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Sample records for australian indigenous population

  1. Social media and mobile apps for health promotion in Australian Indigenous populations: scoping review.

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    Brusse, Carl; Gardner, Karen; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle

    2014-12-10

    Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health promotion interventions, with a particular focus on the Australian context and on health promotion targeted toward an Indigenous audience. Specifically, our research questions were: (1) What is the peer-reviewed evidence of benefit for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management, and health service delivery, with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media? and (2) What social media and mobile software have been used in Indigenous-focused health promotion interventions in Australia with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, or otitis media, and what is the evidence of their effectiveness and benefit? We conducted a scoping study of peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of social media and mobile technologies in health promotion (globally) with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media. A scoping review was also conducted for Australian uses of social media to reach Indigenous Australians and mobile apps produced by Australian health bodies, again with respect to these three areas. The review identified 17 intervention studies and seven systematic reviews that met inclusion criteria, which showed limited evidence of benefit from these interventions. We also found five Australian projects with significant social media health components targeting the Indigenous Australian population for health promotion purposes, and four mobile software apps that met inclusion criteria. No evidence of benefit was found

  2. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

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    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  3. Bioscience-bioethics and life factors affecting reproduction with special reference to the Indigenous Australian population.

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    Pollard, Irina

    2005-04-01

    The demand for equality of recognition or respect is the dominant passion of modernity. The 20th century experienced a giant leap in technological inventiveness and ruthless use of technological power. In the 21st century, human welfare and environmental wellbeing demand fundamental political appraisal. We have the means, if we choose, to eradicate poverty and to responsibly protect the global environment. However, economic, political and cultural systems act to differentially allocate the benefits and risks for growth between socioeconomic groups. For example, it is a matter of pride that the neonatal mortality rate in affluent societies has dropped substantially since the late 1970s. However, the level of infant mortality (three times the national average) and low birthweight (13%) among the Indigenous Australian population is the highest in the country. With hindsight we now know that is the inevitable legacy of Australia's colonial history. Chronic physical and psychological stress is recognized as an important etiological factor in many lifestyle diseases of the cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems. Diseases of adaptation are further advanced by non-adaptive lifestyle choices, depression, alcoholism and other drug dependencies. This review describes the principles of bioscience ethics and targets equity issues as they affect human reproduction across generations with particular reference to the Indigenous population of Australia. The review also considers ways we may advance global and cultural maturity from the Indigenous Australian perspective and proposes an ecologically based model of preventative care. If we are to embrace fundamental social change and protect future children without threatening parents' basic freedoms, then new beliefs and priorities--based on a compassionate understanding of biological systems--must evolve from the general public. Belief in human rights arising from a sense of human dignity is a collective outcome originating

  4. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

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    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  5. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

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    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  6. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

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    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  7. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

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    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision.

  8. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

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    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  9. Spirometry reference values in Indigenous Australians: a systematic review.

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    Blake, Tamara L; Chang, Anne B; Petsky, Helen L; Rodwell, Leanne T; Brown, Michael G; Hill, Debra C; Thompson, Bruce; McElrea, Margaret S

    2016-07-04

    To evaluate published spirometry data for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples to determine (i) whether their ethnicity influenced spirometry results; and (ii) if any reliable spirometry reference values exist for Indigenous Australians. Systematic review of published and grey literature. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, references of included articles and appropriate grey literature. Last searches were conducted in April 2016. We included any study that performed spirometry on healthy Indigenous Australians and compared their results with those from people of European ancestry. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts and then reviewed potentially relevant full-text articles for possible inclusion. We used PRISMA systematic review reporting methods to collate data. Of a possible 125 studies, 18 full-text articles were reviewed, but only nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria. None specified Torres Strait Islander inclusion. All studies reported lower spirometry values (as much as 30% lower) for Aboriginal people compared with non-Indigenous people. Five studies developed spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians; however, none adhered to all participant inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. Hence, reported results and subsequent reference values may not be a true representation of spirometry values in healthy Indigenous people. The lower spirometry values reported for Indigenous Australians may be due to study limitations. Furthermore, there are currently no reliable spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians that adhere to current guidelines. Developing a set of Indigenous Australian reference values will improve the accuracy of test interpretation and aid in the diagnosis of respiratory disease in this population.

  10. Development of a single-frequency bioimpedance prediction equation for fat-free mass in an adult Indigenous Australian population.

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    Hughes, J T; Maple-Brown, L J; Piers, L S; Meerkin, J; O'Dea, K; Ward, L C

    2015-01-01

    To describe the development of a single-frequency bioimpedance prediction equation for fat-free mass (FFM) suitable for adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with and without diabetes or indicators of chronic kidney disease (CKD). FFM was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 147 adult Indigenous Australians. Height, weight, body circumference and resistance were also measured. Adults with and without diabetes and indicators of CKD were examined. A random split sample with internal cross-validation approach was used to predict and subsequently validate FFM using resistance, height, weight, age and gender against measured FFM. Among 147 adults with a median body mass index of 31 kg/m(2), the final model of FFM was FFM (kg)=0.432 (height, cm(2)/resistance, ohm)-0.086 (age, years)+0.269 (weight, kg)-6.422 (if female)+16.429. Adjusted R(2) was 0.94 and the root mean square error was 3.33 kg. The concordance was high (rc=0.97) between measured and predicted FFM across a wide range of FFM (31-85 kg). In the context of the high burden of diabetes and CKD among adult Indigenous Australians, this new equation for FFM was both accurate and precise and based on easily acquired variables (height, weight, age, gender and resistance) among a heterogeneous adult cohort.

  11. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

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    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  12. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

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    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  13. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

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    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  14. Diabetic retinopathy in a remote Indigenous primary healthcare population: a Central Australian diabetic retinopathy screening study in the Telehealth Eye and Associated Medical Services Network project.

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    Brazionis, L; Jenkins, A; Keech, A; Ryan, C; Brown, A; Boffa, J; Bursell, S

    2018-05-01

    To determine diabetic retinopathy prevalence and severity among remote Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional diabetic retinopathy screening study of Indigenous adults with Type 2 diabetes was conducted by locally trained non-ophthalmic retinal imagers in a remote Aboriginal community-controlled primary healthcare clinic in Central Australia and certified non-ophthalmic graders in a retinal grading centre in Melbourne, Australia. The main outcome measure was prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Among 301 participants (33% male), gradable image rates were 78.7% (n = 237) for diabetic retinopathy and 83.1% (n = 250) for diabetic macular oedema, and 77.7% (n = 234) were gradable for both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. For the gradable subset, the median (range) age was 48 (19-86) years and known diabetes duration 9.0 (0-24) years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 47% (n = 110) and for diabetic macular oedema it was 14.4% (n = 36). In the fully gradable imaging studies, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy prevalence was 16.2% (n = 38): 14.1% (n = 33) for clinically significant macular oedema, 1.3% (n = 3) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.9% (n = 2) for both. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy had been treated in 78% of detected cases. A novel telemedicine diabetic retinopathy screening service detected a higher prevalence of 'any' diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a remote primary care setting than reported in earlier surveys among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Whether the observed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was attributable to greater detection, increasing diabetic retinopathy prevalence, local factors, or a combination of these requires further investigation and, potentially, specific primary care guidelines for diabetic retinopathy management in remote Australia. Clinical Trials registration number: Australia and

  15. Indigenous Australians and Preschool Education: Who Is Attending?

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    Biddle, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the individual, family, household and area level characteristics associated with preschool attendance for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (aged three to five years who are not at school). Controlling for these factors explains all of the difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous attendance rates for…

  16. Injury prevention in Australian Indigenous communities.

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    Ivers, Rebecca; Clapham, Kathleen; Senserrick, Teresa; Lyford, Marilyn; Stevenson, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Injury prevention in Indigenous communities in Australia is a continuing national challenge, with Indigenous fatality rates due to injury three times higher than the general population. Suicide and transport are the leading causes of injury mortality, and assault, transport and falls the primary causes of injury morbidity. Addressing the complex range of injury problems in disadvantaged Indigenous communities requires considerable work in building or enhancing existing capacity of communities to address local safety issues. Poor data, lack of funding and absence of targeted programs are some of the issues that impede injury prevention activities. Traditional approaches to injury prevention can be used to highlight key areas of need, however adaptations are needed in keeping with Indigenous peoples' holistic approach to health, linked to land and linked to community in order to address the complex spiritual, emotional and social determinants of Indigenous injury.

  17. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

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    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  18. Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

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    Thomas David P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, national smoking prevalence has successfully fallen below 20%, but remains about 50% amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous tobacco control is framed by the idea that nothing has worked and a sense of either despondency or the difficulty of the challenge. Methods This paper examines the trends in smoking prevalence of Australian Indigenous men and women aged 18 and over in three large national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2002 and 2004. Results From 1994 to 2004, Indigenous smoking prevalence fell by 5.5% and 3.5% in non-remote and remote men, and by 1.9% in non-remote women. In contrast, Indigenous smoking prevalence rose by 5.7% in remote women from 1994 to 2002, before falling by 0.8% between 2002 and 2004. Male and female Indigenous smoking prevalences in non-remote Australia fell in parallel with those in the total Australian population. The different Indigenous smoking prevalence trends in remote and non-remote Australia can be plausibly explained by the typical characteristics of national tobacco epidemic curves, with remote Indigenous Australia just at an earlier point in the epidemic. Conclusion Reducing Indigenous smoking need not be considered exceptionally difficult. Inequities in the distribution of smoking related-deaths and illness may be reduced by increasing the exposure and access of Indigenous Australians, and other disadvantaged groups with high smoking prevalence, to proven tobacco control strategies.

  19. Measuring cancer in indigenous populations.

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    Sarfati, Diana; Garvey, Gail; Robson, Bridget; Moore, Suzanne; Cunningham, Ruth; Withrow, Diana; Griffiths, Kalinda; Caron, Nadine R; Bray, Freddie

    2018-05-01

    It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples. This, in turn, may result in a deprioritization of cancer-related programs and policies among these populations. This commentary describes key issues relating to cancer surveillance among indigenous populations including 1) suboptimal identification of indigenous populations, 2) numerator-denominator bias, 3) problems with data linkage in survival analysis, and 4) statistical analytic considerations. We suggest solutions that can be implemented to strengthen the visibility of indigenous peoples around the world. These include acknowledgment of the central importance of full engagement of indigenous peoples with all data-related processes, encouraging the use of indigenous identifiers in national and regional data sets and mitigation and/or careful assessment of biases inherent in cancer surveillance methods for indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

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    Cunningham Joan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to

  1. Drug and alcohol use and treatment for Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous prisoners: demand reduction strategies.

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    Dolan, Kate; Rodas, Ana; Bode, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the use of drugs and alcohol by Indigenous and non-Indigenous prisoners and examine relevant treatment in Australian prisons. Prison authorities were surveyed about alcohol and drug use by prisoners prior to and during imprisonment and drug and alcohol treatment programs in prison. The literature was review for information on alcohol and drug use and treatment in Australian prisons. In 2009, over 80 percent of Indigenous and non-Indigenous inmates smoked. Prior to imprisonment, many Indigenous and non-Indigenous inmates drank alcohol at risky levels (65 vs 47 percent) and used illicit drugs (over 70 percent for both groups). Reports of using heroin (15 vs 21 percent), ATS (21 vs 33 percent), cannabis (59 vs 50 percent) and injecting (61 vs 53 percent) were similarly high for both groups. Prison-based programs included detoxification, Opioid Substitution Treatment, counselling and drug free units, but access was limited especially among Indigenous prisoners. Drug and alcohol use was a significant issue in Australian prisons. Prisoners were over five times more likely than the general population to have a substance use disorder. Imprisonment provides an important opportunity for rehabilitation for offenders. This opportunity is especially relevant to Indigenous prisoners who were more likely to use health services when in prison than in the community and given their vast over representations in prison populations. Given the effectiveness of treatment in reducing re-offending rates, it is important to expand drug treatment and especially culturally appropriate treatment programs for Indigenous inmates. Very little is known about Indigenous specific drug and alcohol programs in Australian prisons.

  2. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

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    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. Gender Gaps in Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes: Australian Regional Comparisons and International Possibilities

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    Nicholas Biddle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australian Census, this paper provides an analysis across three dimensions of socioeconomic disparity: Indigeneity, gender, and geography. This paper also explores the development of a similar gender-related index as a tool to enable a relative ranking of the performance of Indigenous males and females at the regional level across a set of socioeconomic outcomes.The initial findings suggest that although there is a substantial development gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, the development loss from gender-related inequality for Indigenous Australians is relatively small. Higher life expectancy and education attainment for Indigenous females balances out their slightly lower earnings to a large extent. At the regional level, Indigenous females tend to fare better than Indigenous males for the set of indicators chosen; and, this is particularly true in capital cities.

  4. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

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    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  5. “Looking back to my family”: Indigenous Australian patients’ experience of hemodialysis

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    Anderson Kate

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In common with Indigenous populations elsewhere, Indigenous Australians have higher incidence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD, but lower transplantation rates than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Understanding how the demands of dialysis impact on, and are impacted by, the lives of Indigenous patients may provide important insight into treatment pathways and decision-making. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in 2005–06 with 146 Indigenous and 95 non-Indigenous patients from nine hospital renal wards and 17 associated dialysis centres, which together treat the majority of Indigenous Australian ESKD patients. Results Factors influencing treatment experience included: the impacts of late diagnosis; family separations associated with relocating for treatment; the physical and psychosocial demands of hemodialysis; and ineffective communication between health care providers and patients. Although not unique to them, Indigenous patients were more likely to experience the combined effect of all factors. Conclusions Social/situational circumstances profoundly affect Indigenous Australian dialysis patients’ ability to fully engage with treatment. This may ultimately affect their likelihood of receiving optimal treatment, including transplantation. Areas for improvement include: earlier diagnosis; improved linkages between specialist renal services and primary care in regional settings; more effective communication and patient education; and more systematic, transparent approaches to patient “compliance” in transplant and home dialysis guidelines.

  6. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

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    Adam A. Lucero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Māori, and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for Māori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors.

  7. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

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    Thomas Merlin C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  8. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

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    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  9. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

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    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  10. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2018-04-11

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intention among Indigenous Western Australians

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    Christou Aliki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are significantly less likely to participate in colorectal cancer (CRC screening compared to non-Indigenous people. This study aimed to identify important factors influencing the decision to undertake screening using Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT among Indigenous Australians. Very little evidence exists to guide interventions and programmatic approaches for facilitating screening uptake in this population in order to reduce the disparity in colorectal cancer outcomes. Methods Interviewer-administered surveys were carried out with a convenience sample (n = 93 of Indigenous Western Australians between November 2009-March 2010 to assess knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behavioural intent in regard to CRC and CRC screening. Results Awareness and knowledge of CRC and screening were low, although both were significantly associated with exposure to media advertising (p = 0.008; p  Conclusions Improving CRC related knowledge and confidence to carry out the FOBT self-screening test through education and greater promotion of screening has the potential to enhance Indigenous participation in CRC screening. These findings should guide the development of interventions to encourage screening uptake and reduce bowel cancer related deaths among Indigenous Australians.

  12. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

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    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  13. Culture and personality disorder: a focus on Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran; Janca, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    To examine the validity of concept and diagnosis of personality disorder in transcultural settings using Indigenous Australian people as an example. There are significant deficits in comparative research on personality disorders across cultures. There is also a dearth of information regarding Indigenous Australians, and cultural applicability and clinical utility of the diagnosis of personality disorder in this group. The concept of culture is generally ignored when making a diagnosis of personality disorder. A valid diagnosis should incorporate what would be considered understandable and adaptive behavior in a person's culture. In Indigenous Australian culture, making diagnosis of a personality disorder is complicated by historical trauma from colonization, disruption of kinship networks, and ongoing effects of poverty and social marginalization.

  14. High rates of albuminuria but not of low eGFR in Urban Indigenous Australians: the DRUID Study

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    Zimmet Paul Z

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have an incidence of end stage kidney disease 8-10 times higher than non-Indigenous Australians. The majority of research studies concerning Indigenous Australians have been performed in rural or remote regions, whilst the majority of Indigenous Australians actually live in urban settings. We studied prevalence and factors associated with markers of kidney disease in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort, and compared results with those for the general Australian population. Methods 860 Indigenous adult participants of the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID Study were assessed for albuminuria (urine albumin-creatinine ratio≥2.5 mg/mmol males, ≥3.5 mg/mmol females and low eGFR (estimated glomular filtration rate 2. Associations between risk factors and kidney disease markers were explored. Comparison was made with the AusDiab cohort (n = 8,936 aged 25-64 years, representative of the general Australian adult population. Results A high prevalence of albuminuria (14.8% was found in DRUID, whilst prevalence of low eGFR was 2.4%. Older age, higher HbA1c, hypertension, higher C-reactive protein and current smoking were independently associated with albuminuria on multiple regression. Low eGFR was independently associated with older age, hypertension, albuminuria and higher triglycerides. Compared to AusDiab participants, DRUID participants had a 3-fold higher adjusted risk of albuminuria but not of low eGFR. Conclusions Given the significant excess of ESKD observed in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous Australians, these findings could suggest either: albuminuria may be a better prognostic marker of kidney disease than low eGFR; that eGFR equations may be inaccurate in the Indigenous population; a less marked differential between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians for ESKD rates in urban compared to remote regions; or that differences in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease exist

  15. Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program

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    Condon John R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.

  16. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

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    Kelaher Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %. The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA. Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help.

  17. The contribution of geography to disparities in preventable hospitalisations between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Timothy C; Randall, Deborah A; Falster, Michael O; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.

  18. Exploring Positive Survivorship Experiences of Indigenous Australian Cancer Patients

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    Tam, Laura; Garvey, Gail; Meiklejohn, Judith; Martin, Jennifer; Adams, Jon; Walpole, Euan; Fay, Michael; Valery, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Amongst Indigenous Australians, “cancer” has negative connotations that detrimentally impact upon access to cancer care services. Barriers to accessing cancer services amongst Indigenous Australians are widely reported. In contrast, factors that facilitate this cohort to successfully navigate cancer care services (“enablers”) are scarcely reported in the literature. Through qualitative interviews, this article examines factors that assist Indigenous Australians to have positive cancer experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve adult Indigenous oncology patients recruited from a tertiary hospital in Queensland, Australia during 2012–2014. Data generated from the interviews were independently reviewed by two researchers via inductive thematic analytical processes. Discussions followed by consensus on the major categories allowed conclusions to be drawn on potential enablers. Two major categories of enablers were identified by the researchers: resilience and communication. Individual’s intrinsic strength, their coping strategies, and receipt of support improved participant’s resilience and consequently supported a positive experience. Communication methods and an effective patient-provider relationship facilitated positive experiences for participants. Despite potential barriers to access of care for Indigenous cancer patients, participants in the study demonstrated that it was still possible to focus on the positive aspects of their cancer experiences. Many participants explained how cancer changed their outlook on life, often for the better, with many feeling empowered as they progressed through their cancer diagnosis and treatment processes. PMID:29342934

  19. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  20. Otitis media in Indigenous Australian children: review of epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis-Bardy, Jake; Sanchez, L; Carney, A S

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media represents a major health concern in Australian Indigenous children ('Indigenous children'), which has persisted, despite public health measures, for over 30 years. Global searches were performed to retrieve peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature investigating the epidemiology of and risk factors for otitis media in Indigenous children, published between 1985 and 2012. In Indigenous children, the prevalence of otitis media subtypes is 7.1-12.8 per cent for acute otitis media, 10.5-30.3 per cent for active chronic otitis media and 31-50 per cent for tympanic membrane perforation. The initial onset of otitis media in Indigenous children occurs earlier and persists for longer after the first year of life, compared with non-Indigenous children. Indigenous children are colonised by otopathogens more frequently, at younger ages and with a higher bacterial load. Poor community and domestic infrastructure, overcrowding and exposure to tobacco smoke increase the risk of otitis media in Indigenous children; however, the availability of swimming pools plays no role in the prevention or management of otitis media. Despite awareness of the epidemiological burden of otitis media and its risk factors in Indigenous children, studies undertaken since 1985 demonstrate that otitis media remains a significant public health concern in this population.

  1. Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport: The Perils of the ‘Panacea’ Proposition

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    John Robert Evans

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The argument that participation in sport among disadvantaged populations can produce positive outcomes in wide range of areas has been a consistent theme in academic literature. It is argued that sport participation can promote women’s empowerment, sexuality, lifestyle, peacemaking, youth development, poverty reduction and conflict resolution. Similarly, in Australia, participation in sport among Indigenous Australians has been proffered as a ‘panacea’ for many Indigenous problems; from promoting better health and education outcomes, to encouraging community building, good citizenship and entrepreneurship. Parallel to this has been a focus on documenting and analysing sport participation among Indigenous Australians in elite sport which often concludes that Indigenous Australians have an innate and ‘natural ability’ in sports. These two assumptions, first, that sport participation can help realise a wide range of positive social outcomes; and second, that Indigenous Australians are natural athletes, have driven significant public investment in numerous sport focused programs. This paper questions these assumptions and outlines some of the challenges inherent with an emphasis on sport as a solution to Indigenous disadvantage. We highlight how participation in sport has often been tied to ambitious, ill-defined and, in terms of evaluation, often elusive social outcome goals. Second, we also argue that there is limited research to indicate that participation in either elite or grassroots level sport has led to any discernible social progress in addressing inequality. We contrast historical Indigenous participation in a range of sporting codes to demonstrate the influence of factors beyond the ‘natural ability’ and ‘born to play’ propositions. Finally, we outline six ‘perils’ associated with viewing sport as a panacea; including how privileging sport can not only perpetuate disadvantage by reinforcing stereotypes and also

  2. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

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    Katzenellenbogen Judith M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating

  3. Assessment of Fetal Kidney Growth and Birth Weight in an Indigenous Australian Cohort

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    Christopher J. Diehm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of renal disease and hypertension than non-Indigenous Australians. Low birth weight is recognized as a contributing factor in chronic disease and has been shown to increase the risk of renal failure in adulthood. A smaller kidney volume with fewer nephrons places an individual at risk of hypertension and renal failure. Indigenous Australians have fewer nephrons than non-Indigenous Australians. In this study, intrauterine fetal and kidney growth were evaluated in 174 Indigenous Australian babies throughout gestation in order to record and evaluate fetal growth and kidney size, within a population that is at high risk for chronic illness.Methods: Pregnant women that identified as Indigenous, or non-Indigenous women that were pregnant with a partner who identified as an Indigenous Australian were eligible to participate. Maternal history, smoking status, blood and urine samples and fetal ultrasounds were collected throughout pregnancy. Fetal kidney measurements were collected using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using the Stata 14.1 software package.Results: 15.2% of babies were born prematurely. 44% of the mothers reported smoking in pregnancy. The median birth weight of this cohort was 3,240 g. Male fetuses had higher kidney to body weight ratios than female fetuses (P = 0.02. The birth weights of term neonates whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were lower (327 g, P < 0.001 than the birth weights of term babies from non-smoking mothers. The kidney volumes of babies whose mothers smoked were also smaller (P = 0.02, but were in proportion to body weight.Conclusion: In this cohort of Indigenous women smoking was associated with both increased number of preterm births and with a reduction in birth weights, even of term infants. Since kidney volume is a surrogate measure of nephron number and nephrogenesis is complete at birth, babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy

  4. Culture and healthy lifestyles: a qualitative exploration of the role of food and physical activity in three urban Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Ruth; Stanley, Rebecca; Probst, Yasmine; McMahon, Anne

    2017-08-01

    1) To explore the links between Indigenous Australian children's perspectives on culture, and healthy lifestyle behaviours. 2) To provide insight into how to approach the development of a health intervention targeting lifestyle behaviours in Australian Indigenous children. Seven semi-structured focus groups sessions were conducted with Australian Indigenous children aged 5-12 years living on the South Coast of New South Wales. Audio-recordings were transcribed and thematic analyses were conducted and related to principles of grounded theory. Participants had connections to aspects of Australian Indigenous culture that were embedded in their everyday lives. Healthy lifestyle behaviours (such as healthy eating and physical activity) were found to be interconnected with Australian Indigenous culture and positive emotional wellbeing was identified as an important outcome of connecting Australian Indigenous children to cultural practices. Understanding the importance of culture and its role in healthy lifestyles is critical in the development of health interventions for Indigenous populations. Health interventions embedded with Australian Indigenous culture may have potential to improve physical and emotional health within Australian Indigenous communities. However, it is unlikely that a 'one size fits all' approach to health interventions can be taken. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Proposing a health promotion framework to address gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities.

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    Fogarty, Marisa; Coalter, Nicola; Gordon, Ashley; Breen, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Gambling impacts affect Australian Indigenous families and communities in diverse and complex ways. Indigenous people throughout Australia engage in a broad range of regulated and unregulated gambling activities. Challenges in this area include the complexities that come with delivering services and programmes between the most remote regions, to highly populated towns and cities of Australia. There is little knowledge transfer between states and territories in Australia and no conceptual understanding or analysis of what constitutes 'best practice' in gambling service delivery for Indigenous people, families and communities. This article reviews health promotion approaches used in Australia, with a particular focus on Indigenous and gambling-based initiatives. Contributing to this review is an examination of health promotion strategies used in Indigenous gambling service delivery in the Northern Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia, demonstrating diversity and innovation in approaches. The article concludes by emphasizing the potential value of adopting health promotion strategies to underpin programme and service delivery for addressing gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. However, success is contingent on robust, evidence-based programme design, implementation and evaluation that adhere to health promotion principles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Age at Which Indigenous Australians Undertake Qualifications: A Descriptive Analysis

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    Biddle, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Reducing disparities in education outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is one of the main ways in which the relative disadvantage Indigenous Australians face will be overcome. Relative and absolute participation rates in all forms of education have improved, however they are still unacceptably low. Those Indigenous…

  7. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

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    Panagiotopoulos Sianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity in indigenous Australian children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Suzanne Marie; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Smithers, Lisa Gaye; Davy, Carol; Coleman, Dylan T; Street, Jackie Mary

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-based profiling of obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australian children has been poor. This study systematically reviewed evidence of the prevalence and patterns of obesity/overweight, with respect to gender, age, remoteness, and birth weight, in Indigenous Australian children, 0-18 years (PROSPERO CRD42014007626). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty-five publications (21 studies) met inclusion criteria, with large variations in prevalence for obesity or overweight (11 to 54%) reported. A high degree of heterogeneity in study design was observed, few studies (6/21) were representative of the target population, and few appropriately recruited Indigenous children (8/21). Variability in study design, conduct, and small sample sizes mean that it is not possible to derive a single estimate for prevalence although two high-quality studies indicate at least one in four Indigenous Australian children are overweight or obese. Four of six studies reporting on gender, found overweight/obesity higher in girls and eight studies reporting on overweight/obesity by age suggest prevalence increases with age with one high quality large national study reporting total overweight/obesity as 22.4% of children aged 2-4 years, 27.5% of those aged 5-9, 38.5% aged 10-14, and 36.3% aged 15-17. Three of four studies, reporting obesity/overweight by region, found lower rates for children living in more remote areas than urban areas.

  9. Gender Gaps in Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes: Australian Regional Comparisons and International Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Biddle; Mandy Yap

    2010-01-01

    International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australia...

  10. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

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    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  11. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

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    Cunningham Joan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5, and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25. Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI 12.9-16.0% versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%. After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio

  12. Microbiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children: review.

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    Jervis-Bardy, J; Carney, A S; Duguid, R; Leach, A J

    2017-07-01

    To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. Literature review. Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx. Culture-based middle-ear discharge studies have found that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae predominate, with Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in a lower proportion of samples. Alloiococcus otitidis was detected in a number of studies; however, its role in otitis media pathogenesis remains controversial. Nasopharyngeal colonisation is a risk factor for otitis media in Indigenous infants, and bacterial load of otopathogens in the nasopharynx can predict the ear state of Indigenous children. Most studies have used culture-based methods and specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx. Findings from these studies are consistent with international literature, but reliance on culture may incorrectly characterise the microbiology of this condition. Advances in genomic technologies are now providing microbiologists with the ability to analyse the entire mixed bacterial communities ('microbiomes') of samples obtained from Indigenous children with otitis media.

