and mental health status, and health-related behaviours. Sampling weights were used to account for the sampling design when reporting the prevalence estimates. Odds ratios were used to describe the association between health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea and potential correlates while adjusting for age, country of birth, and body-mass index (BMI. Results Prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea increased from 2.2 % in age 18–25 years to 7.8 % in the age 45–55 years. Compared with those without sleep apnoea, those with sleep apnoea had significantly poorer physical, mental, and self-rated health as well as lower subjective wellbeing and poorer concentration/remembering (p < 0.001 for all. Sleep apnoea was significantly associated with older age (p < 0.001, unemployment (p < 0.001, asthma (p = 0.011, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (p = 0.002, diabetes (p < 0.001, hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.001, hypertension (p < 0.001, heart attack (p < 0.001, heart failure (p < 0.001, angina (p < 0.001, depression (p < 0.001, post-traumatic stress disorder (p

  1. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

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    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  2. A longitudinal study of the reciprocal effects of alcohol use and interpersonal violence among Australian young people.

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    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John W

    2013-12-01

    The impact of alcohol-related violence on individuals and society continues to receive attention from both media and policy makers. However, the longitudinal relationship between alcohol consumption and violence is unclear, with findings from prospective studies producing mixed results. The current study utilized Australian data from the International Youth Development Study to examine longitudinal relationships between alcohol consumption and severe interpersonal violence across the developmental periods of early adolescence to late adolescence/emerging adulthood. The full sample comprised 849 adolescents (53.8 % female) who had been followed up over a 5 year period, from Grade 7 secondary school (age 13) until Grade 11 secondary school (age 17). Cross-lagged path analysis was used to examine reciprocal relationships between alcohol consumption and interpersonal violence; analyses controlled for a range of covariates considered to be common risk factors for both behaviors. Alcohol use during early and mid adolescence was found to predict violence 2 years later, whereas a bi-directional relationship between adolescent heavy episodic drinking and violence was observed. Some of these relationships were not significant when covariates such as family conflict and affiliation with antisocial and drug using friends were included in the models. These findings suggest that risk processes begin in late childhood or very early adolescence; efforts to reduce one problem behavior are likely to reduce the other. Further, the role that social and family contexts have in influencing the relationships between alcohol use and interpersonal violence should be considered in future research to better inform preventive efforts.

  3. Pre pregnancy dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality, and risk of developing gestational diabetes: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health : The Australian longitudinal study on women's health

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    Looman, M.; Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mishra, G.D.

    2018-01-01

    Carbohydrate quantity and quality affect postprandial glucose response, glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of pre-pregnancy dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality with the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We

  4. New fatherhood and psychological distress: a longitudinal study of Australian men.

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    Leach, Liana S; Olesen, Sarah C; Butterworth, Peter; Poyser, Carmel

    2014-09-15

    Despite growing interest and concern about men's mental health during the perinatal period, we still do not know whether men are more vulnerable to mental health problems during this time. The current study is one of the first to use longitudinal, population-based data to investigate whether becoming an expectant and/or new father is associated with increases in psychological distress. We analyzed 10 waves of data collected annually (from 2001 to 2010) from the nationally representative Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Over this time, 349 men were identified as new fathers (first child aged fatherhood. Longitudinal mixed models showed no significant increase in psychological distress as a function of expectant or new fatherhood; instead, some improvement in mental health was observed. The finding suggests that expectant and new fathers are not at greater risk of poor mental health. Future epidemiologic research should continue to identify those men who are most (and least) at risk during the perinatal period in order to target resources and assistance most effectively. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

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    Gasser, Constantine E; Mensah, Fiona K; Kerr, Jessica A; Wake, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Social patterning of dietary-related diseases may partly be explained by population disparities in children's diets. This study aimed to determine which early life socioeconomic factors best predict dietary trajectories across childhood. For waves 2-6 of the Baby (B) Cohort (ages 2-3 to 10-11 years) and waves 1-6 of the Kindergarten (K) Cohort (ages 4-5 to 14-15 years) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, we constructed trajectories of dietary scores and of empirically derived dietary patterns. Dietary scores, based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines, summed children's consumption frequencies of seven groups of foods or drinks over the last 24 hours. Dietary patterns at each wave were derived using factor analyses of 12-16 food or drink items. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we examined associations of baseline single (parental education, remoteness area, parental employment, income, food security and home ownership) and composite (socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage) factors with adherence to dietary trajectories. All dietary trajectory outcomes across both cohorts showed profound gradients by composite socioeconomic position but not by neighbourhood disadvantage. For example, odds for children in the lowest relative to highest socioeconomic position quintile being in the 'never healthy' relative to the 'always healthy' score trajectory were OR=16.40, 95% CI 9.40 to 28.61 (B Cohort). Among the single variables, only parental education consistently predicted dietary trajectories. Child dietary trajectories vary profoundly by family socioeconomic position. If causal, reducing dietary inequities may require researching underlying pathways, tackling socioeconomic inequities and targeting health promoting interventions to less educated families. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  6. Protocol for a prospective longitudinal study investigating the participation and educational trajectories of Australian students with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline Margaret Anne; Adams, Dawn; Heussler, Helen; Keen, Deborah; Paynter, Jessica; Trembath, David; Westerveld, Marleen; Williams, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Autism is associated with high cost to individuals, families, communities and government. Understanding educational and participation trajectories during the school years, and factors influencing these, is fundamental to reducing financial and personal costs. The primary aim of this study is to document the trajectories of Australian students with autism during their education. The secondary aim is to examine personal (eg, student skills) and environmental (eg, school setting) factors associated with differing trajectories and outcomes. Methods and analysis The cross-sequential longitudinal study will recruit two cohorts of 120 parents/caregivers of children with autism. Cohort 1 aged between 4 and 5 years and cohort 2 between 9 and 10 years to start the study. Information will be gathered from parents, teachers and school principals at six annual time points (T1 to T6). Parents will be emailed a link to an online initial questionnaire (T1) and then contacted annually and asked to complete either an extended questionnaire (T3, T5 and T6) or an abbreviated questionnaire (T2, T4). Where consent is given, the child’s current school will be contacted annually (T1 to T6) and teacher and school principal asked to complete questionnaires about the child and school. Parent and school questionnaires are comprised of questions about demographic and school factors that could influence trajectories and a battery of developmental and behavioural assessment tools designed to assess educational and participation trajectories and outcomes. Surveys will provide longitudinal data on educational and participation trajectories for children and adolescents with autism. In addition cross-sectional comparisons (within or between age groups) at each time point and cohort effects will be explored. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for this study by all recruiting sites and universities in the project. Study findings will inform policy and practice

  7. A longitudinal study of the implementation experiences of the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme: investigating transformative policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Dickinson, Helen

    2017-08-17

    Internationally there has been a growth in the use of publicly funded service markets as a mechanism to deliver health and social services. This has accompanied the emergence of 'self-directed care' in a number of different policy areas including disability and aged care - often referred to as 'personalisation' (Giaimo and Manow, Comp. Pol Stud 32:967-1000, 1999; Needham, Public Money Manage 30:136-8, 2010; [Hood], [The Idea of Joined-up Government: A Historical Perspective], [2005]; Klijn and Koppenjan, Public Manage 2:437-54, 2000, Greener, Policy Polit 36:93-108, 2008). These reforms are underpinned by an idea that individuals should be placed in control of their own service needs, given funding directly by government and encouraged to exercise choice and control through purchasing their own services. A major challenge for governments in charge of these reforms is determining the best way to structure and govern emerging service markets markets. Given the growing international embrace of market-based reform mechanisms to provide essential services to citizens, finding ways to ensure they promote, and not diminish, people's health and wellbeing is vital. The Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) is Australia's first national approach to the use of personalised budgets. The program of research outlined in this paper brings together streams from a range of different studies in order to investigate the implementation of the NDIS longitudinally across different administrative levels of government, service providers and scheme participants. This programme of research will make a contribution to our understanding of the Australian scheme and how individualised funding operates within this context, but will also generate much needed evidence that will have relevance to other jurisdictions and help fill a gap in the evidence base.

  8. Emotional intelligence increases over time: A longitudinal study of Australian pre-registration nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kim; Fethney, Judith; McKenzie, Heather; Fisher, Murray; Harkness, Emily; Kozlowski, Desirée

    2017-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with positive outcomes for nursing students. Higher EI is associated with personal wellbeing and stress management, higher academic performance, stronger nursing leadership and practice performance, and greater patient safety. While there is an increasing body of evidence on nursing students' EI, there is minimal evidence on EI over time during pre-registration programs. To measure EI in pre-registration nursing students from program commencement to conclusion to ascertain EI over time and examine the relationship between EI and academic performance. Longitudinal repeated measures study between March 2010-February 2013 at a metropolitan university in Australia. 111 nursing students (74.8% female) contributed data on at least two occasions. Participants were enrolled in a pre-registration Master of Nursing degree. Half the cohort (55.0%) comprised Graduate Entry students who completed the course in two years full time. The other 45% were enrolled in an undergraduate degree in arts, science or health science, combined with the same pre-registration Master of Nursing Degree. These students completed their Combined Degree program in four years full time. Participants had a mean age of 24.7years (SD=7.36). EI was measured for commencing students (T1) using the Assessing Emotions Scale (AES), then a further three times: end of first year (T2; 9 months follow up); beginning of second year (12 months follow up; T3) and end of the program (T4; 24/36 months follow up). Students' EI was found to increase across the program; one subscale of EI (managing others' emotions) was related to higher academic performance; and there was a significant increase in the Utilising Emotions subscale scores over time. Pre-registration nurse education contributes to strengthening students' EI over time. Specific EI education scaffolded throughout programs is recommended in pre-registration curricula. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Higher Maternal Protectiveness Is Associated with Higher Odds of Child Overweight and Obesity: A Longitudinal Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kirsten J.; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4–5 year old children was followed up at 6–7, 8–9 and 10–11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6–7 and 8–9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4–5, 6–7 or 8–9 years. However at age 10–11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586

  10. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten J Hancock

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596. Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI, family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s that links the two concepts.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This study examined the factors that predict employees’ perceptions of procedural justice in university settings. The paper also reviews the ethical aspects of justice and psychological contracts within employment relationships. Design/Methodology/Approach - The study examined the predictors of perceived procedural justice in a two-wave longitudinal sample of 945 employees from 13 universities by applying the Job Demands-Resources theoretical model of stress. The proposed predictors were classified into two categories: job demands of work pressure and work-home conflict; and job resources of job security, autonomy, trust in senior management, and trust in supervisor. The predictor model also examined job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, demographic (age, gender, tenure, role and individual characteristics (negative affectivity, job involvement as well as Time 1 (T1 perceptions of procedural justice to ensure that tests were rigorous. Findings - A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that job satisfaction at T1 was the strongest predictor of perceived procedural justice at Time 2. Employees' trust in senior management, and their length of tenure also positively predicted justice perceptions. There were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups, as non-academic employees' level of job satisfaction, trust in senior management and their length of organizational tenure predicted procedural justice perceptions, whereas for academics, only job satisfaction predicted perceived justice. For the all staff category, job satisfaction was a dominant and enduring predictor of justice, and employees' trust in senior management also predicted justice. Research limitations/implications - Results highlight the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures to encourage reciprocity from employees. As perceived procedural justice is also conceptually linked to the

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Perceived Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H.; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the factors that predict employees' perceptions of procedural justice in university settings. The paper also reviews the ethical aspects of justice and psychological contracts within employment relationships. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study examined the predictors of perceived procedural justice in a two-wave longitudinal sample of 945 employees from 13 universities by applying the Job Demands-Resources theoretical model of stress. The proposed predictors were classified into two categories: Job demands of work pressure and work-home conflict; and job resources of job security, autonomy, trust in senior management, and trust in supervisor. The predictor model also examined job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, demographic (age, gender, tenure, role) and individual characteristics (negative affectivity, job involvement) as well as Time 1 (T1) perceptions of procedural justice to ensure that tests were rigorous. Findings: A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that job satisfaction at T1 was the strongest predictor of perceived procedural justice at Time 2. Employees' trust in senior management, and their length of tenure also positively predicted justice perceptions. There were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups, as non-academic employees' level of job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and their length of organizational tenure predicted procedural justice perceptions, whereas for academics, only job satisfaction predicted perceived justice. For the “all staff” category, job satisfaction was a dominant and enduring predictor of justice, and employees' trust in senior management also predicted justice. Research limitations/implications: Results highlight the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures to encourage reciprocity from employees. As perceived procedural justice is also conceptually linked to the psychological contract

  13. Socio-economic differences in predictors of frequent dairy food consumption among Australian adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2015-12-01

    Sufficient dairy food consumption during adolescence is necessary for preventing disease. While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume few dairy foods, some eat quantities more in line with dietary recommendations despite socio-economic challenges. Socio-economic variations in factors supportive of adolescents' frequent dairy consumption remain unexplored. The present study aimed to identify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and adolescents' frequent dairy consumption at baseline and two years later across socio-economic strata, and to examine whether socio-economic position moderated observed effects. Online surveys completed at baseline (2004-2005) and follow-up (2006-2007) included a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions based on social ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental dietary influences. Thirty-seven secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Australian adolescents (n 1201) aged 12-15 years, drawn from a sub-sample of 3264 adolescents (response rate=33%). While frequent breakfast consumption was cross-sectionally associated with frequent dairy consumption among all adolescents, additional associated factors differed by socio-economic position. Baseline dairy consumption longitudinally predicted consumption at follow-up. No further factors predicted frequent consumption among disadvantaged adolescents, while four additional factors were predictive among advantaged adolescents. Socio-economic position moderated two predictors; infrequently eating dinner alone and never purchasing from school vending machines predicted frequent consumption among advantaged adolescents. Nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving adolescents' dairy consumption should employ multifactorial approaches informed by social ecological models and address socio-economic differences in influences on eating behaviours; e.g., selected intrapersonal factors among all

  14. The influence of neighbourhood green space on children's physical activity and screen time : findings from the longitudinal study of Australian children

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Taren; Feng, Xiaoqi; Fahey, Paul P.; Lonsdale, Chris; Astell-Burt, Thomas Edward

    2015-01-01

    TS is supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award. TAB is supported by a Fellowship with the National Heart Foundation of Australia (No. 100161). Objective: It is often hypothesised that neighbourhood green space may help prevent well-known declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviour that occur across childhood. As most studies in this regard are cross-sectional, the purpose of our study was to use longitudinal data to examine whether green space promotes active li...

  15. Impact of multidimensional poverty on the self-efficacy of older people: Results from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2017-02-01

    Self-efficacy has numerous benefits for active and healthy aging, including giving the people the ability to make positive changes to their living standards and lifestyles. The present study aims to determine whether falling into multidimensional poverty lowers self-efficacy. Longitudinal analysis of waves 7-11 (2007-2011) of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey using linear regression models. The analysis focused on the Australian population aged 65 years and older. The Freedom Poverty Measure was used to identify those in multidimensional poverty. Those who fell into multidimensional poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 had their self-efficacy scores decline by an average of 27 points (SD 21.2). Those who fell into poverty had significantly lower self-efficacy scores in 2011 - up to 57% lower (-66.6%, -45.7% P poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 than those who were never in poverty. Falling into multidimensional poverty lowers the self-efficacy scores of older people. In order to improve the chances of older people making long-term changes to improve their living standards, feelings of self-efficacy should first be assessed and improved. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 308-314. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectories of young Australian women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectory. The association of education with weight trajectory (1996-2012) in relation to reproductive history was analyzed among 9,336 women (born 1973-1978) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using random effects models. Compared with women with a university degree/higher, lower-educated women were 2 kg heavier at baseline and gained an additional 0.24 kg/year. Giving birth was associated with an increase in weight which was more pronounced among women having their first birth 32 years. While younger first-time mothers had a steeper weight trajectory (∼+0.16 kg/year, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3), this was less steep among lower-educated women. High-educated women with a second birth between 26 and 32 years had 0.9 kg decreased weight after this birth, while low-educated women gained 0.9 kg. While the effect of having children on weight in young adulthood was minimal, women having their first birth women. Educational differences in weight persisted after accounting for reproductive history, suggesting a need to explore alternative mechanisms through which social differences in weight are generated. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Impact of chronic illness timing and persistence at school entry on child and parent outcomes: Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Barnett, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To understand the prevalence and timing of child chronic illness at school entry; associations with child learning, behavior and health-related quality of life and parent mental health at ages 6 to 7, 8 to 9, and 10 to 11 years; and cumulative health care costs. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children were aged 4 to 5 years at wave 1, with data collection every 2 years. Parent-reported timing of child chronic illness at school entry was categorized into 4 chronic illness groups based on changes between waves 1 and 2: none, resolving, incident and persistent. Child outcomes included: parent-reported quality of life, parent- and teacher-reported behavior, teacher-reported child learning, teacher-reported child-teacher relationship, directly assessed nonverbal and verbal cognition and parent self-reported mental health. Linear regression, adjusted for gender and socioeconomic position, was used to quantify longitudinal associations between chronic illness timing at school entry with outcomes at age 6 to 7 years, 8 to 9 years and 10 to 11 years. Of the 4983 children enrolled in the study, chronic illness data was available for 4464 children (89.6%) at both waves 1 and 2. From wave 1, 6.1% had a condition that persisted until wave 2, while 14.1% had a condition that resolved. Furthermore, 4.7% had a newly emerging condition at wave 2. Compared with the no chronic illness group, children with persistent or emerging chronic illness during school entry had the poorest outcomes (except father's mental health) at all time points, while children with resolving conditions had smaller differences. Child chronic illness at school entry is associated with poorer longitudinal child and maternal outcomes. Therefore, future research should aim to determine the risk and protective factors that contribute to the poorer child and parent outcomes experienced in this growing population. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric

  18. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 1998 Cohort: Wave 12 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 58A

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 1998 cohort Wave 12 (2009) data set. [For the accompanying frequency tables, "Longitudinal Surveys…

  19. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  20. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  1. The impact of poverty on self-efficacy: an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, E J; Schofield, D J

    2016-06-01

    People with strong feelings of 'self-efficacy', i.e. how much a person feels they have control over their life, perform better in the workplace. However, little is known about negative influences on feelings of self-efficacy. In view of the increasing number of people whose income places them below the poverty line despite being in employment, poverty may negatively influence feelings of self-efficacy and hence workplace productivity. To assess whether falling into poverty lowers self-efficacy. Longitudinal analysis of waves 7 to 11 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, using linear regression models. Those who fell into multidimensional poverty (income poverty plus poor health or insufficient level of education attainment) had significantly lower self-efficacy scores (up to 18% lower (95% CI -31% to -1%, P poverty, after accounting for initial self-efficacy score and other confounding factors. Income uniquely accounted for 3% of the variance in self-efficacy scores, physical health for 10%, mental health for 78% and education for 1%. Given the known links between self-efficacy and workplace productivity, workers who are below the poverty line may be at risk of poor productivity due to the experience of poverty. In addition to the poor outcomes from the employer's perceptive, this may also lead to a negative spiral for the employee. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 56B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY):…

  3. Social patterning of overeating, binge eating, compensatory behaviours and symptoms of bulimia nervosa in young adult women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Heshmati, Amy; Mishra, Gita

    2016-12-01

    To study social patterning of overeating and symptoms of disordered eating in a general population. A representative, population-based cohort study. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), Survey 1 in 1996 and Survey 2 in 2000. Women (n 12 599) aged 18-23 years completed a questionnaire survey at baseline, of whom 6866 could be studied prospectively. Seventeen per cent of women reported episodes of overeating, 16 % reported binge eating and 10 % reported compensatory behaviours. Almost 4 % of women reported symptoms consistent with bulimia nervosa. Low education, not living with family, perceived financial difficulty (OR=1·8 and 1·3 for women with severe and some financial difficulty, respectively, compared with none) and European language other than English spoken at home (OR=1·5 for European compared with Australian/English) were associated with higher prevalence of binge eating. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses indicated increased risk of persistent binge eating among women with a history of being overweight in childhood, those residing in metropolitan Australia, women with higher BMI, smokers and binge drinkers. Overeating, binge eating and symptoms of bulimia nervosa are common among young Australian women and cluster with binge drinking. Perceived financial stress appears to increase the risk of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. It is unclear whether women of European origin and those with a history of childhood overweight carry higher risk of binge eating because of genetic or cultural reasons.

  4. Gender, Parental Beliefs and Children's Mathematics Performance: Insights from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Colin

    2014-01-01

    With reports of declining participation in mathematics related careers and low female participation rates, the issue of gender differences in mathematics remains relevant. This study seeks to examine the relationship between: children's sex, parents' beliefs regarding their children's education, and, the children's mathematics performance. Through…

  5. Successful mental health aging: results from a longitudinal study of older Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Norman, Paul; Hankey, Graeme; Jamrozik, Konrad; Flicker, Leon

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the associations of medical and lifestyle factors with the mental health of men in their 80s. This was a prospective study of a community-representative cohort of older men. Successful mental health aging was defined as reaching age 80 years with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE) of 24 or more and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS-15) score of 5 or less. Of 601 men followed for 4.8 years, 76.0% enjoyed successful mental health aging. Successful mental health aging was inversely associated with age (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.94), non-English-speaking background (HR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.85), and the consumption of full-cream milk (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45-0.89), and directly associated with high school or university education (HR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34-2.75) and vigorous (HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.17-3.05) and nonvigorous physical activity (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05-2.14). Marital status, smoking and alcohol use, weekly consumption of meat or fish, and a medical history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not associated with mental health outcomes in men aged 80 years or over. Three in four men who reach age 80 years undergo successful mental health aging. Factors associated with successful mental health aging include education and lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Lifestyle modification by means of increasing physical activity and reducing saturated fat intake may prove to be a safe, inexpensive, and readily available strategy to help maximize the successful mental health aging of the population.

  6. Tobacco price boards as a promotional strategy-a longitudinal observational study in Australian retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, Megan; Scollo, Michelle; White, Sarah; Lindorff, Kylie; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-07-22

    Price boards in tobacco retailers are one of the few forms of tobacco promotion remaining in Australia. This study aimed to examine how these boards were used to promote products over a period of rapidly rising taxes. Observations were made in a panel of 350 stores in Melbourne, Australia, in November of 2013 (just before) and in 2014 and 2015 (after 12.5% increases in tobacco duty). Fieldworkers unobtrusively noted the presence and characteristics of price boards, and the brand name, size and price of the product at the top of each board. Price boards were common in all store types apart from newsagent/lottery agents. The characteristics of the top-listed product changed notably over time: premium brands accounted for 66% of top-listed products in 2013, significantly declining to 43% in 2015, while packs of 20 cigarettes increased in prominence from 32% to 45%. The prevalence of packs of 20 cigarettes in budget market segments tripled from 2013 (13%) and 2014 (11%) to 32% in 2015, with no change in the proportion of packs that were under $A20 from 2014 (37%) to 2015 (36%). The rate of increase in the average price of the top-listed pack correspondingly flattened from 2014 to 2015 compared with 2013-2014. Price boards promote tobacco products in ways that undermine the effectiveness of tax policy as a means of discouraging consumption. Communication to consumers about prices should be restricted to information sheets provided to adult smokers on request at the point of sale. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic

  8. New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS): an Australian multiagency, multigenerational, longitudinal record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Vaughan J; Harris, Felicity; Raudino, Alessandra; Luo, Luming; Kariuki, Maina; Liu, Enwu; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Smith, Maxwell; Holbrook, Allyson; Bore, Miles; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Dix, Katherine; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-02-11

    The initial aim of this multiagency, multigenerational record linkage study is to identify childhood profiles of developmental vulnerability and resilience, and to identify the determinants of these profiles. The eventual aim is to identify risk and protective factors for later childhood-onset and adolescent-onset mental health problems, and other adverse social outcomes, using subsequent waves of record linkage. The research will assist in informing the development of public policy and intervention guidelines to help prevent or mitigate adverse long-term health and social outcomes. The study comprises a population cohort of 87,026 children in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW). The cohort was defined by entry into the first year of full-time schooling in NSW in 2009, at which time class teachers completed the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) on each child (with 99.7% coverage in NSW). The AEDC data have been linked to the children's birth, health, school and child protection records for the period from birth to school entry, and to the health and criminal records of their parents, as well as mortality databases. Descriptive data summarising sex, geographic and socioeconomic distributions, and linkage rates for the various administrative databases are presented. Child data are summarised, and the mental health and criminal records data of the children's parents are provided. In 2015, at age 11 years, a self-report mental health survey was administered to the cohort in collaboration with government, independent and Catholic primary school sectors. A second record linkage, spanning birth to age 11 years, will be undertaken to link this survey data with the aforementioned administrative databases. This will enable a further identification of putative risk and protective factors for adverse mental health and other outcomes in adolescence, which can then be tested in subsequent record linkages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  9. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. Results In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Conclusions Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women—a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort. PMID:25940876

  10. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1989-95 Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-05-04

    In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women-a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort.

  11. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: Wave 6 (2011)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 75A

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2006 cohort at wave 6 (2011). The document presents the questionnaire for LSAY…

  12. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 1 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. Since 2003, the LSAY program has been integrated with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted by the Organisation for Economic…

  13. Sleep timing and child and parent outcomes in Australian 4-9-year-olds: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Price, Anna M H; Bittman, Michael; Hiscock, Harriet

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to use national Australian time-diary data to examine both (1) cross-sectionally and (2) longitudinally whether being late versus early to sleep or wake is associated with poorer child behavior, quality of life, learning, cognition and weight status, and parental mental health. Data from the first three waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were taken. A national representative sample of 4983 4-5-year-olds, recruited in 2004 from the Australian Medicare database and followed up biennially, was taken; 3631 had analyzable sleep information and a concurrent measure of health and well-being for at least one wave. Parents completed 24-h child time-use diaries for one week and one weekend day at each wave. Using median splits, sleep timing was categorized into early-to-sleep/early-to-wake (EE), early-to-sleep/late-to-wake (EL), late-to-sleep/early-to-wake (LE), and late-to-sleep/late-to-wake (LL) at each wave. The outcomes included parent-reported child behavior, health-related quality of life, maternal/paternal mental health, teacher-reported child language, literacy, mathematical thinking, and approach to learning. The study assessed child body mass index and girth. (1) Using EE as the comparator, linear regression analyses revealed that being late-to-sleep was associated with poorer child quality of life from 6 to 9 years and maternal mental health at 6-7 years. There was inconsistent or no evidence for associations between sleep timing and all other outcomes. (2) Using the count of the number of times (waves) at which a child was categorized as late-to-sleep (range 0-3), longitudinal analyses demonstrated that there was a cumulative effect of late-to-sleep profiles on poorer child and maternal outcomes at the child age of 8-9 years. Examined cross-sectionally, sleep timing is a driver of children's quality of life and maternal depression. Examined longitudinally, there appears to be cumulative and adverse relationships

  14. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 1998 Cohort: Wave 12 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 58B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 1998 cohort Wave 12 (2009) data set. [For the accompanying questionnaire, "Longitudinal Surveys…

  15. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750 were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less

  16. The influence of neighbourhood green space on children's physical activity and screen time: findings from the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Taren; Feng, Xiaoqi; Fahey, Paul P; Lonsdale, Chris; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    It is often hypothesised that neighbourhood green space may help prevent well-known declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviour that occur across childhood. As most studies in this regard are cross-sectional, the purpose of our study was to use longitudinal data to examine whether green space promotes active lifestyles as children grow older. Data came from participants (n = 4983; age = 4-5) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative study on health and child development. Physical activity and screen time were measured biennially (2004-2012) using questionnaires and time use diaries. Quantity of neighbourhood green space was objectively measured using Australian Bureau of Statistics mesh block data for each participant's statistical area level 2. Multilevel regression was used to test for associations between physical activity and screen time with green space quantity, adjusting for socio-economic confounders. Boys living in areas with 10% more neighbourhood green space had a: 7% (95% CI = 1.02, 1.13) greater odds of choosing physically active pastimes; 8% (95 % CI = 0.85, 1.00) lower odds of not enjoying physical activity; 2.3 min reduction in weekend television viewing (95% CI = -4.00, -0.69); and 7% (95% CI = 1.02; 1.12) and 9% (95% CI = 1.03; 1.15) greater odds of meeting physical activity guidelines on weekdays and weekends, respectively. No statistically (or practically) significant results were observed for girls. Current provisions of neighbourhood green space may be more amenable to promoting active lifestyles among boys than girls. Research is needed to explore what types of green space promote active lifestyles in all children.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Research: A Case Study of the LSAY Research Innovation and Expansion Fund. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the framework developed by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) for measuring research impact to assess the outcomes of the research and activities funded under the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Research Innovation and Expansion Fund (RIEF). LSAY provides a rich…

  18. Patterns of Multiple Risk Exposures for Low Receptive Vocabulary Growth 4-8 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental "circumstance" with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The best fitting model identified six distinct classes. 46% of children were in a Developmentally Enabled group, 20% were in a group typified as Working Poor families, 10% of children were in group typified as Overwhelmed group, 9% of children were in a group defined by Child Developmental Delay, 8% of children were in a group defined by Low Human Capital, and 7% of children were in a group defined by Resource Poor non-English Speaking background families. These groups had quantitatively and qualitatively distinct patterns of risk factors and showed different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary. Our results demonstrate a range of multiple risk profiles in a population-representative sample of Australian children and highlight the mix of risk factors faced by children. Children with distinct patterns of risk factors have different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary development.

  19. A population-based longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile infection-related hospitalization in mid-age and older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Glass, K; Liu, B; Riley, T V; Korda, R; Kirk, M D

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for hospitalization due to C. difficile infection (CDI) in older Australians. We linked data from a population-based prospective cohort study (the 45 and Up Study) of 266 922 adults aged ⩾45 years recruited in New South Wales, Australia to hospitalization and death records for 2006-2012. We estimated the incidence of CDI hospitalization and calculated days in hospital and costs per hospitalization. We also estimated hazard ratios (HR) for CDI hospitalization using Cox regression with age as the underlying time variable. Over a total follow-up of 1 126 708 person-years, 187 adults had an incident CDI hospitalization. The crude incidence of CDI hospitalization was 16·6/100 000 person-years, with a median hospital stay of 6 days, and a median cost of AUD 6102 per admission. Incidence increased with age and year of follow-up, with a threefold increase for 2009-2012. After adjustment, CDI hospitalization rates were significantly lower in males than females (adjusted HR 0·6, 95% confidence interval 0·4-0·7). CDI hospitalization rates increased significantly over 2009-2012. There is a need to better understand the increasing risk of CDI hospitalization in women.

  20. Recruitment via the Internet and social networking sites: the 1989-1995 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gita Devi; Hockey, Richard; Powers, Jennifer; Loxton, Deborah; Tooth, Leigh; Rowlands, Ingrid; Byles, Julie; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-15

    Faced with the challenge of recruiting young adults for health studies, researchers have increasingly turned to the Internet and social networking sites, such as Facebook, as part of their recruitment strategy. As yet, few large-scale studies are available that report on the characteristics and representativeness of the sample obtained from such recruitment methods. The intent of the study was to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of a national sample of young Australian women recruited mainly through the Internet and social networking sites and to discuss the representativeness of their sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics relative to the population. A cohort of 17,069 women (born between 1989 and 1995) was recruited in 2012-13 for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Sociodemographic characteristics (percentages, means, and 95% confidence intervals) from the online survey data were compared with women aged 18-23 years from the 2011 Australian Census. Sample data were compared by age and education level with data from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (AHS). Compared to the Australian Census data, study participants were broadly representative in terms of geographical distribution across Australia, marital status (95.62%, 16,321/17,069) were never married), and age distribution. A higher percentage had attained university (22.52%, 3844/17,069) and trade/certificate/diploma qualifications (25.94%, 4428/17,069) compared with this age group of women in the national population (9.4% and 21.7% respectively). Among study participants, 22.05% (3721/16,877) were not in paid employment with 35.18% (5931/16,857) studying 16 or more hours a week. A higher percentage of study participants rated their health in the online survey as fair or poor (rather than good, very good, or excellent) compared with those participating in face-to-face interviews in the AHS (18.77%, 3203/17,069 vs 10.1%). A higher percentage of study

  1. The global financial crisis and psychological health in a sample of Australian older adults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-10-01

    Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The associations between TV viewing, food intake, and BMI. A prospective analysis of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Hardy, Louise L; Halse, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Despite cross-sectional evidence of a link between TV viewing and BMI in early childhood, there has been limited longitudinal exploration of this relationship. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential bi-directionality of the relationship between TV viewing and child BMI. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether this relationship is mediated by dietary intake. Parents of 9064 children (4724 recruited at birth, 4340 recruited at age 4) from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) completed measures of their child's dietary intake and TV viewing habits at three equidistant time points, separated by 2years. Objective measures of height and weight were also obtained at each time point to calculate BMI. Cross-lagged panel analyses were conducted to evaluate potential bi-directional associations between TV viewing and child BMI, and to evaluate mediation effects of dietary intake for this relationship. Our longitudinal findings suggest that the relationship between TV viewing and BMI is bi-directional: Individuals who watch TV are more likely to gain weight, and individuals who are heavier are also more likely to watch TV. Interestingly, dietary intake mediated the BMI-TV viewing relationship for the older children, but not for the birth cohort. Present findings suggest that sedentary behaviours, particularly when coupled with unhealthy dietary habits, constitute a significant risk factor for excessive weight gain in early childhood. Interventions targeted at helping parents to develop healthy TV viewing and eating habits in their young children are clearly warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The clinical course of acute otitis media in high-risk Australian Aboriginal children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skull Susan A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. Methods We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of the tympanic membrane (TM and tympanometry was done every weekday if possible. We followed children for either two weeks (AOM without perforation, or three weeks (AOM with perforation, or for longer periods if the infection persisted. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at study entry and then weekly. Results We enrolled 31 children and conducted a total of 219 assessments. Most children had bulging of the TM or recent middle ear discharge at diagnosis. Persistent signs of suppurative OM (without ear pain were present in most children 7 days (23/30, 77%, and 14 days (20/26, 77% later. Episodes of AOM did not usually have a sudden onset or short duration. Six of the 14 children with fresh discharge in their ear canal had an intact or functionally intact TM. Perforation size generally remained very small (Streptococcus pneumoniae (82%, Haemophilus influenzae (71%, and Moraxella catarrhalis (95%; 63% of swabs cultured all three pathogens. Conclusion In this high-risk population, AOM was generally painless and persistent. These infections were associated with persistent bacterial colonisation of the nasopharynx and any benefits of antibiotics were modest at best. Systematic follow up with careful examination and review of treatment are required and clinical resolution cannot be assumed.

  4. Perceived needs of carers of people with psychosis: An Australian longitudinal population-based study of caregivers of people with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Abner Weng Cheong; Joubert, Lynette; Harvey, Carol

    2018-05-01

    Studies have documented the perceived needs of carers of people with psychosis but most recruitment has utilised convenience sampling resulting in limited understanding of carers' needs. This longitudinal study was conducted within the second Australian prevalence study of psychosis, aiming to obtain generalisable findings regarding perceived needs of carers of people with psychosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 98 carers of people with psychosis recruited in the Australian prevalence study of psychosis. Seventy-eight of the carers were reinterviewed 1 year later to measure changes in their perceived needs. Correlational and paired T tests were conducted to identify relationships between perceived needs and carer's health and well-being, and changes in levels of perceived needs over time. Qualitative responses were structurally coded by segmentation according to the Carers' and Users' Expectations of Services-Carer version. Thematic analysis of common words and phrases was undertaken to identify key themes concerning carers' perceived needs. There was minimal improvement in carers' perceived needs over time and their needs were closely related to their perception of their own social connectedness, psychological health and quality of life. Five themes were identified: Greater involvement of carers in the treatment plan, provision of relevant information to carers, multiple biopsychosocial support for carers, well-being and independence interventions for people with psychosis, and choice to care and alternate caring arrangements. Although policy recognises the need to support carers, findings show that focused interventions are required to address carers' perceived needs more holistically in current mental health services. To support carers' recovery, services need to include carers in treatment planning, and consider ways to address their needs and improve their own health and well-being. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Estimating the effects of maternal education on child dental caries using marginal structural models: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xiangqun; Jamieson, Lisa M; Mejia, Gloria C

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the effect of mothers' education on Indigenous Australian children's dental caries experience while controlling for the mediating effect of children's sweet food intake. The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children is a study of two representative cohorts of Indigenous Australian children, aged from 6 months to 2 years (baby cohort) and from 3.5 to 5 years (child cohort) at baseline. The children's primary caregiver undertook a face-to-face interview in 2008 and repeated annually for the next 4 years. Data included household demographics, child health (nutrition information and dental health), maternal conditions and highest qualification levels. Mother's educational level was classified into four categories: 0-9 years, 10 years, 11-12 years and >12 years. Children's mean sweet food intake was categorized as 30%. After multiple imputation of missing values, a marginal structural model with stabilized inverse probability weights was used to estimate the direct effect of mothers' education level on children's dental decay experience. From 2008 to 2012, complete data on 1720 mother-child dyads were available. Dental caries experience for children was 42.3% over the 5-year period. The controlled direct effect estimates of mother's education on child dental caries were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01-1.45), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.91-1.18) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.93-1.22); after multiple imputation of missing values, the effects were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.05-1.39), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94-1.19) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.95-1.19), comparing '0-9', '10' and '11-12' years to > 12 years of education. Mothers' education level had a direct effect on children's dental decay experience that was not mediated by sweet food intake and other risk factors when estimated using a marginal structural model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Schlichthorst, Marisa; Kavanagh, Anne; Page, Kathryn; Pirkis, Jane

    2016-10-31

    Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456). Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay), and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. The majority of participants aged 18-55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %), with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week) and night shift work (23.4 %). Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors) prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose-response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations between psychosocial job quality and subjective wellbeing

  7. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. LaMontagne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men. In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. Methods A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456. Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay, and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results The majority of participants aged 18–55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %, with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week and night shift work (23.4 %. Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose–response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations

  8. Australian Film Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  9. The relationship between SF-6D utility scores and lifestyle factors across three life stages: evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Waller, Michael; Whitty, Jennifer A; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-06-01

    To investigate how SF-6D utility scores change with age between generations of women and to quantify the relationship of SF-6D with lifestyle factors across life stages. Up to seven waves of self-reported, longitudinal data were drawn for the 1973-1978 (young, N = 13772), 1946-1951 (mid-age, N = 12792), 1921-1926 (older, N = 9972) cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Mixed effects models were employed for analysis. Young and mid-age women had similar average SF-6D scores at baseline (0.63-0.64), which remained consistent over the 16-year period. However, older women had lower scores at baseline at 0.57 which steadily declined over 15 years. Across cohorts, low education attainment, greater difficulty in managing income, obesity, physical inactivity, heavy smoking, no alcohol consumption, and increasing stress levels were associated with lower SF-6D scores. The magnitude of effect varied between cohorts. SF-6D scores were lower amongst young women with high-risk drinking behaviours than low-risk drinkers. Mid-age women, who were underweight, never married, or underwent surgical menopause also reported lower SF-6D scores. Older women who lived in remote areas, who were ex-smokers, or were underweight, reported lower SF-6D scores. The SF-6D utility score is sensitive to differences in lifestyle factors across adult life stages. Gradual loss of physical functioning may explain the steady decline in health for older women. Key factors associated with SF-6D include physical activity, body mass index, menopause status, smoking, alcohol use, and stress. Factors associated with poorer SF-6D scores vary in type and magnitude at different life stages.

  10. The Influence of Masculine Norms and Occupational Factors on Mental Health: Evidence From the Baseline of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Kavanagh, Anne; King, Tania; Currier, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Men employed in male-dominated occupations are at elevated risk of work-related fatalities, injuries, and suicide. Prior research has focused on associations between psychosocial and physical exposures at work and health outcomes. However, masculine norms may also contribute to mental health. We used data from the baseline survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health to examine whether: (a) men in male-dominated jobs report greater adherence to masculine norms; (b) being in a male-dominated occupation is associated with poorer mental health; and (c) being in a male-dominated occupation modifies the association between masculine norms and mental health. Masculine norms were measured using the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI-22). Mental health was assessed using the SF-12. Results of regression analysis (adjusted for covariates) suggest a linear relationship between the extent to which an occupation is male-dominated and endorsement of values on the CMNI-22. Many CMNI-22 subscales were related to poorer mental health. However, the need for self-reliance was identified as the strongest predictor of poorer mental health. The mental health scale did not appear to be patterned by occupational gender composition and we did not find an interaction between the gender ratio of an occupation and the CNMI-22 scale. These findings highlight the need to address harmful aspects of masculinity as a potential cause of mental health problems. More longitudinal research is needed on the social domains in which gender and health are experienced, such as in the workplace.

  11. Sitting Time, Physical Activity and Sleep by Work Type and Pattern—The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn K. Clark

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA, in working women. Young (31–36 years; 2009 and mid-aged (59–64 years; 2010 women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines in the previous week. Participants reported occupation (manager/professional; clerical/sales; trades/transport/labourer, work hours (part-time; full-time and work pattern (shift/night; not shift/night. The odds of shorter sleep on work days was higher in both cohorts for women who worked shift or night hours. Longer sitting time on work days, made up primarily of sitting for work, was found for managers/professionals, clerical/sales and full-time workers. In the young cohort, clerical/sales workers and in the mid-aged cohort, full-time workers were less likely to meet PA guidelines. These results suggest multiple behaviour interventions tailored to work patterns and occupational category may be useful to improve the sleep, sitting and activity of working women.

  12. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort: User Guide. Technical Report 49

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is a research program that tracks young people as they move from school into further study, work and other destinations. It uses large, nationally representative samples of young people to collect information about education and training, work, and social development. It includes surveys…

  13. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 2 (2010)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 71B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 2009 cohort Wave 2 (2010) data set.

  14. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: Wave 6 (2011)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 75B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2006 cohort at wave 6 (2011). This document presents the frequency tables for…

  15. Concern and risk perception of osteoporosis and fracture among post-menopausal Australian women: results from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenilla-Wong, A L; Chen, J S; March, L M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with concern and perception of risks of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures and determine whether bone mineral density (BMD) testing influenced concern and risk perception. Study subjects (n = 1,082, age 55-94 years) were female Australian participants of the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Self-administered questionnaires were sent annually from 2007 to 2010. Study outcomes included 'concern about osteoporosis', 'perception of getting osteoporosis' and 'perception of fracture risk' compared to similar aged women. The closest post-BMD testing or baseline questionnaires were used for women with and without BMD testing, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the analysis. BMD testing, prior fracture after age 45, younger age and lower self-reported general health were significantly associated with being 'very' or 'somewhat concerned' about osteoporosis and having a 'much higher' or 'little higher' risk perception of osteoporosis and fractures. A poorer BMD result was associated with higher concern and higher risk perceptions. The presence of comorbidities, having ≥2 falls in the preceding year and maternal osteoporosis were associated with higher concern. Maternal osteoporosis, presence of comorbidities, weight loss of ≥5 kg in the preceding year and low body mass index were associated with higher perceptions of osteoporosis risk. Women's concern and risk perception of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures were reasonably well founded. However, increasing age, height loss, smoking and drinking were not associated with concern and perception despite being known osteoporosis risk factors. These factors should be considered in planning for education and awareness raising programmes.

  16. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well

  17. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Whiteside, Eliza; Humphreys, Janice; Lee, Kathryn; Thomas, Patrick; Chopin, Lisa; Crisp, Gabrielle; O'Keeffe, Angela; Kimlin, Michael; Stacey, Andrew; Anderson, Debra

    2014-01-08

    Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual's physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women.The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women's study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women's health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women's risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and health status in women.

  18. Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…

  19. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  20. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  1. Increased work and social engagement is associated with increased stroke specific quality of life in stroke survivors at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke: a longitudinal study of an Australian stroke cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Tamara; Binte Yusoff, Siti Zubaidah; Churilov, Leonid; Ma, Henry; Davis, Stephen; Donnan, Geoffrey Alan; Carey, Leeanne M

    2017-09-01

    There is a relative lack of longitudinal studies investigating stroke-specific outcomes and quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to identify which factors (level of disability, cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and work and social engagement) were independently associated with each stroke-specific domain of QOL, adjusting for age and gender, at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke in an Australian cohort. Survivors of ischemic stroke were recruited from 18 sites of the STroke imAging pRevention and Treatment (START) longitudinal cohort study. Survivors were assessed at 3 months (n = 185) and 12 months (n = 170) post-stroke using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). WSAS was independently associated with the SIS domains of: Physical Composite function; Participation; and Perceived Recovery at 3 months and 12 months and SIS domain of Emotion at 12 months post-stroke. The presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with the SIS domains of: Memory and Thinking; and Emotion at 3 months. At 12 months post-stroke, mRS was independently associated with SIS domain of Physical Composite function and MoCA with SIS domain of Communication. Engaging in work and social activities is an important factor associated with stroke-specific domains of QOL over time. It is recommended that services focus on improving work and social engagement given their importance related to QOL in the first year of recovery post-stroke. Identifying and treating those with depressive symptoms may enhance QOL in the early months post-stroke. START-PrePARE Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials, www.anzctr.org.au , Registry number: ACTRN12610000987066. EXTEND ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT00887328.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  3. Mid-Adolescent Predictors of Adult Drinking Levels in Early Adulthood and Gender Differences: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the South Australian School Leavers Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Delfabbro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing. Respondents were classified into two groups based upon a percentile division: those who drank at levels consistently below NHMRC guidelines and those who consistently drank at higher levels. The results showed that poorer age 15 scores on measures of psychological wellbeing including scores on the GHQ-12, self-esteem, and life-satisfaction as well as engagement in health-related behaviours such as smoking or drug-taking were associated with higher drinking levels in early adulthood. The pattern of results was generally similar for both genders. Higher drinking levels were most strongly associated with smoking and marijuana use and poorer psychological wellbeing during adolescence.

  4. Closing the gap: Longitudinal changes in employment for Australians with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Pieter A; Kirk-Brown, Andrea K; Taylor, Bruce; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have documented far lower employment participation rates for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) compared to the general population. In a large national sample of PwMS, we examined employment status, longitudinal changes in employment and the provision of modifications to work role/environment from 2010 to 2013. Employment data were collected through the Australian MS Longitudinal Study from 2010 to 2013, with 1260 people responding to all four surveys. Employment rates were compared with the Australian general population. The survey included questions on the provision of modifications to employees' work role and work environment. Employment (full- and part-time) increased from 48.8% in 2010 to 57.8% in 2013, mainly due to increases in male full-time employment. The employment gap between PwMS and the general population fell from 14.3% in 2010 to 3.5% in 2013. Male employment rates, however, remain significantly lower than the general population. The majority of PwMS who required adjustments to either their work role or environment received them. The gap in employment between PwMS and the general population has substantially reduced from 2010 to 2013, with organisations responding positively to requests for work role/environment adjustments.

  5. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Longitudinal vocabulary development in Australian urban Aboriginal children: Protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K; Eadie, P; Descallar, J; Comino, E; Kemp, L

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development. One hundred thirteen Aboriginal children in South Western Sydney from the longitudinal birth cohort Gudaga study were assessed on The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test multiple times: 3 years, just prior to school entry, at the end of the first and second years of formal schooling. Multilevel models were used to determine the effects of 13 fixed and manipulable maternal, child, and family variables drawn from previous research. Higher maternal education was found to be protective at 3 years and over time. The number of children in urban Australian Aboriginal households made an impact on vocabulary development and this varied over time. From 3 to 6 years, those with early poor non-verbal cognitive skills had vocabulary skills that remained below those with stronger non-verbal skills at 3 years. Girls exhibit an earlier advantage in vocabulary acquisition, but this difference is not sustained after 4 years of age. The risk and protective factors for vocabulary development in Australian Aboriginal children are similar to those identified in other studies with some variation related to the number of children in the home. In this limited set of predictors, maternal education, gender, non-verbal cognitive skills, and the number of children in households were all shown to impact on the acquisition of vocabulary to 3

  7. Asian Australian Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    abstrakt til konferencepaper, der diskuterer forholdet mellem ASAL, der i mange år har tegnet australske studier med hovedvægten på litteraturstudier, og AASRN, der repræsenterer asiatisk-australske studier. AASRN er langt mere populærkulturelt, cultural studies, og tværdisciplinært orienteret, u...

  8. Disentangling quality and safety indicator data: a longitudinal, comparative study of hand hygiene compliance and accreditation outcomes in 96 Australian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. Design A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Setting Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009–2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010–2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Results Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010–2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (phand hygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Conclusions Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller hospitals to achieve high infection

  9. Recruiting online: lessons from a longitudinal survey of contraception and pregnancy intentions of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Wigginton, Britta; Lucke, Jayne C

    2015-05-15

    Recruitment of young people for epidemiologic research remains challenging, with marked decreases in the effectiveness of face-to-face, mail, and telephone recruitment methods. We report on the implementation and feasibility of an innovative and flexible approach used to recruit participants for a longitudinal cohort study about contraceptive use and pregnancy (the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study). Australian women aged 18-23 years were recruited using a range of online, networking, and offline methods, including social media (primarily Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California; http://www.facebook.com)), face-to-face events, distribution of promotional material, and media releases. Over the course of the 1-year recruitment period (beginning in September 2012), a total of 3,795 eligible women were recruited to complete the online survey, at a cost of approximately A$11 per participant. This sample was found to be broadly representative of the Australian population of women aged 18-23 years in terms of demographic characteristics, with the exception of an overrepresentation of tertiary-educated women (88.7% compared with 72.6%). This study demonstrated that although current recruitment strategies are required to be innovative and flexible in order to engage young people in epidemiologic research, representative samples can be achieved online at reasonable cost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort Derived Variables. Technical Report 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical report details the derived variables developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data. The derived variables fall into the categories education, employment and social, and help to simplify the complexity of the LSAY data by providing useful indicators for analysis. To help LSAY data users understand…

  11. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): Derived Variables. Technical Report 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical report describes the 24 derived variables developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data. The variables fall into the categories education, employment and social, and help to simplify the complexity of the LSAY data by providing useful indicators for analysis. To help LSAY data users understand and…

  12. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  13. LEIR longitudinal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, S; Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015 and during 2016 there were exten-sive studies of longitudinal beam dynamics in LEIR aimedat improving extracted intensities. As the driving source oflosses early in the ramp was shown to be transverse spacecharge tune spread a significant improvement came fromflattening the beam profile to increase the bunching factorby offsetting the RF frequency from the beam revolution fre-quency. Further benefits were provided by modulating theRF frequency during capture, leading to emittance blow-upand improved reproducibility. The use of two RF cavitiesduring operation was studied to try and further increase thecaptured emittance, however after careful alignment of theRF it was found that a hard limit in the bunch heigh of approx-imately 7 MeV exists. Due to the acceptance limit there wasno operational benefit to using both cavities simultaneously

  14. Pre-pregnancy dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality, and risk of developing gestational diabetes: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looman, M.; Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mishra, G.D.

    2018-01-01

    Carbohydrate quantity and quality affect postprandial glucose response, glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of pre-pregnancy dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality with the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We

  15. 150 minutes of vigorous physical activity per week predicts survival and successful ageing: a population-based 11-year longitudinal study of 12 201 older Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Khan, Karim M; Hankey, Graeme J; Yeap, Bu B; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity has been associated with improved survival, but it is unclear whether this increase in longevity is accompanied by preserved mental and physical functioning, also known as healthy ageing. We designed this study to determine whether physical activity is associated with healthy ageing in later life. We recruited a community-representative sample of 12 201 men aged 65-83 years and followed them for 10-13 years. We assessed physical activity at the beginning and the end of the follow-up period. Participants who reported 150 min or more of vigorous physical activity per week were considered physically active. We monitored survival during the follow-up period and, at study exit, assessed the mood, cognition and functional status of survivors. Healthy ageing was defined as being alive at the end of follow-up and having a Patient Health Questionnaire score 27, and no major difficulty in any instrumental or basic activity of daily living. Cox regression and general linear models were used to estimate HR of death and risk ratio (RR) of healthy ageing. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, marital status, smoking, body mass index and history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke. Two thousand and fifty-eight (16.9%) participants were physically active at study entry. Active men had lower HR of death over 10-13 years than physically inactive men (HR=0.74, 95% CI=0.68 to 0.81). Among survivors, completion of the follow-up assessment was higher in the physically active than inactive group (risk ratio, RR=1.18, 95% CI=1.08 to 1.30). Physically active men had greater chance of fulfilling criteria for healthy ageing than inactive men (RR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19 to 1.53). Men who were physically active at the baseline and follow-up assessments had the highest chance of healthy ageing compared with inactive men (RR=1.59, 95% CI=1.36 to 1.86). Sustained physical activity is associated with improved survival and healthy ageing in older men

  16. Health, lifestyle and gender influences on aging well: An Australian longitudinal analysis to guide health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal eKendig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (‘healthy’, ‘active’ and ‘successful’ aging has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12 year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being underweight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being underweight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.

  17. Health, lifestyle, and gender influences on aging well: an Australian longitudinal analysis to guide health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane A; Wells, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well ("healthy," "active," and "successful" aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.

  18. Inequalities in socio-economic characteristics and health and wellbeing of men with and without disabilities: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Aitken, Zoe; Emerson, Eric; Sahabandu, Sash; Milner, Allison; Bentley, Rebecca; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Pirkis, Jane; Studdert, David

    2016-10-31

    Internationally, men with disabilities have higher rates of social and economic disadvantage and poorer health and wellbeing than men without disabilities. No single study has provided comprehensive, population-level information about the magnitude of such differences among adult men using a well-validated instrument to measure disability. We analysed baseline data from Ten to Men - an Australian longitudinal study of male health. Ten to Men used a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design to recruit a national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 from 15,988 males. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old participants with data available on age and disability (n = 13,569). We compared the demographic, socio-economic characteristics and health and wellbeing of men with and without disabilities using chi squared tests for proportions and t tests for continuous variables. Linear regression adjusted for age was used to assess the association between disability status and health and wellbeing, which were measured using the SF-12 mental and physical health component scores and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Men with disabilities were older and more likely to be born in Australia, speak English at home, be Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and were less likely to be married or de facto, or to live in urban areas. They were less likely to have completed secondary school, be employed and live in affordable housing, and were more likely to live on low incomes, in more socio-economically disadvantaged areas, and in rental accommodation and to experience shortages of money. Among employed men, those with disabilities were less likely to be in high skilled jobs, worked less hours on average, and were more likely to report that they would prefer to work more. Men with disabilities had lower levels of social support and community participation and poorer mental and

  19. Inequalities in socio-economic characteristics and health and wellbeing of men with and without disabilities: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Kavanagh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, men with disabilities have higher rates of social and economic disadvantage and poorer health and wellbeing than men without disabilities. No single study has provided comprehensive, population-level information about the magnitude of such differences among adult men using a well-validated instrument to measure disability. Methods We analysed baseline data from Ten to Men – an Australian longitudinal study of male health. Ten to Men used a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design to recruit a national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 from 15,988 males. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old participants with data available on age and disability (n = 13,569. We compared the demographic, socio-economic characteristics and health and wellbeing of men with and without disabilities using chi squared tests for proportions and t tests for continuous variables. Linear regression adjusted for age was used to assess the association between disability status and health and wellbeing, which were measured using the SF-12 mental and physical health component scores and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Results Men with disabilities were older and more likely to be born in Australia, speak English at home, be Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and were less likely to be married or de facto, or to live in urban areas. They were less likely to have completed secondary school, be employed and live in affordable housing, and were more likely to live on low incomes, in more socio-economically disadvantaged areas, and in rental accommodation and to experience shortages of money. Among employed men, those with disabilities were less likely to be in high skilled jobs, worked less hours on average, and were more likely to report that they would prefer to work more. Men with disabilities had lower levels of social

  20. Longitudinal trajectories of mental health in Australian children aged 4-5 to 14-15 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Mental health can affect young people's sense of wellbeing and life satisfaction, their ability to participate in employment and education, and their onward opportunities in life. This paper offers a rare opportunity to longitudinally examine mental health in a population-representative study of children aged 4-5 years to 14-15 years. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC, this study examined maternally-reported child mental health over a 10 year period, in order to understand their initial mental health status early in life and its change over time, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Longitudinal models were fitted from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years. Results showed that child sex, maternal mental health, socio-economic status (family income, maternal education, neighbourhood disadvantage, maternal hostility, and child temperament (persistence, sociability, reactivity are all independent contributors to child mental health at age 4. These effects largely persist over time, with the effects of maternal mental health increasing slightly over time. Persistence of these effects suggests the need for early intervention and supports. The independent contribution of these factors to child mental health suggests that multi-faceted approaches to child and maternal mental health are needed.

  1. Australian Nurses' Perception of the Impact of Their Postgraduate Studies on Their Patient Care Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Dianne; Donoghue, Judith; Duffield, Christine

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 403 Australian nurses who undertook postgraduate studies received 236 responses. Respondents indicated that postgraduate education had an impact on a number of professional behaviors but little or no effect on others, such as autonomy, time management, use of computers, and communication with patients. (Contains 25…

  2. Body Size at Birth, Physical Development and Cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Using a rich sample created from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we investigate the extent to which the relationship between body size at birth and early childhood cognitive skills is mediated by physical development indicators. Consistent with existing evidence from other countries, we find a significant relationship between body…

  3. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements C: Employment. Technical Report 49C

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  4. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements D: Social. Technical Report 49D

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  5. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements A: Demographics. Technical Report 49A

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the LSAY (Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth) Y95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  6. Factors Influencing Youth Unemployment in Australia: 1980-1994. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.; Fleming, Nicole

    A study examined unemployment among Australian young people between 1980-94, using data obtained from the four Youth in Transition cohorts born in 1961, 1965, 1970, and 1975. It investigated factors that influenced becoming unemployed and leaving unemployment. Findings indicated that low school achievement in literacy and numeracy was consistently…

  7. Sickness absence and psychosocial job quality: an analysis from a longitudinal survey of working Australians, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Butterworth, Peter; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne M; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-05-15

    Sickness absence is associated with adverse health, organizational, and societal outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal cohort study of working Australians (the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey), we examined the relationship between changes in individuals' overall psychosocial job quality and variation in sickness absence. The outcome variables were paid sickness absence (yes/no) and number of days of paid sickness absence in the past year (2005-2012). The main exposure variable was psychosocial job quality, measured using a psychosocial job quality index (levels of job control, demands and complexity, insecurity, and perceptions of unfair pay). Analysis was conducted using longitudinal fixed-effects logistic regression models and negative binomial regression models. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of psychosocial job stressors reported by an individual and the odds of paid sickness absence (1 adversity: odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.45 (P = 0.002); 2 adversities: OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.51 (P = 0.002); ≥3 adversities: OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.94 (P job quality. These results suggest that workplace interventions aiming to improve the quality of work could help reduce sickness absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Longitudinal analysis of relationships between social support and general health in an Australian population cohort of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Lee, Christina; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Dobson, Annette J

    2015-02-01

    The influence of social support on health and quality of life has been well documented. There is less evidence on whether health status affects social support, and little is known about longitudinal relationships between social support and health in early adulthood. This study investigates these associations using both concurrent and time-lagged measures at 5 time-points over 12 years during early adulthood. A population-based cohort of 9,758 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health was used. Women were aged 22-27 in 2000 and 35-39 in 2012. The General Health subscale of the SF-36 and the MOS Social Support Survey 6-item Scale were used, with scores standardised to a range of 0-100. Longitudinal tobit models were used, because both social support and general health data were left skewed, with marked ceiling effects. All models were adjusted for status of the outcome of interest at the immediately previous survey. With both concurrent and time-lagged measures, there was a statistically significant difference in mean general health scores across social support quintiles after adjusting for demographic and behavioural covariates: lower general health was associated with lower social support. In reverse, social support mean scores were also significantly different across general health quintiles in both concurrent and time-lagged fully adjusted models. Social support is significantly associated with both current and subsequent general health in early adulthood. The significance of the reverse associations indicates that the two mutually influence each other. This study highlights the importance of social support as a health-related quality of life issue.

  9. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Bambang Yudi

    2005-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  10. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  11. Change and stability in work-family conflict and mothers' and fathers' mental health: Longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M

    2016-04-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992

  13. Motivation and Performance of Older Australian Academics: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Len; Peter, Hollis

    A pilot study of the Australian higher education system was conducted to determine the following: (1) whether department heads follow a client-centered, diagnostic/prescriptive model as developed by the Australian Committee of Directors and Principals in Advanced Education (ACDP), and if not, which process is used; (2) which developmental…

  14. Clustering of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian children: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, R M; McNaughton, S A; Timperio, A

    2015-07-01

    Evidence suggests diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour cluster together in children, but research supporting an association with overweight/obesity is equivocal. Furthermore, the stability of clusters over time is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the clustering of diet, PA and sedentary behaviour in Australian children and cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with overweight/obesity. Stability of obesity-related clusters over 3 years was also examined. Data were drawn from the baseline (T1: 2002/2003) and follow-up waves (T2: 2005/2006) of the Health Eating and Play Study. Parents of Australian children aged 5-6 (n=87) and 10-12 years (n=123) completed questionnaires. Children wore accelerometers and height and weight were measured. Obesity-related clusters were determined using K-medians cluster analysis. Multivariate regression models assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between cluster membership, and body mass index (BMI) Z-score and weight status. Kappa statistics assessed cluster stability over time. Three clusters, labelled 'most healthy', 'energy-dense (ED) consumers who watch TV' and 'high sedentary behaviour/low moderate-to-vigorous PA' were identified at baseline and at follow-up. No cross-sectional associations were found between cluster membership, and BMI Z-score or weight status at baseline. Longitudinally, children in the 'ED consumers who watch TV' cluster had a higher odds of being overweight/obese at follow-up (odds ratio=2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 6.9; P<0.05). Tracking of cluster membership was fair to moderate in younger (K=0.24; P=0.0001) and older children (K=0.46; P<0.0001). This study identified an unhealthy cluster of TV viewing with ED food/drink consumption, which predicted overweight/obesity in a small longitudinal sample of Australian children. Cluster stability was fair to moderate over 3 years and is a novel finding. Prospective research in larger samples is needed to

  15. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  16. Longitudinal predictors of cyber and traditional bullying perpetration in Australian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Tollit, Michelle; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2012-07-01

    Cyberbullying perpetration (using communication technology to engage in bullying) is a recent phenomenon that has generated much concern. There are few prospective longitudinal studies of cyberbullying. The current article examines the individual, peer, family, and school risk factors for both cyber and traditional bullying (the latter is bullying that does not use technology) in adolescents. This article draws on a rich data set from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States, which began in 2002. In this article, data from almost 700 Victorian students recruited in grade 5 are analyzed to examine grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyberbullying perpetration in grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Fifteen per cent of students engaged in cyberbullying, 21% in traditional bullying, and 7% in both. There are similarities and important differences in the predictors of cyber and traditional bullying. In the fully adjusted model, only prior engagement in relational aggression (a covert form of bullying, such as spreading rumors about another student) predicted cyberbullying perpetration. For traditional bullying, previous relational aggression was also predictive, as was having been a victim and perpetrator of traditional bullying, family conflict, and academic failure. The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of all forms of bullying perpetration (cyber, traditional, and relational aggression). In addition, for traditional bullying perpetration, addressing family conflict and student academic support are also important. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal predictors of cyber and traditional bullying perpetration in Australian secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Tollit, Michelle; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cyber bullying perpetration (using communication technology to engage in bullying) is a recent phenomenon that has generated much concern. There are few prospective longitudinal studies of cyber bullying. The current paper examines the individual, peer, family and school risk factors for both cyber and traditional bullying (the latter is bullying that does not utilize technology) in adolescents. Methods This paper draws on a rich data set from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States, which began in 2002. In this paper, data from almost 700 Victorian students recruited in Grade 5 is analyzed to examine Grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyber bullying perpetration in Grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Results Fifteen per cent of students engaged in cyber bullying, 21% in traditional bullying and 7% in both. There are similarities and important differences in the predictors of cyber and traditional bullying. In the fully adjusted model, only prior engagement in relational aggression (a covert form of bullying such as spreading rumors about another student) predicted cyber bullying perpetration. For traditional bullying, previous relational aggression was also predictive, as was having been a victim and perpetrator of traditional bullying, family conflict, and academic failure. Conclusions The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of all forms of bullying perpetration(cyber, traditional, and relational aggression). In addition, for traditional bullying perpetration, addressing family conflict and student academic support are also important. PMID:22727078

  18. Who Takes a Gap Year and Why? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Marilyn; Stanwick, John

    2012-01-01

    Taking a gap year--a break between high school and university--is becoming increasingly popular with Australian students. In terms of length and purpose, the traditional notion of a gap year being a year off between school and university has expanded considerably over time. For the purposes of the analysis reported in this paper, a person who…

  19. Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    1999-01-01

    We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam

  20. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B2: Education. Technical Report 49B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element, including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  1. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B1: Education. Technical Report 49B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the LSAY (Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth) Y95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant.…

  2. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S B; Langroo, R; Peggie, J R [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R G [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J M [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  4. Are Immigrants More Physically Active Than Native-Born Australians and Does it Changes Over Time? Evidence From a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suresh; Jatrana, Santosh; Paradies, Yin

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the differences and over time changes in recommended physical activity among foreign-born (FB) from English speaking countries (ESC) and non-English speaking countries (NESC) relative to native-born (NB) Australians, and whether the association between nativity and duration of residence (DoR) and physical activity is mediated by English language proficiency, socioeconomic status and social engagement/membership. This study applies multilevel group-meancentered mixed (hybrid) logistic regression models to 12 waves of longitudinal data (12,634 individuals) from the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey with engagement in physical activities for more than 3 times a week as the outcome variable. Immigrants from ESC had higher odds of physical activity, while immigrants from NESC had significantly lower odds of physical activity than NB Australians, after adjusting for covariates. There was no evidence that these differences changed by DoR among immigrants from NESC, whereas ESC immigrants had higher odds of physical activity when their DoR was more than 20 years. We also found a mediating role of English language proficiency on immigrants physical activities. Appropriate health promotion interventions should be implemented to foster physical activities among NESC immigrants, considering English language proficiency as an important factor in designing interventions.

  5. Statistical Power in Longitudinal Network Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadtfeld, Christoph; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; van Duijn, Marijtje

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal social network studies may easily suffer from a lack of statistical power. This is the case in particular for studies that simultaneously investigate change of network ties and change of nodal attributes. Such selection and influence studies have become increasingly popular due to the

  6. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  7. Quantifying the mediating effect of body mass index in the relationship between a Mediterranean diet and development of maternal pregnancy complications: Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Mishra, G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The contribution of body mass index (BMI) to the observed associations between dietary patterns and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) remains unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to formally quantify the mediating

  8. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  9. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  10. Demographic Predictors of Students' Science Participation over the Age of 16: an Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grant; Berry, Amanda; Baglin, James

    2018-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data, this paper aimed to examine if, and to what extent, demographic factors predict students' participation in science over the age of 16 (post-16). While all the students participating in this study are attending Australian schools, the comprehensiveness of these datasets, together with inclusion of studies from around the world provides a useful reference point for an international audience. Over 7000 students are included in the analysis of this paper. Characteristics of focus in this paper include groups who have been identified as being underrepresented in past studies including Indigenous students, those from lower-socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, sex differences and immigrants. Among the factors tested, Indigenous status was the strongest negative predictor of post-16 science participation. SES was also a relatively strong predictor of post-16 science participation. Compared to students categorised with an Australian-ancestry, first-generation and foreign-background students were more likely to participate in post-16 science. The findings of this study contribute to existing research on debates about equity and trends in science participation.