  13. Enhanced primary mental healthcare for Indigenous Australians: service implementation strategies and perspectives of providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifels, Lennart; Nicholas, Angela; Fletcher, Justine; Bassilios, Bridget; King, Kylie; Ewen, Shaun; Pirkis, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Improving access to culturally appropriate mental healthcare has been recognised as a key strategy to address the often greater burden of mental health issues experienced by Indigenous populations. We present data from the evaluation of a national attempt at improving access to culturally appropriate mental healthcare for Indigenous Australians through a mainstream primary mental healthcare program, the Access to Allied Psychological Services program, whilst specifically focusing on the implementation strategies and perspectives of service providers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 service providers (primary care agency staff, referrers, and mental health professionals) that were analysed thematically and descriptively. Agency-level implementation strategies to enhance service access and cultural appropriateness included: the conduct of local service needs assessments; Indigenous stakeholder consultation and partnership development; establishment of clinical governance frameworks; workforce recruitment, clinical/cultural training and supervision; stakeholder and referrer education; and service co-location at Indigenous health organisations. Dedicated provider-level strategies to ensure the cultural appropriateness of services were primarily aimed at the context and process of delivery (involving, flexible referral pathways, suitable locations, adaptation of client engagement and service feedback processes) and, to a lesser extent, the nature and content of interventions (provision of culturally adapted therapy). This study offers insights into key factors underpinning the successful national service implementation approach. Study findings highlight that concerted national attempts to enhance mainstream primary mental healthcare for Indigenous people are critically dependent on effective local agency- and provider-level strategies to optimise the integration, adaptation and broader utility of these services within local Indigenous community and

  14. Sleep schedules and school performance in Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Sarah; Magee, Chris; Attard, Kelly; Clarkson, Larissa; Caputi, Peter; Skinner, Timothy

    2018-04-01

    Sleep duration and sleep schedule variability have been related to negative health and well-being outcomes in children, but little is known about Australian Indigenous children. Data for children aged 7-9 years came from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children and the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Latent class analysis determined sleep classes taking into account sleep duration, bedtimes, waketimes, and variability in bedtimes from weekdays to weekends. Regression models tested whether the sleep classes were cross-sectionally associated with grade 3 NAPLAN scores. Latent change score modeling then examined whether the sleep classes predicted changes in NAPLAN performance from grades 3 to 5. Five sleep schedule classes were identified: normative sleep, early risers, long sleep, variable sleep, and short sleep. Overall, long sleepers performed best, with those with reduced sleep (short sleepers and early risers) performing the worse on grammar, numeracy, and writing performance. Latent change score results also showed that long sleepers performed best in spelling and writing and short sleepers and typical sleepers performed the worst over time. In this sample of Australian Indigenous children, short sleep was associated with poorer school performance compared with long sleep, with this performance worsening over time for some performance indicators. Other sleep schedules (eg, early wake times and variable sleep) also had some relationships with school performance. As sleep scheduling is modifiable, this offers opportunity for improvement in sleep and thus performance outcomes for these and potentially all children. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Visual Impairment and All-Cause 10-Year Mortality Among Indigenous Australian Individuals Within Central Australia: The Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soo Khai; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas Howard; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie Evan; Landers, John

    2018-05-01

    It is well established from different population-based studies that visual impairment is associated with increased mortality rate. However, to our knowledge, the association of visual impairment with increased mortality rate has not been reported among indigenous Australian individuals. To assess the association between visual impairment and 10-year mortality risk among the remote indigenous Australian population. Prospective cohort study recruiting indigenous Australian individuals from 30 remote communities located within the central Australian statistical local area over a 36-month period between July 2005 and June 2008. The data were analyzed in January 2017. Visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination were performed on all patients at recruitment. Visual impairment was defined as a visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Mortality rate and mortality cause were obtained at 10 years, and statistical analyses were performed. Hazard ratios for 10-year mortality with 95% confidence intervals are presented. One thousand three hundred forty-seven patients were recruited from a total target population number of 2014. The mean (SD) age was 56 (11) years, and 62% were women. The total all-cause mortality was found to be 29.3% at 10 years. This varied from 21.1% among those without visual impairment to 48.5% among those with visual impairment. After adjustment for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension, those with visual impairment were 40% more likely to die (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70; P = .001) during the 10-year follow-up period compared with those with normal vision. Bilateral visual impairment among remote indigenous Australian individuals was associated with 40% higher 10-year mortality risk compared with those who were not visually impaired. Resource allocation toward improving visual acuity may therefore aid in closing the gap in mortality outcomes between indigenous and nonindigenous Australian

  16. Physical activity among indigenous Australian children and youth in remote and non-remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John Robert; Wilson, Rachel; Coleman, Clare; Man, Wing Young Nicola; Olds, Tim

    2018-04-17

    Sport and physical activity (PA) hold particular significance in Australian Indigenous communities, and have the potential to address many of the health and education challenges faced by Indigenous communities. Optimal levels of PA are an important foundation in efforts to build healthy communities and reduce social disadvantage experienced to date. Yet little evidence relating to the current levels of PA within these communities, or the relationship between PA and outcomes, has been available. Drawing on national survey data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, we examine levels of PA in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13. These data describe PA levels among Indigenous Australians, aged 5-17 years, in remote and non-remote communities. We also examine the relationship between PA and participation in education and self-reported health among 15-17 year olds. Overall, participation rates appear to be high, with 64-84% of youth reporting at least 60 min of PA on the previous day. A gender gap was also evident, with lower levels of activity among girls. PA decreased with age, particularly at or around the age of puberty. There were no significant associations between PA and either self-reported health or engagement in study. There was a relationship between high PA and low area-level socio-economic status in remote areas, but no association in non-remote areas. The differences between remote and non-remote areas highlight the importance of disaggregated analysis of Indigenous populations and are consistent with qualitative studies identifying locally contextualised factors influential in promoting PA. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jasmine G; O'Dea, Kerin; Walker, Karen Z

    2014-06-02

    Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia's Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a particularly adverse CVD risk factor profile. An absence of sex dichotomy in HDL-C levels warrants further investigation.

  18. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

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    Johnston Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young people with a particular emphasis on the social and cultural processes that underlie tobacco use patterns among this group. Methods This project was undertaken in northern Australia. We undertook group interviews with 65 participants and individual in-depth interviews with 11 youth aged 13–20 years led by trained youth ‘peer researchers.’ We also used visual methods (photo-elicitation with individual interviewees to investigate the social context in which young people do or do not smoke. Included in the sample were a smaller number of non-Indigenous youth to explore any significant differences between ethnic groups in determinants of early smoking experiences. The theory of triadic influence, an ecological model of health behaviour, was used as an organising theory for analysis. Results Family and peer influences play a central role in smoking uptake among Indigenous youth. Social influences to smoke are similar between Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth but are more pervasive (especially in the family domain among Indigenous youth. While Indigenous youth report high levels of exposure to smoking role models and smoking socialisation practices among their family and social networks, this study provides some indication of a progressive denormalisation of smoking among some Indigenous youth. Conclusions Future initiatives aimed at preventing smoking uptake in this population need to focus on changing social normative beliefs around smoking, both at a

  19. Supervision Provided to Indigenous Australian Doctoral Students: A Black and White Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The number of Indigenous Australians completing doctoral qualifications is disparately below their non-Indigenous contemporaries. Whilst there has been a steady increase in Indigenous completions in recent years, significant work remains to redress the imbalance. Supervision has been identified as a primary influencer of the likely success of…

  20. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  1. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  2. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden. PMID:26633456

  3. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Green

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1 overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2 extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3 no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  4. Study Protocol: establishing good relationships between patients and health care providers while providing cardiac care. Exploring how patient-clinician engagement contributes to health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in South Australia

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    Roe Yvette L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies that compare Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous patients who experience a cardiac event or chest pain are inconclusive about the reasons for the differences in-hospital and survival rates. The advances in diagnostic accuracy, medication and specialised workforce has contributed to a lower case fatality and lengthen survival rates however this is not evident in the Indigenous Australian population. A possible driver contributing to this disparity may be the impact of patient-clinician interface during key interactions during the health care process. Methods/Design This study will apply an Indigenous framework to describe the interaction between Indigenous patients and clinicians during the continuum of cardiac health care, i.e. from acute admission, secondary and rehabilitative care. Adopting an Indigenous framework is more aligned with Indigenous realities, knowledge, intellects, histories and experiences. A triple layered designed focus group will be employed to discuss patient-clinician engagement. Focus groups will be arranged by geographic clusters i.e. metropolitan and a regional centre. Patient informants will be identified by Indigenous status (i.e. Indigenous and non-Indigenous and the focus groups will be convened separately. The health care provider focus groups will be convened on an organisational basis i.e. state health providers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. Yarning will be used as a research method to facilitate discussion. Yarning is in congruence with the oral traditions that are still a reality in day-to-day Indigenous lives. Discussion This study is nestled in a larger research program that explores the drivers to the disparity of care and health outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who experience an acute cardiac admission. A focus on health status, risk factors and clinical interventions may camouflage critical issues within a patient

  5. Recent patterns in chronic disease mortality in remote living Indigenous Australians

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    Andreasyan K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the well-recognised Indigenous-non-Indigenous health disparity, some reports suggest improvements in Indigenous mortality. Our aim was to quantify Indigenous mortality in Outer Regional (OR, Remote (R, and Very Remote (VR areas in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory and changes in mortality from 1998 to 2005. Methods We calculated rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs and percentage change in annual rates of Indigenous cardiovascular, diabetes and renal mortality mentioned anywhere on the death certificate by using ICD-10 codes and the 2001 total Australian population as the reference population. Results In 1998-2001, Indigenous SMRs for all-cause mortality were 241%, 421% and 220% in OR, R and VR, respectively. In 2001-03, corresponding SMRs were 202%, 331% and 176%. Percentage changes (95% confidence interval in annual all-cause mortality were -3.0% (-5.3%, -0.7% in OR, -4.2% (-7.4%, -0.9% in R and -0.5 (-9.1%, -0.7% in VR. In 2002-2005, compared with 1998-2001, changes in the number of Indigenous deaths were -147, -195, and -197 in OR, R and VR, respectively. Similar patterns and trends were observed for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Mortality was elevated about 2-fold in OR, 4-fold in R and 2-fold in VR areas. The downward trend in mortality regardless of remoteness of residence was partly attributable to a decrease in the absolute number of deaths. These patterns were observed for each of the states/territories individually.

  6. Understanding food security issues in remote Western Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.

  7. Early Life Predictors of Increased Body Mass Index among Indigenous Australian Children.

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    Katherine A Thurber

    Full Text Available Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to be obese and experience chronic disease in adulthood--conditions linked to being overweight in childhood. Birthweight and prenatal exposures are associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI in other populations, but the relationship is unclear for Indigenous children. The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children is an ongoing cohort study of up to 1,759 children across Australia. We used a multilevel model to examine the association between children's birthweight and BMI z-score in 2011, at age 3-9 years, adjusted for sociodemographic and maternal factors. Complete data were available for 682 of the 1,264 children participating in the 2011 survey; we repeated the analyses in the full sample with BMI recorded (n=1,152 after multilevel multiple imputation. One in ten children were born large for gestational age, and 17% were born small for gestational age. Increasing birthweight predicted increasing BMI; a 1-unit increase in birthweight z-score was associated with a 0.22-unit (95% CI:0.13, 0.31 increase in childhood BMI z-score. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant increase (0.25; 95% CI:0.05, 0.45 in BMI z-score. The multiple imputation analysis indicated that our findings were not distorted by biases in the missing data. High birthweight may be a risk indicator for overweight and obesity among Indigenous children. National targets to reduce the incidence of low birthweight which measure progress by an increase in the population's average birthweight may be ignoring a significant health risk; both ends of the spectrum must be considered. Interventions to improve maternal health during pregnancy are the first step to decreasing the prevalence of high BMI among the next generation of Indigenous children.

  8. Colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intention among Indigenous Western Australians.

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    Christou, Aliki; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-07-18

    Indigenous Australians are significantly less likely to participate in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening compared to non-Indigenous people. This study aimed to identify important factors influencing the decision to undertake screening using Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT) among Indigenous Australians. Very little evidence exists to guide interventions and programmatic approaches for facilitating screening uptake in this population in order to reduce the disparity in colorectal cancer outcomes. Interviewer-administered surveys were carried out with a convenience sample (n = 93) of Indigenous Western Australians between November 2009-March 2010 to assess knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behavioural intent in regard to CRC and CRC screening. Awareness and knowledge of CRC and screening were low, although both were significantly associated with exposure to media advertising (p = 0.008; p < 0.0001). Nearly two-thirds (63%; 58/92) of respondents reported intending to participate in screening, while a greater proportion (84%; 77/92) said they would participate on a doctor's recommendation. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression demonstrated that independent predictors of screening intention were, greater perceived self-efficacy (OR = 19.8, 95% CI = 5.5-71.8), a history of cancer screening participation (OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 2.0-23.3) and being aged 45 years or more (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.2-16.5). A higher CRC knowledge score (medium vs. low: OR = 9.9, 95% CI = 2.4-41.3; high vs. low: 13.6, 95% CI = 3.4-54.0) and being married or in a de-facto relationship (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 2.1-22.5) were also identified as predictors of intention to screen with FOBT. Improving CRC related knowledge and confidence to carry out the FOBT self-screening test through education and greater promotion of screening has the potential to enhance Indigenous participation in CRC screening. These findings should guide the development of interventions to encourage screening uptake and

  9. Engaging Indigenous Students in the Australian SKA Project

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    Hollow, Robert; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Brooks, Kate; Boddington, Leonie

    2015-08-01

    The Murchison region of Western Australia is the site of the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) that includes the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) and soon the SKA. This is also traditional land of the Wajarri Yamatji people. As part of its development in the region CSIRO has extensive engagement with the Wajarri Yamatji people. This includes educational, cultural, training and commercial opportunities. We outline the Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) between the Wajarri Yamatji and CSIRO, focusing on the educational and training aspects. Starting with "Wildflowers in the Sky" program in 2006 we have made extensive tours to all schools in the region providing teacher training and student engagement. More recently we have implemented a program where CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science staff visit the Pia Wadjarri Remote Community School, the closest school to the MRO, to mentor students. Students and staff from the school visit the MRO annually to explore the ASKAP telescope and see what is involved in its operation. An educational resource about ASKAP and astronomy that also incorporates traditional sky stories and local ecology is being trialled and developed. A cadetship and trainee program supporting Indigenous students has been implemented with the goal of providing employment opportunities and work skills in a diverse range of areas.

  10. Globalising Aboriginal Reconciliation: Indigenous Australians and Asian (Japanese Migrants

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    Minoru Hokari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, I have attended several political meetings concerned with the refugee crisis, multiculturalism or Indigenous rights in Australia, meetings at which liberal democratic–minded ‘left-wing’ people came together to discuss, or agitate for change in, governmental policies. At these meetings, I always found it difficult to accept the slogans on their placards and in their speeches: ‘Shame Australia! Reconciliation for a united Australia’, ‘Wake up Australia! We welcome refugees!’ or ‘True Australians are tolerant! Let’s celebrate multicultural Australia!’ My uncomfortable feeling came not only from the fact that I was left out because of my Japanese nationality but also because I had never seen or heard words like ‘shame Japan’, ‘wake up Japan’ or ‘true Japanese are ...’ at Japanese ‘left-wing’ political gatherings. In Japan, these are words used only by right-wing nationalists. Indeed it is difficult to even imagine liberal-left intellectuals in postwar Japan calling for a ‘true Japanese’ political response (as if such a response was positive, such is the extent to which the idea of ‘good nationalism’ is now regarded as an oxymoron. This is my starting point for an essay in which I want to be attentive to the different roles played by national(ism in the Japanese and Australian political environments.

  11. Sleep and academic performance in Indigenous Australian children from a remote community: an exploratory study.

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    Cooper, Patrick; Kohler, Mark; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Disruptions to sleep in childhood are associated with poor behaviour and deficits in academic performance and executive function. Although academic performance of indigenous children from remote communities in Australia is documented as well below that of non-indigenous children, the extent of sleep disruption and its contribution to academic performance among this population has not been assessed. This pilot study aimed to objectively assess the sleep of remote indigenous children and the association between sleep disruption and both academic performance and executive function. Twenty-one children from a remote Australian indigenous community aged 6-13 years wore actigraphy for two consecutive nights, reported subjective sleepiness, and were objectively assessed for academic performance (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition) and executive function (NEuroloPSYcological Assessment-II). Results show marked reduction in sleep time, sleep fragmentation, academic performance and auditory attention compared with non-indigenous norms. Sleep duration was not associated with performance, possibly because of reduced sleep and performance observed across the entire group. Sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced reading and numerical skills (P sleep of indigenous children in remote communities is an important area of future inquiry, and our initial findings of poor sleep and an association between sleep disruption and academic performance may have important implications for intervention strategies aimed at 'closing the gap'. Further studies should assess a broader range of demographic, social and economic factors to better understand the associations reported here and guide future intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Population and Australian development assistance.

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    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  13. Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse : Evidence from the 2006 Census

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Nicholas; Yap, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Across almost all standard indicators, the Indigenous population of Australia has worse outcomes than the non-Indigenous population. Despite the abundance of statistics and a plethora of government reports on Indigenous outcomes, there is very little information on how Indigenous disadvantage accumulates or is mitigated through time at the individual level. The research that is available highlights two key findings. Firstly, that Indigenous disadvantage starts from a very early age and widens...

  14. When a Dream Becomes a Nightmare: Why Do Indigenous Australian Medical Students Withdraw from Their Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellender, Isabel; Drysdale, Marlene; Chesters, Janice; Faulkner, Susan; Kelly, Heather; Turnbull, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates reasons Indigenous Australian medical students gave for leaving their courses prior to graduation. Indigenous students who had withdrawn or deferred from their medical courses were asked about the barriers and disincentives that had dissuaded them from graduating. Although the response rate to the questionnaire was very…

  15. Making Sense of "Their" Sense of Place: Australian Children's Literature Landscape on Indigenous Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Gearing, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Australian children's literature has traditionally provided a space for colonial Australia to perpetuate ideas about segregation, assimilation, and reconciliation. Children's literature offers a complex medium for readers, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to question and challenge prevalent attitudes, in particular, the notion of…

  16. Pre-Service Teachers' Pedagogical Relationships and Experiences of Embedding Indigenous Australian Knowledge in Teaching Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Victor; Whatman, Susan; McLaughlin, Juliana; Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues from the standpoint that embedding Indigenous knowledge and perspectives in Australian curricula occurs within a space of tension, "the cultural interface", in negotiation and contestation with other dominant knowledge systems. In this interface, Indigenous knowledge is in a state of constancy and flux, invisible and…

  17. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vino, Thiripura; Singh, Gurmeet R; Davison, Belinda; Campbell, Patricia T; Lydeamore, Michael J; Robinson, Andrew; McVernon, Jodie; Tong, Steven Y C; Geard, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  18. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases

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    Thiripura Vino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  19. The importance and challenges of assessing cognition in Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Kylie; Cairney, Sheree

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the importance and challenges involved in conducting serial cognitive assessments among healthy Indigenous adolescents. Cognitive assessments were conducted at fortnightly intervals for 2 months and again at 6 and 12 months among a group of Indigenous students from a boarding school in the Northern Territory. These students were to be the healthy control group in a long-term study of substance abuse. Recruitment and attrition rates were reviewed and related challenges for assessing participants were identified. From the recruited sample (n=49), 18% reported heavy or frequent use of alcohol, cannabis or petrol. Males were more likely to have used these substances compared to females. Attrition increased as the follow-up interval increased with 49 recruits reducing to 32 in the first 2 months and only 15 and 13 of the initial group remaining for the 6 and 12 month follow-ups respectively. Main challenges included (i) appropriateness of tests and assessment processes, (ii) high rates of substance abuse and other illness in the control group and (iii) high attrition rates. The importance of assessing cognition appropriately is highlighted by a lack of information regarding mental health issues in Indigenous populations.

  20. An exploratory study of cannabis withdrawal among Indigenous Australian prison inmates: study protocol.

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    Rogerson, Bernadette; Copeland, Jan; Buttner, Petra; Bohanna, India; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Clough, Alan R

    2013-05-28

    Cannabis use and dependence is a serious health and criminal justice issue among incarcerated populations internationally. Upon abrupt, enforced cessation of cannabis, prisoners may suffer irritability and anger that can lead to threatening behaviour, intimidation, violence, sleep disturbances and self-harm. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome, proposed for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, has not been examined in Indigenous populations. Owing to the exceptionally high rates of cannabis use in the community, high proportions of Australian Indigenous prisoners may suffer from withdrawal upon entry to custody. 60 male and 60 female Indigenous prisoners (18-40 years) at a high risk of cannabis dependence will be recruited upon entry to custody. A pictorial representation of the standard Cannabis Withdrawal Scale will be tested for reliability and validity. Cortisol markers will be measured in saliva, as the indicators of onset and severity of cannabis withdrawal and psychological distress. The characteristics will be described as percentages and mean or median values with 95% CI. Receiver operator curve analysis will determine an ideal cut-off of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and generalised estimating equations modelling will test changes over time. The acceptability and efficacy of proposed resources will be assessed qualitatively using thematic analysis. A valid and reliable measure of cannabis withdrawal for use with Indigenous populations, the onset and time course of withdrawal symptoms in this population and the development of culturally acceptable resources and interventions to identify and manage cannabis withdrawal. The project has been approved by the James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number H4651).The results will be reported via peer reviewed publications, conference, seminar presentations and on-line media for national and international dissemination.

  1. Indigenous Australians, Intellectual Disability and Incarceration: A Confluence of Rights Violations

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    Claire E. Brolan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reviews the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians with intellectual disability in the Australian prison system through a human rights lens. There is an information gap on this group of Australian prisoners in the health and disability literature and the multi-disciplinary criminal law and human rights law literature. This article will consider the context of Indigenous imprisonment in Australia and examine the status of prisoner health in that country, as well as the status of the health and wellbeing of prisoners with intellectual disability. It will then specifically explore the health, wellbeing and impact of imprisonment on Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability, and highlight how intersectional rights deficits (including health and human rights deficits causally impact the ability of Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability to access due process, equal recognition and justice in the criminal justice and prison system. A central barrier to improving intersectional and discriminatory landscapes relating to health, human rights and justice for Indigenous Australian inmates with intellectual disability, and prisoners with intellectual disability more broadly in the Australian context, is the lack of sufficient governance and accountability mechanisms (including Indigenous-led mechanisms to enforce the operationalisation of consistent, transparent, culturally responsive, rights-based remedies.

  2. Ten-year all-cause mortality and its association with vision among Indigenous Australians within Central Australia: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ebony; Ng, Soo K; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas H; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2017-05-01

    No studies to date have explored the association of vision with mortality in Indigenous Australians. We aimed to determine the 10-year all-cause mortality and its associations among Indigenous Australians living in Central Australia. Prospective observational cohort study. A total of 1257 (93.0%) of 1347 patients from The Central Australian Ocular Health Study, over the age of 40 years, were available for follow-up during a 10-year period. All-cause mortality and its associations with visual acuity, age and gender were analysed. All-cause mortality. All-cause mortality was 29.3% at the end of 10 years. Mortality increased as age of recruitment increased: 14.2% (40-49 years), 22.6% (50-59 years), 50.3% (60 years or older) (χ = 59.15; P < 0.00001). Gender was not associated with mortality as an unadjusted variable, but after adjustment with age and visual acuity, women were 17.0% less likely to die (t = 2.09; P = 0.037). Reduced visual acuity was associated with increased mortality rate (5% increased mortality per one line of reduced visual acuity; t = 4.74; P < 0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes and hypertension. The 10-year all-cause mortality rate of Indigenous Australians over the age of 40 years and living in remote communities of Central Australia was 29.3%. This is more than double that of the Australian population as a whole. Mortality was significantly associated with visual acuity at recruitment. Further work designed to better understand this association is warranted and may help to reduce this disparity in the future. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-02-12

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. A linked data set of women aged 20-69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999-2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997-2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995-2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20-69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. There were 28,872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76,831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1,372,823 women (PSR n=1,374,401; QCR n=1955), and 5,062,118 records. Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study highlights the need to include Indigenous status on Pap smear request and report forms in any

  4. Reduced nephron endowment in the neonates of Indigenous Australian peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Y; Smith, R; Wright, I M R; Lumbers, E R

    2014-02-01

    Rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Indigenous groups in Australia exceed non-Indigenous rates eight-fold. Using kidney volume as a surrogate for nephron number, we carried out a study to determine if Indigenous neonates have a smaller kidney volume (and thus a reduced nephron number) from birth compared with non-Indigenous neonates. We recruited term and preterm neonates (Indigenous) and 39 term (13 Indigenous) neonates. TKV of Indigenous neonates was significantly lower at 32 weeks [12.0 (2.0) v. 15.4 (5.1) ml; P=0.03] and 38 weeks CA [18.6 (4.0) v. 22.6 (5.9) ml; P=0.04] respectively. Term Indigenous neonates also had smaller kidney volumes compared with non-Indigenous neonates. Despite a smaller kidney volume (and reduced nephron number), Indigenous neonates did not have a significantly lower eGFR. Indigenous neonates achieve similar eGFRs to Non-Indigenous neonates, presumably through a higher single nephron filtration rate. This places Indigenous neonates at a greater risk of long-term kidney damage later in life.

  5. Factors Affecting the Retention of Indigenous Australians in the Health Workforce: A Systematic Review

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    Genevieve C. Lai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians are under-represented in the health workforce. The shortfall in the Indigenous health workforce compounds the health disparities experienced by Indigenous Australians and places pressure on Indigenous health professionals. This systematic review aims to identify enablers and barriers to the retention of Indigenous Australians within the health workforce and to describe strategies to assist with development and retention of Indigenous health professionals after qualification. Four electronic databases were systematically searched in August 2017. Supplementary searches of relevant websites were also undertaken. Articles were screened for inclusion using pre-defined criteria and assessed for quality using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. Fifteen articles met the criteria for inclusion. Important factors affecting the retention of Indigenous health professionals included work environment, heavy workloads, poorly documented/understood roles and responsibilities, low salary and a perception of salary disparity, and the influence of community as both a strong personal motivator and source of stress when work/life boundaries could not be maintained. Evidence suggests that retention of Indigenous health professionals will be improved through building supportive and culturally safe workplaces; clearly documenting and communicating roles, scope of practice and responsibilities; and ensuring that employees are appropriately supported and remunerated. The absence of intervention studies highlights the need for deliberative interventions that rigorously evaluate all aspects of implementation of relevant workforce, health service policy, and practice change.

  6. Indigenous Rights and the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process

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    Andrew Gunstone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.

  7. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

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    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people, whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  8. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  9. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  10. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  11. Child-Caregiver Interaction in Two Remote Indigenous Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eVaughan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As

  12. Effect of socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Indigenous status on hospital usage for Western Australian preterm infants under 12 months of age: a population-based data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-01-18

    Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Prospective population-based linked data set. All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Unequal treatment: the possibilities of and need for indigenous parrhesiastes in Australian medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Shaun C

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the unacceptably poor levels of Indigenous health in Australia, the very low levels of representation (As at 2009, approximately 140 Indigenous medical graduates Australia wide) of Indigenous people within the medical field, and the potential for parrhesia (translated as "fearless speech") to challenge the medical hegemony, and as a tool of self-care for Indigenous medical students. This paper outlines the elements that make up parrhesia, the current state of Australian Indigenous (ill) health and Indigenous participation in the Australian health workforce, with some international comparison. Using Huckaby's (Educ Phil Theor 40: 770-788, 2008) conceptualization of specific parrhesiastic scholars, the paper introduces the idea of an Indigenous parrhesiastes. The paper then discusses, and endeavors to briefly address three questions that Foucault articulated in his series of lectures on parrhesia in 1983: "How can we recognize someone as a parrhesiastes? What is the importance of having a parrhesiastes in the city? What is the training of a good parrhesiastes?" (Foucault, http://foucault.info/documents/parrhesia/, 1985). In conclusion, this paper shows that Indigenous parrhesiastes could make a strong and positive contribution to medicine and medical education.

  14. Cancer Services and Their Initiatives to Improve the Care of Indigenous Australians

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    Emma V. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians continue to experience significantly poorer outcomes from cancer than non-Indigenous Australians. Despite the importance of culturally appropriate cancer services in improving outcomes, there is a lack of awareness of current programs and initiatives that are aimed at meeting the needs of Indigenous patients. Telephone interviews were used to identify and describe the Indigenous-specific programs and initiatives that are implemented in a subset of the services that participated in a larger national online survey of cancer treatment services. Fourteen services located across Australia participated in the interviews. Participants identified a number of factors that were seen as critical to delivering culturally appropriate treatment and support, including having a trained workforce with effective cross-cultural communication skills, providing best practice care, and improving the knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of cancer by Indigenous people. However, over a third of participants were not sure how their service compared with others, indicating that they were not aware of how other services are doing in this field. There are currently many Indigenous-specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at providing culturally appropriate treatment and supporting Indigenous people affected by cancer across Australia. However, details of these initiatives are not widely known and barriers to information sharing exist. Further research in this area is needed to evaluate programs and initiatives and showcase the effective approaches to Indigenous cancer care.

  15. Reducing the health disparities of Indigenous Australians: time to change focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-06-10

    Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of 'White', Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers' past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role 'Whiteness' plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised racism was manifest when Indigenous patients incorporated racist

  16. Reducing the health disparities of Indigenous Australians: time to change focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durey Angela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of ‘White’, Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Methods Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers’ past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Results Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role ‘Whiteness’ plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised

  17. "Re-Casting Terra Nullius Design-Blindness": Better Teaching of Indigenous Knowledge and Protocols in Australian Architecture Education

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    Tucker, Richard; Choy, Darryl Low; Heyes, Scott; Revell, Grant; Jones, David

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status and focus of Australian Architecture programs with respect to Indigenous Knowledge and the extent to which these tertiary programs currently address reconciliation and respect to Indigenous Australians in relation to their professional institutions and accreditation policies. The paper draws upon the findings…

  18. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

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    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in

  19. The burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations: a systematic review and global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Melina; Moore, Suzanne P; Hassler, Sven; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie

    2014-01-01

    Stomach cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, especially in developing countries. Incidence has been associated with poverty and is also reported to disproportionately affect indigenous peoples, many of whom live in poor socioeconomic circumstances and experience lower standards of health. In this comprehensive assessment, we explore the burden of stomach cancer among indigenous peoples globally. The literature was searched systematically for studies on stomach cancer incidence, mortality and survival in indigenous populations, including Indigenous Australians, Maori in New Zealand, indigenous peoples from the circumpolar region, native Americans and Alaska natives in the USA, and the Mapuche peoples in Chile. Data from the New Zealand Health Information Service and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to estimate trends in incidence. Elevated rates of stomach cancer incidence and mortality were found in almost all indigenous peoples relative to corresponding non-indigenous populations in the same regions or countries. This was particularly evident among Inuit residing in the circumpolar region (standardised incidence ratios (SIR) males: 3.9, females: 3.6) and in Maori (SIR males: 2.2, females: 3.2). Increasing trends in incidence were found for some groups. We found a higher burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations globally, and rising incidence in some indigenous groups, in stark contrast to the decreasing global trends. This is of major public health concern requiring close surveillance and further research of potential risk factors. Given evidence that improving nutrition and housing sanitation, and Helicobacter pylori eradication programmes could reduce stomach cancer rates, policies which address these initiatives could reduce inequalities in stomach cancer burden for indigenous peoples.

  20. Identification of antibacterial constituents from the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Eremophila duttonii F. Muell. (Myoporaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua E; Tucker, David; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2007-06-13

    This paper reports on the isolation and identification of antibacterial constituents from the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Eremophila duttonii F. Muell. (Myoporaceae). Preparations derived from this plant are used by indigenous populations in the topical treatment of minor wounds, otitis and ocular complaints, and as a gargle for sore throat. Several authors have reported extracts of this plant to effect rapid bacteriolysis and inhibit growth of a wide range of Gram-positive micro-organisms. In other studies involving screening of native medicinal plants for antibacterial activity, extracts of Eremophila duttonii have been reported to consistently exhibit the highest potency amongst all species included. From a hexane extract, we identified two diterpenes of the serrulatane class, the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity and present as major constituents of the resinous leaf cuticle: serrulat-14-en-7,8,20-triol (1) and serrulat-14-en-3,7,8,20-tetraol (2). In addition, a hydroxylated furanosesquiterpene with mild antibacterial activity which appeared to be a novel compound was isolated from the extract and tentatively identified as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5-methyl[2,3'-bifuran]-5-yl) pentan-2-one. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for each of the compounds against three Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ARL 10582), were determined using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay.

  1. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2017-04-05

    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in Australia's indigenous population.

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    Ong, Katherine S; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo; Kelaher, Margaret; Anderson, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of disease burden in Australia's Indigenous population, and the greatest contributor to the Indigenous 'health gap'. Economic evidence can help identify interventions that efficiently address this discrepancy. Five interventions (one community-based and four pharmacological) to prevent cardiovascular disease in Australia's Indigenous population were subject to economic evaluation. Pharmacological interventions were evaluated as delivered either via Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services or mainstream general practitioner services. Cost-utility analysis methods were used, with health benefit measured in disability-adjusted life-years saved. All pharmacological interventions produced more Indigenous health benefit when delivered via Indigenous health services, but cost-effectiveness ratios were higher due to greater health service costs. Cost-effectiveness ratios were also higher in remote than in non-remote regions. The polypill was the most cost-effective intervention evaluated, while the community-based intervention produced the most health gain. Local and decision-making contextual factors are important in the conduct and interpretation of economic evaluations. For Australia's Indigenous population, different models of health service provision impact on reach and cost-effectiveness results. Both the extent of health gain and cost-effectiveness are important considerations for policy-makers in light of government objectives to address health inequities and bridge the health gap. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  3. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

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    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  4. New population and life expectancy estimates for the Indigenous population of Australia's Northern Territory, 1966-2011.

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    Tom Wilson

    Full Text Available The Indigenous population of Australia suffers considerable disadvantage across a wide range of socio-economic indicators, and is therefore the focus of many policy initiatives attempting to 'close the gap' between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Unfortunately, past population estimates have proved unreliable as denominators for these indicators. The aim of the paper is to contribute more robust estimates for the Northern Territory Indigenous population for the period 1966-2011, and hence estimate one of the most important of socio-economic indicators, life expectancy at birth.A consistent time series of population estimates from 1966 to 2011, based off the more reliable 2011 official population estimates, was created by a mix of reverse and forward cohort survival. Adjustments were made to ensure sensible sex ratios and consistency with recent birth registrations. Standard life table methods were employed to estimate life expectancy. Drawing on an approach from probabilistic forecasting, confidence intervals surrounding population numbers and life expectancies were estimated.The Northern Territory Indigenous population in 1966 numbered between 23,800 and 26,100, compared to between 66,100 and 73,200 in 2011. In 1966-71 Indigenous life expectancy at birth lay between 49.1 and 56.9 years for males and between 49.7 and 57.9 years for females, whilst by 2006-11 it had increased to between 60.5 and 66.2 years for males and between 65.4 and 70.8 for females. Over the last 40 years the gap with all-Australian life expectancy has not narrowed, fluctuating at about 17 years for both males and females. Whilst considerable progress has been made in closing the gap in under-five mortality, at most other ages the mortality rate differential has increased.A huge public health challenge remains. Efforts need to be redoubled to reduce the large gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

  5. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

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    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  6. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Smout

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively. The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7% and soil (55.6% in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to “closing the gap” in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  7. Genome Sequence of Australian Indigenous Wine Yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii COFT1 Using Nanopore Sequencing.

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    Tondini, Federico; Jiranek, Vladimir; Grbin, Paul R; Onetto, Cristobal A

    2018-04-26

    Here, we report the first sequenced genome of an indigenous Australian wine isolate of Torulaspora delbrueckii using the Oxford Nanopore MinION and Illumina HiSeq sequencing platforms. The genome size is 9.4 Mb and contains 4,831 genes. Copyright © 2018 Tondini et al.

  8. Academic "Place-Making": Fostering Attachment, Belonging and Identity for Indigenous Students in Australian Universities

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    Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David; Raciti, Maria; Gilbey, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Place is a concept used to explore how people ascribe meaning to their physical and social surrounds, and their emotional affects. Exploring the university as a place can highlight social relations affecting Australian Indigenous students' sense of belonging and identity. We asked what university factors contribute to the development of a positive…

  9. A Controversial Reform in Indigenous Education: The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy

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    McCollow, John

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a controversial initiative in Indigenous education: the establishment of the Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA). The article provides a brief description of the Academy's three campuses and their communities and considers: the circumstances of its creation, including the role of Noel Pearson and Cape York…

  10. Mobile health interventions in Indigenous populations

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    Valerie Onyinyechi Umaefulam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are social beings and communication is vital and necessary for every cultural group which may be the primary motivator, why many populations worldwide have taken up mobile phones (1. Communication via mobile has significant cultural and identity implications for Indigenous people worldwide particularly those living in rural and hard to reach communities because due to globalization, a number of people now live away from their local communities for trade, employment, education, etc. Thus, mobile phones are devices for social networking and communication; and enables cultural connection and identification with family and friends. Its affordability, versatility of features, and portability create an opportunity for utilizing mobile technology to positively impact the health via health education, promotion, and provision of remote health services among others.

  11. Social media and health information sharing among Australian Indigenous people.

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    Hefler, Marita; Kerrigan, Vicki; Henryks, Joanna; Freeman, Becky; Thomas, David P

    2018-04-17

    Despite the enormous potential of social media for health promotion, there is an inadequate evidence base for how they can be used effectively to influence behaviour. In Australia, research suggests social media use is higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than the general Australian population; however, health promoters need a better understanding of who uses technologies, how and why. This qualitative study investigates what types of health content are being shared among Aboriginal and Torres Strait people through social media networks, as well as how people engage with, and are influenced by, health-related information in their offline life. We present six social media user typologies together with an overview of health content that generated significant interaction. Content ranged from typical health-related issues such as mental health, diet, alcohol, smoking and exercise, through to a range of broader social determinants of health. Social media-based health promotion approaches that build on the social capital generated by supportive online environments may be more likely to generate greater traction than confronting and emotion-inducing approaches used in mass media campaigns for some health topics.

  12. Stages of Change, Smoking Behaviour and Readiness to Quit in a Large Sample of Indigenous Australians Living in Eight Remote North Queensland Communities

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    Robyn McDermott

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major health issue for Indigenous Australians, however there are few interventions with demonstrated efficacy in this population. The Transtheoretical Model may provide a useful framework for describing smoking behaviour and assessing readiness to quit, with the aim of developing better interventions. Interviews were conducted with 593 Indigenous Australians in eight rural and remote communities in north Queensland, to examine stages of change and smoking behaviour. Among current smokers, 39.6% and 43.4% were in Precontemplation and Contemplation stages respectively. A further 13.9% were making preparations to quit (Preparation whilst only 3.2% said they were actively trying to quit (Action. When analysed by stage of change, the pattern of smoking-related behaviours conformed to the results of past research using the model. Importantly however, distribution of individuals across the stages opposes those observed in investigations of smoking behaviour in non-Indigenous Australian populations. The Transtheoretical Model can be used to meaningfully classify Indigenous smokers in remote north Queensland according to stages along the behaviour change continuum. Importantly, in this large sample across eight communities, most Indigenous smokers were not making preparations to change their smoking behaviour. This suggests that interventions should focus on promoting movement toward the Preparation and Action stages of change.

  13. Long-term trends in invasive Haemophilus influenzae type B disease among indigenous Australian children following use of PRP-OMP and PRP-T vaccines.

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    Menzies, Robert Ian; Bremner, Kyla Margaret; Wang, Han; Beard, Frank Hudson; McIntyre, Peter Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Among indigenous populations with high incidence and early onset of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, PRP-OMP vaccines are used in the United States and PRP-T vaccines in Canada. In Australia, PRP-OMP vaccines were exclusively used in indigenous children from 1993 until they were replaced by PRP-T between late 2005 and 2009. Analytic descriptive study of 20 years of enhanced surveillance data (1993-2013) for invasive Hib disease in Australian children PRP-OMP period (1993-1996) to 6.2 (95% CI: 4.0, 9.2) and 4.7 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.3) in the later PRP-OMP (1996-2009) and PRP-T periods (2009-2013), respectively. The indigenous:nonindigenous incidence rate ratio increased to 43 (95% CI: 16, 145) and 58 (95% CI: 7, 2660) in the later PRP-OMP and PRP-T periods, respectively, more than 10-fold higher than in lesser-incidence Australian regions. We found no change in Hib incidence among indigenous Australian children living in high-incidence regions in the first 4 years following a change to PRP-T-containing combination vaccines. This may be of relevance to North American indigenous populations characterized by suboptimal living conditions and young age of onset for whom PRP-OMP continues to be recommended, such as Alaska Natives.

  14. Using Indigenous Australian drama to break cultural barriers in healthcare relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, K

    2009-06-01

    Since colonisation, the marginalisation of Indigenous Australians has adversely affected their language, culture and health. Mainstream society has failed to address social differences and establish culturally-appropriate health programmes for these groups. This paper extracts important humanistic themes within the context of health from four Indigenous Australian plays written during a period of social unrest in response to past oppression: (1) The dreamers, by Jack David; (2) Murras, by Eva Johnson; (3) Coordah, by Richard Walley; and (4) The keepers, by Bob Maza. These plays will be analysed to (a) illuminate human suffering from an indigenous perspective, based upon social and cultural planes of analysis; (b) understand the socio-cultural basis of poor health; and (c) instruct healthcare professionals that health is a social construct that can be interpreted as the product of select plays that are not solely based upon an illness narrative.

  15. Mapping Point-of-Purchase Influencers of Food Choice in Australian Remote Indigenous Communities

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    Joanna Henryks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians relies, in part, on addressing the poor levels of nutrition in remote Indigenous communities (RIC. This article identifies and maps key influencers of food choice at the point-of-purchase (POP in Australian RIC and identifies gaps in our knowledge. It is based on a narrative review of the literature pertaining to food in RIC from a range of disciplinary perspectives including nutrition, ethnography, public health, anthropology, and remote health to map POP drivers of food choice. In particular, the role of habit is identified as a key factor that has previously not been discussed in the literature. The conceptual framework can be used as a basis for future POP research in RIC and provides guidance for social marketers, public health, nutrition, and policy workers operating in this field.

  16. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

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    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  17. Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: greater than fourfold risk among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian women.

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    Chamberlain, Catherine R; Oldenburg, Brian; Wilson, Alyce N; Eades, Sandra J; O'Dea, Kerin; Oats, Jeremy J N; Wolfe, Rory

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes. However, progression rates among Indigenous women in Australia who experience high prevalence of gestational diabetes are unknown. This retrospective cohort study includes all births to women at a regional hospital in Far North Queensland, Australia, coded as having 'gestational diabetes' from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010 (1098 births) and receiving laboratory postpartum screening from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2011 (n = 483 births). Women who did not receive postpartum screening were excluded from the denominator. Data were linked between hospital electronic records, routinely collected birth data and laboratories, with sample validation by reviews of medical records. Analysis was conducted using Cox-proportional regression models. Indigenous women had a greater than fourfold risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 8 years of having gestational diabetes, compared with non-Indigenous women (hazards ratio 4.55, 95% confidence interval 2.63-7.88, p Australian women have a greater than fourfold risk of developing type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes. Strategies are urgently needed to reduce rates of type 2 diabetes by supporting a healthy weight and breastfeeding and to improve postpartum screening among Indigenous women with gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Institutional (mis)trust in colorectal cancer screening: a qualitative study with Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous groups.

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    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Javanparast, Sara; Wilson, Carlene; Meyer, Samantha B

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer mortality rate in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT), although uptake is low for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups. To present data on trust and mistrust in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake and thus to highlight areas in need of policy change. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia, involving interviews with 94 people from four CALD groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian, and Indigenous peoples. Our study highlights the complexities of institutional trust, which involves considerations of trust at interpersonal, local and national levels. In addition, trust and mistrust was found in more abstract systems such as the medical knowledge of doctors to diagnose or treat cancer or the scientific procedures in laboratories to test the FOBTs. The object of institutional (mis)trust differed between cultural groups - Anglo-Australian and Iranian groups indicated a high level of trust in the government, whereas Indigenous participants were much less trusting. The level and nature of trust in the screening process varied between the CALD groups. Addressing program misconceptions, clarifying the FOBT capabilities and involving medical services in collecting and transporting the samples may increase trust in the NBCSP. However, broader and more enduring mistrust in services and institutions may need to be dealt with in order to increase trust and participation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia, C; Ju, X; Mejia, G; Jamieson, L

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to test the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Data were from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC); a population-based cohort study in Australia. Participants were 1,687 Indigenous Australian children aged 5 or less. Biological, social and behavioural variables were tested using log-linear modelling with binomial regression to determine the association with parental-reported experience of dental caries. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods were used for multiple imputation of missing data. Overall 25.8% of Indigenous Australian children had dental caries as reported by a carer. In the multivariable model, increased prevalence of parental-reported caries was significantly associated with low maternal education levels (RR=1.60, 95%CI 1.17,2.20) and high sugar consumption (RR= 1.60, 95%CI 1.26,2.02). In the group of children whose mothers smoked tobacco during pregnancy, the association with parent-reported dental caries approached the threshold of significance, but was not significantly associated with caries status in children (RR=1.19, 95%CI 0.99,1.43). After multiple imputation, the most significant association was evident in children of the least educated mothers (RR=1.57, 95%CI 1.25,1.95), breastfeeding more than 12 months (RR=1.26, 95%CI 1.01,1.56), sweet intake more than 30% (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.15,1.74) and 20-30% (RR=1.29 95%CI 1.04,1.59) and residing in outer regional (RR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19,2.05) or inner regional locations (RR=1.50, 95%CI 1.19,1.88). Mothers' tobacco smoking status showed a weak association with parent-reported dental decay (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.20,1.68). This study suggests there is a weak association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prevalence of parentally-reported dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  20. The Legacy of Racism and Indigenous Australian Identity within Education

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    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Carlson, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism.…

  1. Implementing health promotion tools in Australian Indigenous primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Nikki A; McCalman, Janya; Armit, Christine; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Rowley, Kevin; Doyle, Joyce; Tsey, Komla

    2018-02-01

    In Australia, significant resources have been invested in producing health promotion best practice guidelines, frameworks and tools (herein referred to as health promotion tools) as a strategy to improve Indigenous health promotion programmes. Yet, there has been very little rigorous implementation research about whether or how health promotion tools are implemented. This paper theorizes the complex processes of health promotion tool implementation in Indigenous comprehensive primary healthcare services. Data were derived from published and grey literature about the development and the implementation of four Indigenous health promotion tools. Tools were theoretically sampled to account for the key implementation types described in the literature. Data were analysed using the grounded-theory methods of coding and constant comparison with construct a theoretical implementation model. An Indigenous Health Promotion Tool Implementation Model was developed. Implementation is a social process, whereby researchers, practitioners and community members collectively interacted in creating culturally responsive health promotion to the common purpose of facilitating empowerment. The implementation of health promotion tools was influenced by the presence of change agents; a commitment to reciprocity and organizational governance and resourcing. The Indigenous Health Promotion Tool Implementation Model assists in explaining how health promotion tools are implemented and the conditions that influence these actions. Rather than simply developing more health promotion tools, our study suggests that continuous investment in developing conditions that support empowering implementation processes are required to maximize the beneficial impacts and effectiveness of health promotion tools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Characterizing gestational weight gain in a cohort of Indigenous Australian women.

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    Schumacher, Tracy L; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Sutherland, Kathryn; Collins, Clare E; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2018-05-01

    to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program. 110 pregnant women who either identified as being an Indigenous Australian or as carrying an Indigenous child. measurements included weight and height, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and smoking status, parity and health conditions that may contribute to gestational weight gain, such as hypertensive or diabetic disorders. Compared to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain and based on prepregnancy body mass index, the rate of adequate gestational weight gain in this cohort was very low (15%). 32% of women had inadequate weight gain and 54% had excessive weight gain. The highest rate of excessive gestational weight gain was found in overweight women (74%), with rates of 48% and 50% found in healthy and obese (all classes) categories, respectively. Parity (coefficient 4.5, p<0.01) and hypertension (coefficient 4.8, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with gestational weight gain in mixed model linear regression. few women gained adequate gestational weight gain in this study. Culturally acceptable ways of addressing this issue are needed for this group of women, as inadequate and excessive rates of gestational weight gain have health implications for women and their offspring. a systematic approach to addressing gestational weight gain within antenatal care is required, including asking about diet and exercise, for all women identifying as Indigenous Australian. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The experience of collective trauma in Australian Indigenous communities.

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    Krieg, Anthea

    2009-08-01

    The concept of collective trauma has predominantly been applied in the context of natural and human disasters. This paper seeks to explore whether collective trauma offers a respectful way in which to explore and respond to mental health and wellbeing issues for Aboriginal families and communities. A review of the international literature was undertaken in order to determine the elements of collective and mass trauma studies which may have relevance for Indigenous communities in Australia. Findings support the proposition that the patterns of human responses to disasters, particularly in protracted traumas such as war-zones, shows strong parallels to the contemporary patterns of experience and responses articulated by Aboriginal people affected by colonization and its sequelae in Australia. Adopting evidence-informed principles of family and community healing developed internationally in disaster situations may provide helpful ways of conceptualizing and responding in a coordinated way to mental health and wellbeing issues for Indigenous people within Australia.

  4. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people.

  5. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people. PMID:26599437

  6. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Matthew; Chuter, Vivienne; Munteanu, Shannon; Hawke, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91%) while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have a 3-6 fold increased likelihood of experiencing a

  7. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians

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    Matthew West

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Results Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91% while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

  8. Need for an Australian Indigenous disability workforce strategy: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, John; Dew, Angela; Lincoln, Michelle; Hines, Monique

    2017-08-01

    To identify approaches for developing workforce capacity to deliver the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) to Indigenous people with disability in Australian rural and remote communities. A narrative review of peer-reviewed and gray literature was undertaken. Searches of electronic databases and websites of key government and non-government organizations were used to supplement the authors' knowledge of literature that (a) focused on Indigenous peoples in Australia or other countries; (b) referred to people with disability; (c) considered rural/remote settings; (d) recommended workforce strategies; and (e) was published in English between 2004 and 2014. Recommended workforce strategies in each publication were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Six peer-reviewed articles and 12 gray publications met inclusion criteria. Three broad categories of workforce strategies were identified: (a) community-based rehabilitation (CBR) and community-centered approaches; (b) cultural training for all workers; and (c) development of an Indigenous disability workforce. An Indigenous disability workforce strategy based on community-centered principles and incorporating cultural training and Indigenous disability workforce development may help to ensure that Indigenous people with a disability in rural and remote communities benefit from current disability sector reforms. Indigenous workforce development requires strategies to attract and retain Aboriginal workers. Implications for Rehabilitation Indigenous people with disability living in rural and remote areas experience significant access and equity barriers to culturally appropriate supports and services that enable them to live independent, socially inclusive lives. A workforce strategy based on community-centered principles has potential for ensuring that the disability services sector meets the rehabilitation needs of Aboriginal people with disability living in rural and remote areas. Cultural training and

  9. Philip McLaren and the Indigenous-Australian Crime Novel

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    Cornelis Martin Renes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper locates the postcolonial crime novel as a space for disenfranchised groups to write back to the marginalisation inherent in the process of colonisation, and explores the example of Australia. From its inception in the mid-19th century, Australian crime fiction reflected upon the challenging harshness and otherness of the Australian experience for the free and convict settler, expelled from the metropole. It created a series of popular subgenres derived from the convict narrative proper, while more ‘standard’ modes of crime fiction, popularised in and through British and American crime fiction, were late to develop. Whereas Australian crime fiction has given expression to the white experience of the continent in manifold ways, up until recently it made no room for Indigenous voices – with the exception of the classic Inspector Napoleon Bonaparte series written by the prolific Arthur Upfield in the first half of the 20th century. For the longest time, this absence reflected the dispossession, dispersal and disenfranchisement of the colonised Indigenous peoples at large; there were neither Aboriginal voices nor Aboriginal authors, which made the textual space of the Australian crime novel a discursive terra nullius. This paper will look at the only Indigenous-Australian author to date with a substantial body of work in crime fiction, Philip McLaren, and elucidate how his four crime novels break new ground in Australian crime fiction by embedding themselves within a political framework of Aboriginal resilience and resistance to neo/colonialism. Written as of the 1990s, McLaren’s oeuvre is eclectic in that it does not respond to traditional formats of Australian crime fiction, shifts between generic subtypes and makes incursions into other genres. The paper concludes that McLaren’s oeuvre has not been conceived of as the work of a crime writer per se, but rather that its form and content are deeply informed by the racist violence

  10. Determinants and gaps in preventive care for Indigenous Australians: a cross sectional analysis

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    Ross Stewart Bailie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPotentially preventable chronic diseases are the greatest contributor to the health gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Preventive care is important for earlier detection and control of chronic disease, and a number of recent policy initiatives have aimed to enhance delivery of preventive care. We examined documented delivery of recommended preventive services for Indigenous peoples across Australia, and investigated the influence of health center and client level factors on adherence to best practice guidelines. MethodsClinical audit data from 2012-2014 for 3623 well adult clients (aged 15-54 of 101 health centers from four Australian states and territories were analyzed to determine adherence to delivery of 26 recommended preventive services classified into five different modes of care on the basis of the way in which they are delivered (eg. basic measurement; laboratory tests and imaging; assessment and brief interventions, eye, ear and oral checks; follow-up of abnormal findings. Summary statistics were used to describe the delivery of each service item across jurisdictions. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the variation in service delivery attributable to health center and client level factors and to identify factors associated with higher quality care.ResultsDelivery of recommended preventive care varied widely between service items, with good delivery of most basic measurements but poor follow-up of abnormal findings. Health center characteristics were associated with most variation. Higher quality care was associated with Northern Territory location, urban services and smaller service population size. Client factors associated with higher quality care included age between 25-34 years, female sex and more regular attendance. ConclusionsWide variation in documented preventive care delivery, poor follow-up of abnormal findings, and system factors that

  11. "Health divide" between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: population based study.

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    Haddad, Slim; Mohindra, Katia Sarla; Siekmans, Kendra; Màk, Geneviève; Narayana, Delampady

    2012-05-29

    The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes) and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N = 1660 men and women, 18-96 years). Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%), anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5%) and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6%) compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4%) and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%). Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7%) and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7%) than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18-30 y (27.1%). Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18-30 y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%)). The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap between tribes and non-tribes for underweight and goitre, respectively. Policies and programmes designed to benefit the Scheduled Tribes need to promote their well-being in general but

  12. Indigenous Students' Voices: Monitoring Indigenous Student Satisfaction and Retention in a Large Australian University

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    Shah, Mahsood; Widin, Jacquie

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous student satisfaction with the university learning and teaching experience matters. From a student perspective, retention matters as successful completion of tertiary education improves the life chances of students in relation to employment opportunities, being able to support themselves financially and contributing to the society in…

  13. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

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    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  14. Comorbidity and cervical cancer survival of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women: A semi-national registry-based cohort study (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter D; Valery, Patricia C; Whop, Lisa J; Moore, Suzanne P; Cunningham, Joan; Garvey, Gail; Brotherton, Julia M L; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Sarfati, Diana; Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth; Condon, John R

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women. Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+), for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women. Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4%) compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0%) and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%). Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality) when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4), indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality. Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted. The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and multidisciplinary

  15. Comorbidity and cervical cancer survival of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women: A semi-national registry-based cohort study (2003-2012.

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    Abbey Diaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women.Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+, for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women.Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4% compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0% and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%. Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4, indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality.Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted.The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and

  16. SPATIAL COMPARISONS OF POPULATIONS OF AN INDIGENOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 1970s, the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis invaded the South African coast and spread rapidly to dominate much of the West Coast, indicating either the opportunity to occupy a vacant niche or its superior competitive capability over indigenous species. In Namaqualand on the West Coast it appears to ...

  17. Allostatic load mediates the impact of stress and trauma on physical and mental health in Indigenous Australians.

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    Sarnyai, Zoltán; Berger, Maximus; Jawan, Isabella

    2016-02-01

    A considerable gap exists in health and social emotional well-being between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous Australians. Recent research in stress neurobiology highlights biological pathways that link early adversity and traumas as well as life stresses to ill health. We argue that the neurobiological stress response and its maladaptive changes, termed allostatic load, provide a useful framework to understand how adversity leads to physical and mental illness in Indigenous people. In this paper we review the biology of allostatic load and make links between stress-induced systemic hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes and physical and mental illnesses. Exposure to chronic stress throughout life results in an increased allostatic load that may contribute to a number of metabolic, cardiovascular and mental disorders that shorten life expectancy in Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

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    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  19. A narrative analysis of a speech pathologist's work with Indigenous Australians with acquired communication disorders.

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    Hersh, Deborah; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Bourke, Noni

    2015-01-01

    To explore in detail the narrative of a speech pathologist (SP) working with Indigenous Australian clients with acquired communication disorders following stroke or brain injury. There is some evidence that Indigenous clients do not find speech pathology rehabilitation to be culturally appropriate but, currently, there is very little published on the nature of this service or the experiences of SPs who provide this rehabilitation. This research uses both thematic and structural narrative analysis of data from a semi-structured, in-depth interview with a SP to examine the adaptations that she made to address the needs of her adult neurological caseload of (mainly) Indigenous Australians from both urban and remote regions. The thematic analysis resulted in a core theme of flexibility and four other sub-themes: awareness of cultural context, client focus/person-centredness, being practical and working ethically. The structural narrative analysis allowed insight into the nature of clinical reasoning in a context lacking predictability and where previous clinical certainties required adaptation. Individual, detailed narratives are useful in exposing the challenges and clinical reasoning behind culturally sensitive practice. Implications for Rehabilitation Speech pathologists (SPs) can learn from hearing the clinical stories of colleagues with experience of providing rehabilitation in culturally diverse contexts, as well as from ongoing training in culturally competent and safe practices. Such stories help bridge understanding from the general to the particular. SPs working with Indigenous Australians with acquired communication disorders post-stroke and brain injury may find it helpful to consider how the themes, drawn from an interview with the clinician in this study - flexibility, awareness of cultural context, person-centredness, being practical and working ethically - might apply to their practice. Narratives may be helpful in staff training and form an important

  20. An online spatial database of Australian Indigenous Biocultural Knowledge for contemporary natural and cultural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pert, Petina L; Ens, Emilie J; Locke, John; Clarke, Philip A; Packer, Joanne M; Turpin, Gerry

    2015-11-15

    With growing international calls for the enhanced involvement of Indigenous peoples and their biocultural knowledge in managing conservation and the sustainable use of physical environment, it is timely to review the available literature and develop cross-cultural approaches to the management of biocultural resources. Online spatial databases are becoming common tools for educating land managers about Indigenous Biocultural Knowledge (IBK), specifically to raise a broad awareness of issues, identify knowledge gaps and opportunities, and to promote collaboration. Here we describe a novel approach to the application of internet and spatial analysis tools that provide an overview of publically available documented Australian IBK (AIBK) and outline the processes used to develop the online resource. By funding an AIBK working group, the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS) provided a unique opportunity to bring together cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary and trans-organizational contributors who developed these resources. Without such an intentionally collaborative process, this unique tool would not have been developed. The tool developed through this process is derived from a spatial and temporal literature review, case studies and a compilation of methods, as well as other relevant AIBK papers. The online resource illustrates the depth and breadth of documented IBK and identifies opportunities for further work, partnerships and investment for the benefit of not only Indigenous Australians, but all Australians. The database currently includes links to over 1500 publically available IBK documents, of which 568 are geo-referenced and were mapped. It is anticipated that as awareness of the online resource grows, more documents will be provided through the website to build the database. It is envisaged that this will become a well-used tool, integral to future natural and cultural resource management and maintenance. Copyright © 2015. Published

  1. Development and preliminary validation of the 'Caring for Country' questionnaire: measurement of an Indigenous Australian health determinant

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    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Caring for Country' is defined as Indigenous participation in interrelated activities with the objective of promoting ecological and human health. Ecological services on Indigenous-owned lands are belatedly attracting some institutional investment. However, the health outcomes associated with Indigenous participation in 'caring for country' activities have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to pilot and validate a questionnaire measuring caring for country as an Indigenous health determinant and to relate it to an external reference, obesity. Methods Purposively sampled participants were 301 Indigenous adults aged 15 to 54 years, recruited during a cross-sectional program of preventive health checks in a remote Australian community. Questionnaire validation was undertaken with psychometric tests of internal consistency, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory one-factor congeneric modelling. Accurate item weightings were derived from the model and used to create a single weighted composite score for caring for country. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to test associations between the caring for country score and body mass index adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results The questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest validity and proxy-respondent validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the 'caring for country' items produced a single factor solution that was confirmed via one-factor congeneric modelling. A significant and substantial association between greater participation in caring for country activities and lower body mass index was demonstrated. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours, an inter-quartile range rise in caring for country scores was associated with 6.1 Kg and 5.3 Kg less body weight for non-pregnant women and men respectively. Conclusion This study indicates preliminary support for

  2. Changes in Area-level Socioeconomic Status and Oral Health of Indigenous Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Luzzi, Liana; Mejia, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Dental diseases have shown to be influenced by area-level socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the effects of change in area-level SES on the oral health of Australian Indigenous children. Data were collected from a national surveillance survey for children's dental health at two points of time (2000-2002/2007-2010). The study examines caries experienced by area-level SES and whether changes in area-level SES (stable-high, upwardly-mobile, downwardly-mobile and stable low) affects caries experience. Dental caries in both the deciduous and permanent dentition increased significantly among Indigenous children during the study period. In stable low-SES areas, the experience of decayed, missing and overall dmft/DMFT in both dentitions was highest compared with other groups at both Time 1(2.15 vs 1.61, 1.77, 1.87 and 0.86 vs 0.55, 0.67, 0.70 respectively) and Time 2 (3.23 vs 2.08, 2.17, 2.02 and 1.49 vs 1.18, 1.21 respectively). A change in area-level SES was associated with experience of dental disease among Indigenous Australian children.