  11. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  12. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  13. The Czech longitudinal study of optimal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 266-266 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : optimal development * Prague longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. Burnout development among dentists : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, H.; Smits, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  15. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  16. Volunteering among Australian Adolescents: Findings from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Ninety-three young Australians were interviewed about volunteering as part of a larger three-stage study on youth spirituality and social concern. The results indicate that young people who were older, better educated and had access to networks and mentoring were more likely to be engaged in social-cause service than those without these resources.…

  17. Aligning IT and Business Strategy: An Australian University Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Alignment with business objectives is considered to be an essential outcome of information technology (IT) strategic planning. This case study examines the process of creating an IT strategy for an Australian university using an industry standard methodology. The degree of alignment is determined by comparing the strategic priorities supported by…

  18. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  19. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets among Australian children: an Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Craig F; Simm, Peter J; Rodda, Christine P; Garnett, Sarah P; Zacharin, Margaret R; Ward, Leanne M; Geddes, Janet; Cherian, Sarah; Zurynski, Yvonne; Cowell, Christopher T

    2012-04-16

    To determine the incidence of and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency rickets in Australian children. 18-month questionnaire-based prospective observational study, using Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) data. Australian paediatricians and child health workers, January 2006 - July 2007. Children aged ≤ 15 years with vitamin D deficiency rickets (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] ≤ 50 nmol/L, and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels [> 229 IU/L] and/or radiological rickets). Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Description of demographics, clinical presentation, identification and further analysis of overrepresented groups, and treatment regimens compared with best-practice guidelines. We identified 398 children with vitamin D deficiency (55% male; median age, 6.3 years [range, 0.2-15 years]). The overall incidence in children ≤ 15 years of age in Australia was 4.9/100 000/year. All had a low 25OHD level (median, 28 nmol/L [range, 5-50 nmol]) and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level (median, 407 IU/L [range, 229-5443 IU/L]), and 48 (12%) were hypocalcaemic. Ninety-five children had wrist x-rays, of whom 67 (71%) had rachitic changes. Most (98%) had dark or intermediate skin colour and 18% of girls were partially or completely veiled. Most children were born in Africa (252; 63%) and 75% of children were refugees. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely related to serum vitamin D levels in children rickets is a significant problem in Australia among known high-risk groups. Public health campaigns to prevent, identify and tre@vitamin D deficiency, especially in high-risk groups, are essential.

  20. Socioeconomic patterns of overweight, obesity but not thinness persist from childhood to adolescence in a 6-year longitudinal cohort of Australian schoolchildren from 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A; Chiang, Hueiwen; Peralta, Louisa R

    2014-03-04

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased during the 1980s to the late 1990s. The prevalence of obesity is higher in socially and economically disadvantaged communities in most Westernised countries. The purpose of this study was to examine how the socioeconomic gradient in weight status, namely thinness, overweight and obesity, changes over time in a longitudinal cohort of Australian schoolchildren, from 2007-2012. 939 Australian children in school grades 2-6 from 10 primary schools initially participated in the study in 2007. Height and weight were directly measured by research assistants each year. Obesity/overweight and thinness were defined by using the International Obesity Task Force BMI cut-offs. Chi-square analyses were used to test associations between categorical variables and linear mixed models were used to estimate whether the differences in SES groups were statistically significant over time. Results found both males and females in the low SES group were more likely to be obese (6-7%) than middle (4-5%) and high (2-3%) SES groups and this pattern tended to be similar over the 6 year study period. There appeared to be no particular SES pattern for thinness with all SES groups having 4-5% of participants who were thin. The gender and SES patterns were also similar over 6 years for BMI with low and middle SES participants having significantly greater BMI than their high SES peers. Patterns of obesity and overweight in children from socially and economically disadvantaged communities in regional NSW are identifiable from a young age and the socioeconomic pattern persists into adolescence. Obesity prevention and intervention programs should be designed, implemented and evaluated with the social determinants of health in mind and in collaboration with community members. Community programs should continue to be based on positive rather than negative messages in order to avoid unintended stigma and other potentially harmful outcomes.

  1. Health-care costs of underweight, overweight and obesity: Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Susan A; Gold, Lisa; Mensah, Fiona K; Jansen, Pauline W; Lucas, Nina; Nicholson, Jan M; Wake, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    Child health varies with body mass index (BMI), but it is unknown by what age or how much this attracts additional population health-care costs. We aimed to determine the (1) cross-sectional relationships between BMI and costs across the first decade of life and (2) in longitudinal analyses, whether costs increase with duration of underweight or obesity. Baby (n = 4230) and Kindergarten (n = 4543) cohorts in the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Medicare Benefits Scheme (including all general practitioner plus a large proportion of paediatrician visits) plus prescription medication costs to federal government from birth to sixth (Baby cohort) and fourth to tenth (Kindergarten cohort) birthdays. biennial BMI measurements over the same period. Among Australian children under 10 years of age, 5-6% were underweight, 11-18% overweight and 5-6% obese. Excess costs with low and high BMI became evident from age 4-5 years, with normal weight accruing the least, obesity the most, and underweight and overweight intermediate costs. Relative to overall between-child variation, these excess costs per child were very modest, with a maximum of $94 per year at age 4-5 years. Nonetheless, this projects to a substantial cost to government of approximately $13 million per annum for all Australian children aged less than 10 years. Substantial excess population costs provide further economic justification for promoting healthy body weight. However, obese children's low individual excess health-care costs mean that effective treatments are likely to increase short-term costs to the public health purse during childhood. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Risk management strategies by Australian farmers: two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam C.; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Russell, Iean W.; Cameron, Donald; Coventry, David; Cooper, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Australian farmers operate in one of the most risky farming environments in the world. They have to cope with numerous sources of risk including weather uncertainty, variable market prices, and institutional changes in their business management. This paper reports results from two case studies undertaken to examine the issues of farming risks and risk management strategies in Australia. The first case study found that unpredictable weather, financial risk, marketing risk, and personal risk we...

  3. LEADERSHIP STYLES: A STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND THAI PUBLIC SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattavud Pimpa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.

  4. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in indigenous Australian and Alaska native children with bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Hare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship

  5. The Australian Atomic Energy Commission: A case study in Australian science and government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyal, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    No major scientific body in Australia has evoked as much questioning, criticism and speculation as the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, which was established in 1953 and which, 21 years later, still stands poised on the threshold of bringing Australia into the nuclear age. It is argued that the AAEC has not consolidated the goals and purposes which were set for it over two decades ago. This study attempts to answer the following questions: 1) Is the AAEC a viable institution or is it a white elephant; 2) Has it a rationale and a future in the present age; 3) Has it been accountable or has it evolved, expanded, reorganised, changed direction, consumed funds, used and produced talent, and ultimately marked time behind closed political and administrative doors; 4) Why have its work, its accomplishments and failures not been subjected to public scrutiny. (author)

  6. Australian Atomic Energy Commission: A case study in Australian science and government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyal, A M [New South Wales Inst. of Tech., Broadway (Australia)

    1975-09-01

    No major scientific body in Australia has evoked as much questioning, criticism and speculation as the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, which was established in 1953 and which, 21 years later, still stands poised on the threshold of bringing Australia into the nuclear age. It is argued that the AAEC has not consolidated the goals and purposes which were set for it over two decades ago. This study attempts to answer the following questions: 1) Is the AAEC a viable institution or is it a white elephant; 2) Has it a rationale and a future in the present age; 3) Has it been accountable or has it evolved, expanded, reorganised, changed direction, consumed funds, used and produced talent, and ultimately marked time behind closed political and administrative doors; 4) Why have its work, its accomplishments and failures not been subjected to public scrutiny.

  7. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  8. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  9. A longitudinal analysis of self-prescribed complementary and alternative medicine use by a nationally representative sample of 19,783 Australian women, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Steven; Adams, Jon; Lui, Chi-Wai; Sibbritt, David

    2015-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasingly popular amongst general populations around the world with women constituting substantial CAM users. However, self-prescribed CAM use does raise potential safety concerns and so it is important to identify those risk factors associated with self-prescribed CAM use. Data was obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Longitudinal data analyses were conducted on questionnaire data from the 1973-78 cohort (n=9,145) and the 1946-51 cohort (n=10,638), collected over the period 2006-2010. In the 1973-78 cohort, use of self-prescribed CAM was 73.2% in 2006 and 75.3% in 2009. For the 1946-51 cohort, use of self-prescribed CAM was 73.9% in 2007 and 74.7% in 2010. There were similar levels of use of individual self-prescribed CAM, with the exception that the use of herbal medicine was much higher among the 1946-51 cohort (20% vs. 27%). There was a substantial increase over three years in the use of vitamins/minerals in both cohorts (21% and 19%, respectively). In contrast, there was a considerable decline over three years in use of aromatherapy oils in both cohorts (34% and 28%, respectively). Self-prescribed CAM use is popular amongst women in Australia and it is important that conventional practitioners providing women's health care be cognizant of such use amongst their patients. In order to ensure effective practice, there is a need for further research to explore women's decision-making and experiences around self-prescribed CAM use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  12. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  13. Going Places: Praxis and Pedagogy in Australian Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the pedagogical value of praxis in maintaining the relevance of cultural studies in the Australian academic environment. Following its highly politicised beginnings at the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, we consider whether traditional classroom practices are commensurate with the contemporary expectations of students and staff. As a working model of the current Australian university climate, we consider the discipline group of English and Cultural Studies (ECS at the University of Western Australia. After evaluating data gathered from interviews and surveys across the undergraduate, postgraduate and staff population, we suggest potential pedagogical innovations to be implemented in cultural studies at UWA, as a case study within Australia. Our findings show that students are calling for practical activities that would benefit their studies as a complement to theory in the classroom. As a result, we argue that praxis is not only important, but vital, in the teaching of cultural studies as an enabling activity that encourages the use of new teaching methods.

  14. Successful Youth Transitions. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Hui; Nguyen, Nhi

    2011-01-01

    Youth transitions refer to young people's journeys from school to post-school study and on to employment. This is a time when young people experience rapid biological, psychological and physical changes, as well as changing social and economic situations, as they begin to take on the responsibilities of adulthood. In this paper, the authors first…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on Remand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...

  16. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Food and nutrient consumption trends in older Australians: a 10-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, V M; Burlutsky, G; Webb, K L; Wang, J J; Smith, W T; Mitchell, P

    2010-06-01

    Few longitudinal population-based cohort studies of older people have described dietary intakes over time. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the food and nutrient intake in a cohort of older Australians, using longitudinal data collected over 10 years. Population-based cohort of people aged 49 years and over at baseline (82% of those eligible) living in two postcode areas, west of Sydney. In 1992-1994, 3654 people were examined; 2334 were reexamined after 5 years and 1952 after 10 years (75% survivors at both examinations). A 145-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food and nutrient intake on each occasion, and 1166 participants provided usable dietary data at all three examinations. Energy and sugar intake significantly increased among women over the 10-year period (P-value for trend bread consumption decreased in both men and women (P-value for trend choices. This information could be used to inform nutrition policy and programs targeted to older persons. These data highlight the need to identify barriers to better food choices.

  18. Workloads in Australian emergency departments a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneham, Joy; Cloughessy, Liz; Martin, Valmai

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to identify the current workload of clinical nurses, managers and educators in Australian Emergency Departments according to the classification of the department Additionally the relationship of experienced to inexperienced clinical staff was examined. A descriptive research method utilising a survey distributed to 394 Australian Emergency departments with a 21% response rate. Nursing workloads were calculated and a ratio of nurse to patient was established. The ratios included nurse to patient, management and educators to clinical staff. Additionally the percentage of junior to senior clinical staff was also calculated. Across all categories of emergency departments the mean nurse:patient ratios were 1:15 (am shift), 1:7 (pm shift) and 1:4 (night shift). During this period an average of 17.1% of attendances were admitted to hospital. There were 27 staff members for each manager and 23.3 clinical staff for each educator. The percentage of junior staff rostered ranged from 10% to 38%. Emergency nurses cannot work under such pressure as it may compromise the care given to patients and consequently have a negative effect on the nurse personally. However, emergency nurses are dynamically adjusting to the workload. Such conditions as described in this study could give rise to burnout and attrition of experienced emergency nurses as they cannot resolve the conflict between workload and providing quality nursing care.

  19. Bedside Teaching in Australian Clinical Schools: A National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen L. Indraratna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Bedside teaching (BST of medical students has become less common in recent years; however, there have been strong recommendations made in the literature to continue this teaching modality for the valued benefits it provides. The purpose of the present study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of bedside teaching among senior Australian medical students. Methods. Medical students at Australian universities were surveyed by means of an electronic questionnaire. The results were collected and analysed. Results. A total of 517 responses were received from students at 15 universities and 94 different clinical sites. The percentage of students who identified BST as very important ranged from 62.5% in psychiatry to 90.4% in internal medicine. The optimal class size was nominated as 3-4 students, and students favoured a style where one individual performs a complete examination, with the remainder allowed to elicit the key sign afterwards. Students felt 3-4 hours of BST per week to be ideal. Advantages identified to BST included provision of feedback and elicitation of clinical signs. Disadvantages included time constraints and excessive class sizes. Conclusions. The unique benefits of BST result in its high demand by students, regardless of the discipline being taught.

  20. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  1. Postpartum maternal separation anxiety, overprotective parenting, and children's social-emotional well-being: longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Crawford, Sharinne; Nicholson, Jan M

    2013-08-01

    Postpartum maternal separation anxiety refers to a mothers' experience of worry and concern about leaving her child for short-term separations. The long-term effects of high maternal separation anxiety on maternal parenting behaviors and child outcomes have been not been established empirically. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prospective relationships between maternal separation anxiety during the child's first year of life, and overprotective parenting and children's social and emotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Structural equation modeling with a large representative cohort of Australian mother-child dyads (N = 3,103) indicated that high maternal separation anxiety was associated with more overprotective parenting behaviors and poorer child socioemotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Findings suggest women with high postpartum maternal separation anxiety may sustain this vigilance across the first years following birth, promoting overprotective behaviors, and resulting in increased behavior problems in their children. Support for women around negotiating separation from their children early in parenthood may prevent the establishment of a repertoire of parenting behaviors that includes unnecessarily high vigilance, monitoring, and anxiety about separation. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  2. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  3. Teenagers and the Fragmenting Media Environment in Asia: An Australian Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Jason; George, Christina; Green, Joshua

    2000-01-01

    Presents preliminary results from a survey of 15- to 17-year-old Australians, exploring television's place within a rapidly expanding multimedia environment. Finds strong evidence for arguing that Australian youth's media use is currently in a state of flux. Lays foundations for more comprehensive studies of youth media use in Australia that might…

  4. Students' Multilingual Resources and Policy-in-Action: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Mei

    2016-01-01

    In the context of increasing linguistic and cultural diversity in Australian schools, it is important to consider the value of students' multilingual resources for learning. This paper reports on an ethnographic case study conducted in an Australian metropolitan secondary school where the student body represented more than 40 cultures and…

  5. A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; San Miguel, Claudia; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica M

    2012-02-01

    In 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating violence as potential consequences of violent video game exposure using well-validated clinical outcome measures and controlling for other relevant predictors of youth aggression. A sample of 165, mainly Hispanic youth, were tested at 3 intervals, an initial interview, and 1-year and 3-year intervals. Results indicated that exposure to video game violence was not related to any of the negative outcomes. Depression, antisocial personality traits, exposure to family violence and peer influences were the best predictors of aggression-related outcomes. The current study supports a growing body of evidence pointing away from video game violence use as a predictor of youth aggression. Public policy efforts, including funding, would best be served by redirecting them toward other prevention programs for youth violence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. UNIVERSITY LIFE AND AUSTRALIAN HOMES: THREE CASE STUDIES OF INTERNATIONAL MUSLIM STUDENTS IN BRISBANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkeplee Othman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a significant increase in enrolments of postgraduate international Muslim students within Australian universities, little is known about their perceptions of life within Australian homes while undertaking their studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the ways in which students’ cultural and religious traditions affect their use of domestic spaces within the homes in which they reside. The research found that participants faced some minor difficulties in achieving privacy, maintaining modesty and extending hospitality while able to perform their daily activities in Australian designed homes. The findings suggest that greater research attention needs to be given to the development of Australian home designs that are adaptable to the needs of a multicultural society. Australian society encompasses diverse cultural customs and requirements with respect to home design, and these are yet to be explored.

  7. The Australian Vietnam Veterans Health Study: II. self-reported health of veterans compared with the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, B I; Marshall, R P; Grayson, D A; Schureck, R J; Dobson, M; Ffrench, M; Pulvertaft, B; Meldrum, L; Bolton, J; Vennard, J

    1996-04-01

    Self-reported physical health status of Australian Vietnam veterans was determined 20-25 years after the war and its relation to combat was investigated. An epidemiological cohort study of a simple random sample of Army veterans posted to Vietnam between 1964 and 1972 was conducted with personal interviews using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey questionnaire to compare veterans with the Australian population and a 21-item combat exposure index used to measure the relationship of combat to physical health. Veterans reported greater health service usage and more recent health actions than population expectations. They also reported excess health problems in almost all recent illness disease categories except endocrine conditions and cardiovascular conditions; only 6 of 37 chronic disease groups were not elevated compared to the population. Adjustment for non-response changed estimates only slightly. Combat exposure was significantly related to reports of recent and chronic mental disorders, recent hernia and chronic ulcer, recent eczema and chronic rash, deafness, chronic infective and parasitic disease, chronic back disorders and symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions. Combat exposure may have significantly increased reports of only some health problems. A general position to complain as a result of psychological conditions due to combat is not consistent with the lack of relationship between combat and reports of physical conditions.

  8. The Australian biomarker, imaging and lifestyle study: phase 1 amyloid imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C. C.; Pike, K.; Villemagne, V. L.; Morandeau, L.; Masters, C. L.; Ames, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Background: Phase 1 of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing, a three-year prospective longitudinal study recruiting 1,112 volunteers from a cross-section of Australia's elderly population, concluded with more than a quarter of the participants undergoing PiB-PET. Methods: 287 participants received PiB PET scans: 177 Healthy controls (HC); 57 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) subjects; and 53 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. HC were further classified according to their subjective memory complaints and genetic predisposition. All participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination, a 3D T1 MP-RAGE and T2 FSE MR, and a PiB-PET scan. Regional and global cortical SUVR were calculated using the cerebellar cortex as reference region. A SUVR cut-off of 1.40 was used to define PiB scans as normal or abnormal. Results: Cortical PIB binding was markedly elevated in all AD patients except one. MCI subjects presented either an AD-like (63%) or normal pattern. Cortical PiB retention was abnormal in 34% of HC and the prevalence increased with age. HC with subjective memory complaints carrying an ApoE4 allele had significantly higher A burdens than non ApoE4 carriers. Conclusions: Phase 1 of the AIBL study has set the foundations for the longitudinal assessment of A burden in HC, MCI and AD. This wil assist the development of techniques for early detection of AD providing a cohort suitable for targeted early intervention studies.

  9. Intergenerational transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-Australian and Italian-Australian three-generation families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene

    2016-08-01

    Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal Associations Between Vitamin D Metabolites and Sarcopenia in Older Australian men: The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Vasant; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Hsu, Benjumin; Handelsman, David J; Waite, Louise M; Seibel, Markus J

    2017-12-12

    To explore the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) levels at baseline and incidence of sarcopenia over time in older Australian community-dwelling older men. Of the 1,705 men aged ≥70 years (2005-2007) participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, those without sarcopenia at baseline (n = 1,312 for 25D and n = 1,231 for 1,25D), 2 years (n = 1,024 for 25D and n = 956 for 1,25D), and 5-year follow-up (n = 709 for 25D and n = 663 for 1,25D) were included in the study. The main outcome measurement was the incidence of sarcopenia defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for body mass index sarcopenia was 3.9% in men at the 2-year follow-up and 8.6% at the 5-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, men with vitamin D levels in the lowest quartiles (25D sarcopenia compared to those with vitamin D levels in the highest quartiles over 5 years. [25D: odds ratio (OR) 2.53 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14, 5.64) p = .02; 1,25D: OR 2.67 (95% CI 1.28, 5.60) p = .01]. After further adjustments for the respective other serum vitamin D measure, (either 25D or 1,25D), the association remained significant [25D: OR 2.40 (95% CI 1.02, 5.64) p = .04; 1,25D: OR 2.23 (95% CI 1.04, 4.80) p = .04]. Low serum 1,25D and 25D concentrations at baseline are independently associated with the incidence of sarcopenia over the subsequent 5 years. Although our data do not prove any causal relationship, it is conceivable that maintaining vitamin D sufficiency may reduce the incidence of sarcopenia in ageing men. © Crown copyright 2017

  11. Preschooler obesity and parenting styles of mothers and fathers: Australian national population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Hardy, Pollyanna; Smith, Katherine

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine relationships between BMI status at ages 4 to 5 years and mothers' and fathers' parenting dimensions and parenting styles. Participants were composed of all 4983 of the 4- to 5-year-old children in wave 1 of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children with complete BMI and maternal parenting data. Mothers and fathers self-reported their parenting behaviors on 3 multi-item continuous scales (warmth, control, and irritability) and were each categorized as having 1 of 4 parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged) using internal warmth and control tertile cut points. Using a proportional odds model, odds ratios for children being in a higher BMI category were computed for mothers and fathers separately and together, after adjustment for factors associated with child BMI, including mothers' and fathers' BMI status. The sample was composed of 2537 boys and 2446 girls with a mean age 56.9 months; 15% were overweight and 5% were obese (International Obesity Task Force criteria). Mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were not associated in any model with higher odds of children being in a heavier BMI category, with or without multiple imputation to account for missing maternal BMI data. Higher father control scores were associated with lower odds of the child being in a higher BMI category. Compared with the reference authoritative style, children of fathers with permissive and disengaged parenting styles had higher odds of being in a higher BMI category. This article is the first, to our knowledge, to examine the parenting of both parents in relation to preschoolers' BMI status while also adjusting for parental BMI status. Fathers' but not mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were associated with increased risks of preschooler overweight and obesity. Longitudinal impacts of parenting on BMI gain remain to be determined.

  12. Midwives' use of the Internet: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; McLelland, Gayle

    2011-02-01

    to report findings on midwives' use of the Internet drawn from a larger study that explored midwives' attitudes and experiences to online and computer-based learning. a descriptive, quantitative design using anonymous questionnaires was employed to obtain information from a sample of midwives in Victoria, Australia. questionnaires were forwarded by mail to a sample of 300 members of the Victorian branch of the Australian College of Midwives. A total of 169 questionnaires were returned by reply paid mail, representing a response rate of 56%. around 92.3% of respondents reported that they used the Internet. However, 31.5% did not find navigating it to be easy, 34.7% reported that finding information was not easy, and 27.2% were not confident using the Internet. many midwives have insufficient Internet competence to be able to access necessary evidence to support practice and to assist women with decision making. ongoing education and training is needed to ensure that midwives have the skills to source evidence to support practice, and are able to effectively critique Internet information. Crown Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Professional development needs of nurse educators. An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprescu, Florin; McAllister, Margaret; Duncan, David; Jones, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Because there is a global shortage of nurse educators, highly productive and committed nurse educators are needed to supply a rapidly expanding and changing health landscape. To support the aforementioned effort professional development needs of nurse educators must be systematically identified. This study explores practical issues around professional development needs of nurse educators. One hundred and thirty eight Australian nurse educators based in Queensland answered an online survey around professional development needs. Results indicate that 83% (n = 115) of the respondents were enthusiastic about nurse education yet only 45% (n = 62) were confident in their skills and less than 10% (n = 13) saw themselves as expert nurse educators. The most desired areas of future development in teaching were information technology skills, assessment and technical knowledge. There seems to be a shared need for developing global online and offline support resources and communities of practice to support nurse educators in their teaching and research endeavours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  15. Feasibility of establishing an Australian ACL registry: a pilot study by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkas, Christina; Clarnette, Richard; Graves, Stephen E; Rainbird, Sophia; Parker, David; Lorimer, Michelle; Paterson, Roger; Roe, Justin; Morris, Hayden; Feller, Julian A; Annear, Peter; Forster, Ben; Hayes, David

    2017-05-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common and debilitating injury that impacts significantly on knee function and risks the development of degenerative arthritis. The outcome of ACL surgery is not monitored in Australia. The optimal treatment is unknown. Consequently, the identification of best practice in treating ACL is crucial to the development of improved outcomes. The Australian Knee Society (AKS) asked the Australian Orthopaedic Association (AOA) to consider establishing a national ACL registry. As a first step, a pilot study was undertaken by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) to test the hypothesis that collecting the required information in the Australian setting was possible. Surgeons completed an operative form which provided comprehensive information on the surgery undertaken. Patients provided pre- and post-operative questionnaires including the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Marx Activity Scale (MA Scale). The number of ACL procedures undertaken at each hospital during the recruitment period was compared against State Government Health Department separation data. A total of 802 patients were recruited from October 2011 to January 2013. The overall capture rate for surgeon-derived data was 99%, and the capture rate for the pre-operative patient questionnaire was 97.9%. At 6 months, patient-reported outcomes were obtained from 55% of patients, and 58.5% of patients at 12 months. When checked against State Government Health Department separation data, 31.3% of procedures undertaken at each study hospital were captured in the study. It is possible to collect surgeon-derived and pre-operative patient-reported data, following ACL reconstruction in Australia. The need to gain patient consent was a limiting factor to participation. When patients did consent to participate in the study, we were able to capture nearly 100% of surgical procedures. Patient consent

  16. Factors associated with unwanted sexual experiences of young Australian females: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L; Wark, John D; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-08-01

    Background Behavioural and lifestyle factors associated with childhood unwanted sexual experiences (USE) have yet to be investigated in Australian females aged less than 18 years. Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria were recruited via targeted advertising on Facebook. A web-based validated questionnaire was used to collect information on participant demographics, mental health, USE and sexual behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between a history of childhood (<16 years) and adolescent (16-18 years) USE and indices of sexual orientation. Data were collected from 639 females (mean±s.d. age 22±3 years). Approximately 14% reported childhood USE and 15% reported adolescent USE. Approximately 37% of survivors of childhood USE reported penile-genital contact in relation to their USE. Participants who reported depression were almost four times as likely to have experienced childhood USE than those who did not report suffering from depression (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-6.0, P<0.001). Positive associations between childhood USE, same-sex relationships and smoking were also detected. A strong relationship between childhood USE, depression and same-sex sexual behaviours was found, but results did not determine the direction of this association. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to investigate whether there are groups of individuals who are at a high risk of experiencing childhood USE, so that appropriate support systems can be put in place.

  17. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  19. Securitization of Migration: an Australian case study of global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Humphrey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Post September 11 migration has increasingly been framed as a security problem. In the 2010 Australian election campaign migration was connected to security (defense of our borders, terrorism and social cohesion and to related issues of insecurity about the future (population size,sustainability and economic growth. Thisframing of migration as a national security issue overlooks the reality that Australian immigration is part of the global flow of population. Migration is an international issue experienced by states as a national question of border control and sovereignty seeking to manage the consequences of global inequality and mobility. This paper analyses the 'security turn' in migration debates in Australia and the North and the way the securitization of migration signifies the transformation of security from the problem of producing national order to the problem of managing global disorder resulting in the merging of national and international security strategies.

  20. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  1. Health literacy and the Internet: a study on the readability of Australian online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Almost 80% of Australian Internet users seek out health information online so the readability of this information is important. This study aimed to evaluate the readability of Australian online health information and determine if it matches the average reading level of Australians. Two hundred and fifty-one web pages with information on 12 common health conditions were identified across sectors. Readability was assessed by the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) formulas, with grade 8 adopted as the average Australian reading level. The average reading grade measured by F-K and SMOG was 10.54 and 12.12 respectively. The mean FRE was 47.54, a 'difficult-to-read' score. Only 0.4% of web pages were written at or below grade 8 according to SMOG. Information on dementia was the most difficult to read overall, while obesity was the most difficult among government websites. The findings suggest that the readability of Australian health websites is above the average Australian levels of reading. A quantifiable guideline is needed to ensure online health information accommodates the reading needs of the general public to effectively use the Internet as an enabler of health literacy. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Immobilisation in Australian paediatric medical imaging: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, S.; Spuur, K.; Nielsen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The primary aim of this study is to document the use of paediatric immobilisation techniques in medical imaging. Secondary aims are to investigate differences between current practice of paediatric and non-paediatric facilities and radiographer gender and to investigate immobilisation protocols. Methods: A SurveyMonkey link was distributed through the Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT) newsletter. Radiographer members of ASMIRT were invited to participate. Frequency percentage analysis was undertaken; as the 'frequency of immobilisation' response was on a Likert scale and the ages categorical, a Fisher's exact test could determine dependency. Results: The use of paediatric immobilisation techniques was determined to be related to age. The most commonly used technique in general X-ray was “other people”; in computed tomography, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques; and in magnetic resonance imaging, sedation and Velcro. A comparison of immobilisation techniques demonstrated that Velcro use in X-ray was dependent on facility (p = 0.017) with paediatric facilities using it up to 17 years. Immobilisation frequency was dependent in 13–17 years (p = 0.035) with paediatric facilities rarely immobilising and non-paediatric facilities never. No dependencies resulted upon comparing genders. Immobilisation frequency was not dependent between protocols or current practice. Conclusion: The use of paediatric immobilisation technique is related to age with “other people”, sedation, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques being regularly used. The dependency of Velcro use and immobilisation frequency in 13–17 years is for unknown reasons and further investigation is required. A larger study should be carried out to validate these findings. - Highlights: • Document the use of paediatric immobilisation techniques in medical imaging. • Investigate differences in practice between

  3. Nineteen and Up study (19Up): understanding pathways to mental health disorders in young Australian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; O'Callaghan, Victoria; Parker, Richard; Mills, Natalie; Kirk, Katherine M; Scott, Jan; Vinkhuyzen, Anna; Hermens, Daniel F; Lind, Penelope A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Connell, Melissa; Zietsch, Brendan P; Scott, James; Wright, Margaret J; Medland, Sarah E; McGrath, John; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2018-03-17

    The Nineteen and Up study (19Up) assessed a range of mental health and behavioural problems and associated risk factors in a genetically informative Australian cohort of young adult twins and their non-twin siblings. As such, 19Up enables detailed investigation of genetic and environmental pathways to mental illness and substance misuse within the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Sample (BLTS). Twins and their non-twin siblings from Queensland, Australia; mostly from European ancestry. Data were collected between 2009 and 2016 on 2773 participants (age range 18-38, 57.8% female, 372 complete monozygotic pairs, 493 dizygotic pairs, 640 non-twin siblings, 403 singleton twins). A structured clinical assessment (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) was used to collect lifetime prevalence of diagnostic statistical manual (4th edition) (DSM-IV) diagnoses of major depressive disorder, (hypo)mania, social anxiety, cannabis use disorder, alcohol use disorder, panic disorder and psychotic symptoms. Here, we further describe the comorbidities and ages of onset for these mental disorders. Notably, two-thirds of the sample reported one or more lifetime mental disorder.In addition, the 19Up study assessed general health, drug use, work activity, education level, personality, migraine/headaches, suicidal thoughts, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology, sleep-wake patterns, romantic preferences, friendships, familial environment, stress, anorexia and bulimia as well as baldness, acne, asthma, endometriosis, joint flexibility and internet use.The overlap with previous waves of the BLTS means that 84% of the 19Up participants are genotyped, 36% imaged using multimodal MRI and most have been assessed for psychological symptoms at up to four time points. Furthermore, IQ is available for 57%, parental report of ADHD symptomatology for 100% and electroencephalography for 30%. The 19Up study complements a phenotypically rich, longitudinal collection of

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  5. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  7. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  8. A longitudinal study of tooth erosion in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidi, H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinal study aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9

  9. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  10. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  11. Late life changes in mental health: a longitudinal study of 9683 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Lucy; Byles, Julie E; Chojenta, Catherine; Pachana, Nancy A

    2016-10-01

    To identify latent subgroups of women in late life who are alike in terms of their mental health trajectories. Longitudinal data are for 9683 participants in the 1921-1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, who completed at least two surveys between 1999 (aged 73-78 years) and 2008 (aged 82-87 years). Mental health was measured using the five-item mental health inventory (MHI-5). Latent profile analysis uncovered patterns of change in MHI-5 scores. Three patterns of change were identified for women who were still alive in 2008 (n = 7061), and three similar patterns for deceased women (n = 2622): (1) 'poor mental health' representing women with low MHI-5 scores, (2) 'good mental health' and (3) 'excellent' mental health, where scores remained very high. Deceased women had lower mental health scores for each class. Remote areas of residence, higher education, single marital status, higher Body Mass Index (BMI) and falls were the covariates associated with mental health in the survivor group. For the deceased group, education, BMI and falls were significant. Arthritis, stroke, heart disease, bronchitis/emphysema, diabetes and osteoporosis were associated with worse mental health for both groups, while asthma increased these odds significantly for the survivor group only. Hypertension and cancer were not significant predictors of poor mental health. The results show associations between chronic disease and level of mental health in older age, but no evidence of a large decline in mental health in the period prior to death.

  12. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  13. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  14. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  15. A Longitudinal Study Assessing the Microsoft Office Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.; McGinnis, Denise; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Snyder, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a four-year longitudinal study of the assessment process for a Microsoft Office skills course. It examines whether there is an increase in students' knowledge based on responses to pre- and post-surveys that asked students to evaluate how well they can do particular tasks. Classical classroom teaching methods were used in the…

  16. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  17. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  19. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  20. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  1. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  2. Always connected: a longitudinal field study of mobile communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the

  3. Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng

    2018-01-01

    Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  5. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  6. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  7. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  9. Towards healthy and sustainable food consumption: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Barosh, Laurel J; Lawrence, Mark

    2014-05-01

    To articulate a healthy and sustainable (H&S) diet; outline key health and environmental sustainability principles that can be applied in the selection of foods for inclusion in such a diet; and describe a methodology with which to assess the availability and affordability of a H&S food basket. We synthesized publically available evidence on the environmental impact of different foods from academic, government, industry and non-government sources and constructed a hypothetical H&S equivalent of the typical Australian diet. Based on this, we constructed a weekly H&S food basket for a household of two adults and two children. Australia. Australian populations. The H&S diet is based on three overarching principles: (i) any food that is consumed above a person's energy requirement represents an avoidable environmental burden in the form of greenhouse gas emissions, use of natural resources and pressure on biodiversity; (ii) reducing the consumption of discretionary food choices, which are energy-dense and highly processed and packaged, reduces both the risk of dietary imbalances and the use of environmental resources; and (iii) a diet comprising less animal- and more plant-derived foods delivers both health and ecological benefits. We have focused on the articulation of a H&S diet not to facilitate 'policy drift' to focus on individual dietary choice, but rather to provide evidence to extend dietary guideline recommendations so as to integrate environmental considerations within the scope of food and health policy advice in Australia and elsewhere.