  3. Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Clausen, Don; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-14

    Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared.

  4. Barriers to effective perioperative communication in indigenous Australians: an audit of progress since 1996.

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    Cheng, W Y C; Blum, P; Spain, B

    2004-08-01

    This prospective study was designed to elucidate barriers limiting effective perioperative communication between indigenous Australians and anaesthetists, and to identify strategies for improving communication. A questionnaire was used to collect data on 1040 consecutive patients undergoing anaesthesia at Royal Darwin Hospital between February and March 2003. 27.1% of these patients described themselves as Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were more likely to undergo emergency surgery and were more likely to be classified as ASA 3, 4 or 5 than non-indigenous patients. Communication difficulties were identified in 28.7% of all Aboriginal patients, which was 31 times higher than those in non-Aboriginal patients. The most common reason identified for this was difficulty in speaking English. Only 17.7% of Aboriginal patients presenting to the operating theatre spoke English as their first language. Unfortunately, the anaesthetic team utilized the Aboriginal interpreter service in only a minority of cases. Communication difficulty in indigenous Australians is pervasive and often goes unrecognized. The results suggest that heath care providers may need staff training in cross-cultural communication and that protocols need to be developed within the health care system so that interpreters are called upon automatically early in the admission process.

  5. The benefits of a life-first employment program for Indigenous Australian families: Implications for ‘Closing the Gap’

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    Lynsey Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are significant and enduring inequities in education and employment outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. In taking a ‘life-first’ approach to service provision the Building Family Opportunities Program (BFO was able to successfully increase Indigenous Australians’ engagement with education and employment in South Australia. The evaluation of the BFO included quantitative administrative and survey data for 110 Indigenous families collected over a three year period, and qualitative data from interviews with 13 Indigenous jobseekers and focus groups with 24 case managers. Quantitative data revealed that similar proportions of Indigenous and non-Indigenous jobseekers achieved positive education/training and employment outcomes as a result of the program. Qualitative data were able to identify the strengths of this program as perceived by Indigenous families and case managers, including the practical and socio-emotional support offered to whole families, using a strengths-based, life-first approach. In the context of broader education and employment disadvantages experienced by Indigenous Australians, these results are significant and illustrate key lessons which can inform future policy and service delivery initiatives aiming to close the gap.

  6. Comparison of creatinine and cystatin C based eGFR in the estimation of glomerular filtration rate in Indigenous Australians: The eGFR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elizabeth Lm; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Barzi, Federica; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Jerums, George; Ekinci, Elif I; Ellis, Andrew G; Jones, Graham Rd; Lawton, Paul D; Sajiv, Cherian; Majoni, Sandawana W; Brown, Alex Dh; Hoy, Wendy E; O'Dea, Kerin; Cass, Alan; MacIsaac, Richard J

    2017-04-01

    The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation that combines creatinine and cystatin C is superior to equations that include either measure alone in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, whether cystatin C can provide any additional benefits in estimating GFR for Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is unknown. Using a cross-sectional analysis from the eGFR Study of 654 Indigenous Australians at high risk of ESKD, eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI equations for serum creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcysC) and combined creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcysC+cr). Reference GFR (mGFR) was determined using a non-isotopic iohexol plasma disappearance technique over 4h. Performance of each equation to mGFR was assessed by calculating bias, % bias, precision and accuracy for the total population, and according to age, sex, kidney disease, diabetes, obesity and c-reactive protein. Data were available for 542 participants (38% men, mean [sd] age 45 [14] years). Bias was significantly greater for eGFRcysC (15.0mL/min/1.73m 2 ; 95% CI 13.3-16.4, pcreatinine remains the preferred equation in Indigenous Australians. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Leadership as a Personal Journey: An Indigenous Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kerrie; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher levels of mental illness, self-harm, suicide and substance abuse than non-Indigenous Australians, as well as more frequent contact with the criminal justice system. These indices point to the need for strong leadership to support Close the Gap programmes that have now been implemented across Australia. This article considers leadership as a journey of learning for Australian Indigenous leaders. Through the use of story, it is suggested that a situational leadership approach, incorporating the principles of mindfulness, provides the most appropriate framework for Indigenous leaders who work with Indigenous communities. Flexible approaches are needed to meet the needs of diverse Indigenous populations, and address the complex challenges involved, including lateral violence. Such flexibility will enable Indigenous leaders and communities to work together to achieve improvements in the health outcomes, not only for Indigenous Australians, but also for Indigenous populations worldwide.

  8. P450 Pharmacogenetics in Indigenous North American Populations

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    Lindsay M. Henderson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous North American populations, including American Indian and Alaska Native peoples in the United States, the First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples in Canada and Amerindians in Mexico, are historically under-represented in biomedical research, including genomic research on drug disposition and response. Without adequate representation in pharmacogenetic studies establishing genotype-phenotype relationships, Indigenous populations may not benefit fully from new innovations in precision medicine testing to tailor and improve the safety and efficacy of drug treatment, resulting in health care disparities. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate what is currently known about cytochrome P450 genetic variation in Indigenous populations in North America and to highlight the importance of including these groups in future pharmacogenetic studies for implementation of personalized drug therapy.

  9. Improving forensic mental health care to Indigenous Australians: theorizing the intercultural space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, A; Wynaden, D; O'Kane, M

    2014-05-01

    This paper uses the 'intercultural space' as an educational strategy to prepare nurses to work respectfully with Indigenous patients in a forensic mental health context; offers an educational approach that introduces nurses to Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values, examines power relations in colonized countries between the dominant white cultural group and the Indigenous population and encourages nurses to critically reflect on their health care practice; and explores the intercultural space as a shared space between cultures fostering open and robust inquiry where neither culture dominates and new positions, representations and understandings can emerge. Given the disproportionately high number of Indigenous people imprisoned in colonized countries, this paper responds to research from Western Australia on the need to prepare forensic mental health nurses to deliver care to Indigenous patients with mental health disorders. The paper highlights the nexus between theory, research and education that can inform the design and implementation of programmes to help nurses navigate the complex, layered and contested 'intercultural space' and deliver culturally safe care to Indigenous patients. Nurses are encouraged to critically reflect on how beliefs and values underpinning their cultural positioning impact on health care to Indigenous patients. The paper draws on intercultural theory to offer a pedagogical framework that acknowledges the negative impacts of colonization on Indigenous health and well-being, repositions and revalues Indigenous cultures and knowledges and fosters open and robust inquiry. This approach is seen as a step towards working more effectively in the intercultural space where ultimately binary oppositions that privilege one culture over another and inhibit robust inquiry are avoided, paving the way for new, more inclusive positions, representations and understandings to emerge. While the intercultural space can be a place of struggle, tension

  10. Factors relating to high psychological distress in Indigenous Australians and their contribution to Indigenous-non-Indigenous disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Banks, Emily; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Williamson, Anna; Raphael, Beverley; Eades, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    To explore factors associated with high psychological distress among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians and their contribution to the elevated distress prevalence among Aboriginal people. Questionnaire data from 1,631 Aboriginal and 233,405 non-Aboriginal 45 and Up Study (NSW, Australia) participants aged ≥45 years were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for high psychological distress (Kessler-10 score ≥22) for socio-demographic, health and disability-related factors, and to quantify contributions to differences in distress prevalence. While high-distress prevalence was increased around three-fold in Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants, distress-related risk factors were similar. Morbidity and physical disability had the strongest associations; high distress affected 43.8% of Aboriginal and 20.9% of non-Aboriginal participants with severe physical limitations and 9.5% and 3.9% of those without limitations, respectively. Differences in distress prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants were essentially attributable to differences in SES, morbidity, disability/functional limitations and social support (fully-adjusted PR 1.19 [95% 1.08, 1.30]); physical morbidity and disability explained the bulk. The markedly elevated prevalence of high distress among older Aboriginal Australians appears largely attributable to greater physical morbidity and disability. Implications for public health: Addressing upstream determinants of physical morbidity and improved integration of social and emotional wellbeing care into primary care and chronic disease management are essential. © 2018 The Authors.

  11. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamieson Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.

  12. Agroecology and Health: Lessons from Indigenous Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Torres, José; Suárez-López, José Ricardo; López-Paredes, Dolores; Morocho, Hilario; Cachiguango-Cachiguango, Luis Enrique; Dellai, William

    2017-06-01

    The article aims to systematize and disseminate the main contributions of indigenous ancestral wisdom in the agroecological production of food, especially in Latin America. For this purpose, it is necessary to ask whether such knowledge can be accepted by academia research groups and international forums as a valid alternative that could contribute to overcome the world's nutritional problems. Although no new findings are being made, the validity of ancestral knowledge and agroecology is recognized by scientific research, and by international forums organized by agencies of the United Nations. These recommend that governments should implement them in their policies of development, and in the allocation of funds to support these initiatives. Agroecology and ancestral knowledge are being adopted by a growing number of organizations, indigenous peoples and social groups in various parts of the world, as development alternatives that respond to local needs and worldviews. Its productive potential is progressively being recognized at an international level as a model that contributes to improve the condition of people regarding nutritional food.

  13. Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Stoner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the driving force behind the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in many countries. Preceding CVD many indigenous groups exhibit a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including overweight-obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In turn, modifiable lifestyle risk factors contribute to the development of this cluster of cardiometabolic conditions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors include, but are not limited to, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Notably, these metabolic and lifestyle risk factors are relatively simple to monitor and track. The current review will look at modifiable cardiometabolic (overweight-obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure and lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior, and cigarette smoking risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Mβori and the United States (Native Americans. Discussion will focus on the causal relationship between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and cardiometabolic outcomes, as well as, simple measurements for tracking these risk factors.

  14. It's Special and It's Specific: Understanding the Early Childhood Education Experiences and Expectations of Young Indigenous Australian Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Whilst early childhood education is regarded as important for young Indigenous Australians and it has been a feature of policy since the 1960s, it does not receive the same attention as compulsory schooling for Indigenous Australian students. A serious lack of large-scale research contributes to the devaluing of early childhood education for young…

  15. Population structure and genetic trends for indigenous African beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate population structure and genetic trends based on pedigree and performance records of five indigenous African beef cattle breeds (Afrikaner, Boran, Drakensberger, Nguni and Tuli) in South Africa. Pedigree completeness over six generations was higher than 88.5% in the first ...

  16. The Body as Language and Expression of the Indigenous Australian Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Soriano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Indigenous Australian oral culture, Tradition and Law are transmitted orally – through songs, tales, legends, etc. – and by visual expressions – engravings and drawings made on rocks, on the ground, on material objects, on bark and on the human body–. Drawings and engravings transform the surface on which they are made from profane to sacred, since they are the transmitters of cultural myths and beliefs, generation after generation. The body, one of the supports of visual expression, actively participates in the transmission of myths, relegating the design to a secondary place. The most important thing is the transmission of the myth and not the way it is transmitted, or the result. The mythological narrative or legend surpasses the aesthetic line of vision. This paper intends to expose the primacy of the use of the body -- human or not–, as a transmitter of the myths and history of the Indigenous Australian culture. In this way the body speaks a non-oral language full of symbolism and meaning.

  17. The impact of subsidized low aromatic fuel (LAF) on petrol (gasoline) sniffing in remote Australian indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abbs, Peter; Shaw, Gillian; Field, Emma

    2017-08-17

    Since 2005, the Australian Government has subsidized the production and distribution of Low Aromatic Fuel (LAF) as a deterrent against petrol (gasoline) sniffing in remote Indigenous communities. LAF is used in place of unleaded petrol as a fuel for vehicles and other engines. This paper reports findings from an independent evaluation of the LAF rollout. Forty one Indigenous communities were surveyed between 2010 and 2014, with each community being visited twice at a two yearly interval. Quantitative data on prevalence of petrol sniffing were collected, as well as qualitative data on the acceptability of LAF, evidence of substitution for inhaled petrol with other drugs, and programs such as recreational, training and employment opportunities. Prevalence rates of sniffing per 1000 population for each survey year and community were calculated by dividing the total number of sniffers by the population aged 5-39 years and multiplying by 1000. Between 2011-12 and 2013-14, the total estimated number of people sniffing petrol declined from 289 to 204, a fall of 29.4%. At both times, the median petrol sniffing prevalence rate was lower in communities with LAF than in communities without LAF. In 17 of the 41 communities, comparable data were available over a longer period, commencing in 2005-06. Fifteen of these communities stocked LAF over the entire period. In these communities, the median rate of petrol sniffing declined by 96%, from 141.6 per 1000 population in 2005-06 to 5.5 in 2013-14 (p < 0.05). LAF was widely accepted, although acceptance was often qualified by a belief that LAF harmed engines. Anecdotal reports suggest that the fall in petrol sniffing may have been offset by increased use of cannabis and other drugs, but the relationship is not one of simple cause-and-effect, with evidence that an increase in cannabis use in communities commenced before the LAF rollout began. Provision of services in communities has improved in recent years, but many programs

  18. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in indigenous Australian and Alaska native children with bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Hare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship

  19. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  20. Maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia: a population cohort record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafekost, Katherine; Lawrence, David; O'Leary, Colleen; Bower, Carol; Semmens, James; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-07-11

    Examine the relationship between maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia. Population cohort study. Routinely collected linked administrative health, education and child protection data. Those in-scope for the study were women with a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1989-2007). Women who had an alcohol-related diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases Revisions 9/10) recorded on the Hospital Morbidity, Mental Health Inpatients and Outpatients, and Drug and Alcohol Office data sets formed the exposed group. The comparison cohort was frequency-matched to the exposed cohort based on maternal age within Indigenous status and child's year of birth. Child's school attendance was obtained from the Department of Education (2008-2012). Poor attendance was defined as alcohol use disorder was significantly associated with increased odds of poor attendance (non-Indigenous: OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.74; Indigenous: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.79). With adjustment for maternal and child factors, there was no significant difference between the timing of alcohol diagnosis relative to pregnancy and attendance outcomes. The population attributable fraction was higher in the Indigenous cohort than the non-Indigenous cohort (6.0% vs 1.3%). Maternal alcohol use disorder was associated with a significantly increased odds of poor school attendance for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children. There was no significant difference between the timing of diagnoses and odds of poor school attendance. This suggests that the effect of maternal alcohol use disorder may not be driven by the neurodevelopmental effects of alcohol exposure in utero, but may be mediated through family or social factors for which we were unable to adjust. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  1. Exploring barriers to and enablers of adequate healthcare for Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer: a scoping review drawing on evidence from Australia, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Jessica; Reilly, Rachel; Yerrell, Paul; Stajic, Janet; Micklem, Jasmine; Morey, Kim; Brown, Alex

    International frameworks supported by national principles in Australia stipulate that prisoners should be provided with health services equivalent to those provided in the general community. However, a number of barriers unique to the prison system may hinder the provision of equitable healthcare for this population. In Australia, Indigenous people carry a greater burden of cancer mortality, which the Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD) project is seeking to address. During the course of recruiting participants to the CanDAD study, Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer emerged as an important, under-researched but difficult to access sub-group. This scoping review sought to identify barriers and facilitators of access to adequate and equitable healthcare for Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer in Australia. This review demonstrated a lack of research and, as such, the scoping review was extended to prisoners with cancer in Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Canada. This approach was taken in order to summarise the existing body of evidence regarding the barriers and facilitators of access to adequate and equitable healthcare for those who are incarcerated and suffering from cancer, and highlight areas that may require further investigation. Eight studies or commentaries were found to meet the inclusion criteria. This limited set of findings pointed to a range of possible barriers faced by prisoners with cancer, including a tension between the prisons' concern with security versus the need for timely access to medical care. Findings identified here offer potential starting points for research and policy development. Further research is needed to better elucidate how barriers to adequate cancer care for prisoners may be identified and overcome, in Australia and internationally. Furthermore, given Indigenous Australians' over-burden of cancer mortality and over-representation in the prison system, further research is needed to

  2. Carbon profiles of remote Australian Indigenous communities: A base for opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.; Anda, M.; Harper, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A decision-making model was constructed to assist remote Australian Indigenous communities select appropriate climate change mitigation programs. The Resilient Community and Livelihood Asset Integration Model (ReCLAIM) comprises six steps that focus on community assets and aspirations. The second of these steps is to determine the baseline carbon profiles of communities based on six sources of carbon emissions: materials, construction processes, stationary energy, transport, water systems and waste. The methodology employed an annualised lifecycle analysis of housing materials and construction, and an annual inventory of other emission sources. Profiles were calculated for two remote communities and compared to the Australian average and also average electricity consumption by remote communities in the Northern Territory. The results, expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO_2-e), showed that average household carbon profiles of the two communities (6.3 and 4.1 tCO_2-e/capita/yr) were generally lower than the Australian average (7.3 tCO_2-e/capita/yr). The stationary energy results revealed that infrastructure and building design could raise fuel consumption and costs, and therefore carbon emissions, despite modest lifestyles. The carbon emission categories differed between the two communities highlighting the need for an individualised approach to understanding the drivers of carbon emissions and mitigation responses. - Highlights: •We model carbon profiles of two remote Aboriginal communities. •Community carbon profiles were lower than the Australian average. •We compare stationary energy with a 72-community sample average. •Low-carbon communities are possible with renewable energy systems. •Building design and energy source can impact significantly on emissions.

  3. The health of populations living in the indigenous minority settlements of northern Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana E; Uvarova, Tatiana E; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Odland, Jon Ø

    2014-01-01

    This monograph contains the results of a study carried out by the Yakutsk Research Center for Complex Medical Problems, "Evaluating the health of the indigenous minorities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and optimizing medical assistance using innovative technologies and telemedicine in indigenous settlements." The child population was studied in 19 indigenous minority settlements, and the adult population was studied in 12 settlements.

  4. Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in Indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Esterman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically reviews 91 smoking cessation and tobacco prevention studies tailored for Indigenous populations around the world, with a particular focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. We identified several components of effective interventions, including the use of multifaceted programs that simultaneously address the behavioural, psychological and biochemical aspects of addiction, using resources culturally tailored for the needs of individual Indigenous populations. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation was effective when combined with culturally tailored behavioural interventions and health professional support, though it is generally underused in clinical practice. From a policy perspective, interventions of greater intensity, with more components, were more likely to be effective than those of lower intensity and shorter duration. For any new policy it is important to consider community capacity building, development of knowledge, and sustainability of the policy beyond guided implementation. Future research should address how the intervention can be supported into standard practice, policy, or translation into the front-line of clinical care. Investigations are also required to determine the efficacy of emerging therapies (such as e-cigarettes and the use of social media to tackle youth smoking, and under-researched interventions that hold promise based on non-Indigenous studies, such as the use of Champix. We conclude that more methodologically rigorous investigations are required to determine components of the less-successful interventions to aid future policy, practice and research initiatives.

  5. Chronological narratives from smoking initiation through to pregnancy of Indigenous Australian women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-01

    One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Identifying and categorizing cobenefits in state-supported Australian indigenous environmental management programs: international research implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Barber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant natural resource management investment is flowing to bioculturally diverse areas occupied by indigenous and other socioeconomically and politically marginalized groups. Such investment focuses on environmental benefit but may also generate ancillary economic, social, and other cobenefits. Increased investor interest in such cobenefits is driving the emerging research literature on cobenefit identification, categorization, and assessment. For local people undertaking community-based natural resource management, this emerging cobenefit discourse creates opportunities for more holistic program assessments that better reflect local perspectives, but it also contains risks of increased reporting burdens and institutional capture. Here, we synthesize and critically review the cobenefit literature arising from Australian indigenous cultural and natural resource management programs, a context in which there is a strong investor interest in cobenefits, particularly from government. We identify a wide suite of cobenefits in the existing literature and highlight previously unrecognized conceptual gaps and elisions in cobenefit categorization, including inconsistencies in category definition, the underanalysis of key categories, and a lack of systematic attention to beneficiaries as well as benefits. We propose a clarified and expanded conceptual framework to identify consistently the full suite of benefits, thereby enabling further assessment, valuation, and development of incentive mechanisms, standards, and guidelines. Our analysis has implications for community-based natural resource management assessment in a wide range of international contexts.

  7. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 subtype C molecular variants among indigenous australians: new insights into the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 in Australo-Melanesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Cassar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HTLV-1 infection is endemic among people of Melanesian descent in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Molecular studies reveal that these Melanesian strains belong to the highly divergent HTLV-1c subtype. In Australia, HTLV-1 is also endemic among the Indigenous people of central Australia; however, the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection in this population remains poorly documented. FINDINGS: Studying a series of 23 HTLV-1 strains from Indigenous residents of central Australia, we analyzed coding (gag, pol, env, tax and non-coding (LTR genomic proviral regions. Four complete HTLV-1 proviral sequences were also characterized. Phylogenetic analyses implemented with both Neighbor-Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods revealed that all proviral strains belong to the HTLV-1c subtype with a high genetic diversity, which varied with the geographic origin of the infected individuals. Two distinct Australians clades were found, the first including strains derived from most patients whose origins are in the North, and the second comprising a majority of those from the South of central Australia. Time divergence estimation suggests that the speciation of these two Australian clades probably occurred 9,120 years ago (38,000-4,500. CONCLUSIONS: The HTLV-1c subtype is endemic to central Australia where the Indigenous population is infected with diverse subtype c variants. At least two Australian clades exist, which cluster according to the geographic origin of the human hosts. These molecular variants are probably of very ancient origin. Further studies could provide new insights into the evolution and modes of dissemination of these retrovirus variants and the associated ancient migration events through which early human settlement of Australia and Melanesia was achieved.

  8. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ibobbly mobile health intervention for suicide prevention in Australian Indigenous youth: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Joseph; Shand, Fiona; Ridani, Rebecca; Mackinnon, Andrew; De La Mata, Nicole; Christensen, Helen

    2017-01-27

    Rates of youth suicide in Australian Indigenous communities are 4 times the national youth average and demand innovative interventions. Historical and persistent disadvantage is coupled with multiple barriers to help seeking. Mobile phone applications offer the opportunity to deliver therapeutic interventions directly to individuals in remote communities. The pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-help mobile app (ibobbly) targeting suicidal ideation, depression, psychological distress and impulsivity among Indigenous youth in remote Australia. Remote and very remote communities in the Kimberley region of North Western Australia. Indigenous Australians aged 18-35 years. 61 participants were recruited and randomised to receive either an app (ibobbly) which delivered acceptance-based therapy over 6 weeks or were waitlisted for 6 weeks and then received the app for the following 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS) to identify the frequency and intensity of suicidal ideation in the previous weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Although preintervention and postintervention changes on the (DSI-SS) were significant in the ibobbly arm (t=2.40; df=58.1; p=0.0195), these differences were not significant compared with the waitlist arm (t=1.05; df=57.8; p=0.2962). However, participants in the ibobbly group showed substantial and statistically significant reductions in PHQ-9 and K10 scores compared with waitlist. No differences were observed in impulsivity. Waitlist participants improved after 6 weeks of app use. Apps for suicide prevention reduce distress and depression but do not show significant reductions on suicide ideation or impulsivity. A feasible and acceptable means of lowering symptoms for mental health disorders in remote communities is via

  10. Mathematics Education in Multilingual Contexts for the Indigenous Population in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra, Aldo; Mendes, Jackeline; Valero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In Latin America, there is a considerable Indigenous population whose participation in the educational system has been systematically obstructed by the imposition of Spanish and Portuguese, the languages of the colonial powers. The historical process of Indigenous education was rooted in the colo...... the development of mathematical registers and language revitalization as central issues within the mathematics education of Indigenous people....

  11. [Differences in mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous persons in Brazil based on the 2010 Population Census].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Marden Barbosa de; Borges, Gabriel Mendes; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2017-06-12

    There have been no previous estimates on differences in adult or overall mortality in indigenous peoples in Brazil, although such indicators are extremely important for reducing social iniquities in health in this population segment. Brazil has made significant strides in recent decades to fill the gaps in data on indigenous peoples in the national statistics. The aim of this paper is to present estimated mortality rates for indigenous and non-indigenous persons in different age groups, based on data from the 2010 Population Census. The estimates used the question on deaths from specific household surveys. The results indicate important differences in mortality rates between indigenous and non-indigenous persons in all the selected age groups and in both sexes. These differences are more pronounced in childhood, especially in girls. The indicators corroborate the fact that indigenous peoples in Brazil are in a situation of extreme vulnerability in terms of their health, based on these unprecedented estimates of the size of these differences.

  12. Quantifying maternal incarceration: a whole-population linked data study of Western Australian children born 1985-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Caitlin M; Preen, David B; Segal, Leonie

    2016-11-20

    To measure the prevalence of children affected by maternal incarceration in Western Australia (WA). Using linked administrative data we identified all children born in WA between 1985 and 2011, whose biological mother was imprisoned during their childhood. Data was obtained through the WA Data Linkage Branch from the Department of Corrective Services, Midwives Notifications System and Birth Registrations data collections. Descriptive characteristics of the children (n=9,352) and their mothers (n=3,827) are reported. Prevalence was measured in two-ways, the proportion of children ever affected in childhood and affected annually. Childhood prevalence of maternal incarceration was 26-times higher (95%CI 23.9-28.2) for Indigenous children born 1992-1996 with 18.8% Indigenous children and 0.7% non-Indigenous children affected while aged 0-17 years. On average 1,544 children were affected each year across 2003-2011, at rates of 2,929 per 100,000 Indigenous children and 108 per 100,000 non-Indigenous children. The findings present the first census of children affected by maternal incarceration within an Australian State and identify a large disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Implications for Public Health: This study highlights the importance of formal consideration of children of women prisoners in the development of criminal justice policies and practices. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. When There Is Not Enough Evidence and When Evidence Is Not Enough: An Australian Indigenous Smoking Policy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcich, Daniel; Rayner, Mike; Allender, Steven; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The Indigenous Tobacco Control Initiative and Tackling Indigenous Smoking Measure were both announced by the Australian Government at a time when its rhetoric around the importance of evidence-based policy making was strong. This article will (1) examine how the Rudd Government used evidence in Indigenous tobacco control policy making and (2) explore the facilitators of and barriers to the use of evidence. Data were collected through (1) a review of primary documents largely obtained under the Freedom of Information Act 1982 (Commonwealth of Australia) and (2) interviews with senior politicians, senior bureaucrats, government advisors, Indigenous health advocates, and academics. Through the Freedom of Information Act process, 24 previously undisclosed government documents relevant to the making of Indigenous tobacco control policies were identified. Interviewees ( n  = 31, response rate 62%) were identified through both purposive and snowball recruitment strategies. The Framework Analysis method was used to analyze documentary and interview data. Government policy design was heavily influenced by the recommendations presented in government authored/commissioned literature reviews. Resulting policies were led by equivocal evidence for improved tobacco control outcomes among Indigenous Australians. Many of the cited studies had methodological limitations. In the absence of high-quality evidence, some policy makers supported policy recommendations that were perceived to be popular among the Indigenous community. Other policy makers recognized that there were barriers to accumulating rigorous, generalizable evidence; in the absence of such evidence, the policy makers considered that the "need for action" could be combined with the "need for research" by introducing innovative strategies and evaluating them. Despite the absence of high-quality evidence, the formulation and adoption of Indigenous tobacco policy was neither irrational nor reckless. The decision to

  14. When There is Not Enough Evidence and When Evidence is Not Enough: An Australian Indigenous Smoking Policy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vujcich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Indigenous Tobacco Control Initiative and Tackling Indigenous Smoking Measure were both announced by the Australian Government at a time when its rhetoric around the importance of evidence-based policy making was strong. This article will (1 examine how the Rudd Government used evidence in Indigenous tobacco control policy making and (2 explore the facilitators of and barriers to the use of evidence. METHODS: Data were collected through: (1 a review of primary documents largely obtained under the Freedom of Information Act 1982 (Commonwealth of Australia and (2 interviews with senior politicians, senior bureaucrats, government advisors, Indigenous health advocates and academics. Through the Freedom of Information Act process, 24 previously undisclosed government documents relevant to the making of Indigenous tobacco control policies were identified. Interviewees (n=31, response rate 62% were identified through both purposive and snowball recruitment strategies. The Framework Analysis method was used to analyse documentary and interview data.RESULTS: Government policy design was heavily influenced by recommendations presented in government authored/commissioned literature reviews. Resulting policies were led by equivocal evidence for improved tobacco control outcomes among Indigenous Australians. Many of the cited studies had methodological limitations. In the absence of high quality evidence, some policy makers supported policy recommendations that were perceived to be popular among the Indigenous community. Other policy makers recognised that there were barriers to accumulating rigorous, generalizable evidence; in the absence of such evidence, the policy makers considered that the ‘need for action’ could be combined with the ‘need for research’ by introducing innovative strategies and evaluating them.DISCUSSION: Despite the absence of high quality evidence, the formulation and adoption of Indigenous Tobacco policy was

  15. Indigenous obesity in the news: a media analysis of news representation of obesity in Australia's Indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Salwa; Fitzgerald, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    High rates of obesity are a significant issue amongst Indigenous populations in many countries around the world. Media framing of issues can play a critical role in shaping public opinion and government policy. A broad range of media analyses have been conducted on various aspects of obesity, however media representation of Indigenous obesity remains unexplored. In this study we investigate how obesity in Australia's Indigenous population is represented in newsprint media coverage. Media articles published between 2007 and 2014 were analysed for the distribution and extent of coverage over time and across Indigenous and mainstream media sources using quantitative content analysis. Representation of the causes and solutions of Indigenous obesity and framing in text and image content was examined using qualitative framing analysis. Media coverage of Indigenous obesity was very limited with no clear trends in reporting over time or across sources. The single Indigenous media source was the second largest contributor to the media discourse of this issue. Structural causes/origins were most often cited and individual solutions were comparatively overrepresented. A range of frames were employed across the media sources. All images reinforced textual framing except for one article where the image depicted individual factors whereas the text referred to structural determinants. This study provides a starting point for an important area of research that needs further investigation. The findings highlight the importance of alternative news media outlets, such as The Koori Mail, and that these should be developed to enhance the quality and diversity of media coverage. Media organisations can actively contribute to improving Indigenous health through raising awareness, evidence-based balanced reporting, and development of closer ties with Indigenous health workers.

  16. Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality amongst Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José; Kaidonis, Georgia; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life, but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians. To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality. A retrospective cohort analysis. A total of 1347 Indigenous Australians aged over 40 years. Participants visiting remote medical clinics underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, subjective refraction and slit-lamp examination of the anterior and posterior segments. The major ocular cause of visual impairment was determined. Patients were assessed periodically in these remote clinics for the succeeding 10 years after recruitment. Mortality rates were obtained from relevant departments. All-cause 10-year mortality and its association with disease-specific causes of visual impairment. The all-cause mortality rate for the entire cohort was 29.3% at the 10-year completion of follow-up. Of those with visual impairment, the overall mortality rate was 44.9%. The mortality rates differed for those with visual impairment due to cataract (59.8%), diabetic retinopathy (48.4%), trachoma (46.6%), 'other' (36.2%) and refractive error (33.4%) (P visual impairment from diabetic retinopathy were any more likely to die during the 10 years of follow-up when compared with those without visual impairment (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.00-2.87; P = 0.049). Visual impairment was associated with all-cause mortality in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. However, diabetic retinopathy was the only ocular disease that significantly increased the risk of mortality. Visual impairment secondary to diabetic retinopathy may be an important predictor of mortality. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in global indigenous populations: data availability and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Rahman, Saifur; Hussain, Rafat

    2013-10-01

    Socioeconomic and health disadvantage is widespread within and across indigenous communities in the world, leading to differentials in morbidity and mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, among indigenous populations are an emerging public health concern. The focus of this paper is on examining the STI epidemiology in indigenous communities in various parts of the world utilizing a range of data sources. Most of the STI research on global indigenous communities has concentrated on developed countries, neglecting more than half the world's indigenous people in the developing countries. This has resulted in major gaps in data at global level for STIs and HIV/AIDS among indigenous populations. Available data show that the prevalence of STIs is increasing among the indigenous communities and in several instances, the rates of these infections are higher than among non-indigenous populations. However, HIV still remains low when compared with the rates of other STIs. The paper argues that there is an urgent need to collect more comprehensive and reliable data at the global level across various indigenous communities. There is also an opportunity to reverse current trends in STIs through innovative, evidence-based and culturally appropriate targeted sexual health programmes.

  18. Improving health promotion using quality improvement techniques in Australian Indigenous primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki ePercival

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centres. Our study objectives were to: (a describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities; (b describe the status of health centre system support for health promotion activities; and (c introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centres systems over two years. Baseline assessments showed sub-optimal health centre systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health centre systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision making processes about the design/redesign of health centre systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff and members of the local community to address organisational and policy level barriers.

  19. Improving Health Promotion Using Quality Improvement Techniques in Australian Indigenous Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers.

  20. Improving Health Promotion Using Quality Improvement Techniques in Australian Indigenous Primary Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Nikki; O’Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers. PMID:27066470

  1. “Health divide” between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: Population based study

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    Haddad Slim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. Methods A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N = 1660 men and women, 18–96 years. Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI 2, anaemia, goitre, suspected tuberculosis and hypertension was compared across forward castes, other backward classes and tribal populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Results Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%, anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5% and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6% compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4% and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%. Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7% and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7% than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18–30 y (27.1%. Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18–30 y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%. The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap

  2. The DRUID study: racism and self-assessed health status in an indigenous population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is now considerable evidence from around the world that racism is associated with both mental and physical ill-health. However, little is known about the mediating factors between racism and ill-health. This paper investigates relationships between racism and self-assessed mental and physical health among Indigenous Australians as well as potential mediators of these relationships. Methods A total of 164 adults in the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID) study completed a validated instrument assessing interpersonal racism and a separate item on discrimination-related stress. Self-assessed health status was measured using the SF-12. Stress, optimism, lack of control, social connections, cultural identity and reactions/responses to interpersonal racism were considered as mediators and moderators of the relationship between racism/discrimination and self-assessed health status. Results After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, interpersonal racism was significantly associated with the SF-12 mental (but not the physical) health component. Stress, lack of control and feeling powerless as a reaction to racism emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between racism and general mental health. Similar findings emerged for discrimination-related stress. Conclusions Racism/discrimination is significantly associated with poor general mental health among this indigenous population. The mediating factors between racism and mental health identified in this study suggest new approaches to ameliorating the detrimental effects of racism on health. In particular, the importance of reducing racism-related stress, enhancing general levels of mastery, and minimising negative social connections in order to ameliorate the negative consequences of racism. PMID:22333047

  3. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Mongolian indigenous cattle populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lkhagva, B [International Livestock Research Institute - ILRI, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi (Kenya) and Mongolian State Agricultural University, Zaisan, Ulaanbaatar 210153 (Mongolia); Ochieng, J W; Hanotte, O; Jianlin, H [International Livestock Research Institute - ILRI, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi (Kenya); Yoon, D H [National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, 441-350, Suwon (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    Livestock production plays an important role in Mongolian economy. Over the last decade it has contributed to around 80-90% of the gross domestic agricultural products and to 30% of the revenues generated from exportations. Cattle is one of the five traditional and most important livestock species of Mongolia together with horse, sheep, goat and camel. Out of a total of 1.57 millions Mongolian cattle, 1.55 millions supposedly belong to three indigenous Bos taurus cattle breeds, namely Mongol, Selenge and Khalkhun Golun, all herded under extensive pastoral systems. Indigenous Mongolian cattle are generally small but look sturdy and strong. They have a well-off coat of hair, solid forward looking shoulders and short stubby snouts, and they are used for meat, milk and transport. Beef production contributes to 30% of the total meat supply in Mongolia. The Mongol breed is by the far the commonest with 1.53 million animals and it is found almost throughout the country. The Selenge breed, found in Selenge province and numbering 9000 heads, was developed in middle of the 20th century by crossing the Kazakh Whiteheaded with the local Mongol cattle. The Khalkhun Golun breed was developed from local Mongol cattle and it is distributed in Eastern and Suhbaatar provinces with about 10,000 heads. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, only a single population of Mongolian cattle has been studied with microsatellite DNA markers and no information is available on the genetic relationship between the Mongolian indigenous cattle breeds. In this study, we collected samples from two populations of the Mongol cattle (sampled at Ikhtamir soum in North Hangay province and Tsogt soum in Govi Altay province) and one population of the Khalkhun Golun cattle (sampled at Tumentsogt soum in Suhbaatar province). Samples were characterised with nine microsatellite markers MGTG4B, ILSTS005, ILSTS006, ILSTS008, ILSTS023, ILSTS028, ILSTS036, ILSTS050 and ILSTS103. To assess the genetic diversity

  4. Food security in indigenous and peasant populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Arango, Marcos; Gutiérrez-Builes, Lina Andrea; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Food security and the vulnerability among indigenous and peasant populations has become a topic of interest to public health all around the world, leading to the investigation about measurement, classification and factors that determine it. This systematic review aims to describe the situation of food security in indigenous and peasant communities, and the methods used for evaluation. The literature search was performed on the Pub Med (5), ScienceDirect (221) and Scopus (377) databases searching for publications between 2004 and 2015, a total of 603 items were located with the search engines. At the end of the screening process and after adding the items found in the gray literature, 25 papers were obtained to write the review. In the 11 years evaluated between 2004 and 2015, scientific activity around the theme was poor with just 4.54% of the publications on this subject, but for 2011 the percentage increased to 13 publications, 63%. Various factors that influence the development of food insecurity are climate change, the diversity of agriculture, globalization and market westernization.

  5. If you can't comply with dialysis, how do you expect me to trust you with transplantation? Australian nephrologists' views on indigenous Australians' 'non-compliance' and their suitability for kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kate

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Indigenous Australians suffer markedly higher rates of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD but are less likely than their non-Indigenous counterparts to receive a transplant. This difference is not fully explained by measurable clinical differences. Previous work suggests that Indigenous Australian patients may be regarded by treating specialists as 'non-compliers', which may negatively impact on referral for a transplant. However, this decision-making is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate: whether Indigenous patients are commonly characterised as 'non-compliers'; how estimations of patient compliance factor into Australian nephrologists' decision-making about transplant referral; and whether this may pose a particular barrier for Indigenous patients accessing transplants. Methods Nineteen nephrologists, from eight renal units treating the majority of Indigenous Australian renal patients, were interviewed in 2005-06 as part of a larger study. Thematic analysis was undertaken to investigate how compliance factors in specialists' decision-making, and its implications for Indigenous patients' likelihood of obtaining transplants. Results Specialists commonly identified Indigenous patients as both non-compliers and high-risk transplant candidates. Definition and assessment of 'compliance' was neither formal nor systematic. There was uncertainty about the value of compliance status in predicting post-transplant outcomes and the issue of organ scarcity permeated participants' responses. Overall, there was marked variation in how specialists weighed perceptions of compliance and risk in their decision-making. Conclusion Reliance on notions of patient 'compliance' in decision-making for transplant referral is likely to result in continuing disadvantage for Indigenous Australian ESKD patients. In the absence of robust evidence on predictors of post-transplant outcomes, referral decision-making processes

  6. In Situ Hydrocarbon Degradation by Indigenous Nearshore Bacterial Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Potential episodic hydrocarbon inputs associated with oil mining and transportation together with chronic introduction of hydrocarbons via urban runoff into the relatively pristine coastal Florida waters poses a significant threat to Florida's fragile marine environment. It is therefore important to understand the extent to which indigenous bacterial populations are able to degrade hydrocarbon compounds and also determine factors that could potentially control and promote the rate at which these compounds are broken down in situ. Previous controlled laboratory experiments carried out by our research group demonstrated that separately both photo-oxidation and cometabolism stimulate bacterial hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial assemblages collected from a chronically petroleum contaminated site in Bayboro Bay, Florida. Additionally, we also demonstrated that stable carbon and radiocarbon abundances of respired CO 2 could be used to trace in situ hydrocarbon degradation by indigenous bacterial populations at this same site. This current proposal had two main objectives: (a) to evaluate the cumulative impact of cometabolism and photo-oxidation on hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial assemblages collected the same site in Bayboro Bay, Florida and (b) to determine if in situ hydrocarbon degradation by indigenous bacterial populations this site could be traced using natural radiocarbon and stable carbon abundances of assimilated bacterial carbon. Funds were used for 2 years of full support for one ESI Ph.D. student, April Croxton. To address our first objective a series of closed system bacterial incubations were carried out using photo-oxidized petroleum and pinfish (i.e. cometabolite). Bacterial production of CO 2 was used as the indicator of hydrocarbon degradation and (delta) 13 C analysis of the resultant CO 2 was used to evaluate the source of the respired CO 2 (i.e. petroleum hydrocarbons or the pinfish cometabolite). Results from these time

  7. Mental health at the intersections: the impact of complex needs on police contact and custody for Indigenous Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovs, Julian; Dowse, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience significant social risk, vulnerability and disadvantage. Nowhere is this more starkly demonstrated than in the levels of contact that Indigenous Australians have with the criminal justice system, particularly the police. Utilizing a linked dataset of extant criminal justice, human and health service administrative data in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, this paper explores patterns of police contact and custody for a cohort of Indigenous males with complex needs. Four significant factors are identified that alone or in combination appear to impact on the frequency with which these men experience police contact and custody, including young age at first police contact, experiencing out of home care as a child, alcohol misuse, and limited locational mobility. Whilst it might be expected that the presence of mental ill-health and/or cognitive disability would be a key predictor of the frequency and intensity of police contact and custody, the findings suggest rather that the presence of multiple disadvantages beginning in the early years and compounding throughout individuals' lives, in which mental illness may or may not be a factor, is more significant than the presence of any one diagnosis in precipitating police contact and custody for this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial distribution of tuberculosis in indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the state of Pará, Brazil, 2005-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Bárbara Lopes; Azeredo, Jéssica Quelé; Nogueira, Laura Maria Vidal; Santos, Bruno de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Ivaneide Leal Ataide; Santos, Marcandra Nogueira de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the incidence of tuberculosis in indigenous and non-indigenous residents in the state of Pará from 2005-2013. Method: An ecological study was performed with data from SINAN, stratified for the 13 existing Regional Health Centers in Pará. The tuberculosis incidence rates were calculated for indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the 13 regions and maps were prepared to visualize the magnitude of the occurrence of tuberculosis. Results: Significant differ...

  9. The Kimberley Assessment of Depression of Older Indigenous Australians: Prevalence of Depressive Disorders, Risk Factors and Validation of the KICA-dep Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Flicker, Leon; Fenner, Stephen; Smith, Kate; Hyde, Zoe; Atkinson, David; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; LoGiudice, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. Methods Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep) scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from ‘never’ to ‘all the time’ (range of scores: 0 to 33). The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. Results The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7), of whom 143 (57.2%) were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case) was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8). Conclusions The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities. PMID:24740098

  10. The Kimberley assessment of depression of older Indigenous Australians: prevalence of depressive disorders, risk factors and validation of the KICA-dep scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo P Almeida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 'never' to 'all the time' (range of scores: 0 to 33. The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. RESULTS: The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7, of whom 143 (57.2% were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8. CONCLUSIONS: The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities.

  11. An Australian Indigenous community-led suicide intervention skills training program: community consultation findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Bushra; Kisely, Steve; Hides, Leanne; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Gill, Neeraj S; Hayman, Noel; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree

    2017-06-13

    Little is known of the appropriateness of existing gatekeeper suicide prevention programs for Indigenous communities. Despite the high rates of Indigenous suicide in Australia, especially among Indigenous youth, it is unclear how effective existing suicide prevention programs are in providing appropriate management of Indigenous people at risk of suicide. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with Indigenous communities in rural and regional areas of Southern Queensland. Thematic analysis was performed on the gathered information. Existing programs were time-intensive and included content irrelevant to Indigenous people. There was inconsistency in the content and delivery of gatekeeper training. Programs were also not sustainable for rural and regional Indigenous communities. Appropriate programs should be practical, relevant, and sustainable across all Indigenous communities, with a focus on the social, emotional, cultural and spiritual underpinnings of community wellbeing. Programs need to be developed in thorough consultation with Indigenous communities. Indigenous-led suicide intervention training programs are needed to mitigate the increasing rates of suicide experienced by Indigenous peoples living in rural and remote locations.

  12. Socio-Economic Status and Peritonitis in Australian Non-Indigenous Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Boudville, Neil C.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clayton, Philip A.; Johnson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ Results: 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 – 9; IRSD deciles 4 – 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ Conclusions: In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. PMID:24497587

  13. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandawana William Majoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9 years. 1244 (79.3% were Indigenous. 44.2% (n=693 were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1 versus 57.4 (15.2, p<0.001] and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35 versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5, p<0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522 versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0, p<0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37 versus 28% (20–38, p=0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2=0.11, p<0.001, no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p<0.001, and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p<0.001, Indigenous ethnicity (p<0.001, urea reduction ratio (p=0.001, and gender (p<0.001 after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation.

  14. Development of a Culturally Appropriate Bilingual Electronic App About Hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians: Towards Shared Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Caldwell, Luci; Johnston, Vanessa; Davis, Joshua Saul

    2015-06-10

    Hepatitis B is endemic in Indigenous communities in Northern Australia; however, there is a lack of culturally appropriate educational tools. Health care workers and educators in this setting have voiced a desire for visual, interactive tools in local languages. Mobile phones are increasingly used and available in remote Indigenous communities. In this context, we identified the need for a tablet-based health education app about hepatitis B, developed in partnership with an Australian remote Indigenous community. To develop a culturally appropriate bilingual app about hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land using a participatory action research (PAR) framework. This project was a partnership between the Menzies School of Health Research, Miwatj Aboriginal Health Corporation, Royal Darwin Hospital Liver Clinic, and Dreamedia Darwin. We have previously published a qualitative study that identified major knowledge gaps about hepatitis B in this community, and suggested that a tablet-based app would be an appropriate and popular tool to improve this knowledge. The process of developing the app was based on PAR principles, particularly ongoing consultation, evaluation, and discussion with the community throughout each iterative cycle. Stages included development of the storyboard, the translation process (forward translation and backtranslation), prelaunch community review, launch and initial community evaluation, and finally, wider launch and evaluation at a viral hepatitis conference. We produced an app called "Hep B Story" for use with iPad, iPhone, Android tablets, and mobile phones or personal computers. The app is culturally appropriate, audiovisual, interactive, and users can choose either English or Yolŋu Matha (the most common language in East Arnhem Land) as their preferred language. The initial evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in Hep B-related knowledge for 2 of 3 questions (P=.01 and .02, respectively) and

  15. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Garnett, Stephen T; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so.

  16. The prevalence of dental anomalies in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H Q; Constantine, S; Anderson, P J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies within an Australian paediatric population using panoramic radiographs. This was a prospective review of 1050 panoramic radiographs obtained as part of a school dental screening program in suburban and rural New South Wales, Australia. Fifty-four (5.14%) patients had a dental anomaly present. Agenesis was noted to have occurred 69 times across 45 patients (4.28%), along with seven cases of impaction (0.6%) and three cases of supernumerary teeth (0.28%). Dental anomalies rarely occur in the Australian population, which possesses a wide-ranging multiethnic cohort. Despite their rarity, they can be incidentally discovered so identification and management by dental practitioners are important. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    .... Arguing that the interests of Indigenous peoples, settlers, and immigrants are fundamentally shared, it proposes adaptation on both sides, but particularly for the descendants of settlers and immigrants...

  18. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  19. Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-Being: Australian Perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Brazilian Xavante indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luana Padua; Fabbro, Amaury Lelis Dal; Silva, Anderson Soares; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes; Franco, Luciana Ferreira; Kuhn, Patrícia Chamadoira; Moises, Regina Santiago; Vieira-Filho, João Paulo Botelho; Franco, Laércio Joel

    2015-01-01

    The raising prevalence of weight excess and of non-communicable diseases in indigenous populations, as well as changes in food consumption and reduction in the frequency and intensity of physical activity, suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is also elevated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MS and the frequency of its components in the Xavante adult population living in the Indian reservations of São Marcos and Sangradouro/Volta Grande, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 932 Xavante Indians aged 20 years or more, in the 2008-2012 period. The variables analysed were gender, age, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, initial and 2-h capillary glycemia in a 75 g OGTT, levels of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. The diagnostic criteria for MS proposed by the IDF and AHA/NHLBI were used. The prevalence of MS was 66.1 % (95 % CI 63.0-69.2), being 76.2 % (95 % CI 72.4-80.0) in women and 55.6 % (95 % CI 51.0-60.2) in men. Women had higher prevalence of MS in all age groups. Elevated waist circumference and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol were the more frequent components in those with MS, and elevated blood pressure was the less frequent. The high prevalence of MS in the Xavante Indians is mainly due to the increased prevalence of weight excess that resulted from an intense change in their life-style, in a short period of time in a population with a genetic predisposition. These findings highlight the magnitude of this health problem and make an alert about the necessity to implement specific preventive interventions.

  1. Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian; Robson, Bridget; Connolly, Michele; Al-Yaman, Fadwa; Bjertness, Espen; King, Alexandra; Tynan, Michael; Madden, Richard; Bang, Abhay; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Pesantes, Maria Amalia; Amigo, Hugo; Andronov, Sergei; Armien, Blas; Obando, Daniel Ayala; Axelsson, Per; Bhatti, Zaid Shakoor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Marius B; Briceno-Leon, Roberto; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Bustos, Patricia; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chu, Jiayou; Deji; Gouda, Jitendra; Harikumar, Rachakulla; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Kamaka, Martina; King, Malcolm; Kodavanti, Mallikharjuna Rao; Lara, Macarena; Laxmaiah, Avula; Lema, Claudia; Taborda, Ana María León; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Lobanov, Andrey; Melhus, Marita; Meshram, Indrapal; Miranda, J Jaime; Mu, Thet Thet; Nagalla, Balkrishna; Nimmathota, Arlappa; Popov, Andrey Ivanovich; Poveda, Ana María Peñuela; Ram, Faujdar; Reich, Hannah; Santos, Ricardo V; Sein, Aye Aye; Shekhar, Chander; Sherpa, Lhamo Y; Skold, Peter; Tano, Sofia; Tanywe, Asahngwa; Ugwu, Chidi; Ugwu, Fabian; Vapattanawong, Patama; Wan, Xia; Welch, James R; Yang, Gonghuan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yap, Leslie

    2016-07-09

    International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries. Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated. Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in

  2. Designing an implementation intervention with the Behaviour Change Wheel for health provider smoking cessation care for Australian Indigenous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Bovill, Michelle; Atkins, Lou; Gruppetta, Maree; Clarke, Marilyn J; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-15

    Indigenous smoking rates are up to 80% among pregnant women: prevalence among pregnant Australian Indigenous women was 45% in 2014, contributing significantly to the health gap for Indigenous Australians. We aimed to develop an implementation intervention to improve smoking cessation care (SCC) for pregnant Indigenous smokers, an outcome to be achieved by training health providers at Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) in a culturally competent approach, developed collaboratively with AMS. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), incorporating the COM-B model (capability, opportunity and motivation for behavioural interventions), provided a framework for the development of the Indigenous Counselling and Nicotine (ICAN) QUIT in Pregnancy implementation intervention at provider and patient levels. We identified evidence-practice gaps through (i) systematic literature reviews, (ii) a national survey of clinicians and (iii) a qualitative study of smoking and quitting with Aboriginal mothers. We followed the three stages recommended in Michie et al.'s "Behaviour Change Wheel" guide. Targets identified for health provider behaviour change included the following: capability (psychological capability, knowledge and skills) by training clinicians in pharmacotherapy to assist women to quit; motivation (optimism) by presenting evidence of effectiveness, and positive testimonials from patients and clinicians; and opportunity (environmental context and resources) by promoting a whole-of-service approach and structuring consultations using a flipchart and prompts. Education and training were selected as the main intervention functions. For health providers, the delivery mode was webinar, to accommodate time and location constraints, bringing the training to the services; for patients, face-to-face consultations were supported by a booklet embedded with videos to improve patients' capability, opportunity and motivation. The ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy was an intervention to train health

  3. Suicidal behaviour in indigenous population: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vargas-Espíndola

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Suicide in indigenous peoples is a public health problem whose comprehensive study should be encouraged from an intercultural approach, thus facilitating the implementation of culturally appropriate interventions.

  4. Differences in primary health care delivery to Australia’s Indigenous population: a template for use in economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Katherine S

    2012-09-01

    mainstream GP practices. It is important that these differences are included in the conduct of economic evaluations to ensure results are relevant to Indigenous Australians. Similar techniques would be generalisable to other disadvantaged minority populations. This will allow resource allocation decision-makers access to economic evidence that more accurately represents the needs and context of disadvantaged groups, which is particularly important if addressing health inequities is a stated goal.

  5. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Kimberley; McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N; Marley, Julia V; Stanley, Fiona J; Edmond, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356). WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  6. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Joukhadar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to

  7. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukhadar, Reem; Daetwyler, Hans D; Bansal, Urmil K; Gendall, Anthony R; Hayden, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to assist with

  8. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    .... Advancing the body of knowledge in the field of the anthropology of policy and public administration, this empirical study is a must-read for policy-makers, academics, and indigenous peoples alike.

  9. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides a unique overview of the trajectory of current policy, advancing a new consolidated approach to Indigenous policy that moves beyond the debate over self-determination and assimilation...

  10. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive and optimistic, this examination describes current Indigenous affairs policy in Australia, concentrating on the period following the end of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission in 2004...