  10. Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buykx Penny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care; (b Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction; and (c Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability. Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how

  11. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  12. Personality, Schizophrenia, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candini, Valentina; Ghisi, Marta; Bottesi, Gioia; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bulgari, Viola; Iozzino, Laura; Boero, Maria Elena; De Francesco, Alessandra; Maggi, Paolo; Segalini, Beatrice; Zuccalli, Vanessa; Giobbio, Gian Marco; Rossi, Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2017-07-31

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the presence of clinically significant personality traits and personality disorders (PD) in patients living in residential facilities, with or without a history of violence (69 and 46, respectively); and (b) to investigate any associations between clinically significant personality traits and PDs, aggression, impulsivity, hostility, and violent behavior during a 1-year follow-up. The most frequent primary diagnoses were schizophrenia (58.3%) and PD (20.9%). Those with a history of violence demonstrated more antisocial and alcohol dependence features and lower depressive PD symptoms than the control group. Hostility levels, antisocial symptoms, and drug dependence, as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II diagnosis of PD, predicted aggressive and violent behavior during follow-up. The study confirms the relevance of assessing PDs both to evaluate the risk of violent behavior and to plan appropriate preventive and treatment intervention.

  13. Accounting for dropout reason in longitudinal studies with nonignorable dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Camille M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Forster, Jeri E; Carlson, Nichole E; Allshouse, Amanda; Wang, Xinshuo; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Conway, Brian; Connick, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Dropout is a common problem in longitudinal cohort studies and clinical trials, often raising concerns of nonignorable dropout. Selection, frailty, and mixture models have been proposed to account for potentially nonignorable missingness by relating the longitudinal outcome to time of dropout. In addition, many longitudinal studies encounter multiple types of missing data or reasons for dropout, such as loss to follow-up, disease progression, treatment modifications and death. When clinically distinct dropout reasons are present, it may be preferable to control for both dropout reason and time to gain additional clinical insights. This may be especially interesting when the dropout reason and dropout times differ by the primary exposure variable. We extend a semi-parametric varying-coefficient method for nonignorable dropout to accommodate dropout reason. We apply our method to untreated HIV-infected subjects recruited to the Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program HIV cohort and compare longitudinal CD4 + T cell count in injection drug users to nonusers with two dropout reasons: anti-retroviral treatment initiation and loss to follow-up.

  14. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  15. Plasma HVA in psychiatric patients: longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Sharma, R P; Janicak, P G; Davis, J M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) was measured in 40 inpatients (25 schizophrenic and 15 nonschizophrenic patients) who underwent up to 3 weeks of drug washout. Schizophrenic patients were then treated with trifluoperazine for 4 weeks, and weekly behavioral and pHVA measures were obtained. The baseline pHVA had no relationship to age, sex, washout period, diagnosis, or behavioral rating scores. In schizophrenic patients, the baseline pHVA did not differ significantly from any value obtained during 4 weeks of treatment. Although there was significant improvement in clinical symptoms, this was not related to changes in pHVA. Further, changes in any of the four Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) factors (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms, hostility/suspicion, or anxiety/depression) were not correlated with changes in pHVA. Although other studies have reported a positive correlation between pHVA and psychotic symptoms, results of this study suggest that any observed relationship between pHVA and psychosis must be carefully interpreted.

  16. Radiation protection in an interventional laboratory: a comparative study of Australian and Saudi Arabian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmari, Mohammed Ali S.; Sun, Zhonghua; Bartlett, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the use of protection devices and attitudes of interventional professionals (including radiologists, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, medical imaging technicians and nurses) towards radiation protection will differ between Saudi Arabian and Australian hospitals. Hard copies of an anonymous survey were distributed to 10 and 6 clinical departments in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia and metropolitan hospitals in Western Australia, respectively. The overall response rate was 43 % comprising 110 Australian participants and 63 % comprising 147 Saudi participants. Analysis showed that Australian respondents differed significantly from Saudi respondents with respect to their usages of leaded glasses (p < 0.001), ceiling-suspended lead screen (p < 0.001) and lead drape suspended from the table (p < 0.001). This study indicates that the trained interventional professionals in Australia tend to adhere to benefit from having an array of tools for personal radiation protection than the corresponding group in Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  17. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    investigated four different proximity markers which lead to significantly improved marker values between NC and AD after correction for whole brain and hippocampus volume. Based on the different proximity markers we have chosen the surface connectivity marker that gave the best separation to investigate......This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning....... The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...

  18. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez D, Juan F; Egan, Gary F; Gray, Marcus A; Poudel, Govinda R; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Stout, Julie C; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2013-01-01

    IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively). In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume) and microstructural (diffusivity) longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter) and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change). Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years), close to diagnosis (fractional anisotropy, FA), only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  19. REGULATION OF AUSTRALIAN MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: LESSONS FROM THREE CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; McKenna, Michael; Rayner, Johanna; Hawes, Jazmin

    2016-03-01

    In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2016] HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. This legislation was previously heavily criticised by the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. The third concerns the deregistration of Tareq Kamleh, an Australian doctor of German-Palestinian heritage who came to public attention on ANZAC Day 2015 with his appearance online in a propaganda video for the Islamic State terrorist organisation al-Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa'al Sham, also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh. Australia's professional regulatory system should presumptively respect professional virtues, such as loyalty to the relief of individual patient suffering, when dealing with doctors (whether in Australia or ISIS-occupied Syria) working under regimes whose principles appear inconsistent with those of ethics and human rights.

  20. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat.

  1. The importance of historical residential address information in longitudinal studies using administrative health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youens, David; Preen, David B; Harris, Mark N; Moorin, Rachael E

    2018-02-01

    When information on changes in address or migration of people to or from a study jurisdiction is unavailable in longitudinal studies, issues relating to loss-to-follow-up and misclassification bias may result. This study investigated how estimations of associations between general practitioner (GP) contact and hospital use were affected by incomplete address and migration data. This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of Western Australians from 1990 to 2004. Linked administrative data including mortality records, hospital admissions, primary care and Electoral Roll records were used. Regularity of GP contact, based on the variance of the number of days between GP visits, was calculated for each person-year. Outcomes were the number and costs (A$2014) of diabetes-related hospital admissions in the following year. Models were estimated separately for cohorts where (i) postcode was ascertained at study commencement and held constant, and (ii) postcode and residency within Western Australia were updated with each change of address recorded on the Electoral Roll over the study period. Updating address data reduced total person-years by 11% and changed the distribution of covariates. Estimations of associations between patterns of GP contact and number of hospitalizations changed; the incidence rate ratios measuring the relationship with the most regular GP contact (baseline of those with interval (CI) 0.66-1.00] to 0.42 (95% CI 0.33-0.53) after updating postcode information. Impacts on cost models were smaller, though still statistically significant. Longitudinal studies using administrative data may report biased results if they ignore address changes and migration. Researchers should attempt to link to these data wherever possible, or choose study designs which these issues are less likely to affect. Custodians should be aware that such data can be vital to high quality research. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University

  2. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Australian Registered Training Organisations. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a study examining organisational culture and structure in ten Australian registered training organisations (RTOs) and is part of a program of research examining the factors which affect and help build the capability of vocational education and training (VET) providers. The study sought to determine: (1) how…

  3. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening

  4. Ten-year all-cause mortality and its association with vision among Indigenous Australians within Central Australia: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ebony; Ng, Soo K; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas H; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2017-05-01

    No studies to date have explored the association of vision with mortality in Indigenous Australians. We aimed to determine the 10-year all-cause mortality and its associations among Indigenous Australians living in Central Australia. Prospective observational cohort study. A total of 1257 (93.0%) of 1347 patients from The Central Australian Ocular Health Study, over the age of 40 years, were available for follow-up during a 10-year period. All-cause mortality and its associations with visual acuity, age and gender were analysed. All-cause mortality. All-cause mortality was 29.3% at the end of 10 years. Mortality increased as age of recruitment increased: 14.2% (40-49 years), 22.6% (50-59 years), 50.3% (60 years or older) (χ = 59.15; P < 0.00001). Gender was not associated with mortality as an unadjusted variable, but after adjustment with age and visual acuity, women were 17.0% less likely to die (t = 2.09; P = 0.037). Reduced visual acuity was associated with increased mortality rate (5% increased mortality per one line of reduced visual acuity; t = 4.74; P < 0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes and hypertension. The 10-year all-cause mortality rate of Indigenous Australians over the age of 40 years and living in remote communities of Central Australia was 29.3%. This is more than double that of the Australian population as a whole. Mortality was significantly associated with visual acuity at recruitment. Further work designed to better understand this association is warranted and may help to reduce this disparity in the future. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Association of Visual Impairment and All-Cause 10-Year Mortality Among Indigenous Australian Individuals Within Central Australia: The Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soo Khai; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas Howard; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie Evan; Landers, John

    2018-05-01

    It is well established from different population-based studies that visual impairment is associated with increased mortality rate. However, to our knowledge, the association of visual impairment with increased mortality rate has not been reported among indigenous Australian individuals. To assess the association between visual impairment and 10-year mortality risk among the remote indigenous Australian population. Prospective cohort study recruiting indigenous Australian individuals from 30 remote communities located within the central Australian statistical local area over a 36-month period between July 2005 and June 2008. The data were analyzed in January 2017. Visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination were performed on all patients at recruitment. Visual impairment was defined as a visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Mortality rate and mortality cause were obtained at 10 years, and statistical analyses were performed. Hazard ratios for 10-year mortality with 95% confidence intervals are presented. One thousand three hundred forty-seven patients were recruited from a total target population number of 2014. The mean (SD) age was 56 (11) years, and 62% were women. The total all-cause mortality was found to be 29.3% at 10 years. This varied from 21.1% among those without visual impairment to 48.5% among those with visual impairment. After adjustment for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension, those with visual impairment were 40% more likely to die (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70; P = .001) during the 10-year follow-up period compared with those with normal vision. Bilateral visual impairment among remote indigenous Australian individuals was associated with 40% higher 10-year mortality risk compared with those who were not visually impaired. Resource allocation toward improving visual acuity may therefore aid in closing the gap in mortality outcomes between indigenous and nonindigenous Australian

  6. Comparison of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization references/standards for height in contemporary Australian children: analyses of the Raine Study and Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ian; Harris, Mark; Cotterill, Andrew; Garnett, Sarah; Bannink, Ellen; Pennell, Craig; Sly, Peter; Leong, Gary M; Cowell, Chris; Ambler, Geoff; Werther, George; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne; Choong, Catherine S

    2014-11-01

    (i) To compare the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference and World Health Organization (WHO) standard/reference for height, particularly with respect to short stature and eligibility for growth hormone (GH) treatment by applying them to contemporary Australian children; (ii) To examine the implications for identifying short stature and eligibility for GH treatment. Children from the longitudinal Raine Study were serially measured for height from 1991 to 2005 (2-15-year-old girls (660) and boys (702) from Western Australia). In the cross-sectional Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity survey (2-16-year-old boys (2415) and girls (2379) from all states), height was measured in 2007. Heights were converted to standard deviation scores (SDSs) based on CDC and WHO. Means and standard deviations of height-SDS varied between CDC and WHO definitions and with age and gender within each definition. However, both identified similar frequencies of short stature (standard/reference for height. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Results Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PFacebook is a feasible and efficient strategy for the recruitment of men from across Australia for HPV testing. This method could be used for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination. Additional targeting may achieve a sample that is broadly demographically representative of the Australian population. Future research should explore how the

  8. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velden, Peter G.; Bosmans, Mark W.G.; van der Meulen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE’s are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. Design A longitudinal study with a 6 months’ time ...

  9. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  10. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  11. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  12. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  13. Text-Messaging Practices and Links to General Spelling Skill: A Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Catherine; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated 10- to 12-year-old Australian children's text-messaging practices and their relationship to traditional spelling ability. Of the 227 children tested, 82% reported sending text-messages; a median of 5 per day. Use of predictive and multi-press entry methods was roughly equal. Children produced a wide range of text-message…

  14. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Teaching in an Australian Accounting Programme--An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Grace; Cooper, Barry J.; Dellaportas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to elicit and understand the views of Mainland Chinese students concerning their learning experience in an Australian accounting education programme. The article contributes to the literature by investigating the issues and implications associated with international students' perceptions of teaching, as little…

  15. Globalisation, Transnational Academic Mobility and the Chinese Knowledge Diaspora: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Welch, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    The master discourses of economic globalisation and the knowledge economy each cite knowledge diasporas as vital "trans-national human capital". Based on a case study of a major Australian university, this article examines the potential to deploy China's large and highly-skilled diaspora in the service of Chinese and Australian…

  16. Conceptions of Good Teaching by Good Teachers: Case Studies from an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on what constitutes good teaching in early 21st Century higher education, through an examination of the experience of five outstanding lecturers from a business school in an Australian university. It is based on a qualitative study that explored their perceptions on what constitutes "good teaching".…

  17. Library Experience and Information Literacy Learning of First Year International Students: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Hilary; Hall, Nerilee; Pozzi, Megan

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study provides fresh understandings about first year undergraduate international students' library and information use at an Australian university, and their associated information literacy learning needs. The findings provide evidence to inform the development of library spaces and information literacy responses that enhance…

  18. In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Study of the Reasons Australian University Students Plagiarize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Marcia; Gray, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The ways in which universities and individual academics attempt to deter and respond to student plagiarism may be based on untested assumptions about particular or primary reasons for this behaviour. Using a series of group interviews, this qualitative study gathered the views of 56 Australian university students on the possible reasons for…

  19. Understanding the evolution of multimorbidity: evidences from the North West Adelaide Health Longitudinal Study (NWAHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ruel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of multimorbidity. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from 1854 South Australians who participated in the North West Adelaide longitudinal Health Study (NWAHS was collected between baseline (2000-2002 and follow-up (2008-2010. Status for eight chronic diseases (CDs was determined by biomedical measurement or self-report. Chronic disease (CD mean age of occurrence and order of appearance was investigated. RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 32% to 64% during the 7.8±1.1 years of follow-up. The estimated mean age of onset of a new CD was significantly older for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and younger for hypercholesterolemia, asthma and other mental problem. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely to develop as a first than as a subsequent CD (39%vs.16%, p<0.0001 while CVD (1%vs.5%, p<0.0001, diabetes (5%vs.11%, p<0.001 and COPD (6%vs.16%, p<0.0001 were less likely. The presence of mood disorders at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing other mental disorders (36%vs.12%, p<0.0001, diabetes (18%vs.9%, p<0.01 and asthma (30%vs.21%, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal data could be used to study the evolution of multimorbidity and could provide information on CDs mean age of occurrence, order of appearance and impact on the development of future CDs.

  20. The Koori Growing Old Well Study: investigating aging and dementia in urban Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Robertson, Hamish; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Broe, Gerald A

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is an emerging health priority in Australian Aboriginal communities, but substantial gaps remain in our understanding of this issue, particularly for the large urban section of the population. In remote Aboriginal communities, high prevalence rates of dementia at relatively young ages have been reported. The current study is investigating aging, cognitive decline, and dementia in older urban/regional Aboriginal Australians. We partnered with five Aboriginal communities across the eastern Australian state of New South Wales, to undertake a census of all Aboriginal men and women aged 60 years and over residing in these communities. This was followed by a survey of the health, well-being, and life history of all consenting participants. Participants were also screened using three cognitive instruments. Those scoring below designated cut-offs, and a 20% random sample of those scoring above (i.e. "normal" range), completed a contact person interview (with a nominated family member) and medical assessment (blind to initial screening results), which formed the basis of "gold standard" clinical consensus determinations of cognitive impairment and dementia. This paper details our protocol for a population-based study in collaboration with local Aboriginal community organizations. The study will provide the first available prevalence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment in a representative sample of urban Aboriginal people, across city and rural communities, where the majority of Aboriginal Australians live. It will also contribute to improved assessment of dementia and cognitive impairment and to the understanding of social determinants of successful aging, of international significance.

  1. Residents' perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents' perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident's role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents' understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  2. The politics of accountability for school curriculum: An Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Alan

    1987-03-01

    This normative-descriptive case study of accountability for state school curriculum in South Australia has the following objectives. First, to seek to draw a distinction between accountability and responsibility: terms which have been confused by two South Australian Directors-General of Education (position akin to C.E.O. in the U.K. and Superintendent in the U.S.A.) with important consequences. Second, to present a model of accountability for state school curriculum, by which accountability for such curriculum may be judged democratic or non-democratic, and against which accountability for curriculum in South Australian state schools will be gauged. Third, to show that whilst the South Australian school system exhibits a large measure of bureaucratic or technocratic accountability for curriculum, there is no effective democratic accountability for curriculum, and to indicate a remedy for this situation. Finally, to point out the wider significance of the South Australian case study, and suggest that democracies currently re-structuring their educational systems would do well to keep the need for democratic accountability foremost in mind.

  3. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren: the Sydney adolescent vascular and eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amanda N; Morgan, Ian G; Mitchell, Paul; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. The Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES) was a 5- to 6-year follow-up of the Sydney Myopia Study (SMS). At follow-up, 2103 children were reexamined: 892 (50.5%) from the younger cohort and 1211 (51.5%) from the older cohort. Of these, 863 in the younger cohort and 1196 in the older cohort had complete refraction data. Cycloplegic autorefraction (cyclopentolate 1%; Canon RK-F1; Canon, Tokyo, Japan) was measured at baseline and follow-up. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction of ≤-0.50 diopters (D). Children were classified as having incident myopia if they were nonmyopic at baseline and myopic in either eye at follow-up. A comprehensive questionnaire determined the amount of time children spent outdoors and doing near work per week at baseline, as well as ethnicity, parental myopia, and socioeconomic status. Incident myopia. Children who became myopic spent less time outdoors compared with children who remained nonmyopic (younger cohort, 16.3 vs. 21.0 hours, respectively, Phours, respectively, P=0.001). Children who became myopic performed significantly more near work (19.4 vs. 17.6 hours; P=0.02) in the younger cohort, but not in the older cohort (P=0.06). Children with 1 or 2 parents who were myopic had greater odds of incident myopia (1 parent: odds ratio [OR], 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-5.2; both parents: OR, 3.3, 95% CI, 1.6-6.8) in the younger but not the older cohort. Children of East Asian ethnicity had a higher incidence of myopia compared with children of European Caucasian ethnicity (both Pwork, parental myopia, and ethnicity to the model significantly improved the predictive power (Pwork and parental myopia were additional significant risk factors for myopia only in the younger cohort. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article

  5. Incidence and predictors of cognitive impairment and dementia in Aboriginal Australians: A follow-up study of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Dina; Smith, Kate; Fenner, Stephen; Hyde, Zoë; Atkinson, David; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; Flicker, Leon

    2016-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians are reported to develop dementia earlier than the general population. The causes remain unknown. This was a longitudinal study of 363 participants aged ≥45 years. Consensus diagnoses were established for cognitive impairment or dementia. At follow-up, 189 people (mean ± standard deviation age, 65.4 ± 10.3 years) participated, as 109 (30%) had died and 65 (18%) were unavailable. The incidence of cognitive impairment or dementia was 52.6 (95% confidence interval 33.9, 81.5) per 1000 person-years (380.3 total person-years) and for dementia was 21.0 (10.5, 42.1) per 1000 person-years (380.3 person-years total) over the age 60 years. Longitudinal risk factors associated with a decline from normal cognition to impairment were age and head injury. Other associations with cognitive decline were stroke, head injury, nonaspirin analgesics, lower BMI, and higher systolic BP. Dementia incidence in Aboriginal Australians is among the highest in the world, and is associated with age and head injury. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal Health Factors as Risks for Postnatal Depression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Chojenta

    Full Text Available While previous studies have identified a range of potential risk factors for postnatal depression (PND, none have examined a comprehensive set of risk factors at a population-level using data collected prospectively. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between a range of factors and PND and to construct a model of the predictors of PND.Data came from 5219 women who completed Survey 5 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 2009 and reported giving birth to a child.Over 15% of women reported experiencing PND with at least one of their children. The strongest positive associations were for postnatal anxiety (OR = 13.79,95%CI = 10.48,18.13 and antenatal depression (OR = 9.23,95%CI = 6.10,13.97. Positive associations were also found for history of depression and PND, low SF-36 Mental Health Index, emotional distress during labour, and breastfeeding for less than six months.Results indicate that understanding a woman's mental health history plays an important role in the detection of those who are most vulnerable to PND. Treatment and management of depression and anxiety earlier in life and during pregnancy may have a positive impact on the incidence of PND.

  7. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  8. Bridging the Gap: Who Takes a Gap Year and Why? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David D.; Mlotkowski, Peter; Lumsden, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Taking a break between completing high school and entering university is common overseas, and is becoming more popular in Australia. There are many reasons why young people take a gap year. It may be to travel, to take a break, to study, or to work. The authors' definition of a "gapper" is a young person who commenced university one to…

  9. Forensic drug intelligence and the rise of cryptomarkets. Part I: Studying the Australian virtual market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Morelato, Marie; Tahtouh, Mark; Roux, Claude

    2017-10-01

    Analysing and understanding cryptomarkets is essential to become proactive in the fight against the illicit drug trade. Such a research seeks to combine a diversity of indicators related to the virtual (darknet markets) and physical (the traditional "offline" market) aspects of the illicit drug trade to provide information on the distribution and consumption as well as to assess similarities/differences between the virtual and physical markets. This study analysed data that had previously been collected on cryptomarkets from December 2013 to March 2015. In this article, the data was extracted from two marketplaces, Evolution and Silk Road 2, and analysed to evaluate the illicit drug trade of the Australian virtual market (e.g. information about the supply and demand, trafficking flows, prices of illicit drugs and market share) and highlight its specificities. The results revealed the domestic nature of the virtual Australian illicit drug trade (i.e. Australian sellers essentially ship their products to local customers). This may explain the coherence between supply and demand. Particularly, the virtual Australian illicit drug trade is dominated by amphetamine-type substances (ATS), mainly methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cannabis. Australia, as a shipping country, accounts for half of the methamphetamine offered and purchased on Silk Road 2. Moreover, it was observed that the online price fixed by Australian sellers for the considered illicit drugs is higher than for any other shipping countries, which is in line with previous studies. Understanding the virtual and physical drug market necessitates the integration and fusion of different perspectives to capture the dynamic nature of drug trafficking, monitor its evolution and finally improve our understanding of the phenomenon so policy makers can make informed decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Presence and process of fear of birth during pregnancy-Findings from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Haines, Helen; Karlström, Annika; Nystedt, Astrid

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of fear of birth has been estimated between 8-30%, but there is considerable heterogeneity in research design, definitions, measurement tools used and populations. There are some inconclusive findings about the stability of childbirth fear. to assess the prevalence and characteristics of women presenting with scores ≥60 on FOBS-The Fear of Birth Scale, in mid and late pregnancy, and to study change in fear of birth and associated factors. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of a one-year cohort of 1212 pregnant women from a northern part of Sweden, recruited in mid pregnancy and followed up in late pregnancy. Fear of birth was assessed using FOBS-The fear of birth scale, with the cut off at ≥60. The prevalence of fear of birth was 22% in mid pregnancy and 19% in late pregnancy, a statistically significant decrease. Different patterns were found where some women presented with increased fear and some with decreased fear. The women who experienced more fear or less fear later in pregnancy could not be differentiated by background factors. More research is needed to explore factors important to reduce fear of childbirth and the optimal time to measure it. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in pathology test ordering by early career general practitioners: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker J; Tapley, Amanda; Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Davey, Andrew R; Ball, Jean; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Mulquiney, Katie J; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-07-17

    To assess the number of pathology tests ordered by general practice registrars during their first 18-24 months of clinical general practice. Longitudinal analysis of ten rounds of data collection (2010-2014) for the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study, an ongoing, multicentre, cohort study of general practice registrars in Australia. The principal analysis employed negative binomial regression in a generalised estimating equations framework (to account for repeated measures on registrars).Setting, participants: General practice registrars in training posts with five of 17 general practice regional training providers in five Australian states. The registrar participation rate was 96.4%. Number of pathology tests requested per consultation. The time unit for analysis was the registrar training term (the 6-month full-time equivalent component of clinical training); registrars contributed data for up to four training terms. 876 registrars contributed data for 114 584 consultations. The number of pathology tests requested increased by 11% (95% CI, 8-15%; P pathology test ordering by general practice registrars increased significantly during their first 2 years of clinical practice. This causes concerns about overtesting. As established general practitioners order fewer tests than registrars, test ordering may peak during late vocational training and early career practice. Registrars need support during this difficult period in the development of their clinical practice patterns.

  12. Experiences of disability consumer-directed care users in Australia: results from a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Goetz; Laragy, Carmel; Haddon, Michelle

    2009-09-01

    The rapidly growing body of literature suggests that Consumer-directed Care (CDC) has the potential to empower consumers and improve the flexibility and quality of care. However, reports highlighting quality and risk concerns associated with CDC focusing on a longer time frame have been few. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative longitudinal evaluation of an Australian CDC programme. Focusing on the period between 2003 and 2008, it reports on the experiences of 12 families caring for a dependent family member. It is based on two external evaluations completed 6 and 36 months after enrollment, and one internal evaluation completed 48 months after enrollment. The findings were triangulated with internal memos, reports and minutes of meetings, as well as with the theoretical literature. The study demonstrates that CDC harbours considerable benefits for people with disabilities and their carers. However, the study also suggests that, over time, carers may experience an increased sense of isolation and lack of support as a result of their involvement in the CDC programme. The paper argues that the development of safeguards addressing these weaknesses is crucial for the sustainability of CDC programmes in contexts where risk cannot be simply transferred onto consumers.

  13. Participation in modified sports programs: a longitudinal study of children's transition to club sport competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Young, Janet A; Payne, Warren R

    2015-07-14

    Many children are not physically active enough for a health benefit. One avenue of physical activity is modified sport programs, designed as an introduction to sport for young children. This longitudinal study identified trends in participation among children aged 4-12 years. Outcomes included continuation in the modified sports program, withdrawal from the program or transition to club sport competition. De-identified data on participant membership registrations in three popular sports in the Australian state of Victoria were obtained from each sport's state governing body over a 4-year period (2009-2012 for Sport A and 2010-2013 for Sports B and C). From the membership registrations, those who were enrolled in a modified sports program in the first year were tracked over the subsequent three years and classified as one of: transition (member transitioned from a modified sport program to a club competition); continue (member continued participation in a modified sport program; or withdraw (member discontinued a modified program and did not transition to club competition). Many modified sports participants were very young, especially males aged 4-6 years. More children withdrew from their modified sport program rather than transitioning. There were age differences between when boys and girls started, withdrew and transitioned from the modified sports programs. If we can retain children in sport it is likely to be beneficial for their health. This study highlights considerations for the development and implementation of sport policies and programming to ensure lifelong participation is encouraged for both males and females.

  14. Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Livingstone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diet, characterized by a low diet quality score, has been associated with greater prevelence of obesity and hypertension. However, the evidence is inconsistent across diet quality scores and by sex. The aim was to investigate the relationship between diet quality and obesity and hypertension. Methods Adults (n = 4908; age 45.2 ± 0.24 years were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011–2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls were used to derive the dietary guideline index (DGI and recommended food score (RFS. Logistic regression investigated relationships between diet quality score and odds ratio of obesity, hypertension and obesity-associated hypertension. Results In the highest tertile of DGI, but not RFS, individuals were less likely to be obese (men: OR 0.64, CI: 0.45, 0.92, P-trend = 0.014; women: 0.68, 0.48, 0.96, P-trend = 0.025 and to have central adiposity (men: 0.68, 0.48, 0.97, P-trend = 0.030; women: 0.53, 0.37, 0.77, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the lowest tertile. Men, but not women, in the highest tertile of DGI and RFS were less likely to be hypertensive (DGI: 0.56, 0.37, 0.85, P-trend = 0.006; RFS: 0.62, 0.41, 0.94, P-trend = 0.021 compared with the lowest tertile. In men with obesity, but not normal weight men or women, those in the highest tertile of DGI were less likely to be hypertensive (0.53, 0.36, 0.78, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the highest tertile. Conclusions Higher diet quality, as estimated using DGI, was associated with lower odds ratio of obesity in men and women. Odds ratio of hypertension was lower in men, but not women, with a high diet quality score compared with a low score, while obesity-associated hypertension was only associated with diet quality score in men with obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether diet quality predicts risk of obesity and hypertension.

  15. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos Sianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual

  16. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  17. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children......, born in 1995, who currently are or formerly have been placed in care. The first data collection was conducted in the spring 2003, where the children were 7-8 years of age. It is the intention to follow up the children every third year during childhood, adolescence, and adult life. At each new data...

  18. Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms.

  19. Joint Effects of Physical Activity and BMI on Risk of Hypertension in Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is debate as to whether physical activity counteracts the adverse effect of weight on health outcomes. We investigated how physical activity modifies the effect of body mass index (BMI on hypertension risk. Methods. BMI, physical activity, and hypertension were measured at baseline and at three-year interval for 14 years (from 1996 to 2010, in 10,339 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Generalised estimating equation models for binary repeated measures were performed to determine the individual and joint effects of BMI and physical activity on incident hypertension. Results. At baseline (mean age 47.6±1.5 SD, 57% were healthy weight, 28% overweight, and 14% obese. Increasing BMI and decreasing physical activity were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Physical activity attenuated the positive association between weight and risk of hypertension, especially for obese women. Compared to healthy weight high active women, risk of hypertension in obese high active women was 3.4 times greater (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.68, 4.39 and in obese inactive women 4.9 times greater (OR 4.91, 95% CI 3.92, 6.13. Conclusions. Both physical activity and maintenance of a healthy body weight are associated with lower risk of hypertension. Physical activity reduced but did not remove the effect of obesity on hypertension risk.

  20. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of...

  1. Social support and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy A; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2014-09-01

    A breast cancer diagnosis is a distressing event that impacts on physical and psychological functioning. This study examined the longitudinal relationships among a diagnosis of breast cancer, social support, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants were 412 women from the 1946-1951 birth cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who self-reported a new diagnosis of breast cancer between 1998 and 2007. The three surveys of longitudinal data analyzed included data 3 years before diagnosis, at diagnosis (baseline), and 3 years after diagnosis (follow-up). Social support was measured using the 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey; HRQOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Compared with pre-diagnosis HRQOL, women newly diagnosed with breast cancer reported significantly poorer HRQOL in subscales related to pain, physical functioning, and health and vitality. At 3-year follow-up, HRQOL had improved in most domains to levels consistent with pre-diagnosis. Levels of social support remained stable across time. The structural equation model showed that social support was positively predictive of better physical and mental HRQOL at 3-year follow-up. Longitudinal analyses indicate that social support appears to be an important predictor of HRQOL in women diagnosed with breast cancer. In particular, positive emotional and informational support that may normally be provided by a partner is important in maintaining HRQOL. Identification of those lacking social support, especially patients without partners, will enable them to be guided to appropriate support networks and programs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Young Adults: A Study From the South Australian Population-Based Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatandoust, Sina; Price, Timothy J; Ullah, Shahid; Roy, Amitesh C; Beeke, Carole; Young, Joanne P; Townsend, Amanda; Padbury, Robert; Roder, David; Karapetis, Christos S

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy. There is growing evidence that CRC incidence is increasing in the younger population. There is controversy surrounding the prognosis of young patients with CRC. In this study we reviewed Australian patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) who were younger than 40 years of age at the time of diagnosis of metastatic disease. To our knowledge this is the first study to focus on this age group with mCRC. This was a retrospective study using data from the South Australian Metastatic Colorectal Cancer database. We compared patient and disease characteristics, management approaches, and outcomes for age groups Young-onset mCRC patients, when defined as aged younger than 40 years, have equivalent survival compared with their older counterparts. This is despite differences in disease characteristics and management approach between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Work after age 65: A prospective study of Australian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Tazeen; Forder, Peta M; Tavener, Meredith; Vo, Kha; Byles, Julie

    2017-06-01

    This study describes hours in paid work for Australian men and women aged over 65, focusing on associations between work and education. Data were analysed separately for men and women, from baseline and first follow-up surveys of the 45 and Up Study. Generalised estimating equation models were used to identify associations between work, education and other factors over time. The odds of doing paid work increased with higher education level and decreased with time, age, poorer physical function and having health conditions (high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke and breast cancer). Un-partnered women were more likely to work in later life than partnered women. This study quantifies the importance of education and health factors in determining continued participation of Australian men and women in paid work in later life. These factors need to be considered for policies aiming to increase workforce participation beyond 65 years of age. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  4. Chinese students studying at Australian universities with specific reference to nursing students: a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Carol Chunfeng; Andre, Kate; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark

    2015-04-01

    To report the current knowledge on the Chinese nursing students' learning at Australian universities. The intent is to provide educators and researchers with a background to the contexts, the methodologies, the emphases of various relevant studies, and to provide recommendations for future research. Attracting international students has become an important part of Australian universities' business and contributes to their cultural diversity. Teaching international students has received considerable attention in the educational research literature. Experiences of international students can vary greatly depending on their country of origin. This paper critically reviews current literature relating to issues for Chinese students and in particular, Chinese nursing students, the biggest single group of international nursing students at Australian universities Narrative literature review. A comprehensive search of seven electronic databases for literature between 2003 and 2014 helped to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that addressed issues of Asian international students with English as a second language (ESL) (included nursing students) studying in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the United States and China. Pertinent websites were also searched. The reference lists and bibliographies of retrieved articles were hand- searched to identify other relevant studies. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The majority of existing literature claimed that there is a range of challenges confronting international students including Chinese nursing students, in assimilation into their host country. These include issues with English language proficiency, cultural barriers, social problems, different learning styles, academic demands, perceived racism, homesickness, lack of assertiveness and financial problems. There is limited research about the Chinese students' study in Australia. In particular, the learning experience of Chinese nursing students

  5. Leadership in transformation: a longitudinal study in a nursing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitala, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change. The empirical material was gathered in a longitudinal case study in a nursing organisation in two different historical and situational points. It consists of written narratives produced by nurse leaders that are analysed by applying discourse analysis. The empirical study revealed that the constructions of leadership were dramatically different at the two different historical and situational points. Leadership showed up as a complex, fragile and changing phenomenon, which fluctuates along with the other organisational changes. The results signal the importance of agency in leadership and the central role of "significant others". The paper questions the traditional categorisation and labelling of leadership as well as the cross-sectional studies in understanding leadership transformation. Its originality relates to the longitudinal perspective on transformation of leadership in the context of a health care organisation.