  11. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley McAuley

    Full Text Available Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants.Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD] on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation.There were 3,382 (5.4% Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6% non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = <0.001 and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.33, p = <0.001 compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0% of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88-2.39. The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1 infants in the total cohort (35.7% was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5 infants (30.6% (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356.WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  12. Re-framing Indigenous Australian photography: Meaning and materiality of Christian Thompson’s ‘In Search of the International Look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article extends visual anthropological concerns into a new subject area that of contemporary Indigenous Australian photography. It presents what could be described as an ethnography of one artistic photograph created by artist Christian Thompson, taking into account both the work's intended

  13. Screen Worlds, Sound Worlds and School: A Consideration of the Potential of the Ethnomusicology of Australian Indigenous Film for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fienberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article arises from the authors' belief that there is a need to develop motivating ways for students across Australia to meaningfully encounter Australian indigenous music, the breadth and richness of which is beginning to be conveyed via a diverse range of mainstream media texts. Engaging with theoretical insights from the ethnomusicology of…

  14. The effect of a periodontal intervention on cardiovascular risk markers in Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease: the PerioCardio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience an overwhelming burden of chronic disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease (inflammation of the tissues surrounding teeth is also widespread, and may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases via pathogenic inflammatory pathways. This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease, and determine if intensive periodontal therapy improves these measures over a 12 month follow-up. The aims of the study are: (i to determine whether there is a dose response relationship between extent and severity of periodontal disease and measures of vascular health and inflammation among Indigenous Australian adults with moderate to severe periodontal disease; and (ii to determine the effects of periodontal treatment on changes in measures of vascular health and inflammation in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design This study will be a randomised, controlled trial, with predominantly blinded assessment of outcome measures and blinded statistical analysis. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits (with the intervention delayed 12 months in participants who are randomised to the control arm. Participants will be Indigenous adults aged ≥25 years from urban centres within the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants assessed to have moderate or severe periodontal disease will be randomised to the study's intervention or control arm. The intervention involves intensive removal of subgingival and supragingival calculus and plaque biofilm by scaling and root-planing. Study visits at baseline, 3 and 12 months, will incorporate questionnaires, non-fasting blood and urine samples, body measurements, blood pressure, periodontal assessment and non-invasive measures of vascular health (pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness. Primary outcome

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. The morbidity and mortality outcomes of indigenous Australian peoples after isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the influence of geographic remoteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Anil; Tully, Phillip J; Bennetts, Jayme S; Tuble, Sigrid C; Baker, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    Though Indigenous Australian peoples reportedly have poorer survival outcome after cardiac surgery, few studies have jointly documented the experience of major morbidity, and considered the influence of patient geographic remoteness. From January 1998 to September 2008, major morbidity events and survival were recorded for 2748 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Morbidity and survival analyses adjusted for propensity deciles based on patient ethnicity and age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, recent myocardial infarction, tobacco smoking, diabetes, renal disease and history of stroke. Sensitivity analyses controlled for the patient accessibility/remoteness index of Australia (ARIA). The 297 Indigenous Australian patients (10.8% of total) had greater odds for total morbidity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-2.30) and prolonged ventilation (adjusted odds ratio = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-3.44) in analyses adjusted for propensity deciles and geographic remoteness. With a median follow-up of 7.5 years (interquartile range 5.2-10.2), Indigenous Australian patients were found to experience 30% greater mortality risk (unadjusted hazard ratio = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03-1.64, p = 0.03). The effect size strengthened after adjustment for propensity score (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.96, p = .004). Adjustment for ARIA categorisation strengthened the effect size (adjusted HR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.11-2.13, p = .009). Indigenous Australian peoples were at greater risk for prolonged ventilation and combined morbidity outcome, and experienced poorer survival in the longer term. Higher mortality risk among Indigenous Australians was evident even after controlling for remoteness and accessibility to services. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Morbidity and mortality disparities among colonist and indigenous populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang-Yao Pan, William; Erlien, Christine; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2010-02-01

    Rural populations living in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) experience the highest health burden of any region in the country. Two independent studies of colonist and indigenous groups living in the NEA are used to compare their morbidity and mortality experiences. Colonist data are from a probability sample of land plots in 1999, while indigenous data are from a representative sample of the five largest ethnicities (Quichua, Shuar, Huaorani, Cofan, Secoya) collected in 2001. Poisson regression was used to compare morbidity. Results indicate clear differences in health between populations. Indigenous groups had 30% higher probability of mortality and 63% higher incidence rate of all-cause morbidity compared to colonists. Vector-borne, chronic, gastrointestinal, and diseases of unknown origin were particularly high among indigenous groups. Factors associated with morbidity varied: morbidity rates were similar for the two youngest age groups (0-4 and 5-9), but indigenous people aged 15-39 and 40+ had almost double the morbidity compared to colonists; larger households, later months of data collection and less pollution were associated with less morbidity in both groups; better infrastructure access (electricity and roads) was generally associated with lower morbidity in both groups; and associations of land use were different by group with more cultivation of perennials and fewer annuals associated with less morbidity for colonists, but more for indigenous groups. These results demonstrate the health disparities that exist among indigenous and non-indigenous populations even when living in the same geographic region. Land use itself exemplifies the cultural and contextual differences that are evident in health, since land use decisions are related to broader demographic and economic factors that influence overall ecological and human health. Ongoing population-environment and/or environment-health research needs to recognize the broader factors involved when

  18. Urbanization is Associated with Increased Trends in Cardiovascular Mortality Among Indigenous Populations: the PAI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson da Costa Armstrong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The cardiovascular risk burden among diverse indigenous populations is not totally known and may be influenced by lifestyle changes related to the urbanization process. Objectives: To investigate the cardiovascular (CV mortality profile of indigenous populations during a rapid urbanization process largely influenced by governmental infrastructure interventions in Northeast Brazil. Methods: We assessed the mortality of indigenous populations (≥ 30 y/o from 2007 to 2011 in Northeast Brazil (Bahia and Pernambuco states. Cardiovascular mortality was considered if the cause of death was in the ICD-10 CV disease group or if registered as sudden death. The indigenous populations were then divided into two groups according to the degree of urbanization based on anthropological criteria:9,10 Group 1 - less urbanized tribes (Funi-ô, Pankararu, Kiriri, and Pankararé; and Group 2 - more urbanized tribes (Tuxá, Truká, and Tumbalalá. Mortality rates of highly urbanized cities (Petrolina and Juazeiro in the proximity of indigenous areas were also evaluated. The analysis explored trends in the percentage of CV mortality for each studied population. Statistical significance was established for p value < 0.05. Results: There were 1,333 indigenous deaths in tribes of Bahia and Pernambuco (2007-2011: 281 in Group 1 (1.8% of the 2012 group population and 73 in Group 2 (3.7% of the 2012 group population, CV mortality of 24% and 37%, respectively (p = 0.02. In 2007-2009, there were 133 deaths in Group 1 and 44 in Group 2, CV mortality of 23% and 34%, respectively. In 2009-2010, there were 148 deaths in Group 1 and 29 in Group 2, CV mortality of 25% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: Urbanization appears to influence increases in CV mortality of indigenous peoples living in traditional tribes. Lifestyle and environmental changes due to urbanization added to suboptimal health care may increase CV risk in this population.

  19. Morphological features of indigenous chicken ecotype populations of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized indigenous chicken (IC) ecotypes morphologically. Five IC ecotypes studied were Kakamega (KK), Siaya (BN), West Pokot (WP), Narok (NR) and Bomet (BM). Data on morphological features were collected from 1 580 chickens and 151 for zoometric measurements. Descriptive

  20. Dimensions of belonging as an aspect of racial-ethnic-cultural identity: an exploration of indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen A; Oyama, Kathleen E; Odunewu, Latifat O; Huggins, Jackie G

    2014-07-01

    Sense of belonging is a key aspect of racial and ethnic identity. Interestingly, there is little exploration of the multiple characteristics of belongingness within the racial and ethnic identity literature. Through individual interviews and a focus group, we explored the sense of racial-ethnic-cultural (REC) belonging among 19 self-identified Black Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders). Using dimensional analysis, we uncovered 5 core interrelated dimensions of REC belonging: History/Memory, Place, and Peoplehood; Sense of Community; Acceptance and Pride; Shared Language and Culture; and Interconnections. We also uncovered 3 main barriers undermining participants' sense of REC belonging: phenotype, social identity, and history of colonization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia: a systematic synthesis of population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Peter S; Sawyer, Susan M; Carlin, John B; Degenhardt, Louisa; Brown, Ngiare; Brown, Alex D; Patton, George C

    2018-02-24

    Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia. We undertook a systematic synthesis of population data to report the health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia. A reporting framework for Indigenous adolescent health in Australia was defined to measure health outcomes, health risks, and sociocultural determinants. Available data (primary data from national surveys and administrative datasets, and available published data) were mapped against the defined reporting framework, and the quality graded, with the highest quality data selected to report a health profile for Indigenous adolescents. Comparison with non-Indigenous adolescents was made where possible, and estimates (disaggregated by age, sex, and remoteness) were reported as relative risks. A national advisory group (six Indigenous young people, three Indigenous adult community members, three researchers, three policy makers, and two service providers, all aged ≥16 years) provided input about the reporting framework, interpretation of findings, and policy recommendations. Data were available for 184 (79%) of 234 elements of the reporting framework. All-cause mortality for Indigenous adolescents (70 per 100 000) was more than twice that of non-Indigenous adolescents, with about 60% of deaths due to intentional self-harm and road traffic injury. 80% of all deaths among Indigenous adolescents were considered as potentially avoidable in the current health system. Communicable diseases (particularly sexually transmitted infections) were leading contributors to morbidity. Almost a third of Indigenous adolescents aged 18-24 years reported

  2. Inclusive Indigenous Australian voices in the semiotic landscape of the National Museum of Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Anne Jodon; Brooks, Eva Irene

    2017-01-01

    Histories of Indigenous peoples did not begin when European colonized their native lands: In Australia it began with the Dreaming some 40 to 60,000 years ago. Museum studies specify the need for museums to be socially responsible in their representation of cultures. This article examines two...... that the semiotic landscape of the museum was framed by the voices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders’ narratives and represented a diversity of voices; personal and political. The curator’s understanding of the need to partner with the Indigenous community, suggests that curators are in position...

  3. Domestic dog roaming patterns in remote northern Australian indigenous communities and implications for disease modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G; Brookes, Victoria J; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    Although Australia is canine rabies free, the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland and other northern Australian communities are at risk of an incursion due to proximity to rabies infected islands of Indonesia and existing disease spread pathways. Northern Australia also has large populations of free-roaming domestic dogs, presenting a risk of rabies establishment and maintenance should an incursion occur. Agent-based rabies spread models are being used to predict potential outbreak size and identify effective control strategies to aid incursion preparedness. A key component of these models is knowledge of dog roaming patterns to inform contact rates. However, a comprehensive understanding of how dogs utilise their environment and the heterogeneity of their movements to estimate contact rates is lacking. Using a novel simulation approach - and GPS data collected from 21 free-roaming domestic dogs in the NPA in 2014 and 2016 - we characterised the roaming patterns within this dog population. Multiple subsets from each individual dog's GPS dataset were selected representing different monitoring durations and a utilisation distribution (UD) and derived core (50%) and extended (95%) home ranges (HR) were estimated for each duration. Three roaming patterns were identified, based on changes in mean HR over increased monitoring durations, supported by assessment of maps of daily UDs of each dog. Stay-at-home dogs consolidated their HR around their owner's residence, resulting in a decrease in mean HR (both core and extended) as monitoring duration increased (median peak core and extended HR 0.336 and 3.696ha, respectively). Roamer dogs consolidated their core HR but their extended HR increased with longer monitoring durations, suggesting that their roaming patterns based on place of residence were more variable (median peak core and extended HR 0.391 and 6.049ha, respectively). Explorer dogs demonstrated large variability in their roaming patterns, with both core and

  4. A Visual Profile of Queensland Indigenous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of refractive error, binocular vision, and other visual conditions in Australian Indigenous children. This is important given the association of these visual conditions with reduced reading performance in the wider population, which may also contribute to the suboptimal reading performance reported in this population. The aim of this study was to develop a visual profile of Queensland Indigenous children. Vision testing was performed on 595 primary schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia. Vision parameters measured included visual acuity, refractive error, color vision, nearpoint of convergence, horizontal heterophoria, fusional vergence range, accommodative facility, AC/A ratio, visual motor integration, and rapid automatized naming. Near heterophoria, nearpoint of convergence, and near fusional vergence range were used to classify convergence insufficiency (CI). Although refractive error (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p = 0.04) and strabismus (Indigenous, 0%; non-Indigenous, 3%; p = 0.03) were significantly less common in Indigenous children, CI was twice as prevalent (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 5%; p = 0.04). Reduced visual information processing skills were more common in Indigenous children (reduced visual motor integration [Indigenous, 28%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p < 0.01] and slower rapid automatized naming [Indigenous, 67%; non-Indigenous, 59%; p = 0.04]). The prevalence of visual impairment (reduced visual acuity) and color vision deficiency was similar between groups. Indigenous children have less refractive error and strabismus than their non-Indigenous peers. However, CI and reduced visual information processing skills were more common in this group. Given that vision screenings primarily target visual acuity assessment and strabismus detection, this is an important finding as many Indigenous children with CI and reduced visual information processing may be missed. Emphasis should be placed on identifying

  5. Translation of tobacco policy into practice in disadvantaged and marginalized subpopulations: a study of challenges and opportunities in remote Australian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Jan A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia generally, smoking prevalence more than halved after 1980 and recently commenced to decline among Australia's disadvantaged Indigenous peoples. However, in some remote Indigenous Australian communities in the Northern Territory (NT, extremely high rates of up to 83% have not changed over the past 25 years. The World Health Organisation has called for public health and political leadership to address a global tobacco epidemic. For Indigenous Australians, unprecedented policies aim to overcome disadvantage and close the 'health gap' with reducing tobacco use the top priority. This study identifies challenges and opportunities to implementing these important new tobacco initiatives in remote Indigenous communities. Methods: With little empirical evidence available, we interviewed 82 key stakeholders across the NT representing operational- and management-level service providers, local Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants to identify challenges and opportunities for translating new policies into successful tobacco interventions. Data were analysed using qualitative approaches to identify emergent themes. Results The 20 emergent themes were classified using counts of occasions each theme occurred in the transcribed data as challenge or opportunity. The 'smoke-free policies' theme occurred most frequently as opportunity but infrequently as challenge while 'health workforce capacity' occurred most frequently as challenge but less frequently as opportunity, suggesting that policy implementation is constrained by lack of a skilled workforce. 'Smoking cessation support' occurred frequently as opportunity but also frequently as challenge suggesting that support for individuals requires additional input and attention. Conclusions These results from interviews with local and operational-level participants indicate that current tobacco policies in Australia targeting Indigenous smoking are sound and comprehensive

  6. Indigenous Australians' Information Behaviour and Internet Use in Everyday Life: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia Tina; Haines, Jelina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the first stage of an ongoing information behaviour research project undertaken with a rural Indigenous community in South Australia. Method: Twenty-one Ngarrindjeri volunteers participated in the field study. Permission was granted and extensive community consultations were conducted. Analysis: Questionnaires and…

  7. Settling Indigenous Claims to Protected Areas: Weighing Māori Aspirations Against Australian Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil O′B. Lyver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to resolve indigenous peoples′ grievances about the negative impacts of protected areas established on their customary estates by governments are driving the development of shared governance and management. The Tϋhoe people have sought that the settlement of their grievances against the New Zealand government include unencumbered rights to manage Te Urewera, guided by scientific and traditional knowledge and practices, for conservation and social benefits for the Tϋhoe people and the broader public. We led a study tour to allow Tϋhoe and other Mβori representatives to gain first-hand experience of long-standing jointly managed protected areas in Australia that the New Zealand government had drawn on in proposing mechanisms to resolve the Tϋhoe claim. We found that these areas were a poor fit to the study tour participants′ aspirations that indigenous world views would underpin governance and that indigenous people would be empowered. Our findings highlight that settlement must be transformational in terms of attitudes and relationships. Collaborative problem-solving processes that build trust can contribute. In areas like Te Urewera, where tenure boundaries fragment a landscape that is a coherent whole in indigenous world views, settlement processes can offer the prospect of landscape-scale outcomes for social justice and conservation.

  8. A systematic review of studies evaluating Australian indigenous community development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Mieke; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Stephens, Anne; Calabria, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Community development is a health promotion approach identified as having great potential to improve Indigenous health, because of its potential for extensive community participation. There has been no systematic examination of the extent of community participation in community

  9. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  10. Towards an Indigenous Ecosystem Services Valuation Framework: A North Australian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljit Kaur Sangha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite calls by various international agencies, considerable work is still required to understand and incorporate the importance of earth's ecosystems for informing public policies. Savannas comprise nearly one third of global terrestrial ecosystems and support many local and Indigenous communities, but the value of their ecosystem services (ES is insufficiently understood. This study proposes an integrated ES valuation framework and applies it to assess ES for an Indigenous savanna estate in northern Australia, describing how capabilities along with biophysical and socio-cultural ES benefits play a vital role for peoples' wellbeing. We estimated the monetary value of ES by applying a conventional Basic Value Transfer (BVT method for biophysical benefits (USD 84 M y-1, and a wellbeing approach for valuing socio-cultural benefits and capabilities (USD 4 M y-1. The latter offers a relatively nominal estimate but underscores the importance of including peoples' capabilities in order to demonstrate wellbeing benefits for Indigenous people who regularly visit and utilize their lands. We explore two scenarios, Business as Usual (pastoral land use and ES-based economies (implying customary land use, particularly through fire management to project plausible broader benefits for the community over a longer term. This research describes how inclusion of Indigenous peoples' capabilities and socio-cultural values are critical for ES assessments, and indicates that an integrated approach is essential for appropriately informing local, regional and global development policies.

  11. Language, Relationships and Pedagogical Practices: Pre-Service Teachers in an Indigenous Australian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Maria; Moriarty, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the initial stage of a longitudinal study whose eventual aim is to produce educators with the capacity, knowledge and cultural competence to engage effectively with Indigenous students in cross-cultural environments. The initial stage of the study involved 24 second-year pre-service teachers working individually with…

  12. Cancer survival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a national study of survival rates and excess mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Baade, Peter; Griffiths, Kalinda; Cunningham, Joan; Roder, David M; Coory, Michael; Jelfs, Paul L; Threlfall, Tim

    2014-01-31

    National cancer survival statistics are available for the total Australian population but not Indigenous Australians, although their cancer mortality rates are known to be higher than those of other Australians. We aimed to validate analysis methods and report cancer survival rates for Indigenous Australians as the basis for regular national reporting. We used national cancer registrations data to calculate all-cancer and site-specific relative survival for Indigenous Australians (compared with non-Indigenous Australians) diagnosed in 2001-2005. Because of limited availability of Indigenous life tables, we validated and used cause-specific survival (rather than relative survival) for proportional hazards regression to analyze time trends and regional variation in all-cancer survival between 1991 and 2005. Survival was lower for Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians for all cancers combined and for many cancer sites. The excess mortality of Indigenous people with cancer was restricted to the first three years after diagnosis, and greatest in the first year. Survival was lower for rural and remote than urban residents; this disparity was much greater for Indigenous people. Survival improved between 1991 and 2005 for non-Indigenous people (mortality decreased by 28%), but to a much lesser extent for Indigenous people (11%) and only for those in remote areas; cancer survival did not improve for urban Indigenous residents. Cancer survival is lower for Indigenous than other Australians, for all cancers combined and many individual cancer sites, although more accurate recording of Indigenous status by cancer registers is required before the extent of this disadvantage can be known with certainty. Cancer care for Indigenous Australians needs to be considerably improved; cancer diagnosis, treatment, and support services need to be redesigned specifically to be accessible and acceptable to Indigenous people.

  13. The double burden of malnutrition in indigenous and nonindigenous Guatemalan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Kroker-Lobos, Maria F; Close-Fernandez, Regina; Kanter, Rebecca

    2014-12-01

    As the prevalence of obesity increases in developing countries, the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) has become a public health problem, particularly in countries such as Guatemala with a high concentration of indigenous communities where the prevalence of stunting remains high. The aim was to describe and analyze the prevalence of DBM over time (1998-2008) in indigenous and nonindigenous Guatemalan populations. We used 3 National Maternal and Child Health Surveys conducted in Guatemala between 1998 and 2008 that include anthropometric data from children aged 0-60 mo and women of reproductive age (15-49 y). We assessed the prevalence of childhood stunting and both child and adult female overweight and obesity between 1998 and 2008. For the year 2008, we assessed the prevalence of DBM at the household (a stunted child and an overweight mother) and individual (stunting/short stature and overweight or anemia and overweight in the same individual) levels and compared the expected and observed prevalence rates to test if the coexistence of the DBM conditions corresponded to expected values. Between 1998 and 2008, the prevalence of childhood stunting decreased in both indigenous and nonindigenous populations, whereas overweight and obesity in women increased faster in indigenous populations than in nonindigenous populations (0.91% compared with 0.38%/y; P-trend < 0.01). In 2008, the prevalence of stunted children was 28.8 percentage points higher and of overweight women 4.6 percentage points lower in indigenous compared with nonindigenous populations (63.7% compared with 34.9% and 46.7% compared with 51.3%, respectively). DBM at the household and individual levels was higher in indigenous populations and was higher in geographic areas in which most of the population was indigenous, where there was also a greater prevalence of stunting and DBM at the individual level, both in women and children. In Guatemala, DBM is more prevalent in indigenous than in nonindigenous

  14. [THE SOCIAL HYGIENIC AND MEDICAL DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES OF INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF YAKUTIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, N B; Lapteva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, in indigenous populations of the North and Siberia lower indicators ofpsychic health are registered. The evidence ofthis occurrence is high mortality due to external causes and significant prevalence of alcoholism. The high level of suicide among indigenous children and adolescents reflects extreme social troubles. The sampling included 478 families of indigenous population of Yakutia (families of Yakut, Evenk, Even and Yukagir) residing in the northern, central eastern andsouthern regions ofthe Republic. The specially developed social hygienic questionnaire was applied. The study established that 52-55.5% of indigenous families have three and more children and are positioned as large families. At the same time, 22.6-32.2% offamilies are incomplete and 11.5-38.5% of children are born in unregistered marriage. The income lower than living wage have 55.9-67.9% of indigenous families. The lacking of permanent income is one of the causes of such situation in case of 20-28.6% of parents. Only 30.7-53.6% of indigenous families can be considered as well-to-do ones. From 464% to 69.3% offamilies are considered as disadvantaged in consequence of unfavorable psychological climate (in 33.7-43.6% of families); occurrence of frequent quarrels and conflicts (in 3.8-9.0% offamilies), alcoholization of one or both parents (in 5.7-10.9% of families), presence of relatives with previous convictions (in 7.4-11.4%).

  15. Molecular genetic diversity and genetic structure of Vietnamese indigenous pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, L. D.; Do, Duy Ngoc; Nam, L. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study characterized genetic diversity and genetic structure of five indigenous pig populations (Ha Lang, Muong Te, Mong Cai, Lung and Lung Pu), two wild pig populations (Vietnamese and Thai wild pigs) and an exotic pig breed (Yorkshire) using FAO/ISAG recommended 16 microsatellite markers...

  16. Resistance and Sovereignty in Some Recent Australian Indigenous Women’s Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Ferrier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p17 In Australia, powerful stories expressing resistance to a white, postcolonising hegemony continue to be articulated in Indigenous women’s fictional texts, including those from the 1990s onwards that are discussed in this paper. Their particular historically-distinctive mode of satire or irony challenges postcolonising regimes and institutions, the legacy of colonialism, and the persisting dominance of whiteness. These more recent texts continue a central preoccupation of the earlier fiction by Indigenous women with the achievement of agency in contexts of unequal social and economic  power; marginalised characters engage with current questions and conditions. The paper considers how these fictions represent some aspects of Aboriginal separation from land and place; separation from families; outsider and outcast identities, and how far these continue to mean disempowerment; Indigenous people’s epistemological relationships with their land and bodies of water, and the question of sovereignty in relation to Country and environment.

  17. Quantitative PCR of ear discharge from Indigenous Australian children with acute otitis media with perforation supports a role for Alloiococcus otitidis as a secondary pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Robyn L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media is endemic in remote Indigenous communities of Australia’s Northern Territory. Alloiococcus otitidis is an outer ear commensal and putative middle ear pathogen that has not previously been described in acute otitis media (AOM in this population. The aims of this study were to determine the presence, antibiotic susceptibility and bacterial load of A. otitidis in nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs collected from Indigenous Australian children with AOM with perforation. Methods Paired nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs from 27 children with AOM with perforation were tested by A. otitidis quantitative PCR (qPCR. Positive swabs were cultured for 21 days. Total and respiratory pathogen bacterial loads in A. otitidis-positive swabs were determined by qPCR. Results A. otitidis was detected by qPCR in 11 ear discharge swabs from 10 of 27 (37% children, but was not detected in paired nasopharyngeal swabs. A. otitidis was cultured from 5 of 11 qPCR-positive swabs from four children. All A. otitidis isolates had minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with macrolide resistance. All A. otitidis qPCR-positive swabs were culture-positive for other bacteria. A. otitidis bacterial load ranged from 2.2 × 104-1.1 × 108 cells/swab (median 1.8 × 105 cells/swab. The relative abundance of A. otitidis ranged from 0.01% to 34% of the total bacterial load (median 0.7%. In 6 of 11 qPCR-positive swabs the A. otitidis relative abundance was A. otitidis bacterial load and relative abundance measures were comparable to that of Haemophilus influenzae. Conclusions A. otitidis can be a dominant species in the bacterial communities present in the ear discharge of Indigenous children with AOM with perforation. The absence of A. otitidis in nasopharyngeal swabs suggests the ear canal as the likely primary reservoir. The significance of A. otitidis at low relative abundance is unclear; however, at higher relative

  18. Spatial vulnerability of Australian urban populations to extreme heat events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith

    2013-04-01

    Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.

  19. Enhancing health care equity with Indigenous populations: evidence-based strategies from an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Annette J; Varcoe, Colleen; Lavoie, Josée; Smye, Victoria; Wong, Sabrina T; Krause, Murry; Tu, David; Godwin, Olive; Khan, Koushambhi; Fridkin, Alycia

    2016-10-04

    Structural violence shapes the health of Indigenous peoples globally, and is deeply embedded in history, individual and institutional racism, and inequitable social policies and practices. Many Indigenous communities have flourished, however, the impact of colonialism continues to have profound health effects for Indigenous peoples in Canada and internationally. Despite increasing evidence of health status inequities affecting Indigenous populations, health services often fail to address health and social inequities as routine aspects of health care delivery. In this paper, we discuss an evidence-based framework and specific strategies for promoting health care equity for Indigenous populations. Using an ethnographic design and mixed methods, this study was conducted at two Urban Aboriginal Health Centres located in two inner cities in Canada, which serve a combined patient population of 5,500. Data collection included in-depth interviews with a total of 114 patients and staff (n = 73 patients; n = 41 staff), and over 900 h of participant observation focused on staff members' interactions and patterns of relating with patients. Four key dimensions of equity-oriented health services are foundational to supporting the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples: inequity-responsive care, culturally safe care, trauma- and violence-informed care, and contextually tailored care. Partnerships with Indigenous leaders, agencies, and communities are required to operationalize and tailor these key dimensions to local contexts. We discuss 10 strategies that intersect to optimize effectiveness of health care services for Indigenous peoples, and provide examples of how they can be implemented in a variety of health care settings. While the key dimensions of equity-oriented care and 10 strategies may be most optimally operationalized in the context of interdisciplinary teamwork, they also serve as health equity guidelines for organizations and providers working in

  20. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  1. Diabetes management in an Australian primary care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, I; Hebing, R; Mitchell, B; Hughes, J; Peterson, G; Song, Y J C; Stewart, K; Armour, C L

    2011-12-01

    Worldwide studies have shown that significant proportions of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) do not meet targets for glycaemic control, blood pressure (BP) and lipids, putting them at higher risk of developing complications. However, little is known about medicines management in Australian primary care populations with T2DM. The aim of this study was to (i) describe the management of a large group of patients in primary care, (ii) identify areas for improvement in management and (iii) determine any relationship between adherence and glycaemic, BP and lipid control. This was a retrospective, epidemiological study of primary care patients with T2DM diabetes, with HbA(1c) of >7%, recruited in 90 Australian community pharmacies. Data collected included demographic details, diabetes history, current medication regimen, height, weight, BP, physical activity and smoking status. Of the 430 patients, 98% used antidiabetics, 80% antihypertensives, 73% lipid lowering drugs and 38% aspirin. BP and all lipid targets were met by only 21% and 14% of the treated patients and 21% and 12% of the untreated patients respectively. Medication adherence was related to better glycaemic control (P = 0.04). An evidence-base prescribing practice gap was seen in this Australian primary care population of T2DM patients. Patients were undertreated with antihypertensive and lipid lowering medication, and several subgroups with co-morbidities were not receiving the recommended pharmacotherapy. Interventions are required to redress the current evidence-base prescribing practice gap in disease management in primary care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Implementing recommendations of the World Report on Disability for indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol

    2013-02-01

    Typically, the types of services provided for people with communication disorders (PWCD) and the ways the services are provided have been designed for dominant populations in the Minority World. If services are to be truly accessible and equitable, they must be designed to account for cultural variations in beliefs, needs, and desires of PWCD and their families. This article describes the health conditions that put indigenous populations at particular risk for communicative disorders and gives examples of ways in which speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have addressed the recommendations of the World Report on Disability when working with PWCD in indigenous communities in Minority World countries.

  3. Suicides in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Northwestern Russia, and associated socio-demographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarokov, Yury A.; Brenn, Tormod; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V.; Nilssen, Odd

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe suicide rates in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) in 2002–2012, as well as associated socio-demographic characteristics. Study design Retrospective population-based mortality study. Methods Data from autopsy reports were used to identify 252 cases of suicide in the NAO in 2002–2012. Data on socio-demographic characteristics of these cases were obtained from passports and medical records at local primary health care units, and were then linked to total population data from the Censuses in 2002 and 2010. Suicide rates for the indigenous Nenets population and the non-indigenous population were standardized to the European standard population. The rates were also estimated according to different socio-demographic characteristics and compared by calculating relative risks. Results The crude suicide rates were 79.8 per 100,000 person-years (PYs) in the Nenets population and 49.2 per 100,000 PYs in the non-indigenous population. The corresponding standardized estimates were 72.7 per 100,000 PYs and 50.7 per 100,000 PYs. The highest suicide rates in the Nenets population were observed in the age group 20–29 years (391 per 100,000 PYs), and in females aged 30–39 years (191 per 100,000 PYs). Socio-demographic characteristics associated with high suicide rates in the Nenets population were age 20–39 years, male, urban residence, having secondary school or higher education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Males aged 20–29 years, and females aged 30–39 and aged 70 years and above had the highest suicide rates in the non-indigenous population (137.5, 21.6 and 29.9 per 100,000 PYs, respectively). The elevated suicide rates observed in the non-indigenous population were associated with male sex, rural residence, secondary school education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Conclusions Suicide rates in the NAO were substantially higher among

  4. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  5. Economic evaluation of 'Return to Country': A remote Australian initiative to address indigenous homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Jacups, Susan; Hunter, Gary; Rogerson, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous homeless persons in Cairns, Northern Australia, prompted the Queensland Police Service (QPS) to commence a pilot 'Return to Country' (R2C) program. The program was designed to assist homeless people who were voluntarily seeking to return to their home communities. This study assesses the costs of running the program and evaluates its net economic impact. Retrospective uncontrolled cost, cost-effectiveness and cost-offset analyses were undertaken from a societal perspective. All costs were expressed in 2014 AU$. The R2C program successfully assisted 140 participants to return home, reducing the prevalence of homelessness in the regional center by 9.6%. The total program cost was estimated as AU$ 135,831 or AU$ 970 per participant. The economic analysis indicated that R2C was value for money, potentially saving AU$ 2,714,460. Limitations of the study included retrospective data collection and no established alternative comparison group. R2C is a relatively simple, minimal cost program, which can be utilized by policy makers to offer one solution to homelessness. This economic evaluation informs the QPS of the effects of the R2C program in order to guide further program initiatives. The R2C model may be applied to assist temporarily stranded Indigenous people in other locations within Australia or internationally to return home. No funding was obtained for conducting this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving Business Investment Confidence in Culture-Aligned Indigenous Economies in Remote Australian Communities: A Business Support Framework to Better Inform Government Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. Fleming

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that culture-aligned economies are more effective in engaging remote-living Indigenous Australians in work long-term. Despite this evidence, governments remain resistant to investing substantially in these economies, with the result that low employment rates persist. This article argues that governmental systems of organisation are not designed to support non-mainstream economies and this position is unlikely to change. Similarly, the commercial sector lacks confidence that investing in culture-aligned economies will generate financial returns. This article presents a localised, pragmatic approach to Indigenous business support that works within existing systems of government, business and culture. Most unsuccessful programs fail to recognise the full suite of critical factors for sustained market engagement by both business and Indigenous people. This article reports on work to bring all critical factors together into a business support framework to inform the design and implementation of an aquaculture development program in a remote Indigenous Australian community.

  7. Social Determinants of Traumatic Brain Injury in the North American Indigenous Population: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Kaitlin J; Zeiler, Frederick A

    2017-09-01

    Given the difficult to navigate literature on social determinants in Indigenous traumatic brain injury (TBI) we wished to identify all available literature on the social determinants of health linked to TBI in the North American Indigenous populations. We performed a systematically conducted review. We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library from inception to January 2016. A two-step review process of the search results was performed, applying defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. The final group of articles had the data extracted and summarized. Ten manuscripts were identified to discuss some social determinant linked to TBI in the North American Indigenous populations. Two studies were focused on Canadian populations, with the remaining 8 studies focused on populations within the United States. Six social health determinants were identified within the studies, including: Rural location (Physical Environment) in seven studies, Male gender in five studies and Female gender in one study (in the setting of interpersonal violence) (Gender), Substance use in four studies and failure to utilize personal protective equipment in one study (Personal Health Practices and Coping Skills), Interpersonal Violence in one study (Social Environment), availability of rehabilitation services in one study (Health Services), and lack of family and friend presence during meetings with healthcare professionals in one study (Social Support Network). To date, little literature is available on the social determinants that impact TBI in the North American Indigenous population. Further research is warranted to better determine the incidence and social determinants associated.

  8. Incidence and transmission patterns of tuberculosis among indigenous populations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Atsuko Cunha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of the Brazilian indigenous population lives in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, where a large number of new cases of tuberculosis (TB are reported. This study was conducted to assess TB occurrence, transmission and the utility of TB diagnosis based on the Ogawa-Kudoh (O-K culture method in this remote population. The incidence of TB was estimated by a retrospective review of the surveillance data maintained by the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for the study region. The TB transmission pattern among indigenous people was assessed by genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using the IS 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP technique. Of the 3,093 cases identified from 1999-2001, 610 (~20% were indigenous patients (average incidence: 377/100,000/year. The use of the O-K culture method increased the number of diagnosed cases by 34.1%. Of the genotyped isolates from 52 indigenous patients, 33 (63.5% belonged to cluster RFLP patterns, indicating recently transmitted TB. These results demonstrate high, on-going TB transmission rates among the indigenous people of MS and indicate that new efforts are needed to disrupt these current transmissions.

  9. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Chupakhin, Valery S; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961-1990. All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR) per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited.

  10. Intimate partner violence and mental ill health among global populations of Indigenous women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowska, Marta; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a major obstacle to the achievement of gender equality and human development. Its adverse physical and mental health consequences have been reported to affect women of all ages and backgrounds. Although Indigenous women seem to experience higher rates of partner abuse than non-Indigenous women, mental health consequences of IPV among this population are not yet clearly established in the literature. This study systematically reviewed the global literature on mental health outcomes and risk factors for mental ill health among Indigenous women who experienced IPV. Primary quantitative and mixed methods studies that reported about mental health and IPV among Indigenous women (aged 14+) were included. 21 bibliographic databases were searched until January 2017. Quality of included studies was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Findings are reported according to PRISMA-P 2015. 13 studies were identified. The majority of studies reported very high rates of IPV and high prevalence of mental disorders. The most frequently identified types of IPV were physical and/or sexual violence, verbal aggression, and emotional abuse. The strongest predictor of poor mental health was physical violence. The most commonly reported mental health outcomes were depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite the small number of studies identified, the available evidence suggests that experiences of IPV and mental disorders among Indigenous women are linked and exacerbated by poverty, discrimination, and substance abuse. More research is needed to better understand distributions and presentations of IPV-related mental illness in this population.

  11. The Truth That Will Set Us All Free: An Uncertain History of Memorials to Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aborigines and other Australians have not met with amity. Memorials to the Aboriginal people of Australia are not common and some of the more prominent are regularly damaged. Eddies of past tempests slap disturbingly at modern day memorials thousands of kilometres and several generations removed from the eye of furious storms. This article traces a difficult story of what seems at first sight to be blind racism, at a second sight, a rampant colonialism, and at a more reflective third, perhaps, the economy of the pastoralist and the farmer in deadly disharmony to that of the hunter gatherer. Whatever the origins, the consequences of conflict endure for centuries.

  12. A community-based mixed methods approach to developing behavioural health interventions among indigenous adolescent populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tingey, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    Native American and indigenous populations experience the greatest behavioural health disparities in the world. A constellation of factors impacting Native American Tribes contributes to high rates and co-morbidity of mental health disorders, substance use and sexually transmitted infection (STI),

  13. Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous populations of Australia and Canada experience disproportionately high rates of chronic disease. Our goal was to compare cardiovascular (CVD risk profile and diabetes complications from three recent comprehensive studies of diabetes complications in different Indigenous populations in Australia and Canada. Methods We compared participants from three recent studies: remote Indigenous Australians (2002-2003, n = 37 known diabetes, urban Indigenous Australians (2003-2005, n = 99 known diabetes, and remote Aboriginal Canadians (2001-2002, n = 188 known diabetes. Results The three groups were similar for HbA1c, systolic BP, diabetes duration. Although leaner by body-mass-index criteria, remote Indigenous Australians displayed a more adverse CVD risk profile with respect to: waist-hip-ratio (1.03, 0.99, 0.94, remote Indigenous Australians, urban Indigenous Australians, remote Canadians, p Conclusions Although there are many similarities in diabetes phenotype in Indigenous populations, this comparison demonstrates that CVD risk profiles and diabetes complications may differ among groups. Irrespective, management and intervention strategies are required from a young age in Indigenous populations and need to be designed in consultation with communities and tailored to community and individual needs.

  14. Population data of six Alu insertions in indigenous groups from Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, B P; Chua, K H; Lee, P C; Lian, L H

    2012-01-01

    The present study is the first to report the genetic relatedness of indigenous populations of Sabah, Malaysia, using a set of Indel markers (HS4.32, TPA25, APO, PV92, B65 and HS3.23). The primary aim was to assess the genetic relationships among these populations and with populations from other parts of the world by examining the distribution of these markers. A total of 504 volunteers from the three largest indigenous groups, i.e. Kadazan-Dusun, Bajau and Rungus, were recruited for the study. Six Alu insertions were typed by PCR with specific primer sets. All insertions were found to present at different frequencies, ranging from 0.170-0.970. The heterozygosity of most of the markers was high (>0.4), with the exception of HS3.23 and APO. A genetic differentiation study revealed that these populations are closely related to each other (G(ST) = 0.006). A principle component plot showed that these populations have higher affinity to Mainland South East Asia/East Asia populations, rather than Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) populations. In summary, these indigenous groups were closely associated in terms of their genetic composition. This finding also supports the colonization model of ISEA, which suggests that the inhabitants of this region were mostly descendants from Southern China.

  15. Sugar cane manufacturing is associated with tuberculosis in an indigenous population in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Estevan, Anderson Oliveira; Ko, Albert I; Croda, Julio

    2013-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among indigenous peoples in Brazil, and identifying the risk factors for TB in this population secondary to specific epidemiological conditions is essential for recommending interventions aimed at disease control. This case-control study was conducted with an indigenous population between June 2009 and August 2011 in Dourados, Brazil. Tuberculosis cases reported to the national disease surveillance programme were paired with two control cases matched by age and geographic location. There were 63 cases included in this study, and the annual incidence of TB in the indigenous communities examined was 222 (95% CI, 148-321) per 100 000 inhabitants. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the variables associated with TB infection included male gender (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-5.3), not owning a home (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2-10.1), illiteracy (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.0), TB contact (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8) and work performed in a sugar cane factory (OR 6.8; 95% CI 1.2-36.9). There is a potential relationship between exposure to sugar cane manufacturing processes and tuberculosis infection among indigenous populations.

  16. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  17. Gender variations in waist circumference levels between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbija, Odewumi Oluwarotimi; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To compare gender-specific waist circumference (WC) levels of Aboriginal Australians with non-Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search on Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify papers that reported gender-specific waist circumference (WC) estimates of participants from the age of 15 years and above among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Means and their 95% confidence intervals of gender differences in WC, height and weight were recorded or calculated where they were not provided. Gender-specific WC, height and weight mean estimates were pooled and the I(2) statistic was used to test heterogeneity among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Of 17 selected cross-sectional studies, 9 focused on Aboriginal and 8 on non-Aboriginal Australians. Seven studies reported significantly higher WC estimates among indigenous females than males. On the other hand, non-indigenous males had significantly higher WC levels than females. Males had greater height and weight estimates than females in both groups. Although indigenous women were shorter and had lower weight estimates, they had greater WC levels than indigenous men. This is the first systematic review to assess the gender-specific differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The findings of this review warrant more efforts to understand and reduce the high prevalence of central obesity and related chronic diseases among Aboriginal women. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid cancer risks from radiation exposure for the Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates are made of the risks to the Australian population as a function of age and gender for mortality or morbidity for all solid cancers after exposure to radiation. Excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models are used. The model coefficients are re-evaluated for radiation doses expressed as effective dose using data from the Japanese Life Span Study. Life-table methods are used throughout and the risk measures studied are: the risk of exposure related death, RERD and the risk of exposure related cancer, RERC. Australian life-table data and the age-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates of Australian males and females are taken from recent published tables. No dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor is applied. Sources of uncertainty used to calculate the confidence regions for the estimated risks include the statistical uncertainties of the model parameters and of the extrapolation of the risks beyond the period supported by the epidemiological data. Summary values of the risks are reported as averages of those calculated from the ERR and the EAR models. For males, the mortality risks per sievert range from 14% for 0-9 year age group, 7% at 30-39 years and 4% at 50-59 years. Corresponding values for females are 20%, 10% and 6%. Incidence risks are higher: for males the estimates are 32% for the 0-9 year group, 12% at 30-39 and 5% at 50-59. Corresponding values for females are 56%, 20% and 8%. The 90% confidence regions are about ± 50% of these values. Estimates are given for the risks from CT whole-body scanning or virtual colonoscopy which could be used for cancer screening. If used at 3 year intervals and the effective dose per procedure is 10 mSv, then the RERD for males beginning screening at 40, 50 and 60 years is 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.1%, respectively and for females, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. RERD estimates for a 5 year interval between screens are about one-third smaller. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of

  19. Genetic structure of seven Mexican indigenous populations based on five polymarker loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentello-Malo, Leonora; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Loeza, Francisco; Salamanca-Gomez, Fabio; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2003-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates the genetic structure of seven Mexican indigenous populations (Mixteca Alta, Mixteca Baja, Otomies, Purepecha, Nahuas-Guerrero, Nahuas-Xochimilco, and Tzeltales) on the basis of five PCR-based polymorphic DNA loci: LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, and GC. Genetic distance and diversity analyses indicate that these Mexican indigenous are similar and that more than 96% of the total gene diversity (H(T)) can be attributed to individual variation within populations. Mixteca-Alta, Mixteca-Baja, and Nahuas-Xochimilco show indications of higher admixture with European-derived persons. The demonstration of a relative genetic homogeneity of Mexican Indians for the markers studied suggests that this population is suitable for studying disease-marker associations in the search for candidate genes of complex diseases. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  1. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  2. Heritability of epistaxis in the Australian Thoroughbred racehorse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Raadsma, H W; Wade, C M; Knight, P K; Hamilton, N A

    2014-11-01

    Post exercise epistaxis, the manifestation of a severe form of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), has been observed in many equine racing populations. Although multiple analyses have suggested that non-genetic factors may lead to the development of this condition, relatively little consensus has been reached regarding its genetic aetiology. The objective of this study was to provide insight into both genetic and non-genetic factors that may contribute to the expression of epistaxis in the Australian Thoroughbred racing population. Racing records and reported epistaxis occurrences were acquired for 117,088 horses entered in races and official barrier trials from 1 August 2000 until 22 February 2011. Heritability was estimated using two different logistic generalised linear mixed models (lifetime epistaxis risk h(2) = 0.27 and individual race epistaxis risk h(2) = 0.50). Sex, age, and year of birth were shown to be significant; however, trainer, jockey, race distance, condition of the track (i.e. 'going'), racecourse, track surface, number of race starters, year and month of race were not significant. Evidence suggests genetic and non-genetic links to EIPH expressed as epistaxis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation - an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of 10 Chinese indigenous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This program uses a Monte Carlo Markov chain. (MCMC) algorithm to ... tal population, measured as FST value, for the 29 loci var- ied from 0.002 (SMO11) to .... linked to loci affecting morphological, productive or adap- tive traits of selective ...

  5. [High prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population in Mexico. National Nutrition Survey 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Zúñiga, María Concepción; Madrigal Fritsch, Herlinda; Villa, Antonio R; Guarneros Soto, Noé

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population is still currently a serious public health problem, and given that no specific studies affording the possibility of knowing the nutritional condition of this population, the question was posed of identifying the prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous population of Mexico by means of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey. A rural sample was selected from the Northern, Central and Southern regions where 70% or more of the population speak an indigenous language. The weight/age, height/age and weight/height Score Z desviations was calculated for 3,236 preschoolers and 4,899 school-age children. Nationwide and by regions, there were no difference by age group regarding the prevalences of the three indicators. By regions, for preschoolers, the South showed the highest prevalences of underheight (69.8%) and underweight (49.8%) than the North (respectively 36.1% and 22.6%), entailing statistically significant differences (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.04). For overweight and obesity, the North showed a 14.2% prevalence, and the South 5.6% (p < 0.05) for the same age group. The nutritional condition of the children studied reveals a geographical polarization, the greatest prevalences related to underheight and underweight children being found in southern Mexico, whilst those due to overalimentation were located in the North, this phenomenon possibly being due to lifestyles and availability of food differing from one region to the other.

  6. Genetic polymorphism and immune response to tuberculosis in indigenous populations: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maronna Praça Longhi

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed studies of the immune response to tuberculosis and the genetic polymorphisms associated with Th1-or Th2-mediated cytokine expression in indigenous populations. A bibliographic search was performed on the Medline and ISI databases and included studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. The search terms were tuberculosis, American Indians, Amerindian, indigenous, Indians, native people, aboriginal, immun*, host immune, immune response, cytokine*, polymorphism*, and gene. Regardless of their design, studies that evaluated immunoglobulin, cytokine levels and genetic polymorphisms that altered cytokine expression were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were performed in Latin America, and five investigated the Warao ethnic group of Venezuela. Most of the investigations indirectly evaluated the immune response. Higher anergy to the tuberculin skin test, higher IgG4 and IgM levels, higher IL-5 production and lower TNF-a, IL-12p40 and IFN-I production were found in the indigenous populations. The studies also reported a predominantly Th2-type response in these populations and a possibly higher susceptibility to tuberculosis. A better understanding of the relevant genetic polymorphisms and their role in immune regulation would help to clarify the immunogenetic mechanisms of TB infection in these populations. This information would be useful for identifying new treatments and preventing infection and progression to active disease.

  7. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961–1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961–1990. Methods All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR) per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Conclusions The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited. PMID:23519821

  8. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961–1990. Methods. All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results. The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Conclusions. The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited.

  9. Australia's Indigenous Students in PISA 2000: Results from an International Study. ACER Research Monograph No. 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bortoli, Lisa; Cresswell, John

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, Australia took part in the inaugural OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Approximately 500 Australian Indigenous students were assessed in PISA, providing a representative sample of the 15-year-old Indigenous population. This report presents the analysis of…

  10. A genomic portrait of haplotype diversity and signatures of selection in indigenous southern African populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile R Chimusa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a study of genome-wide, dense SNP (∼ 900K and copy number polymorphism data of indigenous southern Africans. We demonstrate the genetic contribution to southern and eastern African populations, which involved admixture between indigenous San, Niger-Congo-speaking and populations of Eurasian ancestry. This finding illustrates the need to account for stratification in genome-wide association studies, and that admixture mapping would likely be a successful approach in these populations. We developed a strategy to detect the signature of selection prior to and following putative admixture events. Several genomic regions show an unusual excess of Niger-Kordofanian, and unusual deficiency of both San and Eurasian ancestry, which were considered the footprints of selection after population admixture. Several SNPs with strong allele frequency differences were observed predominantly between the admixed indigenous southern African populations, and their ancestral Eurasian populations. Interestingly, many candidate genes, which were identified within the genomic regions showing signals for selection, were associated with southern African-specific high-risk, mostly communicable diseases, such as malaria, influenza, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDs. This observation suggests a potentially important role that these genes might have played in adapting to the environment. Additionally, our analyses of haplotype structure, linkage disequilibrium, recombination, copy number variation and genome-wide admixture highlight, and support the unique position of San relative to both African and non-African populations. This study contributes to a better understanding of population ancestry and selection in south-eastern African populations; and the data and results obtained will support research into the genetic contributions to infectious as well as non-communicable diseases in the region.

  11. A genomic portrait of haplotype diversity and signatures of selection in indigenous southern African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimusa, Emile R; Meintjies, Ayton; Tchanga, Milaine; Mulder, Nicola; Seoighe, Cathal; Seioghe, Cathal; Soodyall, Himla; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2015-03-01

    We report a study of genome-wide, dense SNP (∼ 900K) and copy number polymorphism data of indigenous southern Africans. We demonstrate the genetic contribution to southern and eastern African populations, which involved admixture between indigenous San, Niger-Congo-speaking and populations of Eurasian ancestry. This finding illustrates the need to account for stratification in genome-wide association studies, and that admixture mapping would likely be a successful approach in these populations. We developed a strategy to detect the signature of selection prior to and following putative admixture events. Several genomic regions show an unusual excess of Niger-Kordofanian, and unusual deficiency of both San and Eurasian ancestry, which were considered the footprints of selection after population admixture. Several SNPs with strong allele frequency differences were observed predominantly between the admixed indigenous southern African populations, and their ancestral Eurasian populations. Interestingly, many candidate genes, which were identified within the genomic regions showing signals for selection, were associated with southern African-specific high-risk, mostly communicable diseases, such as malaria, influenza, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDs. This observation suggests a potentially important role that these genes might have played in adapting to the environment. Additionally, our analyses of haplotype structure, linkage disequilibrium, recombination, copy number variation and genome-wide admixture highlight, and support the unique position of San relative to both African and non-African populations. This study contributes to a better understanding of population ancestry and selection in south-eastern African populations; and the data and results obtained will support research into the genetic contributions to infectious as well as non-communicable diseases in the region.

  12. Suicide in the Indigenous Population of Latin America: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuero, Andres J; Arreaza-Kaufman, Dan; Coriat, Jeanette; Tassinari, Stefano; Faria, Annette; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Rosselli, Diego

    Due to the high rates of suicide reported among many ethnic minorities, a systematic review is presented on suicide in indigenous populations of Latin America. Systematic review in PubMed, Scopus, PsycNET, Scielo and Scholar Google. From an initial total of 1862 articles, 41 were included for data extraction. They include 21 from Brazil, 13 from Colombia, 2 from Chile, 1 from Peru, and 4 articles grouped from different countries. Suicide is a public health issue in many communities. Lifestyle changes, industrialisation, environmental degradation, and alcohol have led the indigenous population experiencing what has been described as "cultural death." Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of special health care needs in a population cohort of Australian children at school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; O'Connor, Meredith; Sayers, Mary; Moore, Tim; Oberklaid, Frank

    2012-05-01

    Children with special health care needs are an important population for educational and health service providers. Accurate information about the prevalence and characteristics of these children and their families is needed to inform the planning and development of systems of care, yet data in Australia are currently lacking. This study utilizes population-level data from the Australian Early Development Index, a teacher-rated checklist, to provide estimates of the prevalence and developmental and demographic characteristics of Australian children with special health care needs on entrance to school. Four percent of children were reported with established special health care needs, and a further 18% were identified by teachers as "of concern." These children showed higher rates of vulnerability across all domains of development. Although children with established special health care needs were represented across demographic profiles, proportions were greater among boys, those from lower socioeconomic status communities, and Indigenous and older children. In contrast, those living in more remote settings were as likely to be identified as "of concern" as their peers but were less likely to have established special health care needs. These findings have important implications for service provision and policy development. There are substantial opportunities to reorient schooling and early childhood systems to better detect and accommodate the needs of these children.

  14. A 12-week sports-based exercise programme for inactive Indigenous Australian men improved clinical risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendham, Amy E; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of a 12-week sports-based exercise intervention on glucose regulation, anthropometry and inflammatory markers associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indigenous Australian men. Twenty-six inactive Indigenous Australian men (48.6±6.6 years) were randomized into exercise (n=16) or control (n=10)conditions. Training included ∼2-3 days/week for 12 weeks of sports and gym exercises in a group environment, whilst control participants maintained normal activity and dietary patterns. Pre- and post-intervention testing included: anthropometry, peak aerobic capacity, fasting blood chemistry of inflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, leptin, cholesterol, glucose, insulin and C-peptide. An oral glucose tolerance test measured glucose, insulin and C-peptide 30, 60, 90 and 120min post 75g glucose ingestion. The exercise condition decreased insulin area under the curve (25±22%), increased estimated insulin sensitivity (35±62%) and decreased insulin resistance (9±35%; p0.05). The exercise condition decreased in body mass index, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio (p0.05). Leptin decreased in the exercise group, with no changes for adiponectin (p>0.05) or inflammatory markers (p>0.05) in either condition. Aerobic fitness variables showed significant increases in peak oxygen consumption for the exercise condition compared to no change in control (p>0.05). Findings indicate positive clinical outcomes in metabolic, anthropometric and aerobic fitness variables. This study provides evidence for sport and group-based activities leading to improved clinical risk factors associated with T2DM development in clinically obese Indigenous Australian men. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors, incidence, consequences and prevention strategies for falls and fall-injury within older indigenous populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara; Sherrington, Cathie; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Coombes, Julieann; Clemson, Lindy; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    To examine the risk factors, incidence, consequences and existing prevention strategies for falls and fall-related injury in older indigenous people. Relevant literature was identified through searching 14 electronic databases, a range of institutional websites, online search engines and government databases, using search terms pertaining to indigenous status, injury and ageing. Thirteen studies from Australia, the United States, Central America and Canada were identified. Few studies reported on fall rates but two reported that around 30% of indigenous people aged 45 years and above experienced at least one fall during the past year. The most common hospitalised fall injuries among older indigenous people were hip fracture and head injury. Risk factors significantly associated with falls within indigenous populations included poor mobility, a history of stroke, epilepsy, head injury, poor hearing and urinary incontinence. No formally evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention interventions were identified. Falls are a significant and growing health issue for older indigenous people worldwide that can lead to severe health consequences and even death. No fully-evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention programs were identified. Implications for Public Health: Research into fall patterns and fall-related injury among indigenous people is necessary for the development of appropriate fall prevention interventions. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Mitochondrial D-loop analysis for uncovering the population structure and genetic diversity among the indigenous duck (Anas platyrhynchos) populations of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Uma; Tantia, Madhu Sudan; Mishra, Bina; Bharani Kumar, Settypalli Tirumala; Vijh, Ramesh Kumar; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2018-03-01

    The indigenous domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) which is domesticated from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) contributes significantly to poor farming community in coastal and North Eastern regions of India. For conservation and maintenance of indigenous duck populations it is very important to know the existing genetic diversity and population structure. To unravel the population structure and genetic diversity among the five indigenous duck populations of India, the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 120 ducks were analyzed. The sequence analysis by comparison of mtDNA D-loop region (470 bp) of five Indian duck populations revealed 25 mitochondrial haplotypes. Pairwise F ST value among populations was 0.4243 (p land birds revealed introgression of the out group breed Khaki Campbell, which is used for breed improvement programs in India. The observations revealed very less selection and a single matrilineal lineage of indigenous domestic ducks.

  17. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Mayor; Pedro Pérez-Peña; Mark Bowler; Pablo E. Puertas; Maire Kirkland; Richard Bodmer

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and year...

  18. Psycho-social resilience, vulnerability and suicide prevention: impact evaluation of a mentoring approach to modify suicide risk for remote Indigenous Australian students at boarding school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Russo, Sandra; Rutherford, Katrina; Tsey, Komla; Wenitong, Mark; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Jacups, Susan

    2016-02-01

    The proposed study was developed in response to increased suicide risk identified in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students who are compelled to attend boarding schools across Queensland when there is no secondary schooling provision in their remote home communities. It will investigate the impact of a multicomponent mentoring intervention to increase levels of psychosocial resilience. We aim to test the null hypothesis that students' resilience is not positively influenced by the intervention. The 5-year project was funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council from December 2014. An integrated mixed methods approach will be adopted; each component iteratively informing the other. Using an interrupted time series design, the primary research methods are quantitative: 1) assessment of change in students' resilience, educational outcomes and suicide risk; and 2) calculation of costs of the intervention. Secondary methods are qualitative: 3) a grounded theoretical model of the process of enhancing students' psychosocial resilience to protect against suicide. Additionally, there is a tertiary focus on capacity development: more experienced researchers in the team will provide research mentorship to less experienced researchers through regular meetings; while Indigenous team members provide cultural mentorship in research practices to non-Indigenous members. Australia's suicide prevention policy is progressive but a strong service delivery model is lacking, particularly for Indigenous peoples. The proposed research will potentially improve students' levels of resilience to mitigate against suicide risk. Additionally, it could reduce the economic and social costs of Indigenous youth suicide by obtaining agreement on what is good suicide prevention practice for remote Indigenous students who transition to boarding schools for education, and identifying the benefits-costs of an evidence-based multi-component mentoring intervention to

  19. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  20. Chagas Disease in Ecuador: Evidence for Disease Transmission in an Indigenous Population in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chico H Martha

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two well-defined synthetic peptides TcD and PEP2 were used in a sero-epidemiological study for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections in an indigenous group in the Amazon region of Ecuador. Of the 18 communities studied along the Río Napo, province of Napo, 15 (83.3% were found to be positive for T. cruzi infection. Of the 1,011 individuals examined 61 (6.03% resulted positive. A prevalence of infection of 4.8% was found in children aged 1-5 years. The prevalence of infection increased with age, with adults 50 years or older showing a maximum prevalence of 18.8%. Autochthonous transmission of T. cruzi is present among this isolated indigenous population

  1. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    populations. DESIGN: A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. RESULTS...... and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion...

  2. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Otitis Media in an Indigenous Filipino Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Reyes-Quintos, Ma Rina T; Tantoco, Ma Leah C; Abbe, Izoduwa; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo D V; Ajami, Nadim J; Hutchinson, Diane S; Petrosino, Joseph F; Padilla, Carmencita D; Villarta, Romeo L; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa; Chan, Abner L; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Chiong, Charlotte M; Leal, Suzanne M; Abes, Generoso T

    2016-11-01

    To identify genetic and environmental risk factors for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population. Cross-sectional study. Indigenous Filipino community. Clinical history and information on breastfeeding, tobacco smoke exposure, and swimming were obtained from community members. Heads of households were interviewed for family history and personal beliefs on ear health. Height and weight were measured. Otoscopic findings were described for the presence and character of perforation or discharge. An A2ML1 duplication variant that confers otitis media susceptibility was Sanger sequenced in all DNA samples. Co-occurrence of middle ear bacteria detected by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was determined according to A2ML1 genotype and social cluster. The indigenous Filipino population has a ~50% prevalence of otitis media. Young age was associated with otitis media (4 age strata; P = .004); however, age was nonsignificant as a bistratal or continuous variable. There was no association between otitis media and sex, body mass index, breastfeeding, tobacco exposure, or deep swimming. In multivariate analyses, A2ML1 genotype is the strongest predictor of otitis media, with an odds ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-10.8; P = .005). When otitis media diagnoses were plotted across ages, otitis media was observed within the first year of life, and chronic otitis media persisted up to adulthood, particularly in A2ML1-variant carriers. Among indigenous Filipinos, A2ML1 genotype is the primary risk factor for otitis media and main determinant of disease progression, although age, the middle ear microbiome, and social clusters might modulate the effect of the A2ML1 genotype. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  3. Black on White: or varying shades of grey? Indigenous Australian photomedia artists and the ‘making of’ Aboriginality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Centre for Contemporary Photography in Melbourne presented the Indigenous photo-media exhibition Black on White. Promising to explore Indigenous perspectives on non-Aboriginality, its catalogue set forth two questions: how do Aboriginal artists see the people and culture that surrounds

  4. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community

  5. Perceived barriers and enablers to participation in a community-tailored physical activity program with Indigenous Australians in a regional and rural setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Engelberg, Terry; Gebel, Klaus

    2017-09-18

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of chronic disease and a lower life expectancy than non-Indigenous Australians. In non-urban areas these health disparities are even larger. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore perceived barriers and enablers to attending an eight-week physical activity program in a rural and regional setting which aimed to improve health outcomes, but had a low attendance rate. Thirty-four Indigenous Australians participated in the intervention from the rural (n = 12) and the regional (n = 22) community. Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at the follow-up health assessments with 12 participants. A thematic network analysis was undertaken to examine the barriers and enablers to participation in the program. Overall, there were positive attitudes to, and high levels of motivation towards, the physical activity program. Enablers to participation were the inclusion of family members, no financial cost and a good relationship with the principal investigator, which was strengthened by the community-based participatory approach to the program design. Barriers to program attendance were mostly beyond the control of the individuals, such as 'sorry business', needing to travel away from the community and lack of community infrastructure. More consideration is needed prior to implementation of programs to understand how community-specific barriers and enablers will affect attendance to the program. ACTRN12616000497404 . Registered 18 April 2016.