  6. Association between bacterial vaginosis and partner concurrency: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien; Klebanoff, Mark; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to test if there was an association between prevalent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and women reporting that their partner had other partners at the same time (partner concurrency). This association has not been assessed in a longitudinal cohort. The Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora recruited a cohort of 3620 non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years who presented for routine primary healthcare at 12 clinics in Birmingham, Alabama. Behavioural questionnaires and vaginal smears were obtained quarterly for a year and BV was defined by a Nugent score 7 or higher as well as Amsel criteria. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between prevalent BV and reporting that one's partner had other partners in the preceding 3-6 months time interval. Nugent score prevalent BV was associated with both reporting that one's partner definitely (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) and possibly (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) engaged in partner concurrency in the preceding 3-6 months time period. Prevalent BV diagnosed by Amsel criteria was similar. A diagnosis of prevalent BV was associated with reporting that one's partner possibly or definitely engaged in partner concurrency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hure, Alexis; Young, Anne; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare

    2009-06-01

    To investigate and report the diet quality of young Australian women by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status was defined as pregnant (n 606), trying to conceive (n 454), had a baby in the last 12 months (n 829) and other (n 5597). The Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies was used to calculate diet quality using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) methodology. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. A population-based cohort participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). A nationally representative sample of Australian women, aged 25 to 30 years, who completed Survey 3 of the ALSWH. The 7486 women with biologically plausible energy intake estimates, defined as >4.5 but food group accounted for this small difference. Across all pregnancy categories there were important nutrients that did not meet the current nationally recommended levels of intake, including dietary folate and fibre. Women do not appear to consume a wider variety of nutritious foods when planning to become pregnant or during pregnancy. Many young Australian women are failing to meet key nutrient targets as nationally recommended.

  8. Asset Allocation and Diversification by Real Estate Sector Within a Portfolio: Two Australian Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Wallace

    1992-01-01

    The research results presented in this paper are a subset of a more extensive investigation of asset allocation and investment diversification in a pooled or mixed asset portfolio including bonds, equities and real estate in real property form, and listed and unlisted property trusts as they are termed in Australia. Australian property trusts are analogous to Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) in the United States. This empirical research study is exploratory in nature, and concentrates sp...

  9. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in

  10. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  11. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  12. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-11-17

    Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PCapital Territory (P=.004), reside in a major city (P<.001), and have completed undergraduate (P<.001) or postgraduate education (P<.001). HYM study participants were less likely to report being a current smoker (P=.03), but were more likely to identify as bisexual or homosexual (294/529, 55.6%, P<.001), than the general population. Using Facebook is a feasible and efficient

  13. The Psychological Effects of Unemployment and Unsatisfactory Employment on Young Adults: Findings from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefield, Anthony H; Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Helen R; Duong, David; Malvaso, Catia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the external validity of an earlier longitudinal study of school leavers by including participants from a representative sample of secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered annually to a sample of South Australian school leavers over a 10-year period. At Time 1 participants were in the last compulsory year of high school aged around 15 years and at Time 10 they were aged around 25 years. Results confirmed those from an earlier longitudinal study showing that the transition from school to satisfactory employment was associated with significant improvements in psychological well-being, whereas transition from school to unemployment or unsatisfactory employment showed no change in psychological well-being. The current findings extended the external validity of the earlier study because whereas participants in the earlier study were sampled from co-educational metropolitan public high schools, the current study included participants from every kind of high school: single sex as well as co-educational, rural as well as metropolitan, and private as well as public.

  14. A Study of Journal Publication Diversity within the Australian Information Systems Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Sellitto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on research that examined DEST data from 14 Australian universities to identify the diversity of journal outlets in the information systems (IS area. Across a total of 60 years of academic publishing output, 1449 journal articles were evaluated to identify 649 different journals in which IS-related articles were published. The most popular journals used by Australian academics to publish IS-related articles were the Lecture Notes in Computer Science (N=94 in the computer science area, with the Australasian Journal of Information Systems (N=25 being the most popular journal in the pure and business IS sphere. The study also examined publishing output against a set of 50 previously highly rated IS journals and concluded that the average annual publication of articles in these highly rated journals occurred at a very low rate. The research appears to be one of the first studies to use historical DEST data to report journal diversity in the Australian IS-sphere.

  15. Societal acceptance of wind farms: Analysis of four common themes across Australian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, N.; Ashworth, P.; Devine-Wright, P.

    2013-01-01

    Australia's renewable energy target (RET) seeks to provide 20 per cent of Australia's electricity generation from renewable energy sources by 2020. As wind power is relatively advanced, it was anticipated that wind power will contribute a major component of the early target. However, high levels of societal resistance to wind farms, combined with new regulatory policies, indicate the RET may not be dominated by wind power. This research involved an examination of seven case studies around wind farm deployment. Qualitative interviews were the primary data for the case studies and analysed using methods informed by grounded theory. Despite the diversity of stakeholder views, the qualitative analysis identified strong community support for wind farms but four common themes emerged that influence this societal acceptance of wind farms in Australia: trust, distributional justice, procedural justice and place attachment. Without addressing these factors through integration into policy development and engagement approaches, wind energy is unlikely to provide the early and majority of new renewable energy. Similar international experiences are incorporated in the discussion of the Australian wind industry's societal acceptance. - Highlights: ► Seven case studies of wind farms in Australia are described. ► Acceptance affects whether wind significantly contributes to the Aust. RE target. ► Four themes were identified regarding societal acceptance of Australian wind farms. ► Four themes are trust, distributional and procedural justice, and place attachment. ► International similarities to the Australian experience are provided

  16. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  17. Managing Expectations: A Case Study of Sessional Staff in Languages and Cultures Education in Australian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Brown

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the increasing casualisation of the academic workforce in recent years, expectations of sessional staff in Australian universities from their academic employment are becoming more poignant. Following on from a previous report by Ferrari & Hajek (2012, this paper further highlights how these workers are affected by short-term, often only semester-long, contracts. We focus on how the brevity of employment affects sessional teachers’ perceptions of their role and perceived obligations to the university, and consequently the health of languages education. We present the results of an online survey conducted at the vast majority of Australian universities, which investigated sessional staff’s expectations. This study reveals that language sessional staff have expectations of their employment which are often at odds with their role as academics in the university environment.

  18. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  19. Longitudinal, Whole-population Data Examining Pathways of Risk from Conception to Disease: The Western Australian Schizophrenia High-risk e-Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A. Morgan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This database has been constructed to support a program of work designed to untangle genetic and environmental contributions to the risk for schizophrenia and other adverse outcomes in the offspring of mothers with schizophrenia and other severe mental illness. To do this, it utilises Western Australian whole-population health and social services databases. Records on the Western Australian psychiatric case register have been linked to Midwives’ Notification of Birth records and to Registrations of Births (for paternal links as well as to other data sets. Maternal links identify women with psychosis who gave birth in Western Australia between 1980 and 2001. Comparison mothers are those with no record of psychiatric illness who gave birth in Western Australia over the same period. The study database comprises 246,873 mothers and 467,945 children: 889 mothers with schizophrenia (1,672 children; 1,644 mothers with bipolar disorder (3,358 children; 4,200 mothers with unipolar major depression (8,864 children; 775 mothers with other psychoses (1,592 children; and 239,365 comparison mothers (452,459 children. Full psychiatric histories for mothers, fathers and children have been extracted. At the time of the most recent update to the psychiatric data on children, 33,363 children had a history of psychiatric illness; 5,500 of these had had at least one contact with mental health services at which a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder had been recorded. Data have also been collected on obstetric complications and a range of infant and childhood morbidities including birth defects, intellectual disability, educational achievement, childhood abuse, criminal offending. The program aims are to: (i determine the frequency and distribution of obstetric complications in women with schizophrenia compared to a non-psychiatric comparison group of mothers; (ii explore the spectrum of outcomes for the children born to women with schizophrenia compared to comparison

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  1. Childhood maltreatment and adulthood poor sleep quality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel A; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake M

    2017-08-01

    Available evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that childhood maltreatment may be associated with a range of sleep disorders. However, these studies have not controlled for potential individual-, familial- and environmental-level confounders. To determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lower sleep quality after adjusting for potential confounders. Data for the present study were obtained from a pre-birth cohort study of 3778 young adults (52.6% female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy follow up at a mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first obstetric clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital in 1981-1983. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at the 21-year follow up. We linked this dataset to agency-recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. A series of separate logistic regression models was used to test whether childhood maltreatment predicted lower sleep quality after adjustment for selected confounders. Substantiated physical abuse significantly predicted lower sleep quality in males. Single and multiple forms of childhood maltreatment, including age of maltreatment and number of substantiations, did not predict lower sleep quality in either gender in both crude and adjusted models. Not being married, living in a residential problem area, cigarette smoking and internalising were significantly associated with lower sleep quality in a fully adjusted model for the male-female combined sample. Childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict young adult poor sleep quality, with the exception of physical abuse for males. While childhood maltreatment has been found to predict a range of mental health problems, childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict sleep problems occurring in young adults. Poor sleep quality was

  2. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Domínguez D

    Full Text Available IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively. In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume and microstructural (diffusivity longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change. Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years, close to diagnosis (<15 years and after diagnosis. Of the two diffusion metrics (mean diffusivity, MD; fractional anisotropy, FA, only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  3. Temporal divergence of percent body fat and body mass index in pre-teenage children: the LOOK longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Abhayaratna, W P

    2014-12-01

    The index of body mass related to stature, (body mass index, BMI, kgm(-2) ), is widely used as a proxy for percent body fat (%BF) in cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. BMI does not distinguish between lean and fat mass and in children, the cross-sectional relationship between %BF and BMI changes with age and sex. While BMI increases linearly with age from age 8 to 12 years in both boys and girls, %BF plateaus off between 10 and 12 years. Repeated measures in children show a systematic decrease in %BF for any given BMI from age 8 to 10 to 12 years. Because changes in BMI misrepresent changes in %BF, its use as a proxy of %BF should be avoided in longitudinal studies in this age group. Body mass index (BMI, kgm(-2) ) is commonly used as an indicator of pediatric adiposity, but with its inability to distinguish changes in lean and fat mass, its use in longitudinal studies of children requires careful consideration. To investigate the suitability of BMI as a surrogate of percent body fat (%BF) in pediatric longitudinal investigations. In this longitudinal study, healthy Australian children (256 girls and 278 boys) were measured at ages 8.0 (standard deviation 0.3), 10.0 and 12.0 years for height, weight and percent body fat (%BF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of change in the means of %BF and BMI were different (P < 0.001). While mean BMI increased linearly from 8 to 12 years of age, %BF did not change between 10 and 12 years. Relationships between %BF and BMI in boys and girls were curvilinear and varied with age (P < 0.001) and gender (P < 0.001); any given BMI corresponding with a lower %BF as a child became older. Considering the divergence of temporal patterns of %BF and BMI between 10 and 12 years of age, employment of BMI as a proxy for %BF in absolute or age and sex standardized forms in pediatric longitudinal investigations is problematical. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association

  4. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... (emphatic frication) and a phonemic Dari contrast (fricative voicing) as stimuli for both groups. We saw an effect of learning on the Dari learners’ identification of the Dari stimuli already after three weeks of language training, which was sustained, but not improved, after six and 20 months. The extents...

  5. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  6. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy′s (RNoN vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226. STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports. This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  7. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  8. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  9. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts’ reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Design Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. Participants 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Setting Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Results Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts’ arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts’ overall views on breast cancer screening. Conclusions Experts’ positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and

  10. Australian nursing and midwifery educators delivering evidence-based education in Tanzania: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Shelley; van den Akker, Jose; Jones, Mark; Dantas, Jaya A R; Duggan, Ravani

    2016-05-01

    Since 2011, Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators have been providing evidence-based continuing education to Tanzanian health professionals. Despite thorough preparation before departure, differences in local resource levels and available facilities have necessitated impromptu adaptation of curriculum content and delivery methods to ensure an effective program was delivered. This study explored the personal, cultural and teaching strategies utilised by Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators in Tanzania and examined if the transferability of education packages was influenced by the educators' cultural competence. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, data was collected from 15 Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators using a demographic survey and in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. The core themes identified from the analysis were Determination to learn, Assessing needs, Communication skills and Greater understanding. These findings are described using the conceptual framework of Campinha-Bacote's The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services. With appropriate levels of cultural competence, international health professionals can be effective at providing ongoing professional development to colleagues in developing country contexts, which may help address difficulties with retention and motivation of staff. It is essential that prior to departure cultural competence training is provided to educators to enhance their teaching capacity and effectiveness in international settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Homelessness Pathways for Australian Single Mothers and Their Children: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Warburton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about family homelessness. Homeless mothers and their children are one of society’s most disadvantaged and at-risk populations. However, very little Australian research exploring mothers’ views on their homelessness experiences exists. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers and four agency staff, this study explored homeless Australian mothers’ pathways into and out of homelessness, their specific needs and the services and supports that were (or would have been most helpful. In this sample of single mothers and their children, early experiences of homelessness and domestic violence contributed most commonly to homelessness episodes. Almost immediate engagement with welfare agencies seemed to be protective against re-experiencing homelessness, however Australian restrictions on length of program involvement and limited housing options for mothers exiting homelessness programs, may place such mothers and their children at high risk of re-entering homelessness. Younger mothers had greater needs and benefited most from personalised one-on-one support that addressed key parenting and life skills. The implications of these findings are considered in relation to service delivery to this vulnerable group and avenues for future research are noted.

  12. Prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology after childbirth - A Croatian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkalović Imširagić, Azijada; Begić, Dražen; Šimičević, Livija; Bajić, Žarko

    2017-02-01

    Following childbirth, a vast number of women experience some degree of mood swings, while some experience symptoms of postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder. Using a biopsychosocial model, the primary aim of this study was to identify predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptomatology following childbirth. This observational, longitudinal study included 372 postpartum women. In order to explore biopsychosocial predictors, participants completed several questionnaires 3-5 days after childbirth: the Impact of Events Scale Revised, the Big Five Inventory, The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, breastfeeding practice and social and demographic factors. Six to nine weeks after childbirth, participants re-completed the questionnaires regarding psychiatric symptomatology and breastfeeding practice. Using a multivariate level of analysis, the predictors that increased the likelihood of postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology at the first study phase were: emergency caesarean section (odds ratio 2.48; confidence interval 1.13-5.43) and neuroticism personality trait (odds ratio 1.12; confidence interval 1.05-1.20). The predictor that increased the likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology at the second study phase was the baseline Impact of Events Scale Revised score (odds ratio 12.55; confidence interval 4.06-38.81). Predictors that decreased the likelihood of symptomatology at the second study phase were life in a nuclear family (odds ratio 0.27; confidence interval 0.09-0.77) and life in a city (odds ratio 0.29; confidence interval 0.09-0.94). Biopsychosocial theory is applicable to postpartum psychiatric disorders. In addition to screening for depression amongst postpartum women, there is a need to include other postpartum psychiatric symptomatology screenings in routine practice. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  14. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  15. Effective Information Technology Governance Mechanisms: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of information technology (IT, as a strategic factor for organizations in achieving their objectives, have raised the concern of organizations in establishing and implementing effective IT governance. This study seeks to empirically examine the individual IT governance mechanisms that influence the overall effectiveness of IT governance. The data were obtained by using web based survey from 176 members of ISACA (Information Systems and Audit Control Association Australia. This study examines the influences of six proposed IT governance mechanisms on the overall effectiveness of IT governance. Using Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression techniques, the current study finds significant positive relationships between the overall level of effective IT governance and the following four IT governance mechanisms: the existence of ethics/ culture of compliance in IT, corporate communication systems, an IT strategy committee, and the involvement of senior management in IT.

  16. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  17. Predictors of Traditional and Cyber-Bullying Victimization: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present article is to compare the individual, peer, family, and school risk and protective factors for both traditional and cyber-bullying victimization. This article draws on data from 673 students from Victoria, Australia, to examine Grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying victimization in Grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Participants completed a modified version of the Communities That Care youth survey. There were few similarities and important differences in the predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying victimization. For Grade 9 cyber-bullying victimization, in the fully adjusted model, having been a victim of traditional bullying in Grade 7 and emotional control in Grade 7 were predictors. For Grade 9 traditional bullying victimization, predictors were Grade 7 traditional bullying victimization, association with antisocial peers, and family conflict, with family attachment and emotional control marginally statistically significant. The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of both traditional and cyber-bullying victimization, as is the implementation of programs to assist students to regulate their emotions effectively. In addition, traditional bullying victimization may be reduced by addressing association with antisocial friends, family conflict, and bonding to families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Ethics Education in the Australian Accounting Curriculum: A Longitudinal Study Examining Barriers and Enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaportas, Steven; Kanapathippillai, Sutharson; Khan, Arifur; Leung, Philomena

    2014-01-01

    The increasing significance of ethics in the accounting profession is evidenced by the seminal events that witnessed the collapse of major corporations (e.g. Enron and WorldCom); regulatory interventions (e.g. Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the USA and the CLERP 9 Act in Australia); and calls for increased ethics interventions in the accounting curriculum.…

  19. Parental Influences on Primary School Children's Mathematics Achievement: Insights from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Colin; MacDonald, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Results from international mathematics tests are focussing the attention of national leaders on the learning of mathematics in the primary years. With this attention, comes the need to explore the factors that contribute to and impede this learning. Though much of this focus is on classroom practices, it is timely to examine the important…

  20. Rurality and mental health: an Australian primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A; Manoff, T; Caffery, J

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, there has been a significant gap in the literature exploring the issues of the mental health needs for rural communities in Australia. In this study we investigated the prevalence of diagnosable psychological disorders in both a rural and a non-rural primary care sample in far north Queensland, Australia. In a previous study we had screened some 300 GP attendees, on a number of sociodemographic variables and measures of psychological wellbeing, from four rural GP practices and one regional GP practice. Of these, 130 participants agreed to further follow up. In this study, 118 of the participants were selected and contacted by phone to complete the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF). The CIDI-SF diagnosis was then analysed in relation to the sociodemographic indicators that had previously been collected. The prevalence of diagnosable mental health disorders in the rural sample was found to be higher in comparison with the regional urban sample. The sociodemographic factors of rural residence, gender, and length of residence were associated with having a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Although there were a number of methodological limitations to this study, there did appear to be a significant relationship between rural location and the likelihood of receiving a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Why this might be the case is not clear, and we consider a number of explanations, but our finding suggests that further research in mental health should consider the issue of rurality as a key feature to be explored.

  1. Globalisation and Chinese Knowledge Diaspora: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Qiu, Fang-fang

    2010-01-01

    In a context of intensified globalisation, knowledge diaspora as "trans-national human capital" have become increasingly valuable to society. With an awareness of a need for more empirical studies especially in Australia, this article concentrates on a group of academics who were working at a major university in Australia and came…

  2. Educational attainment: A genome wide association study in 9538 Australians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.W.; Medland, S.E.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Lee, S.H.; Nyholt, D.R.; Madden, P.A.F.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Wright, M.J.; Martin, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Correlations between Educational Attainment (EA) and measures of cognitive performance are as high as 0.8. This makes EA an attractive alternative phenotype for studies wishing to map genes affecting cognition due to the ease of collecting EA data compared to other cognitive phenotypes

  3. Students from Australian Universities Studying Abroad: A Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Australia is one of many countries to encourage its students to study abroad and hence develop a global perspective. Traditionally, students who have pursued this option represented a relatively privileged and demographically narrow group. More recently, governments and other agencies have been offering funding support with the aim of…

  4. Drug Taking Beliefs of Australian Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiec, Grace; Owens, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    In this study adolescents offered their insights and perspectives of factors associated with adolescent illicit drug taking intentions. The factors explored were identified using a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and criminological theories, and these formed the framework for data analysis. Interviews…

  5. The Australian Work Exposures Study: prevalence of occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in occupational settings. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a lung carcinogen, but data on number of workers exposed to different levels of diesel exhaust are not available in Australia. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of Australian males and females (18-65 years old) in current paid employment was undertaken. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Semi-quantitative occupational exposure levels to diesel exhaust were assigned using programmed decision rules and numbers of workers exposed in Australia in 2011 were estimated. We defined substantial exposure as exposed at a medium or high level, for at least 5h per week. Substantial occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was experienced by 13.4% of the respondents in their current job. Exposure prevalence varied across states, ranging from 6.4% in the Australian Capital Territory to 17.0% in Western Australia. Exposures occurred mainly in the agricultural, mining, transport and construction industries, and among mechanics. Men (20.4%) were more often exposed than women (4.7%). Extrapolation to the total working population indicated that 13.8% (95% confidence interval 10.0-20.4) of the 2011 Australian workforce were estimated to be substantially exposed to diesel exhaust, and 1.8% of the workers were estimated to experience high levels of exposures in their current job. About 1.2 million Australian workers were estimated to have been exposed to diesel exhaust in their workplace in 2011. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational diesel exhaust exposure in Australia and will enable estimation of the number of lung cancers attributable to diesel exhaust exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  6. Lessons learned from measuring safety culture: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suellen; Chiarella, Mary; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-10-01

    adverse events in maternity care are relatively common but often avoidable. International patient safety strategies advocate measuring safety culture as a strategy to improve patient safety. Evidence suggests it is necessary to fully understand the safety culture of an organisation to make improvements to patient safety. this paper reports a case study examining the safety culture in one maternity service in Australia and considers the benefits of using surveys and interviews to understand safety culture as an approach to identify possible strategies to improve patient safety in this setting. the study took place in one maternity service in two public hospitals in NSW, Australia. Concurrently, both hospitals were undergoing an organisational restructure which was part of a major health reform agenda. The priorities of the reform included improving the quality of care and patient safety; and, creating a more efficient health system by reducing administration inefficiencies and duplication. a descriptive case study using three approaches: the safety culture was identified to warrant improvement across all six safety culture domains. There was reduced infrastructure and capacity to support incident management activities required to improve safety, which was influenced by instability from the organisational restructure. There was a perceived lack of leadership at all levels to drive safety and quality and improving the safety culture was neither a key priority nor was it valued by the organisation. the safety culture was complex as was undertaking this study. We were unable to achieve a desired 60% response rate highlighting the limitations of using safety culture surveys in isolation as a strategy to improve safety culture. Qualitative interviews provided greater insight into the factors influencing the safety culture. The findings of this study provide evidence of the benefits of including qualitative methods with quantitative surveys when examining safety culture

  7. Parent and Child Cigarette Use: A Longitudinal, Multigenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using longitudinal data from the multigenerational Youth Development Study (YDS), this article documents how parents’ long-term smoking trajectories are associated with adolescent children’s likelihood of smoking. Prospective data from the parents (from age 14–38 years) enable unique comparisons of the parents’ and children’s smoking behavior, as well as that of siblings. METHODS: Smoking trajectories are constructed using latent class analysis for the original YDS cohort (n = 1010). Multigenerational longitudinal data from 214 parents and 314 offspring ages 11 years and older are then analyzed by using logistic regression with cluster-corrected SEs. RESULTS: Four latent smoking trajectories emerged among the original cohort: stable nonsmokers (54%), early-onset light smokers who quit/reduce (16%), late-onset persistent smokers (14%), and early-onset persistent heavy smokers (16%). Although 8% of children of stable nonsmokers smoked in the last year, the other groups’ children had much higher percentages, ranging from 23% to 29%. Multivariate logistic regression models confirm that these significant differences were robust to the inclusion of myriad child- and parent-level measures (for which child age and grade point average [GPA] are significant predictors). Older sibling smoking, however, mediated the link between parental heavy smoking and child smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Even in an era of declining rates of teenage cigarette use in the United States, children of current and former smokers face an elevated risk of smoking. Prevention efforts to weaken intergenerational associations should consider parents’ long-term cigarette use, as well as the smoking behavior of older siblings in the household. PMID:23918887

  8. Association between diet quality, dietary patterns and cardiometabolic health in Australian adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2018-02-12

    Diet quality indices score dietary intakes against recommendations, whereas dietary patterns consider the pattern and combination of dietary intakes. Studies evaluating both methodologies in relation to cardiometabolic health in a nationally representative sample are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between diet quality, dietary patterns and markers of cardiometabolic health in Australian adults. Dietary data, using two 24-h dietary recalls, were collected from adults in the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013 (n = 2121; 46.4 (SE 0.48) years). Diet quality was estimated using the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI). Dietary patterns (DPs), derived using reduced rank regression, were estimated using fiber density, SFA: PUFA and total sugars intake as intermediate markers. Multi-variable adjusted linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between diet quality and DPs and blood biomarkers, body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and an overall cardiometabolic risk score. DGI was associated with lower glucose (coef - 0.009, SE 0.004; P-trend = 0.033), body mass index (coef - 0.017, SE 0.007; P-trend = 0.019) and waist circumference (coef - 0.014, SE 0.005; P-trend = 0.008). Two dietary patterns were derived: dietary pattern-1 was characterized by higher intakes of pome fruit and wholegrain bread, while dietary pattern-2 was characterized by higher intakes of added sugars and tropical fruit. Dietary pattern-1 was associated with lower body mass index (coef - 0.028, SE 0.007; P-trendDietary pattern-2 was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol (coef - 0.026, SE 0.012; P-trend = 0.028). There was a trend towards lower diastolic blood pressure. No associations with other markers were observed. Better diet quality and healthier dietary patterns were primarily associated with favorable anthropometric markers of cardiometabolic health. Findings

  9. The predictive role of support in the birth experience: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Valgerdur Lisa; Gamble, Jennifer; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2017-12-01

    Several risk factors for negative birth experience have been identified, but little is known regarding the influence of social and midwifery support on the birth experience over time. The aim of this study was to describe women's birth experience up to two years after birth and to detect the predictive role of satisfaction with social and midwifery support in the birth experience. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with a convenience sample of pregnant women from 26 community health care centres. Data was gathered using questionnaires at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy (T1, n=1111), at five to six months (T2, n=765), and at 18-24 months after birth (T3, n=657). Data about sociodemographic factors, reproductive history, birth outcomes, social and midwifery support, depressive symptoms, and birth experience were collected. The predictive role of midwifery support in the birth experience was examined using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of negative birth experience was 5% at T2 and 5.7% at T3. Women who were not satisfied with midwifery support during pregnancy and birth were more likely to have negative birth experience at T2 than women who were satisfied with midwifery support. Operative birth, perception of prolonged birth and being a student predicted negative birth experience at both T2 and T3. Perception of negative birth experience was relatively consistent during the study period and the role of support from midwives during pregnancy and birth had a significant impact on women's perception of birth experience. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship Contracting: The South Australian Experience - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has long been accusedof poor performance. The confrontational attitudeof its members and the resultant adversarial atmosphere has been identified as a major factor responsible for this poor performance. A cultural change is required to remove these barriers and to promote optimum project outcomes. Relationship contracting is promoted as a way to support the shift from the adversarial culture to the co-operative and collaborative culture within the industry and the project team.The Adelaide Convention Centre Extensions project was the first in South Australia to be procure und r the principles of relationship contract1ng. Usmg the case study approach, this paper reviews the form of relationship contracting used in this milestone project. The paper documents the lessons learned from this project and makes recommendations that can lead to improvements for future projects.

  11. Adherence to MRI protocol consensus guidelines in multiple sclerosis: an Australian multi-centre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curley, Michael; Josey, Lawrence; Lucas, Robyn; Dear, Keith; Taylor, Bruce V.; Coulthard, Alan; Ausimmune Investigator Group

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease that causes significant morbidity within a young demographic. Diagnostic guidelines for MS have evolved, and imaging has played an increasingly important role in diagnosis over the last two decades. For imaging to contribute to diagnosis in a meaningful way, it must be reproducible. Consensus guidelines for MRI in MS exist to define correct sequence type and imaging technique, but it is not clear to what extent they are followed. This study reviewed MRI studies performed on Australian individuals presenting with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD) for adherence to published guidelines and discussed practical implementation of MS guidelines in light of recent updates. The Ausimmune study was a prospective case control study of Australian participants presenting with FCD from 2003 to 2006. Baseline cranial and spinal cord MRI studies of 226 case participants from four separate Australian regions were reviewed. MRI sequences were classified according to anatomical location, slice plane, tissue weighting and use of gadolinium-containing contrast media. Results were compared with the 2003 Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centres MRI protocol for the diagnosis of MS. The composition of core cranial MRI sequences performed varied across the 226 scans. Of the studies, 91% included sagittal fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Cranial axial T2-weighted, axial FLAIR and axial proton density-weighted sequences were performed in 88%, 60% and 16% (respectively) of scans. Only 25% of the studies included a T1-weighted contrast-enhanced sequence. Concordance with the guidelines in all sequences was very low (2). Only a small number of MRI investigations performed included all of the sequences stipulated by consensus guidelines. This is likely due to poor awareness in the imaging community of the guidelines and the rationale behind certain sequences. Radiologists with a sub

  12. Detailed analysis of radon flux studies at Australian uranium projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, Gavin M.

    2005-01-01

    The release of radon gas and radon progeny from uranium projects is a major issue during operation as well as for the design of rehabilitation works. In Australia, there have been a number of premining radon flux studies as part of the environmental investigation and potential development of recent uranium projects. There is also an increasing amount of operational data on radon fluxes and loads from various aspects of projects, such as tailings, waste rock and mills. Thus there exists much useful measured data which can be used to assess the design radon flux and load targets for rehabilitation. The main projects for which radon data exists includes Ranger, Olympic Dam, Beverley, Honeymoon, Jabiluka, Yeelirrie, Lake Way, Koongarra, Moline, Coronation Hill, Rockhole, Nabarlek, Rum Jungle, Port Pirie and Ben Lomond. To date, much of this data has not been systematically evaluated. The need to compile and assess this data is twofold. Firstly, to assess the loads released from uranium production as an input into life-cycle analyses of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as those undertaken by UNSCEAR and industry groups. Secondly, there is a need to set suitable design standards for radon flux for the rehabilitation of former and current uranium projects. This paper will present such a detailed compilation of radon fluxes and loads which can then be used as the basis for both life-cycle analyses as well as setting appropriate site-specific rehabilitation criteria for radon. The implications for former and current projects is then discussed as well as future data needs. Ultimately, there is a critical need for thorough baseline surveys prior to mining to ensure accurate assessments of changes to radon fluxes and loads. The data and analysis presented is considered applicable to all uranium projects in Australia, as well as being a useful model for considering such issues internationally

  13. Australian snowboard injury data base study. A four-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, C; Giddings, P; Robinson, M

    1993-01-01

    Information on the rate and spectrum of snowboarding injuries is limited. This 4-year prospective study at 3 major Australian ski resorts assesses incidence and patterns of snowboarding injuries, particularly in relation to skill level and footwear. Ski injury data were collected for the same period. In a predominantly male study population (men:women, 3:1), 276 snowboarding injuries were reported; 58% occurred in novices. Fifty-seven percent of injuries were in the lower limbs, 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries were sprains (53%), fractures (24%), and contusions (12%). Comparing skiers' versus snowboarders' injuries, snowboarders had 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly to the upper limbs (21% versus 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23% versus 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23% versus 6% of lower limb injuries). Ankle injuries were more common with soft-shell boots, worn most by intermediate and advanced riders. Knee injuries and distal tibial fractures were more common with hard-shell boots, worn most by novices. Overall, novices had more upper limb fractures and knee injuries; intermediate and advanced riders had more ankle injuries. Falls were the principal mode of injury. To prevent injury, beginners should use "hybrid" or soft-shell boots and take lessons.

  14. The relationship of reports of aches and joint pains to the menopausal transition: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoeke, C E; Cicuttini, F M; Guthrie, J R; Dennerstein, L

    2008-02-01

    OBJECTIVES Part I: To determine factors associated with reported joint symptoms across the menopausal transition. Part II: To investigate the relationship between symptom reporting and radiological arthritis in postmenopausal women. DESIGN Part I: The Melbourne Women's Mid-life Health Project, commenced in 1991, is a population-based prospective study of 438 Australian-born women, aged 45-55 years and menstruating at baseline; they were interviewed annually over 8 years. The retention rate was 88% (n = 387). Part II: After 12 years of follow-up, 257 (57%) women returned for assessment and 224 agreed to undergo X-rays of their hands and knees. METHODS Part I: Annual fasting blood collection, physical measurements, and interviews including questions about bothersome aches or stiff joints in the previous 2 weeks. A score for this symptom was calculated from the product of the severity and frequency data. These data were analyzed using random-effects time-series regression models. Part II: X-rays were scored for evidence of osteoarthritis using a validated scale, by two investigators who were blinded to questionnaire results. RESULTS Part I: 'Aches and stiff joints' were the most commonly reported symptom and reporting increased over time in the longitudinal study. Variables significantly associated with reporting bothersome aches and stiff joints were high body mass index (BMI) (p Part II: The relationship between radiological osteoarthritis and symptom reports approached statistical significance (p = 0.06). Knee osteoarthritis was significantly associated with symptom reports (p = 0.008) but not hand osteoarthritis (p = 0.2). Menopausal status, BMI, employment status and depressed mood were all associated with the experience of bothersome aches and stiff joints. Aches and stiff joints, common in postmenopausal women, are not necessarily indicative of radiological osteoarthritis.

  15. Longitudinal weight gain in women identified with polycystic ovary syndrome: results of an observational study in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E; Paul, Eldho; Moran, Lisa J; Loxton, Deborah; Jolley, Damien; Lombard, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-18% of women. The natural history of weight gain in women with PCOS has not been well described. Here we aimed to examine longitudinal weight gain in women with and without PCOS and to assess the association between obesity and PCOS prevalence. The observational study was set in the general community. Participants were women randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme (Medicare) database. Mailed survey data were collected by the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Data from respondents to survey 4, aged 28-33 years (2006, n = 9,145) were analyzed. The main outcome measures were PCOS prevalence and body mass index (BMI). Self-reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% CI: 5.3%-6.4%). Women reporting PCOS had higher weight, mean BMI [2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 1.9-3.1)], and greater 10-year weight gain [2.6 kg (95% CI: 1.2-4.0)]. BMI was the strongest correlate of PCOS status with every BMI increment increasing the risk of reporting PCOS by 9.2% (95% CI: 6%-12%). This community based observational study with longitudinal reporting of weight shows that weight, BMI, and 10-year weight gain were higher in PCOS. We report the novel finding that obesity and greater weight gain are significantly associated with PCOS status. Considering the prevalence, major health and economic burden of PCOS, the increasing weight gain in young women, and established benefits of weight loss, these results have major public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  16. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical

  17. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  18. Studies of the longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Goals for our first-year period are as follows: To study the evolution of a small perturbation in the current pulse (introduced via the grid voltage on the electron gun) when the beam propagates through our 5-m long periodic solenoid channel. Specifically, to see if the perturbation is reflected from the rear end of the pulse. So far these objectives have been met without any delays. We were able to launch different perturbations on the beam resulting in either a slow space-charge wave or a fast wave or both waves. The relative strength of each wave was found to depend on the electron emission temperature of the cathode. The propagation of these waves on an initially rectangular longitudinal beam profile was measured with fast current monitors and the kinetic energy was measured with sensitive energy analyzers at various positions along the 5-m long solenoidal focusing channel. We have also begun to study the behavior of the waves when they reach the respective edge of the beam. But this work is still of a preliminary nature, and we need to refine the beam conditions and measurements in future studies to reach any firm conclusions. Preparations for the resistive-wall instability experiment are in progress

  19. A longitudinal study of language learners’ images about Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Larisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.

  20. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  1. Clustering of unhealthy behaviors in the aerobics center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Participants were 13,621 adults (aged 20-84) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Four health behaviors were observed (diet, fitness, smoking, and drinking). Baseline characteristics of the study population and bivariate relations between pairs of the health behaviors were evaluated separately for those with and without chronic disease using cross-tabulation and a chi-square test. The odds of partaking in unhealthy behaviors were also calculated. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assess clustering. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors and mortality. The four health behaviors were related to each other. LCA results suggested that two classes existed. Participants in class 1 had a higher probability of partaking in each of the four unhealthy behaviors than participants in class 2. No differences in health behavior clustering were found between participants with and without chronic disease. Mortality risk increased relative to the number of unhealthy behaviors participants engaged in. Unhealthy behaviors cluster together irrespective of chronic disease status. Such findings suggest that multi-behavioral intervention strategies can be similar in those with and without chronic disease.

  2. Australian student nurse's knowledge of and attitudes toward primary health care: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sandra; Kwok, Cannas; Anderson, Judith; Hatcher, Deborah; Laver, Sharon; Dickson, Cathy; Stewart, Lyn

    2018-01-01

    Nurses have a pivotal role in changing the focus of the health system toward a primary health care approach, yet little is known about the effectiveness of nursing students' educational preparation for this role. The aim of the study was to investigate undergraduate Australian nursing students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the primary health care approach. A cross-sectional, descriptive research design was applied. Two Australian universities, one with a rural base and one in the metropolitan area of Sydney, were involved. Both universities offer undergraduate and postgraduate nursing courses on multiple campuses. A convenience sample of 286 undergraduate nursing students, each of whom had completed a unit of study on PHC. All provided consent to participate in the study. Data was collected using the Primary Health Care Questionnaire via online survey platform SurveyMonkey for a period of three weeks in June 2015. Total knowledge scores ranged from 19.68 to 95.78 with the mean knowledge score being 69.19. Total attitude scores ranged from 33.12 to 93.88 with a mean score of 70.45. Comparison of knowledge scores showed mean scores of students born in Australia were significantly higher than those of students who were born overseas (p=0.01), and mean scores of students enrolled in the metropolitan university were also significantly higher than mean scores of students' enrolled in the rural university (p=0.002). In terms of attitudes scores, mean scores of Australian-born students were significantly higher than those of students born overseas (p=0.001), and older students' mean attitude scores were shown to be significantly higher than younger students' (pattitudes toward primary health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A longitudinal study of medication exposure and xerostomia among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray Thomson, W; Chalmers, Jane M; John Spencer, A; Slade, Gary D; Carter, Knute D

    2006-12-01

    To describe the incidence of xerostomia among a population of older people over a 6-year period, with particular attention to medications as risk factors. Understanding the natural history of xerostomia requires longitudinal epidemiological research, but only one study has examined changes in xerostomia over time. While medication is a recognised risk factor for dry mouth, the role of particular medication categories continues to be controversial. Older South Australians (aged 60+) underwent an interview and dental examination at baseline, and these assessments were repeated 2, 5 and 11 years afterward. Medication data were collected at baseline, 5 and 11 years. Xerostomia data were collected at 5 and 11 years using the Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and a standard question. Of the 1205 dentate participants assessed at baseline, 669 remained after 5 years, and 246 were assessed at 11 years. Medication prevalence increased over the observation period, such that 94.8% of the cohort were taking at least one medication by 11 years. The prevalence of xerostomia increased from 21.4% to 24.8% between 5 and 11 years (p > 0.05), and the mean XI score increased from 20.0 (SD, 6.7) to 21.5 (SD, 7.9; p xerostomia, while 11.4% were remitted cases; 10.1% were cases at both 5 and 11 years. After controlling for gender and 'baseline' xerostomia severity (represented by the XI score at 5 years), participants who commenced taking daily aspirin after 5 years had over four times the odds of becoming incident cases, while those who commenced taking a diuretic after 5 years had nearly six times the odds of doing so. While the overall prevalence of xerostomia increased during the observation period, there was considerable instability, with one-quarter of the cohort changing their status. Medication exposure was strongly associated with the incidence of the condition, with recent exposure to diuretics or daily aspirin strongly predicting it.

  4. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.

  5. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  6. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  7. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  8. Longitudinal study of prognostic factors in established periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtei, E E; Dunford, R; Hausmann, E; Grossi, S G; Powell, J; Cummins, D; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1997-02-01

    Numerous indicators for disease progression have been described in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to examine, longitudinally, a large battery of clinical, microbiological, and immunological indicators, to try to determine whether the presence of one or a combination of these parameters at baseline, would correlate positively with increased attachment and or bone loss (true prognostic factors). Following initial screening, 79 patients with established periodontitis were monitored longitudinally for one year. Whole mouth clinical measurements, plaque gingival and calculus indices, together with pocket depth and attachment level measurements, were repeated every three months. Full mouth radiographic survey, performed at baseline and 12 months, served to determine changes in crestal bone height using an image enhancement technique. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and every 3 months. Immunofluorescence assays were performed for the a battery of target microorganisms. Serum and GCF samples for IgG subclasses analysis were obtained at each visit and assayed using ELISA techniques. Likewise blood, samples were also drawn at each visit for a quantitative analysis of serum cotinine level. The overall mean attachment loss (AL) and bone loss (BL) were almost identical (0.159 mm and 0.164 mm, respectively). Individual patients variation was large (-0.733 to +1.004 mm). An overall 6.89% of sites were active; individual patients' means ranged from 0-28.9%. Mean pocket depth (PD) showed minimal change over the study period (-0.033 mm) thus suggesting that most if not all the AL was accompained by concomitant gingival recession. Smokers exhibited greater AL and radiographic BL compared to non-smokers. Likewise, patients' cotinine level showed direct correlation with outcomes of progressive periodontal breakdown. Past severity of periodontal involvement, as reflected in the patients baseline PD, AL and crestal bone height, showed good correlation

  9. Job Stressors and Employment Precarity as Risks for Thoughts About Suicide: An Australian Study Using the Ten to Men Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Spittal, Matthew J; Pirkis, Jane; Currier, Dianne

    2018-04-04

    Past research suggests that adverse experiences at work (such as job stressors and precarious employment) are associated with thoughts about suicide, especially among males. A limitation of this research is that it is largely cross-sectional. Thus, it is unknown whether job stressors are a prior cause of thoughts about suicide. This study examined the baseline association between adverse experiences at work and thoughts about suicide at follow-up in a large nationally representative cohort of employed men. We used data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). The outcome was thoughts about suicide in the prior 12 months (reported in wave 2) and the key exposure variables were: high job demands, low job control, job insecurity, perceived unfairness of pay, occupational skill level, and employment arrangement (all reported in wave 1). We adjusted for possible confounders, including mental health and suicidal thoughts (wave 1). In a sample of 8379 and after adjustment, job insecurity (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.61, P = 0.001), low job control (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.33, P = 0.004), and employment on a casual or on a fixed term basis (OR 1.30, 95% 1.01-1.67, P = 0.041) were associated with a greater odds of thoughts about suicide at follow up. Results for all by job control were maintained after removing those who reported thoughts of suicide at baseline. This study suggests that experiences at work may be risk factors for thoughts about suicide among employed men. More research is needed to unpack the complex associations between, employment, and experiences of suicide.

  10. Exploring Australian women's level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women's knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women's knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents' nutrition knowledge score (Ppregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R (2)) of the variance found between respondents' knowledge scores. Australian pregnant women's knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure improvement in their nutrition knowledge. It is essential that women receive support to achieve optimal and

  11. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to formaldehyde, to identify the main circumstances of exposure and to describe the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. The analysis used data from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey, which investigated the current prevalence and exposure circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including formaldehyde, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. Of the 4993 included respondents, 124 (2.5%) were identified as probably being exposed to formaldehyde in the course of their work [extrapolated to 2.6% of the Australian working population-265 000 (95% confidence interval 221 000-316 000) workers]. Most (87.1%) were male. About half worked in technical and trades occupations. In terms of industry, about half worked in the construction industry. The main circumstances of exposure were working with particle board or plywood typically through carpentry work, building maintenance, or sanding prior to painting; with the more common of other exposures circumstances being firefighters involved in fighting fires, fire overhaul, and clean-up or back-burning; and health workers using formaldehyde when sterilizing equipment or in a pathology laboratory setting. The use of control measures was inconsistent. Workers are exposed to formaldehyde in many different occupational circumstances. Information on the exposure circumstances can be used to support decisions on appropriate priorities for intervention and control of occupational exposure to formaldehyde, and estimates of burden of cancer arising from occupational exposure to formaldehyde

  12. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  13. Indicadores precoces da dislexia de desenvolvimento: um estudo longitudinal || Early indicators of dyslexia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dislexia do desenvolvimento é frequentemente diagnosticada quando os problemas na aprendizagem da leitura já afetaram negativamente outras áreas académicas e até o bem-estar emocional. A pesquisa internacional aponta para a existência de alguns preditores desta perturbação da aprendizagem, permitindo uma intervenção atempada e preventiva. No entanto, as diferenças relativas ao código ortográfico do Português Europeu não nos permitem tirar ilações de estudos realizados noutros contextos linguísticos. Com este problema em mente, desenvolvemos um estudo longitudinal que pretende destacar os preditores da dislexia em crianças portuguesas. A investigação seguiu um plano longitudinal ao longo de três anos e os resultados obtidos junto de uma amostra de 200 crianças permitem identificar a existência de poder preditivo em duas variáveis: no conhecimento que a criança tem do nome das letras e no seu desempenho em tarefas de fluência verbal, mostrando a influência que os fatores relativos às dificuldades na aquisição do princípio alfabético e no acesso ao léxico terão na manifestação posterior de problemas na aquisição da leitura.

  14. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  15. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  16. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  17. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  18. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Janssen, Nikki; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-07-01

    Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory, attention, and executive functioning. This longitudinal study is the first to investigate intellectual development in a group of individuals with Noonan syndrome. Sixteen patients with Noonan syndrome underwent intelligence assessment both in childhood and in adulthood, using Wechsler's intelligence scales. IQ scores and Wechsler standard scores achieved in childhood and adulthood were compared. Subsequently, verbal and performance IQ in childhood were used as predictors for adult IQ and index scores. Compared with childhood scores, adult full-scale IQ and performance IQ significantly increased. Adult performance IQ was higher than verbal IQ. Childhood performance IQ and verbal IQ together predicted all adult IQ and index scores, except for the processing speed index. Childhood IQ was a significant predictor of adult intelligence in patients with Noonan syndrome. Performance IQ advanced to a normal level in adulthood, while verbal IQ did not develop proportionately, resulting in a discrepancy between adult performance IQ and verbal IQ. This finding could suggest a delay in the development of executive functioning in patients with Noonan syndrome, which seems to be outgrown in adulthood.

  19. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

  20. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  1. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  2. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  3. Orotracheal intubation and temporomandibular disorder: a longitudinal controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Branco Battistella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in elective surgery patients who underwent orotracheal intubation. METHODS: This was a longitudinal controlled study with two groups. The study group included patients who underwent orotracheal intubation and a control group. We used the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire to assess the temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms one-day postoperatively (T1, and the patients' baseline status prior to surgery (T0 was also recorded. The same questionnaire was used after three months (T2. The mouth opening amplitude was measured at T1 and T2. We considered a pvalue of less than 0.05 to be significant. RESULTS: We included 71 patients, with 38 in the study group and 33 in the control. There was no significant difference between the groups in age (study group: 66.0 [52.5-72.0]; control group: 54.0 [47.0-68.0]; p = 0.117 or in their belonging to the female gender (study group: 57.9%; control group: 63.6%; p = 0.621. At T1, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the incidence of mouth opening limitation (study group: 23.7% vs. control group: 18.2%;p = 0.570 or in the mouth opening amplitude (study group: 45.0 [40.0-47.0] vs. control group: 46.0 [40.0-51.0];p = 0.278. At T2 we obtained similar findings. There was no significant difference in the affirmative response to all the individual questions in the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder of muscular origin was not different between the groups.

  4. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  5. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  6. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bookari K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results: More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65% were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000 of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that

  7. Barriers to a healthy lifestyle post gestational-diabetes: An Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Tehzeeb; Lithander, Fiona E; Banwell, Cathy; Young, Rosemary; Boisseau, Lynelle; Ingle, Martha; Nolan, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Overseas-born-women from certain ethnicities are at high risk of type-2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. This study explored the barriers and facilitators to long-term healthy lifestyle recommendations among Australian-born and overseas-born-women who attended health promotion sessions at a tertiary Australian Hospital for gestational diabetes 3-4 years previously. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed to identify major themes and the differing experiences of both groups of women. Women in both groups faced many barriers to improve post-gestational-diabetes lifestyle. Women from both groups recalled healthy lifestyle recommendations for during pregnancy they received at the service, but had difficulty recalling the long-term lifestyle recommendations. Timing of the health information, non-reiteration of lifestyle recommendations, uncoordinated and fragmented health system support after childbirth were barriers faced by all women. Additional barriers for overseas-born women included the cultural competence of the health education material, their cultural preferences for food and physical activities and unsupportive family and partner. Both groups had excellent compliance with the first annual postnatal oral-glucose-tolerance-test. This was attributed to the personal motivation and health professional reminder. Women only reverted to the healthy lifestyles postnatally for weight loss. A better understanding of the barriers to healthy lifestyle by women in their everyday lives will assist in the development of culturally appropriate health promotion guidelines and strategies. Constant un-fragmented postnatal engagement by the specialised diabetes clinics and primary health care services is crucial to sustain the healthy lifestyle in the long-term for women with previous gestational-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  8. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2011-12-09

    Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge

  9. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation

  10. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  12. Mild traumatic brain injury and fatigue: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Joan; Heitger, Marcus; Leathem, Janet; Anderson, Tim; Jones, Richard; Flett, Ross

    2010-01-01

    To examine fatigue prevalence, severity, predictors and co-variates over 6 months post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Longitudinal prospective study including 263 adults with MTBI. Participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey-Version 2 (SF-36v2). Complete data were available for 159 participants. Key measures; prevalence--RPSQ Item 6: severity--FSS. The effect of time on fatigue prevalence and severity was examined using ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis identified statistically significant covariates. Post-MTBI fatigue prevalence was 68%, 38% and 34% at 1 week, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a strong effect for time over the first 3 months and moderate-to-high correlations between fatigue prevalence and severity. Early fatigue strongly predicted later fatigue; depression, but not anxiety was a predictor. Fatigue was seen as laziness by family or friends in 30% of cases. Post-MTBI fatigue is a persistent post-concussion symptom, exacerbated by depression but not anxiety. It diminishes in the first 3 months and then becomes relatively stable, suggesting the optimum intervention placement is at 3 months or more post-MTBI.

  13. Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison

    2007-10-01

    The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.

  14. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE's are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. A longitudinal study with a 6 months' time interval ( N  =   103). At T1 demographics, workplace violence and potentially traumatic events in the past year, mental health, personality, handling of rules, coping and social organizational stressors were assessed. Confrontations with aggression were also examined at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only problems with superiors independently predicted repeated verbal aggression and that only the (absence of the) ability to compromise very easily predicted repeatedly being on guard and repeatedly confronted with any form of aggression. Due to very low prevalences, we could not examine predictors of repeated confrontations with physical aggression ( N  =   5) and serious threat ( N  =   7). A large majority reported that in most workplace violence cases they could prevent further escalations. About 2% reported a potentially traumatic event in the year before T1 that was WPV related and perceived as very stressful.

  15. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

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    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  16. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  17. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  18. Qonsequences of Cultural and Behavioral Difference of Tourist: Study of Australian and Indonesian Tourist Who Visit Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Rinuastuti, Baiq Handayani

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying behavior differences of Australian tourists and domestic tourists who visit Lombok island, and determining as well as analyzing the Hofstede cultural variables (power distance, individualistic-collectivist, uncertainty avoidance, masculine-feminine, long-term orientation) that may explain the differences in behavioral intention (to have activities, to interact, and to transact) of Australian and domestic tourists. This study was conducted on 160 Australian and d...

  19. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J F; van der Does, A J Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults. Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004-2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control. Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55-2.12; P testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80; P psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression. © Copyright 2011

  1. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salines Georges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  2. A comparative study of the economic and social functioning of Vietnamese-Australians with low English proficiency living with psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Yvonne; Sevar, Katherine; Tran, Nga; Mancuso, Serafino G; Chopra, Prem; Castle, David

    2015-06-01

    Because national surveys of people living with psychotic disorders tend to exclude people with low English proficiency (LEP), little is known of their economic and social functioning. Culturally influenced explanatory models may result in delayed presentation and poorer functioning. The study aimed to compare the functioning of LEP Vietnamese-Australian and Australian-born patients with psychosis and to investigate the Vietnamese-Australians' pathways to care. In all, 19 LEP Vietnamese-Australians, previously excluded from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), were matched with 15 Australian-born controls, and interviewed by a Vietnamese bilingual mental health professional using the SHIP Interview Schedule. The Vietnamese-Australian patients were significantly more likely to live with family, rate spirituality as important and participate in community rehabilitation programs. Their work, social and independent functioning, was better than the controls. The groups did not differ in mental health services received and satisfaction with services. Although half of Vietnamese-Australians attributed mental illness to supernatural, among other causes, none had consulted traditional healers. Despite LEP, Vietnamese-Australians with psychosis showed comparable or better functioning than Australian-born patients. Further investigation is recommended into LEP patients' clinical and social recovery and the role of language communities' support networks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  4. Do mathematics textbooks cultivate shallow teaching? Applying the TIMSS Video Study criteria to Australian eighth-grade mathematics textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jill; Stacey, Kaye

    2008-04-01

    Australian eighth-grade mathematics lessons were shown by the 1999 TIMSS Video Study to use a high proportion of problems of low procedural complexity, with considerable repetition, and an absence of deductive reasoning. Using definitions from the Video Study, this study re-investigated this `shallow teaching syndrome' by examining the problems on three topics in nine eighth-grade textbooks from four Australian states for procedural complexity, type of solving processes, degree of repetition, proportion of `application' problems and proportion of problems requiring deductive reasoning. Overall, there was broad similarity between the characteristics of problems in the textbooks and in the Australian Video Study lessons. There were, however, considerable differences between textbooks and between topics within textbooks. In some books, including the best-selling textbooks in several states, the balance is too far towards repetitive problems of low procedural complexity.

  5. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  6. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  7. Changes in taste preference after colorectal surgery: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Sophie; Hiotis, Perryhan; Pengelly, Steven; Hughes, Georgina; Halford, Jason; Christiansen, Paul; Lewis, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition is a key component of surgical enhanced recovery programmes. However, alterations in food preferences are often reported as reasons for patients not eating in the early postoperative period. We hypothesised that taste preferences are altered in the early postoperative period and this dysgeusia affects patients' food choices during this critical time. This is a longitudinal study looking at taste preferences of patients recovering from surgery. Patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited. Using visual analogue scales participants completed a questionnaire, taste tests and preference scoring of food images for the 6 groups of taste (bitter, salty, savoury, sour, spicy and sweet) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1-3. Patients were also offered snacks postoperatively, which represented foods from the six groups and consumption was measured. Differences from baseline were assessed using the Friedman's and Wilcoxon tests. 31 patients were studied. In the immediate postoperative period participants reported deterioration in their sense of taste (p ≤ 0.001), increased nausea (p palatability for salty taste increased (p = 0.001) following surgery. The highest rated images were for savoury food with only the ratings for salty food increasing after surgery (p foods in the postoperative period. Bitter, sour and spicy foods were the least frequently consumed. This is the first study to investigate postsurgical patients' food preferences. A consistent change in all the individual tastes with the exception of salty in the postoperative period was observed. The most desirable tastes were for savoury and sweet, reflecting patients' preoperative preferences. An improved understanding of taste may improve the resumption of eating after colonic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

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    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  9. High rates of albuminuria but not of low eGFR in Urban Indigenous Australians: the DRUID Study

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    Zimmet Paul Z

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have an incidence of end stage kidney disease 8-10 times higher than non-Indigenous Australians. The majority of research studies concerning Indigenous Australians have been performed in rural or remote regions, whilst the majority of Indigenous Australians actually live in urban settings. We studied prevalence and factors associated with markers of kidney disease in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort, and compared results with those for the general Australian population. Methods 860 Indigenous adult participants of the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID Study were assessed for albuminuria (urine albumin-creatinine ratio≥2.5 mg/mmol males, ≥3.5 mg/mmol females and low eGFR (estimated glomular filtration rate 2. Associations between risk factors and kidney disease markers were explored. Comparison was made with the AusDiab cohort (n = 8,936 aged 25-64 years, representative of the general Australian adult population. Results A high prevalence of albuminuria (14.8% was found in DRUID, whilst prevalence of low eGFR was 2.4%. Older age, higher HbA1c, hypertension, higher C-reactive protein and current smoking were independently associated with albuminuria on multiple regression. Low eGFR was independently associated with older age, hypertension, albuminuria and higher triglycerides. Compared to AusDiab participants, DRUID participants had a 3-fold higher adjusted risk of albuminuria but not of low eGFR. Conclusions Given the significant excess of ESKD observed in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous Australians, these findings could suggest either: albuminuria may be a better prognostic marker of kidney disease than low eGFR; that eGFR equations may be inaccurate in the Indigenous population; a less marked differential between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians for ESKD rates in urban compared to remote regions; or that differences in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease exist

  10. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  11. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  12. Falling short of dietary guidelines - What do Australian pregnant women really know? A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2017-02-01

    Maternal diets are not consistent with dietary guidance and this may affect the health of mothers and their infants. Nutrition knowledge and motivation may be important factors. To assess pregnant women's diets in relation to consistency with the Australian Guidelines for Healthy Eating (AGHE); factors influencing women's adherence to the recommendations; and women's attitudes towards pregnancy-specific nutrition information. A cross-sectional study using convenience sampling was undertaken at five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and through an online link (October 2012 to July 2013). N=388 pregnant women completed the survey. Categorical data were analysed using Chi square and logistic regression with significance set at Ptrying to do so and that knowing about nutrition in pregnancy was highly important. Reported dietary intakes were poor. No pregnant women met the recommended intakes for all five food groups. Poor knowledge of these recommendations was evident. Knowledge of selected recommendations (for Fruit, Vegetables, and Breads and Cereals) increased the likelihood of those foods' consumption 8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-27.7), 9.1 (95% CI, 2.6-31.3) and 6.8 (95% CI, 3.4-13.7) times respectively. Pregnant women had high levels of motivation and confidence in their ability to achieve a healthy diet and understand dietary recommendations, but actually demonstrated poor knowledge and poor adherence to guidelines. Mistaken or false beliefs may be a barrier to effective nutrition education strategies. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A qualitative study of Australians' opinions about personally controlled electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnbom, Elin C; McLachlan, Andrew; Brien, Jo-Anne E

    2012-01-01

    A personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR) system is being implemented in Australia. Every Australian that wants a PCEHR will be able to opt-in from July 2012. To explore the opinions of Australian consumers and healthcare providers about the PCEHR. In this qualitative study, consumers and healthcare providers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Perceived benefits identified by participants regarding the PCEHR included instant access to clinical information, and safer and more efficient healthcare delivery. The risk of unauthorised access and breaches of privacy were some of the perceived drawbacks. Although consumers seemed unwilling to opt-in to have a PCEHR, the vast majority of healthcare providers were positive towards this development and predicted better and safer healthcare as a result. Consumers and healthcare providers appeared uniformed about the imminent PCEHR. The wide-spread unwillingness among participants to opt-in to have a PCEHR could potentially jeopardise successful implementation and uptake of this system. A well-designed system without security glitches and with individualised information from trusted healthcare providers regarding the benefits of having a PCEHR appears critical in engaging consumer opt-in.

  14. Executive Support of Information Technology and Information Systems in Australian Hospitals: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Rose

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the form executive support should take for the progressive use of information technology and information systems [FT] within organisations. This study applies the theory developed by Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991 who examined two forms of support provided by chief executive officers. These were executive participation, a set of IT-related activities, and executive involvement, a psychological state reflecting the importance of IT for the organisation's success. Our research, using data obtained from a questionnaire mailed to a sample of Australian hospitals, measures the relationships between these two forms of support and the progressive use of IT. Our statistical analysis supports the findings of Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991, who found a stronger relationship between executive involvement and the progressive use of IT. Using Australian hospitals allowed Jarvenpaa and Ives' (1991 theory to be applied in a different environment, increasing its external validity. Firm size was also found to have a positive relationship with the progressive use of IT independent of the two forms of executive support.

  15. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  17. Ultrafast X-ray absorption study of longitudinal-transverse phonon coupling in electrolyte aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...

  18. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  19. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  1. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  2. What Images Reveal: a Comparative Study of Science Images between Australian and Taiwanese Junior High School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun-Ping; Unsworth, Len; Wang, Kuo-Hua; Chang, Huey-Por

    2017-07-01

    From a social semiotic perspective, image designs in science textbooks are inevitably influenced by the sociocultural context in which the books are produced. The learning environments of Australia and Taiwan vary greatly. Drawing on social semiotics and cognitive science, this study compares classificational images in Australian and Taiwanese junior high school science textbooks. Classificational images are important kinds of images, which can represent taxonomic relations among objects as reported by Kress and van Leeuwen (Reading images: the grammar of visual design, 2006). An analysis of the images from sample chapters in Australian and Taiwanese high school science textbooks showed that the majority of the Taiwanese images are covert taxonomies, which represent hierarchical relations implicitly. In contrast, Australian classificational images included diversified designs, but particularly types with a tree structure which depicted overt taxonomies, explicitly representing hierarchical super-ordinate and subordinate relations. Many of the Taiwanese images are reminiscent of the specimen images in eighteenth century science texts representing "what truly is", while more Australian images emphasize structural objectivity. Moreover, Australian images support cognitive functions which facilitate reading comprehension. The relationships between image designs and learning environments are discussed and implications for textbook research and design are addressed.

  3. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  4. Electronic cigarette: a longitudinal study of regular vapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-06-07

    It is unclear how vaping behaviour changes over time in regular vapers, and what occurs when vapers relapse to smoking or when they stop vaping. We assessed change in vaping and smoking behaviours over 12 months in regular vapers. A longitudinal study of 3868 regular vapers enrolled on the Internet in 2012-2015 ("baseline"), followed after one (n=1631, 42%), three (n=1337, 35%), six (n=1148, 30%) and 12 months (n=893, 23%). Participants had been vaping for a median of five months at baseline. Most (77%) were former smokers, who had not smoked for a median of three months at baseline. Over 12 months, enjoyment gradually became the most frequently cited reason to vape (93%), and vaping to deal with craving for tobacco gradually decreased (from 87% to 56%). In exclusive vapers (ex-smokers), nicotine concentration in e-liquids decreased over time (from 12 to 9 mg/mL), but puffs/day remained stable (200 puffs/day). After 12 months, 9% of 687 former smokers relapsed to smoking and 28% of 64 daily smokers (dual users) stopped smoking. After 12 months, when participants stopped vaping, they tended to relapse to smoking (+18% daily smokers among those who stopped vaping versus -2% in permanent vapers, preasons to vape. Rates of relapse to smoking were low in former smokers and quit rates were high in current smokers. Stopping vaping was associated with relapsing to smoking. Even in established vapers, vaping behaviour and reasons to vape change over time. This should be taken into account by clinicians, manufacturers and regulators. Results from this non-representative sample can help generate hypotheses that can later be tested in representative samples of vapers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  6. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  7. The Transition to Full-Time Work of Young People Who Do Not Go to University. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 49

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the transition to full-time employment of young people who do not go to university. The majority of Australia's school leavers do not enroll in university, and it is important to better understand the pathways that they follow. The report uses a substantial longitudinal dataset to map the dynamics of the youth labour market,…

  8. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  9. Group-based developmental BMI trajectories, polycystic ovary syndrome, and gestational diabetes: a community-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoly, Nadira Sultana; Earnest, Arul; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E

    2017-11-06

    Obesity is common in young women, increasing insulin resistance (IR) and worsening pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes (GDM). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are commonly obese, which aggravates the severity of PCOS clinical expression. Relationships between these common insulin-resistant conditions, however, remain unclear. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) database, including data from 8009 women aged 18-36 years across six surveys. We used latent-curve growth modelling to identify distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to explore sociodemographic and health variables characterizing BMI group membership. Logistic regression was used to assess independent risk of GDM. A total of 662 women (8.29%, 95% CI 7.68-8.89) reported PCOS. Three distinct BMI trajectories emerged, namely low stable (LSG) (63.8%), defined as an average trajectory remaining at ~25 kg/m 2 ; moderately rising (MRG) (28.8%), a curvilinear trajectory commencing in a healthy BMI and terminating in the overweight range; and high-rising (HRG) (7.4%), a curvilinear trajectory starting and terminating in the obese range. A high BMI in early reproductive life predicted membership in higher trajectories. The HRG BMI trajectory was independently associated with GDM (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.80-3.48) and was a stronger correlate than PCOS (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.41-2.54), maternal age, socioeconomic status, or parity. Our results suggest heterogeneity in BMI change among Australian women of reproductive age, with and without PCOS. Reducing early adult life weight represents an ideal opportunity to intervene at an early stage of reproductive life and decreases the risk of long-term metabolic complications such as GDM.

  10. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  11. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  12. An Australian Study Comparing the Use of Multiple-Choice Questionnaires with Assignments as Interim, Summative Law School Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    To the author's knowledge, this is the first Australian study to empirically compare the use of a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) with the use of a written assignment for interim, summative law school assessment. This study also surveyed the same student sample as to what types of assessments are preferred and why. In total, 182 undergraduate…

  13. The Diabetes Care Project: an Australian multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial [study protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Matthew J; Segal, Leonie; Esterman, Adrian; Armour, Caroline; McDermott, Robyn; Fountaine, Tim

    2013-12-20

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder that is associated with substantial disease burden. Australia has an opportunity to improve ways of caring for the growing number of people with diabetes, but this may require changes to the way care is funded, organised and delivered. To inform how best to care for people with diabetes, and to identify the extent of change that is required to achieve this, the Diabetes Care Project (DCP) will evaluate the impact of two different, evidence-based models of care (compared to usual care) on clinical quality, patient and provider experience, and cost. The DCP uses a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial design. Accredited general practices that are situated within any of the seven Australian Medicare Locals/Divisions of General Practice that have agreed to take part in the study were invited to participate. Consenting practices will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups for approximately 18 to 22 months: (a) control group (usual care); (b) Intervention 1 (which tests improvements that could be made within the current funding model, facilitated through the use of an online chronic disease management network); or (c) Intervention 2 (which includes the same components as Intervention 1, as well as altered funding to support voluntary patient registration with their practice, incentive payments and a care facilitator). Adult patients who attend the enrolled practices and have established (≥12 month's duration) type 1 diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed or established type 2 diabetes mellitus are invited to participate. Multiple outcomes will be studied, including changes in glycosylated haemoglobin (primary outcome), changes in other biochemical and clinical metrics, incidence of diabetes-related complications, quality of life, clinical depression, success of tailored care, patient and practitioner satisfaction, and budget sustainability. This project responds to a need for robust

  14. A pilot study of the safety implications of Australian nurses' sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, Jillian; Lamond, Nicole; van den Heuvel, Cameron; Pincombe, Jan; Rogers, Ann E; Dawson, Drew

    2006-01-01

    The frequency and severity of adverse events in Australian healthcare is under increasing scrutiny. A recent state government report identified 31 events involving "death or serious [patient] harm" and 452 "very high risk" incidents. Australia-wide, a previous study identified 2,324 adverse medical events (AME) in a single year, with more than half considered preventable. Despite the recognized link between fatigue and error in other industries, to date, few studies of medical errors have assessed the fatigue of the healthcare professionals involved. Nurses work extended and unpredictable hours with a lack of regular breaks and are therefore likely to experience elevated fatigue. Currently, there is very little available information on Australian nurses' sleep or fatigue levels, nor is there any information about whether this affects their performance. This study therefore aims to examine work hours, sleep, fatigue and error occurrence in Australian nurses. Using logbooks, 23 full-time nurses in a metropolitan hospital completed daily recordings for one month (644 days, 377 shifts) of their scheduled and actual work hours, sleep length and quality, sleepiness, and fatigue levels. Frequency and type of nursing errors, near errors, and observed errors (made by others) were recorded. Nurses reported struggling to remain awake during 36% of shifts. Moderate to high levels of stress, physical exhaustion, and mental exhaustion were reported on 23%, 40%, and 36% of shifts, respectively. Extreme drowsiness while driving or cycling home was reported on 45 occasions (11.5%), with three reports of near accidents. Overall, 20 errors, 13 near errors, and 22 observed errors were reported. The perceived potential consequences for the majority of errors were minor; however, 11 errors were associated with moderate and four with potentially severe consequences. Nurses reported that they had trouble falling asleep on 26.8% of days, had frequent arousals on 34.0% of days, and that

  15. A study of diabetes mellitus within a large sample of Australian twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condon, Julianne; Shaw, Joanne E; Luciano, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 41 female pairs with gestational diabetes (GD), 5 pairs with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and one pair with MODY. Heritabilities of T1D, T2D and GD were all high, but our samples did not have the power to detect effects of shared environment unless they were very large......Twin studies of diabetes mellitus can help elucidate genetic and environmental factors in etiology and can provide valuable biological samples for testing functional hypotheses, for example using expression and methylation studies of discordant pairs. We searched the volunteer Australian Twin...... Registry (19,387 pairs) for twins with diabetes using disease checklists from nine different surveys conducted from 1980-2000. After follow-up questionnaires to the twins and their doctors to confirm diagnoses, we eventually identified 46 pairs where one or both had type 1 diabetes (T1D), 113 pairs...

  16. Baseline Knowledge of Islam and Muslims: A Study of Australian Government Crisis Communication Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate O'Donnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the level of knowledge Australian crisis communications officials had about Islam and Muslims. It did so at a time when the Commonwealth Government has warned in the current national security environment that a terrorist attack could be experienced at any time, and where the most serious threat emanated from those holding what the government described as a “deviant” view of Islam. The study identified that Media Liaison Officers (n=72 have low levels of knowledge about this religious faith, and that they were aware of their lack of understanding. These findings raise policy concerns about the extent to which Media Liaison Officers can differentiate between Islam and deviant interpretations of the faith. With the pivotal role that Media Liaison Officers play in crisis communication—including briefing and educating journalists when a terrorist event occurs—these findings present crisis managers with several challenges; including recruitment, training, and ongoing professional development.

  17. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  18. A comparative study of nutrient intakes of migrant and Australian children in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owles, E N

    1975-07-26

    Little is known about the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of preschool children in Australia. A study was undertaken in Perth on Australian and migrant children to obtain information on preschool diets. It was found that, although the mean nutrient intakes in both groups were adequate, some individual migrant national groups showed deficiencies of one or more nutrients. Many children were obtaining excessive calories and protein. The consumption of "empty calorie" foods was also high. In order to find different ways to teach good principles and practice of nutrition, the types of media which might influence parents were studied. It was considered that television and, to a lesser degree, radio were media which might exert a considerable effect if they were used to the best advantage. These forms of communication particularly were of potential value, as some migrant parents could not read English and some were illiterate. A positive nutrition education programme to combat commerical food advertising of "empty calorie" foods is recommended.

  19. An Australian study of possible selves perceived by undergraduate engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn; Male, Sally A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we worked with second-year engineering students at an Australian university to examine previously identified threshold concepts within the theoretical framework of Possible Selves. Using workshops as the context for intensive work with students, students were encouraged to consider their future lives and work, including their engineering fears, expectations, and aspirations. The findings revealed many students to have a poor understanding of the realities of engineering work. Moreover, perceived gaps between self-efficacy and the requirements of engineering work appeared to be motivating if students deemed it possible to reduce the gap, but demotivating if they identified a characteristic over which there was perceived to be no control. The study suggests that these engineering students needed more opportunities to explore both the roles of engineers and their own possible selves. Overall, the findings indicate that higher education students may need encouragement and support to explore potential future roles, and they strengthen calls for further research in this area.

  20. The relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J

    2008-09-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.

  1. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  2. Secondary Geography and the Australian Curriculum--Directions in School Implementation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    At first glance, the introduction of a national curriculum for Australian schools suggested a new era of revival for school geography. Since the late 1980s, the development and introduction of more integrated conceptions of curriculum design and implementation has seen the decline of Geography as a distinct subject in Australian schools, with…

  3. Influence of comorbidities on therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes I Vitry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether the number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was associated with a delay in therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using data from the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA claims database between July 2000 and June 2008. The study included new users of metformin or sulfonylurea medicines. The outcome was the time to addition or switch to another antidiabetic treatment. The total number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was identified using the pharmaceutical-based comorbidity index, Rx-Risk-V. Competing risk regression analyses were conducted, with adjustments for a number of covariates that included age, gender, residential status, use of endocrinology service, number of hospitalisation episodes and adherence to diabetes medicines. Overall, 20,134 veterans were included in the study. At one year, 23.5% of patients with diabetes had a second medicine added or had switched to another medicine, with 41.4% progressing by 4 years. The number of unrelated comorbidities was significantly associated with the time to addition of an antidiabetic medicine or switch to insulin (subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.84-0.91], P<0.001. Depression, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were individually associated with a decreased likelihood of therapeutic progression. Age, residential status, number of hospitalisations and adherence to anti-diabetic medicines delayed therapeutic progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing numbers of unrelated conditions decreased the likelihood of therapeutic progression in veterans with diabetes. These results have implications for the development of quality measures, clinical guidelines and the construction of models of care for management of diabetes in elderly people with comorbidities.

  4. The Use of Individual Education Programs for Children in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian

    2012-01-01

    A cornerstone of special education practice is customising instruction to meet individual students' needs. Individual education programs (IEPs) are used in many countries to document the manner in which such instruction is customised and to provide a record of student outcomes. Using 2009 data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children,…

  5. Development of an E-Learning Culture in the Australian Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Diane; Ellis, Allan

    2007-01-01

    For organisations with hierarchical management and training cultures, e-learning provides opportunities for standardising content, delivery, and course management while challenging traditional teacher-student relationships. This research based case study of the Australian Army provided a longitudinal perspective of the diverse factors influencing…

  6. The Effects of Special Education Support on Young Australian School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Valentine, Megan; Colyvas, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Determining the effectiveness of many special education interventions is most difficult because of the practical and ethical limitations associated with assigning participants to a control or non-treated group. Using Longitudinal Study of Australian Children data, this article utilised eight different propensity score analysis methods to determine…

  7. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

  8. A Survey of Medical Oncology Training in Australian Medical Schools: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew; Prawira, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Background Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with continuous advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Therefore, it is important that medical students are provided with the knowledge and experience required to care for oncology patients and enable them to diagnose and manage toxicities of novel therapeutic agents. Objective This study was performed to understand the medical students’ perspective of the oncology education provided in universities across Australia and identify areas of education that could potentially be modified or improved to ultimately attract more students to a career in oncology. Methods This pilot cross-sectional study consisted of an 18-question survey that was submitted online to medical students in their final year and interns rotating to the Tamworth Hospital. Results The survey was completed by 94 fifth-year medical students and interns. Oncology was taught both theoretically and clinically for 68% (63/93) of participants, and 48% (44/92) had an exclusive oncology rotation. Both theoretical and clinical oncology assessments were conducted for only 21% (19/92) of participants. Overall, 42% (38/91) of participants were satisfied with their oncology education, and 78% (40/51) were dissatisfied with the number of oncology teaching hours. The importance of a career in oncology was rated as low by 46% (41/90) of participants. Conclusions This pilot study indicates that there are potential areas to improve oncology teaching in Australian universities. The majority of surveyed students were dissatisfied with the number of teaching hours they receive in oncology. More global assessment of students and/or interns from other Australian institutes may yield further useful information. PMID:29233799

  9. Effects of anticholinergic drugs on cognitive function in older Australians: results from the AIBL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittironnarit, Gobhathai; Ames, David; Bush, Ashley I; Faux, Noel; Flicker, Leon; Foster, Jonathan; Hilmer, Sarah; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Maruff, Paul; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Rowe, Christopher; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A

    2011-01-01

    The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Implementing two nurse practitioner models of service at an Australian male prison: A quality assurance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ides; Wright, Eryn; Santomauro, Damian; How, Raquel; Leary, Christopher; Harris, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    To examine the quality and safety of nurse practitioner services of two newly implemented nurse practitioner models of care at a correctional facility. Nurse practitioners could help to meet the physical and mental health needs of Australia's growing prison population; however, the nurse practitioner role has not previously been evaluated in this context. A quality assurance study conducted in an Australian prison where a primary health nurse practitioner and a mental health nurse practitioner were incorporated into an existing primary healthcare service. The study was guided by Donabedian's structure, processes and outcomes framework. Routinely collected information included surveys of staff attitudes to the implementation of the nurse practitioner models (n = 21 staff), consultation records describing clinical processes and time use (n = 289 consultations), and a patient satisfaction survey (n = 29 patients). Data were analysed descriptively and compared to external benchmarks where available. Over the two-month period, the nurse practitioners provided 289 consultations to 208 prisoners. The presenting problems treated indicated that most referrals were appropriate. A significant proportion of consultations involved medication review and management. Both nurse practitioners spent more than half of their time on individual patient-related care. Overall, multidisciplinary team staff agreed that the nurse practitioner services were necessary, safe, met patient need and reduced treatment delays. Findings suggest that the implementation of nurse practitioners into Australian correctional facilities is acceptable and feasible and has the potential to improve prisoners' access to health services. Structural factors (e.g., room availability and limited access to prisoners) may have reduced the efficiency of the nurse practitioners' clinical processes and service implementation. Results suggest that nurse practitioner models can be successfully integrated into a

  11. Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Wiener, Karl K; Sarris, Jerome

    2016-02-11

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using purposive convenience sampling to recruit Australian adults who have experienced anxiety symptoms and have used herbal medicines (N = 400). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test of contingency, analysis of variance, and simple logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Eighty two percent of participants experienced anxiety symptoms in the previous 12 months, with 47% reporting having previously been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In addition, 72.8% had used herbal medicines specifically for anxiety symptoms in their lifetime, while 55.3% had used prescribed pharmaceuticals, with 27.5% having used herbal medicines concurrently with prescribed pharmaceuticals. The Internet and family and friends were the most frequently used sources of information about herbal medicines. Forty eight percent of participants did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their doctor. Herbal medicines are being used by adults with anxiety and are commonly self-prescribed for anxiety symptoms. Health practitioners who are experts in herbal medicine prescribing are consulted infrequently. In addition, herbal medicine use is often not disclosed to health practitioners. These behaviours are concerning as people may not be receiving the most suitable treatments, and their use of herbal medicines may even be dangerous. It is critical we develop a better understanding of why people are using these medicines, and how we can develop improved health literacy

  12. Exploring the paradox: A cross-sectional study of academic dishonesty among Australian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Melanie; Smithson, John; Antney, Janene; Zhao, Lin; Burkot, Camilla

    2018-06-01

    Universities' responsibility to ensure academic integrity is frustrated by software and communication tools that facilitate content reuse coupled with a growing international essay writing economy. A wide range of behaviours constitute academic dishonesty and while a complex phenomenon to examine, existing evidence suggests that there is sufficient proliferation (both in volume and variety) of these behaviours among Australian university students to warrant concern. This proliferation presents faculty and staff with new challenges in ensuring academic integrity. This paper reports findings of a nationwide cross-sectional survey of 361 students enrolled in an Australian nursing degree program and describes the extent of academic dishonesty among those surveyed. An online survey adapted from previous work was used to collect data on academic dishonesty, professional dishonesty and social desirability bias. Analysis of this data enabled identification of the prevalence of dishonesty, relationships between individual characteristics and dishonest behaviours, associations between academic and professional dishonesty, and the impact of deterrents to such behaviour. Plagiarism was the most frequently reported form of academic misconduct. Most participants indicated that threat of severe punishment and signing of verification statements would deter undesirable academic behaviour. Despite this, a relatively high proportion of students reported engaging in at least one form of academic misconduct, the likelihood of which was higher among younger age groups. Of concern was that a correlation was found between academic and professional misconduct, the most common being the recording of inaccurate or fabricated vital signs and breaching client privacy. In health professional education, there is a tendency to assume that the nobility of these disciplines would result in a lower incidence of cheating behaviours. The findings of this study support existing literature that refutes

  13. An Australian study to evaluate worker exposure to chrysotile in the automotive service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P; Patience, K; Apthorpe, L; Willcocks, D

    1999-07-01

    A study was conducted in Sydney, Australia, in 1996 to investigate the current exposure levels, control technologies, and work practices in five service garages (four car and one bus), three brake bonding workshops, and one gasket processing workshop. This study formed part of the assessment of chrysotile as a priority existing chemical under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. A total of 68 (11 personal and 57 area) air samples were collected, in accordance with the Australian standard membrane filter method. Fiber concentrations were determined by the traditional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method and 16 selected samples were analyzed by the more powerful transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chrysotile exposure of car mechanics measured by PCM was typically below the reportable detection limit of 0.05 f/mL, irrespective of whether disc brake, drum brake, or clutch was being serviced. These low levels can be attributed to the wet cleaning or aerosol spray methods used in recent years to replace the traditional compressed air jet cleaning. In the three brake shoe relining workshops, task-specific exposure reached up to 0.16 f/mL in the processes of cutting and radius grinding. TEM results were generally higher, due to its higher resolution power. The median diameter on samples taken from the service garages (passenger cars), as determined by TEM, was 0.5-1.0 micron; and was between 0.2-0.5 micron for the brake bonding and gasket processing workshops, while that for the bus service depot was 0.1-0.2 micron. Most of the respirable fibers (84%, mainly forsterite) from the bus service depot were below 0.2 micron in diameter which is the resolution limit of PCM. In the brake bonding and gasket cutting workshops, 34 percent and 44 percent of the chrysotile fibers were below 0.2 micron in diameter.

  14. The long-term significance of teacher-rated hyperactivity and reading ability in childhood: findings from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rob; Prior, Margot; Willams, Sheila; Smart, Diana; Sanson, Anne

    2002-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: first, to examine behavioural and academic outcomes of children with hyperactivity, using data from two longitudinal studies; and second, to examine comparable psychosocial outcomes for children with early reading difficulties. Measures of teacher-rated persistent hyperactivity, and reading ability obtained during early primary school were available for children from the Australian Temperament Project and the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Both samples were followed up to assess behavioural and academic outcomes during the adolescent and early adult years. Family background, antisocial behaviour and literacy were controlled in the first set of analyses to examine the influence of early hyperactivity. There were strong linear relationships between early hyperactivity and later adverse outcomes. Adjustment for other childhood variables suggested that early hyperactivity was associated with continuing school difficulties, problems with attention and poor reading in adolescence. Early reading difficulties, after controlling for early hyperactivity, predicted continuing reading problems in high school and leaving school with no qualifications. The findings suggest that there are dual pathways from early inattentive behaviours to later inattention and reading problems, and from early reading difficulties to substantial impairments in later academic outcomes.

  15. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  16. The Etiology of Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition in Australian School Students: A Behavior-Genetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, William; Anton-Mendez, Ines; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Levisen, Christina; Byrne, Brian; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    We present one of the first behavior-genetic studies of individual differences in school students' levels of achievement in instructed second language acquisition (ISLA). We assessed these language abilities in Australian twin pairs (maximum N pairs = 251) by means of teacher ratings, class rankings, and self-ratings of proficiency, and used the…

  17. Returnees, Student-Migrants and Second Chance Learners: Case Studies of Positional and Transformative Outcomes of Australian International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Shanthi; Hoare, Lynnel; Harwood, Aramiha

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear need for new research into the work and life outcomes for graduates of Australian international education. Drawing upon divergent post-study transitions, this article aims to present a multi-faceted, qualitative foundation for the consideration of both positional and transformative impacts of international education on graduates'…

  18. Are there returns from ancillary marketing communication expenditure? - A case study in the Australian financial services sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, V.L.; Hodgson, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tests if there are returns from investing in marketing communications expenditure (MCE) by using excess risk weighted accounting earnings as an output metric.We utilise panel data techniques and a case study of Australian credit unions that successfully invest in core relational

  19. Vaccine, Transmission and Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Viral Hepatitis Knowledge among Attendees of a Metropolitan Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Max; Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore knowledge of viral hepatitis among attendees of an Australian metropolitan university. Method: A short survey enquiring into viral hepatitis A, B and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, respectively) was administered to a convenience sample of people at a campus in Sydney, Australia during September 2011.…

  20. The Children’s Attention Project: a community-based longitudinal study of children with ADHD and non-ADHD controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciberras Emma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects approximately 5% of children worldwide and results in significant impairments in daily functioning. Few community-ascertained samples of children with ADHD have been studied prospectively to identify factors associated with differential outcomes. The Children’s Attention Project is the first such study in Australia, examining the mental health, social, academic and quality of life outcomes for children with diagnostically-confirmed ADHD compared to non-ADHD controls. The study aims to map the course of ADHD symptoms over time and to identify risk and protective factors associated with differential outcomes. Methods/design The sample for this prospective longitudinal study is being recruited across 43 socio-economically diverse primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. All children in Grade 1, the second year of formal schooling (6–8 years, are screened for ADHD symptoms using independent parent and teacher reports on the Conners’ 3 ADHD index (~N = 5260. Children screening positive for ADHD by both parent and teacher report, and a matched sample (gender, school screening negative, are invited to participate in the longitudinal study. At baseline this involves parent completion of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV to confirm likely ADHD diagnostic status and identify other mental health difficulties, direct child assessments (cognitive, academic, language and executive functioning; height and weight and questionnaires for parents and teachers assessing outcomes, as well as a broad range of risk and protective factors (child, parent/family, teacher/school, and socio-economic factors. Families will be initially followed up for 3 years. Discussion This study is the first Australian longitudinal study of children with ADHD and one of the first community-based longitudinal studies of diagnostically confirmed children with ADHD. The

  1. Personality factors and breast cancer development: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, E M; van der Ploeg, H M; Hendriks, J H; Adèr, H J

    1996-10-16

    It has been estimated that approximately 25% of all breast cancers in women can be explained by currently recognized somatic (i.e., hereditary and physiologic) risk factors. It has also been hypothesized that psychological factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the extent to which personality factors, in addition to somatic risk factors, may be associated with the development of primary breast cancer. We employed a prospective, longitudinal study design. From 1989 through 1990, a personality questionnaire was sent to all female residents of the Dutch city of Nijmegen who were 43 years of age or older. This questionnaire was sent as part of an invitation to participate in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women who developed breast cancer among those who returned completed questionnaires were compared with women without such a diagnosis in regard to somatic risk factors and personality traits, including anxiety, anger, depression, rationality, anti-emotionality (i.e., an absence of emotional behavior or a lack of trust in one's own feelings), understanding, optimism, social support, and the expression and control of emotions. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best explain group membership (i.e., belonging to the case [breast cancer] or the control [without disease] group). Personality questionnaires were sent to 28 940 women, and 9705 (34%) were returned in such a way that they could be used for statistical analyses. Among the 9705 women who returned useable questionnaires, 131 were diagnosed with breast cancer during the period from 1989 through 1994. Seven hundred seventy-one age-matched control subjects (up to six per case patient) were selected for the analyses. Three variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: 1) having a first-degree family member with breast cancer (versus not having an

  2. Chronological narratives from smoking initiation through to pregnancy of Indigenous Australian women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-01

    One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E; Si, Damin

    2010-08-17

    Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Six hundred and eighty six (686) Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty four (124) new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3), adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5) for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4) for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  4. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiqiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Methods Six hundred and eighty six (686 Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI. Results One hundred and twenty four (124 new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3, adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5 for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4 for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Conclusions Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  5. Australians' views on personal genomic testing: focus group findings from the Genioz study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Hickerton, Chriselle; Savard, Jacqueline; Terrill, Bronwyn; Turbitt, Erin; Gaff, Clara; Gray, Kathleen; Middleton, Anna; Wilson, Brenda; Newson, Ainsley J

    2018-04-30

    Personal genomic testing provides healthy individuals with access to information about their genetic makeup for purposes including ancestry, paternity, sporting ability and health. Such tests are available commercially and globally, with accessibility expected to continue to grow, including in Australia; yet little is known of the views/expectations of Australians. Focus groups were conducted within a multi-stage, cross-disciplinary project (Genioz) to explore this. In mid-2015, 56 members of the public participated in seven focus groups, allocated into three age groups: 18-24, 25-49, and ≥50 years. Three researchers coded transcripts independently and generated themes. Awareness of personal genomic testing was low, but most could deduce what "personal genomics" might entail. Very few had heard of the term "direct-to-consumer" testing, which has implications for organisations developing information to support individuals in their decision-making. Participants' understanding of genetics was varied and drawn from several sources. There were diverse perceptions of the relative influence of genetics and environment on health, mental health, behavior, talent, or personality. Views about having a personal genomic test were mixed, with greater interest in health-related tests if they believed there was a reason for doing so. However, many expressed scepticisms about the types of tests available, and how the information might be used; concerns were also raised about privacy and the potential for discrimination. These exploratory findings inform subsequent stages of the Genioz study, thereby contributing to strategies of supporting Australians to understand and make meaningful and well-considered decisions about the benefits, harms, and implications of personal genomic tests.

  6. Spectrum of illness among returned Australian travellers from Bali, Indonesia: a 5-year retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Asma; McGuinness, Sarah L; Lightowler, Rachel; Leder, Karin; Jomon, Bismi; Bain, Christopher A; Peleg, Anton Y

    2018-06-05

    Bali, Indonesia presents significant infectious and non-infectious health risks for Australian travellers. Understanding this spectrum of illnesses has the potential to assist clinicians in evaluating unwell returning travellers and guide provision of pre-travel advice. To describe the spectrum of illnesses seen in returned travellers from Bali. Using a novel text mining approach, we performed a retrospective, observational study of all adult emergency department (ED) presentations to a metropolitan health service in Melbourne, from 2011-2015. Outcome measures included demographic, clinical and laboratory features of travel-related illnesses. A total of 464 patients met inclusion criteria. Gastroenteritis (119/464, 26%), systemic febrile illness (88/464, 19%) and respiratory tract infection (51/464, 11%) were the most common diagnoses. Dengue was the most common laboratory-confirmed diagnosis (25/464, 5%). No cases of malaria were identified. Common non-infectious presentations included traumatic injury (47/464, 10%) and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (29/464, 6%). 110 patients (24%) were admitted to hospital; those presenting with systemic febrile illness were more likely to be admitted compared to those presenting with other illnesses (OR 3.42, CI 2.02-5.75, pBali by Australian travellers. While infections are important causes of illness, trauma and animal bites account for a significant number of hospital presentations. Our findings contribute to knowledge on the health risks for travellers to Bali, and will assist clinicians in relevant pre- and post-travel evaluations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  9. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  10. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the

  11. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer

    1994-01-01

    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...... are used to describe patterns of wealth mobility. These results and regression models of change in percentile position identify winners and losers. The losers include students, singles with children, those who changed residence and those who experienced unemployment, while the winners were the houseowners...

  12. Self-stigma and suicidality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Rüsch, Nicolas; Viering, Sandra; Wyss, Christine; Seifritz, Erich; Xu, Ziyan; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness stigma is a source of distress for persons with mental illness. Self-stigma occurs when negative stereotypes are internalized, leading to low self-esteem, shame and hopelessness. Due to its consequences self-stigma may contribute to suicidality and be a modifiable target for suicide prevention. Based on 222 disability pensioners with mental illness we examined whether self-stigma at baseline is associated with suicidal ideation over a 2-year period, controlling for baseline suicidal ideation, symptoms, age and gender. More self-stigma predicted suicidal ideation at baseline and longitudinally. Interventions on different levels to reduce self-stigma could improve suicide prevention.

  13. Psychological predictors of eco-driving: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauper Elisabeth; Moser Stephanie; Fischer Maja; Matthies Ellen; Kaufmann-Hayoz Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Eco-driving has well-known positive effects on fuel economy and greenhouse-gas emissions. Moreover, eco-driving reduces road-traffic noise, which is a serious threat to the health and well-being of many people. We investigated the psychological predictors of the adoption of eco-driving from the perspective of road-traffic noise abatement. The data came from 890 car drivers who participated in a longitudinal survey over four months. Specifically, we tested the effects of the intention to preve...

  14. A longitudinal study of the social and emotional predictors and consequences of cyber and traditional bullying victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Lester, Leanne; Barnes, Amy

    2015-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies have investigated how cyberbullying interacts with traditional bullying among young people, who are increasingly using online environments to seek information, entertainment and to socialise. This study aimed to identify the associations between the relative contribution of cyberbullying victimisation and traditional bullying victimisation on social and emotional antecedents and outcomes among adolescents. Participants were a cohort of 1,504 adolescents from 16 Australian schools followed from age 13 to 15 years. Adolescents experiencing social and emotional difficulties were more likely to be cyberbullied and traditionally bullied, than traditionally bullied only. Those targeted in both ways experienced more harm and stayed away from school more often than those traditionally bullied only. These findings suggest a high coexistence of cyber and traditional bullying behaviours and their antecedents, and higher levels of harm from a combination of these behaviours for adolescents over time. Future research should engage students as co-researchers to enhance school and parent strategies to support adolescents experiencing difficulties, and to reduce the likelihood of both cyber and traditional bullying.

  15. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  16. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  17. The relationship between approaches to study and academic performance among Australian undergraduate occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2017-06-01

    The academic success and degree completion of tertiary students depends on their academic performance (AP), commonly measured by the percentage grades for the units they complete. No research has examined whether occupational therapy students' approaches to study are predictive of their AP. This study investigated whether approaches to study were predictive of the AP among a group of Australian undergraduate occupational therapy students. A total of 376 undergraduate occupational therapy students completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Regression analysis was conducted using a range of demographic characteristics and the ASSIST scores as independent variables with students' self-reported by their self-reported mean percentage grade range (as a proxy indicator of their AP) as the dependent variable. The deep and the strategic approaches to study were not significantly correlated with occupational therapy students' AP. The ASSIST fear of failure subscale of the surface approach to study had a unique contribution to AP, accounting for 1.3% of its total variance. Occupational therapy students' year level of enrolment made a unique contribution to their AP, accounting for 4.2% of the total variance. Age and gender made a unique contribution to AP as well although their impact was small. Undergraduate occupational therapy students' approaches to study were predictive of their AP to a very limited degree. However, their AP was predicted by a number of demographic variables, including age, gender and year level of enrolment. Further study in this area is recommended. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for…

  19. Habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos: um estudo longitudinal Cognitive abilities in older seniors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani I. de Lima Argimon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos longitudinais com idosos com mais de oitenta anos são escassos na literatura. A pesquisa foi delineada com o objetivo de analisar as modificações no perfil de algumas habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos, em dois momentos, com um intervalo de três anos. Pesquisa do tipo quantitativo, com delineamento longitudinal e prospectivo. A amostra, randômica, foi constituída por 66 indivíduos de 80 a 95 anos de idade na etapa I e, três anos após, na etapa II, por 46 idosos. Os instrumentos usados foram: Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Span de Números, Teste de Lembranças Livres e com Pistas de Buschke, Teste de Fluência Verbal - Categoria Animal. Houve uma pequena tendência de decréscimo no desempenho cognitivo em um período de três anos. Maior número de atividades de lazer e mais anos de escolaridade foram fatores preditivos de menor variação no desempenho cognitivo. Apesar da idade avançada, os idosos apresentaram um desempenho de habilidades cognitivas cujo declínio foi de intensidade leve, não sendo suficiente para acarretar mudanças significativas no seu padrão cognitivo.Longitudinal studies of older seniors (over 80 years are rare in the literature. This research was designed to study cognitive abilities in the oldest old at two different moments with a three-year interval. The research was quantitative, with a longitudinal and prospective design. The sample consisted of 66 individuals from 80 to 95 years of age, randomly selected for phase I, with 46 of these individuals tested again three years later, in phase II. The instruments used were: Geriatric Depression Scale, Subjective Perception of Memory Problems, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Buschke Test of Free and Cued Recall, and the Verbal Fluency Test - Animal Category. The results indicated that there was a small downward trend in the older

  20. Risky driving behavior and road traffic crashes among young Asian Australian drivers: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Lam, Lawrence T

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in risky driving behavior and likelihood of traffic crash according to the country of birth of recently licensed young drivers. The groups examined include those born in Australia, those born in Asia, and those born in other countries. The DRIVE study is a prospective cohort study of drivers aged 17-24 years holding their first-year provisional driver license in New South Wales, Australia. Information obtained from 20,822 participants who completed a baseline questionnaire was linked to police-reported traffic crashes. Self-reported risky driving behaviors and police-reported traffic crashes in young drivers. Young drivers who were born in Asian countries were less likely to report engaging in risky driving behaviors than their Australian-born counterparts. The proportion of participants reporting a high level of risky driving was 31.5 percent (95% confidence intervale [CI], 30.8-32.1) among Australian-born drivers compared to 25.6 percent (95% CI, 23.1-28.2) among Asian-born drivers and 30.4 percent (95% CI, 28.4-32.5) among those born in other regions. Asian-born participants had half the risk of a crash as a driver than their Australian-born counterparts (relative risk [RR] 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) after adjusting for a number of demographic factors and driving and risk-taking behaviors. The comparative risk was even lower among those aged 17 years (RR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.29-0.75). Risk estimates for people born in other regions did not differ to those for Australian-born respondents. The study highlights the lower level of risky driving and significantly reduced crash risk for Australian drivers born in Asian countries relative to those born locally. Further research is needed to examine factors underlying this reduced risk and the impact of the length of residence in the host country.

  1. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  2. A longitudinal study of health outcomes for people released from prison in Fiji: the HIP-Fiji project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Stuart A; Winter, Rebecca; Saxton, Kate

    2015-12-01

    To examine the health of prisoners and ex-prisoners in Fiji, including risk behaviours, service access and HIV status. Longitudinal study of 198 men and women recruited prior to release from prison in Fiji, interviewed in the weeks preceding release, and again 1 and 4 months post-release. Dried blood spot samples taken at baseline were tested for HIV. Eighty percent of participants completed at least one follow-up interview. The prevalence of HIV was low (1%), despite evidence of widespread STI and BBV risk behaviours. A history of risky substance use was normative and more than a third reported high psychological distress prior to release. Fewer than one in four reported accessing health care within a month of release from prison. The health needs of this population are significant but differ in important ways from those of incarcerated populations in other countries. Further research is needed to inform evidence-based care for prisoners and ex-prisoners in Pacific Island nations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  4. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  7. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  9. Preventative Therapeutics: A Study of Risk and Prevention in Australian Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McLachlan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available his study investigates the preventative therapeutics of two major Australian mental health organisations - beyondblue and The Black Dog Institute. The aim of this study is to examine how the resilience-based programs of both organisations reconfigure clinical and preventative expertise into new forms of ‘anticipatory action' (Anderson 2010. First, this article situates beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute within their historical contexts to consider how issues of risk and protection have become essential to mental health care today. Second, it examines the institutional practices of beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute and the role of clinical and preventative expertise as enacted forms of authority. Finally, this study investigates the intellectual and biokeeping technologies promoted through both organisations“ resilience-based pedagogies. The view taken in this study is that such technologies actively participate in the making of new therapeutic cultures and practices. Moreover, as biomarkers continue to act as indicators of future states of ‘unhealth' (Dumit 2012: 112, biokeeping technologies will continue to act as essential elements in the governmentality of mental health and wellbeing.

  10. Australian and South African perspectives on the implementation of flexible work practices (Fwp: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta Odendaal

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify examples of good and innovative practices of Flexible Work Practices to benchmark against and then to use the information to develop strategies of implementation that will assist South African organisations to emulate their success. One hundred-and-twenty (120 individuals, representing different stakeholder groups were requested to complete a questionnaire, based on an Australian study. Comparative findings of both countries strongly confirmed variables that are positively associated with the adoption and successful implementation of Flexible Work Practices (FWP. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om voorbeelde van goeie en innoverende gebruike van Buigsame Werkspraktyke te identifiseer ten einde daarteen te kan vergelyk, en dan om hierdie inligting te gebruik ten einde implementeringstrategieë te ontwikkel wat Suid Afrikaanse maatskappye kan gebruik om sukses na te volg. Honderd en twintig (120 individue, wat verskillende belangegroepe verteenwoordig, is genader om ‘n vraelys, gebaseer op ‘n Australiese studie, te voltooi. Vergelykende bevindinge van beide lande bevestig veranderlikes wat positief geassosieer word met die aanvaarding en suksesvolle implementering van Buigsame Werkspraktyke (BWP.

  11. Health and lifestyle factors associated with sexual difficulties in men – results from a study of Australian men aged 18 to 55 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Schlichthorst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual difficulties (SD are common among men of all ages and can have considerable impact on quality of life and indications for future health. SD are associated with mental and physical wellbeing and with relationship satisfaction, yet they are rarely discussed with medical professionals who are often ill equipped to assess and manage them. This paper provides an updated overview on the status of SD in Australian men from 18 to 55 years of age and will form a baseline comparison for future analyses of SD based on Ten to Men data. Methods We used data from Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. SD was measured using eight items capturing specific sexual difficulties. We examined associations of a range of health and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, obesity and new sexual partners, self-rated health status, disability, pain medication, diagnosed physical and mental health conditions with each SD using logistic regression. The sample included 12,636 adult males who had previously been sexually active. Analysis was stratified by age (18–34 years versus 35–55 years. Results This paper shows that experiencing SD is relatively common among Australian men – overall half the sample (54 %; 95 % CI: 0.53–0.55 experienced at least one SD for more than 3 months over the past 12 months. While more common in older men aged 45 to 55 years, almost half the 18 to 24 year old men (48 % also reported at least one SD highlighting that SD affects men of all ages. We found that SDs were associated with both lifestyle and health factors, although the strongest associations were observed for health factors in both age groups, in particular poor self-rated health, having a disability and at least one mental health condition. Lifestyle factors associated with SDs in men of all ages included smoking, harmful alcohol consumption and drug use in the past 12 months. Obesity was

  12. Multicentre study of treatment outcomes in Australian adolescents and young adults commencing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischock, Leah; Kennedy, Sean E; Hayen, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of outcomes and complications of dialysis in adolescents and young adults (AYA) to inform decisions about dialysis modality in this patient population. Registry data on Australian AYA aged 13 to 20 years who commenced dialysis between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2013 were retrieved from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation Registry and analyzed to determine associations between demographic characteristics, dialysis modality and outcomes. During the study period 300 AYA commenced dialysis at a median age of 17.2 years (IQR 15.6 to 18.6 years). Haemodialysis (HD) was the initial dialysis modality in 201 patients (67%). No significant differences between AYA receiving HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD) were noted in patient gender, age, race, primary renal disease, treating centre type, remoteness of residential area, lateness of referral or period of study. Mean haemoglobin levels were lower in the HD group (P = 0.005) and significantly fewer HD patients attended school full time compared to patients managed on PD (P = 0.002 first year; P = 0.05 second year). Dialysis modality choice does not appear to be influenced by patient characteristics nor dialysis outcomes. Future research is required to examine the reasons that HD is preferred over PD and to determine the optimal method of dialysis for this age group. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. Can Australian radiographers assess screening mammograms accurately? First stage results from a four year prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, the role of the radiographer is changing; some countries have developed advanced roles with specific scopes of practice. Other countries, like Australia, are in the process of this change. The aim of this research is to assess the diagnostic outcomes reported by the radiographers and compare them to those reported by current screen readers. Method: Six experienced radiographers were invited to participate in a prospective study conducted between 2010 and 2011. They were required to read 2000 mammograms each. Their results were compared with those of the radiologists. Statistical analysis of the results included overall cancer detection rates, recall rates, levels of agreement, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Results: A total of 9348 women were included in the study. The percentage of cancers detected by the radiographers ranged from 53% to 100% of the cancers detected by the radiologists. Radiologist recall rate ranged between 3.4% and 5.5% and the radiographers' range was 2.9%–9.8%. Level of agreement of the radiographers with the radiologists ranged from 90 to 96%. Conclusion: The potential for accuracy in screen reading by Australian radiographers is supported by the results of this study. Implementation of formal training is likely to result in an increase in the diagnostic accuracy of radiographers. - Highlights: • Radiographers prospectively read 2000 screening mammograms each. • These results support potential for accuracy in screen reading by radiographers. • Will advanced practice be introduced within BreastScreen Australia?.

  14. Characteristics of effective interventions supporting quality pain management in Australian emergency departments: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Ramon Z; Holzhauser, Kerri; Gillespie, Kerri; Huckson, Sue; Bennetts, Scott

    2012-02-01

    It is well established that pain is the most common presenting complaint in Emergency Departments. Despite great improvements in available pain management strategies, patients are left waiting for longer than 60min for pain relief on arrival to the emergency department. The aim of this study was to describe interventions that lead to successful implementation of the National Health and Medical Research Council approved guidelines Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence (2nd Edition) that include specific recommendations for best practice pain management. A two-phased, mixed-method, exploratory study of all 52 Australian hospital emergency departments participating in the National Emergency Care Pain Management Initiative incorporating interview and document analysis was undertaken. Interventions used by clinicians to improve pain management included nurse initiated analgesia, intranasal fentanyl for paediatric patients and lignocaine, and facio illiaca block. Education formed a major part of the intervention and the development of a working group of key stakeholders was critical in the successful implementation of change. Staff perceptions of patients' pain level and attitudes toward pain assessment and pain management were identified as barriers. This study highlighted how an effective framework to plan and implement practice change and tailored interventions, including education and training systems and products using the best available evidence, best equipped clinicians to manage pain in the ED. Copyright © 2011 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  16. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  17. The Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Volunteering on Secondary School Completion and Adult Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and…

  18. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for Australian-born and non-Australian born women and associated pregnancy and birth outcomes: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene

    2015-11-09

    One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.

  19. Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Australian Native First Generation and Second Generation Biodiesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesels are a renewable energy source, and they have the potential to be used as alternatives to diesel fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear and friction characteristics of Australian native first generation and second generation biodiesels using a four-ball tribo tester. The biodiesel was produced through a two-step transesterification process and characterized according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards. The tribological experiment was carried out at a constant 1800 rpm and different loads and temperatures. In addition, the surface morphology of the ball was tested by scanning electron microscope (SEM/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis. The test results indicated that biodiesel fuels have a lower coefficient of frictions (COF and lower wear scar diameter (WSD up to 83.50% and 41.28%, respectively, compared to conventional diesel fuel. The worn surface area results showed that biodiesel fuel has a minimum percentage of C and O, except Fe, compared to diesel. In addition, the worn surface area for diesel was found (2.20%–27.92% to be higher than biodiesel. The findings of this study indicated that both first and second generation biodiesel fuels have better tribological performance than diesel fuel, and between the biodiesel fuels, macadamia biodiesel showed better lubrication performance.

  20. Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BETTY MAULIYA BUSTAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bustam BM (2010 Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics. Biodiversitas 11: 9-14. This research is one of many studies on stipoid grasses organized by the International Stipeae Working Group (ISWG. This research tested the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996 and tested how informative the micro morphological characters used. Data were collected from herbarium specimens of 36 species (33 species of Austrostipa, two species of Hesperostipa and one species of Anemanthele at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Twenty eight micro morphological characters were used. The data were collected from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of leaves, and from the lemma epidermis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. ISWG provided the molecular data. Parsimony analysis and a distance method (Unweighteic Pair Group with Arithmatic Mean: UPGMA were used to analyze mico morphological and molecular data separately. Only UPGMA analysis was used to analyze the combined data. The results support the monophyly of Austrostipa. However, there is a little support for the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996, other than for the consistent recognition of Falcatae. The characters for comparisons between genera are too homoplasious at this level and do not contain enough information for analyses at subgeneric level, a problem apparently shared with the DNA sequences.

  1. Research capacity building in midwifery: Case study of an Australian Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Lewis, Lucy; Bayes, Sara; Keyes, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Having the research capacity to identify problems, create new knowledge and most importantly translate this knowledge into practice is essential within health care. Midwifery, as well as other health professions in Australia, is challenged in building its research capacity to contribute evidence to inform clinical practice. The aim of this project was to evaluate an innovative Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme offered at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Western Australia, to determine what was working well and how the programme could be improved. A case study approach was used to gain feedback from graduate midwives within a Graduate Research Intern (GRI) Programme. In addition outcomes were compiled of all projects the GRI midwives contributed to. Six GRI midwives participated in a survey comprising of four open ended questions to provide feedback about the programme. Findings confirm that the GRI programme increased the graduates understanding of how research works, its capacity to define a problem, generate new knowledge and inform clinical practice. The GRI midwives' feedback suggested the programme opened their thinking to future study and gave them enhanced insight into women's experiences around childbirth. To grow our knowledge as a professional group, midwives must develop and promote programmes to build our pool of research capable midwives. By sharing our programme evaluation we hope to entice other clinical settings to consider the value in replicating such a programme within their context. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  3. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

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    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  4. Non-prescription treatment of NSAID induced GORD by Australian pharmacies: a national simulated patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Brett; Matthews, Andrew; Bergin, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    Patients regularly present to community pharmacies for advice about and treatment for reflux symptoms and NSAIDs are a common cause of these symptoms. There is no published literature detailing the approach that pharmacies take to these enquiries, the pharmacotherapy they recommend or whether they contribute to the safe and effective use of reflux medicines. To assess in an observational study design the clinical history gathering, recommendations for GORD management and counselling provided by community pharmacies in a simulated patient scenario involving suspected NSAID induced reflux symptoms. Setting Australian community pharmacies. Simulated patients visited 223 community pharmacies to request treatment for reflux symptoms. The interaction was audiotaped and assessed against guidelines for the treatment of reflux symptoms. Alignment of community pharmacies with international expert gastroenterologist guidance and national professional practice guidelines for the treatment of reflux symptoms by pharmacists including: consultation with a pharmacist; confirmation of reflux diagnosis based on symptoms; recommendation of short courses proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy; advice on the safe and effective use of reflux medicines and referral to a doctor for further assessment. Pharmacists consulted with the simulated patient in 77% of cases. Symptoms were enquired about in 95% of cases and a medicines history taken in 69% of cases. Recommendations for treatment included: PPIs (18%), histamine H2 antagonists (57%) and antacids (19%). Advice on product use was given in 83% of cases. Referral to a doctor to discuss reflux symptoms was made in 63% of cases. When assessing patients for the symptoms of GORD, Australian pharmacists and non-pharmacist support staff take a comprehensive history including symptomatology, duration of symptoms, concomitant medicines and medical conditions and any GORD treatments previously trialled. They provide comprehensive counselling on the

  5. A pilot study of the attitudes of Australian Rules footballers towards protective headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Zazryn, T

    2003-12-01

    Despite a relatively high risk of injury to participants of Australian Rules football, very few players report wearing protective equipment. The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a pilot survey of the attitudes of community-level Australian Rules football players towards protective headgear and the risk of head injury. Seventy players from four purposefully chosen clubs in metropolitan Melbourne completed a self-report questionnaire at the end of the 2000-playing season. Almost all players (91.4%) reported they did not wear protective headgear during the 2000 season. Non-headgear users said that headgear was too uncomfortable (47.4%) and they didn't like it (42.1%). However, 80.0% of non-users said they would wear it if it prevented injury. The major motivation for wearing headgear was to prevent injury. Players considered rugby, boxing and driving a car, to be associated with a higher-risk of head injury than Australian Rules football. As a group, the players perceived the risk of head injury in Australian Rules football to be low to moderate when compared to other sports and activities. This partially explains why so few players wore protective headgear. Repeat surveys on a larger sample should be conducted to further understand the attitudes towards protective headgear and perceptions of risk in community-level Australian football players.

  6. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

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    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning Context

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    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Although motivation has been one of the most commonly studied subjects in second and foreign language learning in recent decades, it still remains an enigma for learners and teachers. This longitudinal study aimed to follow a student (N = 1) studying German in both second and foreign language environment for three years. The study was descriptive,…

  8. Nutrition Education in Australian Midwifery Programmes: A Mixed-Methods Study

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    Jamila Arrish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little research has explored how nutrition content in midwifery education prepares midwives to provide prenatal nutrition advice. This study examined the nature and extent of nutrition education provided in Australian midwifery programmes. A mixed-methods approach was used, incorporating an online survey and telephone interviews. The survey analysis included 23 course coordinators representing 24 of 50 accredited midwifery programmes in 2012. Overall, the coordinators considered nutrition in midwifery curricula and the midwife’s role as important. All programmes included nutrition content; however, eleven had only 5 to <10 hours allocated to nutrition, while two had a designated unit. Various topics were covered. Dietitians/other nutrition experts were rarely involved in teaching or reviewing the nutrition content. Interviews with seven coordinators revealed that nutrition education tended to be problem-oriented and at times based on various assumptions. Nutrition content was not informed by professional or theoretical models. The development of nutrition assessment skills or practical training for midwifery students in providing nutrition advice was lacking. As nutrition is essential for maternal and foetal health, nutrition education in midwifery programmes needs to be reviewed and minimum requirements should be included to improve midwives’ effectiveness in this area. This may require collaboration between nutrition experts and midwifery bodies.

  9. Using Free Adoptions to Reduce Crowding and Euthanasia at Cat Shelters: An Australian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Heather M; Fontaine, Joseph B; Calver, Michael C

    2017-12-04

    Many healthy adult cats are euthanised annually in shelters, and novel approaches are required to reduce euthanasia rates. Waiving adoption fees is one such approach. However, concerns that less responsible owners will be attracted to free events persist among welfare groups. We evaluated evidence for differences in cat fate, health, and adherence to husbandry legislation via a case-study of a free adoption-drive for cats ≥1 year at a Western Australian shelter. Post-adoption outcomes were compared between free adopters and a control group of normal-fee adopters. The free adoption-drive rehomed 137 cats, increasing average weekly adoptions by 533%. First-time adopters were a significantly larger portion of the free cohort, as a result of mixed-media promotions. Both adopter groups selected cats of similar age; sex and pelage. Post-adoption, both groups retained >90% cats, reporting near identical incidences of medical and behavioural problems. Adopters did not differ in legislative compliance regarding fitting collars, registering cats, or allowing cats to roam. The shelter reported satisfaction with the adoption-drive, because in addition to relieving crowding of healthy adults, adoption of full-fee kittens increased 381%. Overall, we found no evidence for adverse outcomes associated with free adoptions. Shelters should not be dissuaded from occasional free adoption-drives during overflow periods.

  10. Using Free Adoptions to Reduce Crowding and Euthanasia at Cat Shelters: An Australian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Crawford

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many healthy adult cats are euthanised annually in shelters, and novel approaches are required to reduce euthanasia rates. Waiving adoption fees is one such approach. However, concerns that less responsible owners will be attracted to free events persist among welfare groups. We evaluated evidence for differences in cat fate, health, and adherence to husbandry legislation via a case-study of a free adoption-drive for cats ≥1 year at a Western Australian shelter. Post-adoption outcomes were compared between free adopters and a control group of normal-fee adopters. The free adoption-drive rehomed 137 cats, increasing average weekly adoptions by 533%. First-time adopters were a significantly larger portion of the free cohort, as a result of mixed-media promotions. Both adopter groups selected cats of similar age; sex and pelage. Post-adoption, both groups retained >90% cats, reporting near identical incidences of medical and behavioural problems. Adopters did not differ in legislative compliance regarding fitting collars, registering cats, or allowing cats to roam. The shelter reported satisfaction with the adoption-drive, because in addition to relieving crowding of healthy adults, adoption of full-fee kittens increased 381%. Overall, we found no evidence for adverse outcomes associated with free adoptions. Shelters should not be dissuaded from occasional free adoption-drives during overflow periods.

  11. Defining fitness to practise in Australian radiation therapy: A focus group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Caroline A.; Jolly, Brian; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Baird, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to investigate how Australian radiation therapists define fitness to practise. Method: A qualitative approach was taken to data collection with focus groups being employed to gather the data. Analysis was informed by grounded theory. Following ethics approval, three homogeneous focus groups were conducted comprising a total of 21 participants, with 5-8 participants per group. The discussions were transcribed, verified by the researcher and participants, then unitised, coded and a sample checked by a second coder. Findings: There was no consensus on the definition of fitness to practise. The terms professionalism and competence were used interchangeably in some definitions. Four themes emerged from the data, these were; fitness as a continuum (individual differences and longevity in the profession), fitness as behaviour and conduct (professionalism and competence), fitness as a state of mind (attitudes and intangible elements) and fitness as being qualified (course completion means fitness to practise). Three concepts which were not raised were illegal behaviour, impaired practice and dose errors. Conclusion: There is no consensus among radiation therapists about fitness to practise. There was confusion with how Fitness to practise relates to professionalism and competence with little mention of how impairment is interwoven into the notion of fitness to practise. Without an unambiguous definition and robust criteria, making the 'judgement call' as to whether a practitioners' fitness to practise is impaired will continue to be a challenge for educators, departmental managers and registration boards.

  12. Defining fitness to practise in Australian radiation therapy: A focus group study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Caroline A., E-mail: caroline.wright@med.monash.edu.a [Monash University, Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Clayton Campus, Wellington Road Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Jolly, Brian [Monash University, Centre for Medical and Health Sciences Education (Australia); Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Baird, Marilyn A. [Monash University, Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Clayton Campus, Wellington Road Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to investigate how Australian radiation therapists define fitness to practise. Method: A qualitative approach was taken to data collection with focus groups being employed to gather the data. Analysis was informed by grounded theory. Following ethics approval, three homogeneous focus groups were conducted comprising a total of 21 participants, with 5-8 participants per group. The discussions were transcribed, verified by the researcher and participants, then unitised, coded and a sample checked by a second coder. Findings: There was no consensus on the definition of fitness to practise. The terms professionalism and competence were used interchangeably in some definitions. Four themes emerged from the data, these were; fitness as a continuum (individual differences and longevity in the profession), fitness as behaviour and conduct (professionalism and competence), fitness as a state of mind (attitudes and intangible elements) and fitness as being qualified (course completion means fitness to practise). Three concepts which were not raised were illegal behaviour, impaired practice and dose errors. Conclusion: There is no consensus among radiation therapists about fitness to practise. There was confusion with how Fitness to practise relates to professionalism and competence with little mention of how impairment is interwoven into the notion of fitness to practise. Without an unambiguous definition and robust criteria, making the 'judgement call' as to whether a practitioners' fitness to practise is impaired will continue to be a challenge for educators, departmental managers and registration boards.

  13. Online Education Systems in Scandinavian and Australian Universities: A Comparative Study

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    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of online education systems in Norwegian, Swedish, and Australian universities. The online education systems discussed comprise content creation tools and systems for learning management, student management, and accounting. The author of this article arrives at the conclusion that there seems to be a general lack of integration between theses systems in all three countries. Further, there seems to be little focus on standards specifications such as IMS Global Learning Consortium (IMS and Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM in higher education in all three countries. It was found that both Norway and Sweden value the importance of nationally developed learning management systems and student management systems; however, this does not seem to be the case in Australia. There also seems to be much more national coordination and governmental coercion concerning the choice of student management systems used in Sweden and Norway, than is the case in Australia. Finally, with regard to online education, the most striking difference between these three countries is that of economic policy. In Australia, education is considered an important export industry. In Norway and Sweden, however, the export of education does not seem to be an issue for public discussion.

  14. The discourse of "social licence to operate": case study of the Australian wind industry

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    Nina L. Hall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social Licence to Operate is a concept from the mining industry that reflects the ongoing acceptance or approval for a development granted by local stakeholders. It is now being applied by wind farm developers. Using the Australian wind industry as a case study, this discourse analysis examined how Social Licence to Operate is perceived and operationalised, and the key themes in this conceptual and applied discourse. Discourse analysis acknowledges that language choices are not accidental and discourse reflects power relationships. The wind industry representatives interviewed considered power over the Social Licence to Operate was shared with community stakeholders. They recognised the stakeholders' power to delay or prevent projects, but rejected the notion that every stakeholder group should have veto power. Social Licence to Operate is seen by the wind industry through a business-oriented perspective, with an emphasis on business risk, and they describe the opposition to wind farms by invoking a metaphor of "battle". The industry respondents described Social Licence to Operate as incorporating the values of trust, transparency and participation—which all contribute to creating "authentic" relationships. These findings can inform Social Licence to Operate research, engagement practices, and also encourage reflection by industry representatives on their implicit intentions for stakeholder engagement.

  15. Fostering eGovernment as State Social Responsibility (SSR: Case Study of an Australian City Council

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    Sinara Rao Karna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available           Democracies around the world now face Citizen-apathy. This is a concern now more than ever faced by countries around the globe. eGovernment is undoubtedly a platform to deliberate and enable citizens regain confidence and faith in democratic  processes. Citizens now seek Verifiable, Open, Transparent, Empathetic, Responsive and Sensitive Electronic Democracy and Government (VOTERS EDG, Karna, 2012. Similar to corporate world, there are voices stressing on govenments for the need to understand the stakeholders, their involvement, relationships and responsibilities of a state in eGovernance. Citizens everywhere now demand Verifiable, Open, Transparent, Empathetic, Responsive and Sensitive Electronically Democratic Government as a State Social Responsibity (SSR. Peoples movements and outbursts against authorities with the help of Word of Mouse (Karna, 2012 have established that transparent and open governance is the need of the hour. This paper presents findings of the study conducted in an Australian City Council for preparing the city council for ‘City e-readiness’ to initiate e-Government activities. We propose the idea of ‘Centrality of Citizens’ in context of eGovernment. We further build upon the original concept of deeming eGovernment as ‘State Social Responsibility’ (SSR (Karna, 2010, by governments at all levels.  

  16. Teamwork: a study of Australian and US student speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Susan C; Lincoln, Michelle A; Reed, Vicki A

    2009-05-01

    In the discipline of speech-language pathology little is known about the explicit and implicit team skills taught within university curricula. This study surveyed 281 speech-language pathology students to determine a baseline of their perceived ability to participate in interprofessional teams. The students were enrolled in programs in Australia and the USA and were surveyed about their perceptions of their attitudes, knowledge and skills in teamwork. MANCOVA analysis for main effects of age, university program and clinical experience showed that age was not significant, negating the perception that life experiences improve perceived team skills. Clinical experience was significant in that students with more clinical experience rated themselves more highly on their team abilities. Post Hoc analysis revealed that Australian students rated themselves higher than their US counterparts on their knowledge about working on teams, but lower on attitudes to teams; all students perceived that they had the skills to work on teams. These results provide insight about teamwork training components in current speech-language pathology curricula. Implications are discussed with reference to enhancing university training programs.

  17. Process Philosophy and the Text-Image Interface: A Study of Three Western Australian Botanical Illustrators

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    John Charles Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical illustration combines scientific knowledge and artistic technique. However, whereas illustrated botanical images record static visual qualities, such as form and color, written botanical narratives supply crucial sensory, ecological, historical, and cultural contexts that complement visual representation. Understanding the text-image interface—where images and words intersect—contributes to humanities-based analyses of botanical illustration and illustrators. More specifically, a process philosophy perspective reveals the extent to which botanical representations engage the temporality, cyclicality, and contextuality of the living plants being illustrated. This article takes up these themes through a comparative theoretical study of three female Western Australian botanical illustrators, Georgiana Leake (1812–1869, Emily Pelloe (1877–1941, and Philippa Nikulinsky (born 1942, whose lives together span the 183 year history of the Swan River Colony and the state of Western Australia. I apply a processist framework to examine the text-image interface of their works. All three illustrators use some form of textuality: marginalia, annotations, written accompaniments, introductory statements, and other narrative materials. In examining their written commentaries and traces, I identify the emergence of a process mode of botanical illustration that represents plants as ecological, historical, cultural, and temporal organisms.

  18. A study of the presence of brominated flame retardants in Australian fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, R.; Burniston, D.; Piro, N.; Stevenson, G.; Yates, A. [Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, Sydney (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants, in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) gained prominence in the late nineties when Noren et al. reported an exponential increase in PBDE levels found in Swedish mothers milk over a quarter of a century period with an associated decrease in levels of dioxin-like compounds. PBDEs have since become exceptionally widely studied being detected in most environmental compartments and food as well as human tissues. Only limited information on the distribution if PBDEs is available for the Southern Hemisphere, however, elevated levels of PBDEs in pork fat were detected during the routine screening for organochlorine pesticide residues. More recently an investigation of breast milk for PBDE levels also demonstrated that levels were comparable with those in the Northern Hemisphere. BFRs are not manufactured in Australia but it has been estimated that over 500 tonnes are imported yearly of which 340 tonnes are PBDEs. In addition, the amount of PBDEs that are contained in imported articles used both in domestic and industrial applications is unknown. In this paper, we report levels of PBDEs in a range of different Australian fauna that show that these POPs have indeed become widely distributed both in terms of the types of the fauna but also the levels determined.

  19. Influenza-associated Encephalitis/Encephalopathy Identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis Study 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Philip N; Dale, Russell C; Blyth, Christopher C; Macartney, Kristine; Crawford, Nigel W; Marshall, Helen; Clark, Julia E; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Webster, Richard I; Cheng, Allen C; Booy, Robert; Jones, Cheryl A

    2017-11-01

    Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE) is an important cause of acute encephalitis syndrome in children. IAE includes a series of clinicoradiologic syndromes or acute encephalopathy syndromes that have been infrequently reported outside East Asia. We aimed to describe cases of IAE identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis study. Children ≤ 14 years of age with suspected encephalitis were prospectively identified in 5 hospitals in Australia. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and outcome at discharge data were reviewed by an expert panel and cases were categorized by using predetermined case definitions. We extracted cases associated with laboratory identification of influenza virus for this analysis; among these cases, specific IAE syndromes were identified where clinical and radiologic features were consistent with descriptions in the published literature. We identified 13 cases of IAE during 3 southern hemisphere influenza seasons at 5 tertiary children's hospitals in Australia; 8 children with specific acute encephalopathy syndromes including: acute necrotizing encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late diffusion restriction, mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion, and hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome. Use of influenza-specific antiviral therapy and prior influenza vaccination were infrequent. In contrast, death or significant neurologic morbidity occurred in 7 of the 13 children (54%). The conditions comprising IAE are heterogeneous with varied clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging changes, and outcomes. Overall, outcome of IAE is poor emphasizing the need for optimized prevention, early recognition, and empiric management.

  20. Australian primary school communities' understandings of SunSmart: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, Matthew; Wright, Bradley; Dudley, Dean; Cotton, Wayne; Brown, Alexandra

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer represents a major health issue for Australia. Childhood sun exposure is an important risk factor and evidence suggests the use of sun protection measures by Australian school children could be improved. This study examines how the SunSmart Program, a school-based skin cancer prevention resource, can be supported to further increase sun protection behaviours to assist in lowering skin cancer incidence. The Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework was adopted to select key stakeholders from a convenience sample of five school communities. Students, teaching staff and parents participated in semi-structured focus group and individual interviews. A thematic analysis was used to extract key themes from the data. Although these school communities were aware of sun protection practices and the risks associated with sun exposure, their understandings of the SunSmart Program were limited. Sun protection policy implementation was inconsistent and students were unlikely to engage in sun protection practices beyond the school setting. School communities require additional support and engagement to holistically enforce the principles of the SunSmart Program. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Work-related stress and reward: an Australian study of multidisciplinary pediatric oncology healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C

    2015-11-01

    Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Australian perioperative nurses' experiences of assisting in multi-organ procurement surgery: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zaneta; Leslie, Gavin; Wynaden, Dianne

    2015-03-01

    Multi-organ procurement surgical procedures through the generosity of deceased organ donors, have made an enormous impact on extending the lives of recipients. There is a dearth of in-depth knowledge relating to the experiences of perioperative nurses working closely with organ donors undergoing multi-organ procurement surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to address this gap by describing the perioperative nurses experiences of participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures and interpreting these findings as a substantive theory. This qualitative study used grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory of the experiences of perioperative nurses participating in multi-organ procurement surgery. Recruitment of participants took place after the study was advertised via a professional newsletter and journal. The study was conducted with participants from metropolitan, rural and regional areas of two Australian states; New South Wales and Western Australia. Thirty five perioperative nurse participants with three to 39 years of professional nursing experience informed the study. Semi structured in-depth interviews were undertaken from July 2009 to April 2010 with a mean interview time of 60 min. Interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study results draw attention to the complexities that exist for perioperative nurses when participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures reporting a basic social psychological problem articulated as hiding behind a mask and how they resolved this problem by the basic social psychological process of finding meaning. This study provides a greater understanding of how these surgical procedures impact on perioperative nurses by providing a substantive theory of this experience. The findings have the potential to guide further research into this challenging area of nursing practice with implications for clinical initiatives, management

  3. Attitudes to infant feeding decision-making--a mixed-methods study of Australian medical students and GP registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Wendy; Fallon, Tony; Jackson, Claire; Hegney, Desley

    2010-03-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health issue. While medical practitioners can have a significant impact on breastfeeding initiation and duration, there are few studies investigating their views regarding women's infant feeding decisions. This mixed-methods study employed qualitative (focus groups and interviews) and quantitative (questionnaire) data collection techniques to investigate the attitudes and views of Australian medical students and GP registrars about infant feeding decision-making. Three approaches to infant feeding decisions were evident: 'the moral choice' (women were expected to breastfeed); 'the free choice' (doctors should not influence a woman's decision); and 'the equal choice' (the outcome of the decision was unimportant). Participants were uncertain about differences between artificial-feeding and breastfeeding outcomes, and there was some concern that advising a mother to breastfeed may lead to maternal feelings of guilt and failure. These findings, the first in an Australian setting, provide a foundation on which to base further educational interventions for medical practitioners.

  4. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  5. Co-evolutionary organisational response development model (CORD): a case study of an Australian energy company climate change responses

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    The thesis reports an investigation of the effects of the complex, evolving relationships between organisations and their environments. This examination is a case study of the responses of an Australian energy company to effects of climate change, and aims to enhance understanding of how organisational responses to climate change develop and evolve over time.    The impact of climate change on the contemporary organisational environment has multiple aspects – natural, ec...

  6. DNA metabarcoding for diet analysis and biodiversity: A case study using the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea)

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Tina E.; Osterrieder, Sylvia K.; Murray, D?ith? C.; Coghlan, Megan L.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Grealy, Alicia K.; Stat, Michael; Bejder, Lars; Bunce, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The analysis of apex predator diet has the ability to deliver valuable insights into ecosystem health, and the potential impacts a predator might have on commercially relevant species. The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is an endemic apex predator and one of the world's most endangered pinnipeds. Given that prey availability is vital to the survival of top predators, this study set out to understand what dietary information DNA metabarcoding could yield from 36 sea lion scats...

  7. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education,

  8. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sang, B.; Deng, X.; Luan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion

  9. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  10. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by 7427 Australian women with cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carole; Adams, Jon; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David

    2016-05-18

    To assess the prevalence of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort and to detail the pattern of complementary and alternative (CAM) use adopted by women for the treatment of these symptoms. Data from the 2012 national Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) cross-sectional survey of 7427 women aged 34-39 years were analysed to estimate the prevalence of endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), irregular or heavy periods and severe dysmenorrhoea and to examine the association between their symptoms and their visits to CAM practitioners as well as their use of CAM therapies and products in the previous 12 months. The prevalence of endometriosis was 3.7 % and of the perimenstrual symptoms assessed, PMS was most prevalent at 41.2 % whilst irregular bleeding (22.2 %), heavy periods (29.8 %) and severe period pain (24.1 %) were reported at lower levels. Women with endometriosis were more likely than non-sufferers to have consulted with a massage therapist or acupuncturist and to have used vitamins/minerals, yoga/meditation or Chinese medicines (p alternative health practitioner and to have used all forms of CAM therapies except Chinese medicines than women who had infrequent PMS (all p medicines, Chinese medicines and other alternative therapies compared to non-sufferers (all p effective use and to ascertain their significance as a treatment option enabling women with menstrual problems and their care providers to improve their quality of life.

  11. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  12. Child and Family Antecedents of Pain During the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incledon, Emily; O'Connor, Meredith; Giallo, Rebecca; Chalkiadis, George A; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-11-01

    Pediatric persistent pain is associated with poorer physical and psychosocial functioning in children, as well as immediate and long-term societal costs. Onset typically occurs in early adolescence, suggesting that late childhood is a key window for identifying potential intervention targets before pain symptoms become entrenched. This study used population-based data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 3,812) and adopted a biopsychosocial and ecological systems approach to investigate child, family, and sociodemographic factors associated with pain problems in children transitioning to adolescence. The prevalence of at least weekly parent-reported pain in the study sample was approximately 5% at 10 to 11 years of age, and pain continued at 12 to 13 years of age for 40% of these children. Key factors at 10 to 11 years that uniquely predicted parent-reported pain problems at 12 to 13 years were frequency of previous pain (1-3 times weekly: odds ratio [OR] = 7.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3-13.0; 4-7 times weekly: OR = 17.8; 95% CI, 8.7-36.5) and sleep difficulties (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.97). This study highlights the importance of early intervention for persistent pain in childhood, because pain complaints in late childhood tend to persist into early adolescence. This article used a biopsychosocial and ecological systems approach to understanding predictors of pain problems during the transition to adolescence within a nationally representative community-based cohort. Sleep difficulties at 10 to 11 years uniquely predicted pain at ages 12 to 13 years, suggesting that early intervention using sleep interventions may be a promising direction for future research. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-existing adversity, level of child protection involvement, and school attendance predict educational outcomes in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Miriam J; Taylor, Catherine L; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Maltreatment largely occurs in a multiple-risk context. The few large studies adjusting for confounding factors have raised doubts about whether low educational achievement results from maltreatment or co-occurring risk factors. This study examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for low educational achievement among children involved with the child protection system compared to other children. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia who sat national Year 3 reading achievement tests between 2008 and 2010 (N=46,838). The longitudinal study linked data from the Western Australian Department of Education, Department of Child Protection and Family Support, Department of Health, and the Disability Services Commission. Children with histories of child protection involvement (unsubstantiated maltreatment reports, substantiations or out-of-home care placement) were at three-fold increased risk of low reading scores. Adjusting for socio-demographic adversity partially attenuated the increased risk, however risk remained elevated overall and for substantiated (OR=1.68) and unsubstantiated maltreatment (OR=1.55). Risk of low reading scores in the out-of-home care group was fully attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic adversity (OR=1.16). Attendance was significantly higher in the out-of-home care group and served a protective role. Neglect, sexual abuse, and physical abuse were associated with low reading scores. Pre-existing adversity was also significantly associated with achievement. Results support policies and practices to engage children and families in regular school attendance, and highlight a need for further strategies to prevent maltreatment and disadvantage from restricting children's opportunities for success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Institutional (mis)trust in colorectal cancer screening: a qualitative study with Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Javanparast, Sara; Wilson, Carlene; Meyer, Samantha B

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer mortality rate in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT), although uptake is low for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups. To present data on trust and mistrust in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake and thus to highlight areas in need of policy change. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia, involving interviews with 94 people from four CALD groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian, and Indigenous peoples. Our study highlights the complexities of institutional trust, which involves considerations of trust at interpersonal, local and national levels. In addition, trust and mistrust was found in more abstract systems such as the medical knowledge of doctors to diagnose or treat cancer or the scientific procedures in laboratories to test the FOBTs. The object of institutional (mis)trust differed between cultural groups - Anglo-Australian and Iranian groups indicated a high level of trust in the government, whereas Indigenous participants were much less trusting. The level and nature of trust in the screening process varied between the CALD groups. Addressing program misconceptions, clarifying the FOBT capabilities and involving medical services in collecting and transporting the samples may increase trust in the NBCSP. However, broader and more enduring mistrust in services and institutions may need to be dealt with in order to increase trust and participation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Parental exercise is associated with Australian children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between parental physical activity and children's physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been well studied in the Australian context. Given the increasing focus on physical activity and childhood obesity, it is important to understand correlates of children's physical activity. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exercise was associated with children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods The data were drawn from a nationally representative sample (n = 8,484 of 7–15 year old Australian schoolchildren, surveyed as part of the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey in 1985. A subset of 5,929 children aged 9–15 years reported their participation in extracurricular sports and their parents' exercise. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 1.6 km (1-mile run/walk and in addition for children aged 9, 12 or 15 years, using a physical work capacity test (PWC170. Results While the magnitude of the differences were small, parental exercise was positively associated with children's extracurricular sports participation (p p 170 (p = 0.013. In most instances, when only one parent was active, the sex of that parent was not an independent predictor of the child's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion Parental exercise may influence their children's participation in extracurricular sports and their cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Understanding the correlates of children's extracurricular sport participation is important for the targeting of health promotion and public health interventions, and may influence children's future health status.

  16. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Carragher, Natacha; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-11-18

    Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations.

  17. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been litt