  6. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By analysing...... a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals...... nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor...

  7. The vascular health status of a population of adult Canadian Indigenous peoples from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, H J A; Bredin, S S D; Warburton, D E R

    2016-04-01

    Indigenous populations currently experience greater cardiovascular disease burdens. However, subclinical vascular structure and function among these populations is not well known. This investigation evaluated vascular structure and function among Canadian Indigenous populations. Blood pressure, body composition, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), arterial compliance and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Vascular measures were evaluated across sexes and age groups. Vascular assessments were conducted among 55 Indigenous adults (38±18 years, 29 Female), including both First Nations (N=36) and Métis (N=19) individuals. Some differences in vascular measures were found between males and females, respectively (spectral BRS: 9.6±6.8 ms mm Hg(-1) vs 16.9±10.0 ms mm Hg(-1), P=0.01; small arterial compliance: 8.9±3.7 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100 vs 6.4±2.3 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100, P=0.004), with similar measures of overall IMT (0.61±0.14 mm vs 0.57±0.08 mm, P=0.19) and central PWV (5.7±2.5 m s(-1) vs 5.1±2.3 m s(-1), P=0.58). Greater IMT, and lower BRS and arterial compliance were identified among older adults. This relatively healthy population demonstrated healthy vascular measures, with poorer measures among older individuals.

  8. The association between C-reactive protein levels and the risk for chronic kidney disease hospitalizations in adults of a remote Indigenous Australian community - A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Luke W; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-01

    Indigenous Australians are significantly burdened by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with diabetes and cardiovascular incidence in previous studies. Elevated CRP has been associated with albuminuria and reduced eGFR in cross-sectional studies. This study investigated the long-term predictive association between CRP measured at a baseline exam and the incidence of a CKD-related hospitalization. Health screening examinations were conducted in individuals of a remote indigenous Australian community between 1992 and 1998. The risk of subsequent CKD hospitalisations, documented through Northern Territory hospital records up to 2010, was estimated with Cox proportional hazard models in people aged over 18 years at the baseline screen and who had albumin-creatinine ratios (ACRs) less than 34g/mol. 546 participants were eligible for our study. Individuals in the highest CRP tertile at baseline had increased levels of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. They also had almost 4 times the risk of a CKD-related hospitalisation compared with participants in the lowest CRP tertile (HR=3.91, 95%CI 1.01-15.20, P=0.049) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Participants with CRP concentrations greater than 3mg/L had almost 3 times the risk of CKD hospitalisations than those ≤3mg/L (HR=2.84, 95%CI 1.00-8.00, P=0.049). Furthermore, risk of CKD hospitalisations increased 34% per doubling of baseline CRP (HR=1.34, 95%CI 1.04-1.74, P=0.024). In individuals in this remote indigenous community without overt albuminuria at baseline the risk for incident CKD related hospitalisations was predicted by elevated C-reactive protein levels almost a decade earlier. Further research is needed to understand the roles that CRP and systemic inflammation play in CKD risk. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  9. Estimating the effects of maternal education on child dental caries using marginal structural models: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xiangqun; Jamieson, Lisa M; Mejia, Gloria C

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the effect of mothers' education on Indigenous Australian children's dental caries experience while controlling for the mediating effect of children's sweet food intake. The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children is a study of two representative cohorts of Indigenous Australian children, aged from 6 months to 2 years (baby cohort) and from 3.5 to 5 years (child cohort) at baseline. The children's primary caregiver undertook a face-to-face interview in 2008 and repeated annually for the next 4 years. Data included household demographics, child health (nutrition information and dental health), maternal conditions and highest qualification levels. Mother's educational level was classified into four categories: 0-9 years, 10 years, 11-12 years and >12 years. Children's mean sweet food intake was categorized as 30%. After multiple imputation of missing values, a marginal structural model with stabilized inverse probability weights was used to estimate the direct effect of mothers' education level on children's dental decay experience. From 2008 to 2012, complete data on 1720 mother-child dyads were available. Dental caries experience for children was 42.3% over the 5-year period. The controlled direct effect estimates of mother's education on child dental caries were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01-1.45), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.91-1.18) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.93-1.22); after multiple imputation of missing values, the effects were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.05-1.39), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94-1.19) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.95-1.19), comparing '0-9', '10' and '11-12' years to > 12 years of education. Mothers' education level had a direct effect on children's dental decay experience that was not mediated by sweet food intake and other risk factors when estimated using a marginal structural model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Australian Vietnam Veterans Health Study: II. self-reported health of veterans compared with the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, B I; Marshall, R P; Grayson, D A; Schureck, R J; Dobson, M; Ffrench, M; Pulvertaft, B; Meldrum, L; Bolton, J; Vennard, J

    1996-04-01

    Self-reported physical health status of Australian Vietnam veterans was determined 20-25 years after the war and its relation to combat was investigated. An epidemiological cohort study of a simple random sample of Army veterans posted to Vietnam between 1964 and 1972 was conducted with personal interviews using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey questionnaire to compare veterans with the Australian population and a 21-item combat exposure index used to measure the relationship of combat to physical health. Veterans reported greater health service usage and more recent health actions than population expectations. They also reported excess health problems in almost all recent illness disease categories except endocrine conditions and cardiovascular conditions; only 6 of 37 chronic disease groups were not elevated compared to the population. Adjustment for non-response changed estimates only slightly. Combat exposure was significantly related to reports of recent and chronic mental disorders, recent hernia and chronic ulcer, recent eczema and chronic rash, deafness, chronic infective and parasitic disease, chronic back disorders and symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions. Combat exposure may have significantly increased reports of only some health problems. A general position to complain as a result of psychological conditions due to combat is not consistent with the lack of relationship between combat and reports of physical conditions.

  11. Marginalization and health service coverage among indigenous, rural, and urban populations: a public health problem in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, José; Álvarez, Marsela; Carrasco, María; Guarneros, Noé; Ledesma, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Chávez, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

      Marginalization is a significant issue in Mexico, involving a lack of access to health services with differential impacts on Indigenous, rural and urban populations. The objective of this study was to understand Mexico’s public health problem across three population areas, Indigenous, rural and urban, in relation to degree of marginalization and health service coverage.   The sampling universe of the study consisted of 107 458 geographic locations in the country. The study was retrospective, comparative and confirmatory. The study applied analysis of variance, parametric and non-parametric, correlation and correspondence analyses.   Significant differences were identified between the Indigenous, rural and urban populations with respect to their level of marginalization and access to health services. The most affected area was Indigenous, followed by rural areas. The sector that was least affected was urban.   Although health coverage is highly concentrated in urban areas in Mexico, shortages are mostly concentrated in rural areas where Indigenous groups represent the extreme end of marginalization and access to medical coverage. Inadequate access to health services in the Indigenous and rural populations throws the gravity of the public health problem into relief.

  12. Physical activity in an indigenous Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population as measured using accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D; Liebert, Melissa A; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2011-01-01

    Minimal information on physical activity is available for non-Western populations undergoing the transition to a market economy. This is unfortunate given the importance of these data for understanding health issues such as the global obesity epidemic. We consider the utility of using accelerometry technology to examine activity patterns and energy use regulation among indigenous Shuar, an Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population undergoing economic and lifestyle change. We investigate sex differences in Shuar activity patterns and the effects of reproductive status on activity. Finally, we discuss the potential of accelerometry use in human biology research. Physical activity levels were measured using Actical accelerometers in 49 indigenous Shuar adults (23 males, 26 females) from a rural Ecuadorian community. Female participants were in various reproductive states including pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant/nonlactating. Activity counts (AC), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and physical activity levels (PAL) were significantly higher (P Shuar activity levels are relatively low compared to other non-Western populations. Despite increasing market integration, pregnant and lactating females seem to be adopting a strategy noted in other subsistence populations where male participation in subsistence activities increases to compensate for their partners' elevated reproductive costs. Despite certain limitations, use of accelerometry in human biology research shows promise. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. ATTENTION OF CHILDBIRTH, RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND PUBLIC POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Benito Salvatierra Izaba y Emma Zapata Martelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it’s analyze the tendencies of childbirth attention of urban indigenous women excluded in Chiapas, from rural settlement in Los Altos de Chiapas. It’s an exploratory essay which contributes to clear up the relation that establishes immigrant indigenous population with institutional health services for childbirth attention and modifications in traditional medicine. Are discussed the scopes of these changes in the operation of the institutional program of reproductive health and the risk of mother death.

  14. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European

  15. Validity and reliability of menopause rating scale in colombian indigenous population

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    Álvaro Monterrosa-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS measures quality of life in menopausal women. It compounds of three dimensions that assess somatic, psychological and urogenital menopausal-related symptoms. However, the validity of the scales may vary according to population characteristics, and there are no validations to date of MRS in American indigenous population. To assess the validity of MRS in Indigenous Colombian women during menopause. A research was done a sample of 914 indigenous women, 507 postmenopausal women and 407 premenopausal. They were between 40-49 years-old, with a mean age of 59.3 ± 5.9years. MRS was applied to all enrolled women. Cronbach's alpha was applied for the original proposed dimensions, and the dimensions from the results of factor analysis and maximum likelihood methods. A Promax rotation was applied to analysis. MRS showed a Cronbach's alpha: 0.86. The somatic dimension: 0.63, the psychological dimension: 0.75, and urogenital: 0.84. Score was greater in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal, 14.4 (±SD, 6.4 versus 8.4 (±SD, 5.9 (P<0.001. The factor analysis showed two dimensions. The first dimension included items 1,7,8,9,10,11; and accounted for 39.9% of variance. The second dimension included items 2,3,4,5,6; explaining 14.2% of variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.86 for the first dimension and 0.81 for the second dimension. MRS showed high internal consistency and adequate nomological validity. The factor analysis resulted in two dimensions. These results evidence the need to better assess the validity of the instruments in different populations.

  16. Genetic admixture of eight Mexican indigenous populations: based on five polymarker, HLA-DQA1, ABO, and RH loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentello-Malo, Leonora; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the genetic admixture of eight Mexican indigenous populations (Otomi-Ixmiquilpan, Otomi-Actopan, Tzeltales, Nahua-Milpa-Alta, Nahua-Xochimilco, Nahua-Zitlala, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, and Nahua-Coyolillo) on the basis of five PCR-based polymorphic DNA loci (LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC), HLA_DQA1, and the blood groups ABO and Rh (CcDEe). Among the indigenous populations, the highest gene frequencies for O and D were 0.9703 and 1.000 for Zitlala (State of Guerrero) and 0.9955 and 0.9414 for Tzeltales (State of Chiapas), respectively. Maximum likelihood estimates of admixture components yield a trihybrid model with Amerindian (assuming that Nahua-Zitlala is the most representative indigenous population), Spanish, and African ancestry with the admixture proportions: 93.03, 6.03, and 0.94 for Tzeltales, and 28.99, 44.03, and 26.98 for Coyolillo. A contribution of the ancestral populations of Ixhuatlancillo, Actopan, Ixmiquilpan, Milpa-Alta, and Xochimilco were found with the following average of admixture proportions: 75.84, 22.50, and 1.66. The findings herein demonstrate that the genetic admixture of the Mexican indigenous populations who at present speak the same Amer-Indian language can be differentiated and that the majority of them have less ancestral indigenous contribution than those considered as Mestizo populations.

  17. Characterization of mtDNA haplogroups in 14 Mexican indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Arenas-Aranda, Diego; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; González-Valencia, Gerardo; Torres, Javier; Alvarez, Berenice; Mendoza, Irma; Flores, Mario; Sandoval, Lucila; Loeza, Francisco; Ramos, Irma; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Salamanca, Fabio

    2007-06-01

    In this descriptive study we investigated the genetic structure of 513 Mexican indigenous subjects grouped in 14 populations (Mixteca-Alta, Mixteca-Baja, Otomi, Purépecha, Tzeltal, Tarahumara, Huichol, Nahua-Atocpan, Nahua-Xochimilco, Nahua-Zitlala, Nahua-Chilacachapa, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Necoxtla, and Nahua-Coyolillo) based on mtDNA haplogroups. These communities are geographically and culturally isolated; parents and grandparents were born in the community. Our data show that 98.6% of the mtDNA was distributed in haplogroups A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, and D2. Haplotype X6 was present in the Tarahumara (1/53) and Huichol (3/15), and haplotype L was present in the Nahua-Coyolillo (3/38). The first two principal components accounted for 95.9% of the total variation in the sample. The mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in the Purépecha and Zitlala were intermediate to cluster 1 (Otomi, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Xochimilco, Mixteca-Baja, and Tzeltal) and cluster 2 (Nahua-Necoxtla, Nahua-Atocpan, and Nahua-Chilacachapa). The Huichol, Tarahumara, Mixteca-Alta, and Nahua-Coyolillo were separated from the rest of the populations. According to these findings, the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups found in Mexican indigenous groups is similar to other Amerindian haplogroups, except for the African haplogroup found in one population.

  18. Place-Consciousness and Bronfenbrenner's "Ecological Systems Model": A Discussion of Recurring Issues That Undermine the Teaching of Indigenous Histories in New Zealand and Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    This article draws upon a "tale from the feld" (Van Maanen, 1988) to encourage New Zealand and Australian teachers of history and social studies to appraise how their own perceptions of place and teaching about Indigenous peoples' histories impact upon their students' learning. Moreover, it explains why Uri Bronfenbrenner's (1979)…

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of Vietnamese indigenous cattle populations by microsatellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Lan Doan; Do, Duy Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Trong

    2013-01-01

    Cattle play a very important role in agriculture and food security in Vietnam. A high level of cattle diversity exists and serves different needs of Vietnamese cattle keepers but has not yet been molecularly characterized. This study evaluates the genetic diversity and structure of Vietnamese...... geographic distances. Structure analysis indicated five homogeneous clusters. The Brahman, Lang Son, Ha Giang and U Dau Riu cattle were assigned to independent clusters while Nghe An, Thanh Hoa and Phu Yen cattle were grouped in a single cluster. We conclude that Vietnamese indigenous cattle have high levels...

  20. Treatment of Displaced Indigenous Populations in Two Large Hydro Projects in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Consultation practices with affected populations prior to hydro concessions often remained poor in the decade since the World Commission on Dams (WCD although, in some cases the involvement of local people in the details of resettlement has improved. Numerous international and national actors, such as state agencies, multilateral banks, corporate shareholders, and pro-business media, support the development of dams, but intergovernmental agencies struggle to assure the protection of fundamental civil, human, and indigenous rights at the permitting and construction stages. We analyse two large-scale Panamanian dams with persistent disrespect for indigenous land tenure. Free, prior, and informed consent was sidestepped even though each dam required or will require Ngöbe, Emberá, or Kuna villages to relocate. When populations protested, additional human rights violations occurred, including state-sponsored violence. International bodies are slowly identifying and denouncing this abuse of power. Simultaneously, many nongovernmental organisations (NGOs seek change in Panama consistent with WCD’s good-practice guidelines. A number of NGOs have tied hydro projects to unethical greenhouse gas (GHG emissions trade. As private and state institutions market formerly collective water and carbon resources for profit, these Panamanian cases have become central to a public debate over equitable and green hydro development. Media communication feeds disputes through frontline coverage of cooperation and confrontation.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection in an indigenous population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Jocieli; Rios, Diana Patricia Giraldo; Silva, Cosme Marcelo Furtado Passos da; Braga, José Ueleres; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Basta, Paulo Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown a high incidence and prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in indigenous populations around the World. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and annual risk of infection (ARI) as well as to identify factors associated with LTBI in an indigenous population from the Brazilian Amazon. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2011. We performed tuberculin skin tests (TSTs), smears and cultures of sputum samples, and chest radiographs for individuals who reported cough for two or more weeks. Associations between LTBI (TST ≥5mm) and socio-demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics were investigated using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence ratio (PR) was used as the measure of association. We examined 263 individuals. The prevalence of LTBI was 40.3%, and the ARI was 2.4%. Age ≥15 years [PR=5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-8.6], contact with tuberculosis (TB) patients (PR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-11.9), previous TB history (PR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.7), and presence of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scar (PR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9) were associated with LTBI. Although some adults may have been infected years prior, the high prevalence of infection and its strong association with age ≥15 years, history of TB, and recent contact with TB patients suggest that the TB transmission risk is high in the study area.

  2. Population genetics of indigenous quercus robur L. populations and of derived half-sib families has implications for the reproductive management of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.G.; Dam, van B.C.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Jacobsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands indigenous Quercus robur L. populations are rare and have been maintained as patches in ancient woodland. For adequate conservation of these populations, information about genetic variation and population structure is necessary. in order to assess the genetic variation and

  3. Out of a digital chrysalis: NIHNMF (pronounced nymph--the National Indigenous Health and New Media Forum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoni, Jan; Gamble, Lucinda; Gibson, Julie; Hunter, Ernest; Jones, Anita; Mitchell, Sarah; Pelham, Steven; Smith, Rakana; Travers, Helen

    2009-08-01

    In conjunction with the Creating Futures conference, the inaugural meeting of the National Indigenous Health and New Media Forum (NIHNMF--pronounced as 'nymph') was held at the Tanks Gallery in Cairns, Queensland, Australia. This paper describes the background to this innovative meeting of media minds. It also explores an emerging vision for addressing Indigenous health disparities through digital inclusion to overcome the 'digital divide' between mainstream and Indigenous Australians that constrains the delivery of appropriate health promotion to this health priority population.

  4. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Andersen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface......-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown...... on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases...

  5. Bilirubin concentration is positively associated with haemoglobin concentration and inversely associated with albumin to creatinine ratio among Indigenous Australians: eGFR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J T; Barzi, F; Hoy, W E; Jones, G R D; Rathnayake, G; Majoni, S W; Thomas, M A B; Sinha, A; Cass, A; MacIsaac, R J; O'Dea, K; Maple-Brown, L J

    2017-12-01

    Low serum bilirubin concentrations are reported to be strongly associated with cardio-metabolic disease, but this relationship has not been reported among Indigenous Australian people who are known to be at high risk for diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). serum bilirubin will be negatively associated with markers of chronic disease, including CKD and anaemia among Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional analysis of 594 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) people in good health or with diabetes and markers of CKD. Measures included urine albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), haemoglobin (Hb) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Diabetes was defined by medical history, medications or HbA1c≥6.5% or ≥48mmol/mol. Anaemia was defined as Hbbilirubin was performed. Participants mean (SD) age was 45.1 (14.5) years, and included 62.5% females, 71.7% Aboriginal, 41.1% with diabetes, 16.7% with anaemia, 41% with ACR>3mg/mmol and 18.2% with eGFRbilirubin concentration was lower in females than males (6 v 8μmol/L, pbilirubin; Hb and cholesterol (both positively related) and ACR, triglycerides, Aboriginal ethnicity and female gender (all inversely related). Serum bilirubin concentrations were positively associated with Hb and total cholesterol, and inversely associated with ACR. Further research to determine reasons explaining lower bilirubin concentrations among Aboriginal compared with TSI participants are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unravelling the genetic history of Negritos and indigenous populations of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanian, Farhang; Yunus, Yushima; Naidu, Rakesh; Jinam, Timothy; Manica, Andrea; Hoh, Boon Peng; Phipps, Maude E

    2015-04-14

    Indigenous populations of Malaysia known as Orang Asli (OA) show huge morphological, anthropological, and linguistic diversity. However, the genetic history of these populations remained obscure. We performed a high-density array genotyping using over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in three major groups of Negrito, Senoi, and Proto-Malay. Structural analyses indicated that although all OA groups are genetically closest to East Asian (EA) populations, they are substantially distinct. We identified a genetic affinity between Andamanese and Malaysian Negritos which may suggest an ancient link between these two groups. We also showed that Senoi and Proto-Malay may be admixtures between Negrito and EA populations. Formal admixture tests provided evidence of gene flow between Austro-Asiatic-speaking OAs and populations from Southeast Asia (SEA) and South China which suggest a widespread presence of these people in SEA before Austronesian expansion. Elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and enriched homozygosity found in OAs reflect isolation and bottlenecks experienced. Estimates based on Ne and LD indicated that these populations diverged from East Asians during the late Pleistocene (14.5 to 8 KYA). The continuum in divergence time from Negritos to Senoi and Proto-Malay in combination with ancestral markers provides evidences of multiple waves of migration into SEA starting with the first Out-of-Africa dispersals followed by Early Train and subsequent Austronesian expansions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2009-04-01

    ori responded to the new law with increased calls to the national Quitline service. Conclusion The New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act had a range of positive effects, including reducing SHS exposure among Māori communities. If the experience is replicated in other countries with indigenous populations, it suggests that comprehensive smokefree environments legislation will have beneficial effects on the health of indigenous groups and could contribute to reducing inequalities in health within societies.

  8. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    increased calls to the national Quitline service. Conclusion The New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act had a range of positive effects, including reducing SHS exposure among Māori communities. If the experience is replicated in other countries with indigenous populations, it suggests that comprehensive smokefree environments legislation will have beneficial effects on the health of indigenous groups and could contribute to reducing inequalities in health within societies. PMID:19405964

  9. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-04-30

    national Quitline service. The New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act had a range of positive effects, including reducing SHS exposure among Māori communities. If the experience is replicated in other countries with indigenous populations, it suggests that comprehensive smokefree environments legislation will have beneficial effects on the health of indigenous groups and could contribute to reducing inequalities in health within societies.

  10. Influence of maternal adiposity, preterm birth and birth weight centiles on early childhood obesity in an Indigenous Australian pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, K G; Lee, Y Q; Weatherall, L; Keogh, L; Diehm, C; Roberts, C T; Eades, S; Brown, A; Smith, R; Lumbers, E R; Brown, L J; Collins, C E; Rae, K M

    2018-05-16

    Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23.1 weeks) and offspring BMI and adiposity (abdominal circumference, subscapular skinfold thickness) in early childhood (mean age 23.4 months). Maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations were positively associated with infant birth weight (P=0.005) and GROW customized birth weight centiles (P=0.008). There was a significant association between maternal percentage body fat (P=0.02) and visceral fat area (P=0.00) with infant body weight in early childhood. Body mass index (BMI) in early childhood was significantly higher in offspring born preterm compared with those born at term (P=0.03). GROW customized birth weight centiles was significantly associated with body weight (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.007) and abdominal circumference (P=0.039) at early childhood. Our findings suggest that being born preterm, large for gestational age or exposed to an obesogenic intrauterine environment and higher maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations are associated with increased obesity risk in early childhood. Future strategies should aim to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women of child-bearing age and emphasize the importance of optimal glycemia during pregnancy, particularly in Indigenous women.

  11. Impact of policy support on uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement activities and the quality of care for Indigenous Australians: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Ross; Matthews, Veronica; Larkins, Sarah; Thompson, Sandra; Burgess, Paul; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Bailie, Jodie; Cunningham, Frances; Kwedza, Ru; Clark, Louise

    2017-10-05

    To examine the impact of state/territory policy support on (1) uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities and (2) quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Mixed-method comparative case study methodology, drawing on quality-of-care audit data, documentary evidence of policies and strategies and the experience and insights of stakeholders involved in relevant CQI programmes. We use multilevel linear regression to analyse jurisdictional differences in quality of care. Indigenous primary healthcare services across five states/territories of Australia. 175 Indigenous primary healthcare services. A range of national and state/territory policy and infrastructure initiatives to support CQI, including support for applied research. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Trends in the consistent uptake of evidence-based CQI tools available through a research-based CQI initiative (the Audit and Best Practice in Chronic Disease programme) and (ii) quality of care (as reflected in adherence to best practice guidelines). Progressive uptake of evidence-based CQI activities and steady improvements or maintenance of high-quality care occurred where there was long-term policy and infrastructure support for CQI. Where support was provided but not sustained there was a rapid rise and subsequent fall in relevant CQI activities. Health authorities should ensure consistent and sustained policy and infrastructure support for CQI to enable wide-scale and ongoing improvement in quality of care and, subsequently, health outcomes. It is not sufficient for improvement initiatives to rely on local service managers and clinicians, as their efforts are strongly mediated by higher system-level influences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Characterizing neutral genomic diversity and selection signatures in indigenous populations of Moroccan goats (Capra hircus using WGS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr eBenjelloun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of their domestication, goats (Capra hircus have evolved in a large variety of locally adapted populations in response to different human and environmental pressures. In the present era, many indigenous populations are threatened with extinction due to their substitution by cosmopolitan breeds, while they might represent highly valuable genomic resources. It is thus crucial to characterize the neutral and adaptive genetic diversity of indigenous populations. A fine characterization of whole genome variation in farm animals is now possible by using new sequencing technologies. We sequenced the complete genome at 12X coverage of 44 goats geographically representative of the three phenotypically distinct indigenous populations in Morocco. The study of mitochondrial genomes showed a high diversity exclusively restricted to the haplogroup A. The 44 nuclear genomes showed a very high diversity (24 million variants associated with low linkage disequilibrium. The overall genetic diversity was weakly structured according to geography and phenotypes. When looking for signals of positive selection in each population we identified many candidate genes, several of which gave insights into the metabolic pathways or biological processes involved in the adaptation to local conditions (e.g. panting in warm/desert conditions. This study highlights the interest of WGS data to characterize livestock genomic diversity. It illustrates the valuable genetic richness present in indigenous populations that have to be sustainably managed and may represent valuable genetic resources for the long-term preservation of the species.

  13. Review of Indigenous Health Curriculum in Nutrition and Dietetics at One Australian University: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle M.; Mehta, Kaye; Miller, Jacqueline; Yaxley, Alison; Thomas, Jolene; Jackson, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda; Miller, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a review undertaken in 2012-2013 by Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, to assess the Indigenous health curriculum of the Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (BND) and Masters of Nutrition and Dietetics (MND). An action research framework was used to guide and inform inquiry. This involved four stages, each of…

  14. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  15. Genome-wide analysis of cold adaptation in indigenous Siberian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Cardona

    Full Text Available Following the dispersal out of Africa, where hominins evolved in warm environments for millions of years, our species has colonised different climate zones of the world, including high latitudes and cold environments. The extent to which human habitation in (sub-Arctic regions has been enabled by cultural buffering, short-term acclimatization and genetic adaptations is not clearly understood. Present day indigenous populations of Siberia show a number of phenotypic features, such as increased basal metabolic rate, low serum lipid levels and increased blood pressure that have been attributed to adaptation to the extreme cold climate. In this study we introduce a dataset of 200 individuals from ten indigenous Siberian populations that were genotyped for 730,525 SNPs across the genome to identify genes and non-coding regions that have undergone unusually rapid allele frequency and long-range haplotype homozygosity change in the recent past. At least three distinct population clusters could be identified among the Siberians, each of which showed a number of unique signals of selection. A region on chromosome 11 (chr11:66-69 Mb contained the largest amount of clustering of significant signals and also the strongest signals in all the different selection tests performed. We present a list of candidate cold adaption genes that showed significant signals of positive selection with our strongest signals associated with genes involved in energy regulation and metabolism (CPT1A, LRP5, THADA and vascular smooth muscle contraction (PRKG1. By employing a new method that paints phased chromosome chunks by their ancestry we distinguish local Siberian-specific long-range haplotype signals from those introduced by admixture.

  16. The prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in the Australian National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Foreman, Joshua; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) is a population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. An eye was considered to have vision loss due to trauma if the best-corrected visual acuity was worse than 6/12 and the main cause was attributed to ocular trauma. This determination was made by two independent ophthalmologists and any disagreements were adjudicated by a third senior ophthalmologist. The sampling weight adjusted prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and over was 0.24% (95%CI: 0.10, 0.52) and 0.79% (95%CI: 0.56, 1.13), respectively. Trauma was attributed as an underlying cause of bilateral vision loss in one Indigenous participant, with all other cases being monocular. Males displayed a higher prevalence of vision loss from ocular trauma than females in both the non-Indigenous (0.47% vs. 1.25%, p=0.03) and Indigenous populations (0.12% vs. 0.38%, p=0.02). After multivariate adjustments, residing in Very Remote geographical areas was associated with higher odds of vision loss from ocular trauma. We estimate that 2.4 per 1000 non-Indigenous and 7.9 per 1000 Indigenous Australian adults have monocular vision loss due to a previous severe ocular trauma. Our findings indicate that males, Indigenous Australians and those residing in Very Remote communities may benefit from targeted health promotion to improve awareness of trauma prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social and environmental inequities in dental caries among indigenous population in Brazil: evidence from 2000 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Pedro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2013-09-01

    This ecological study investigated the association between social and environmental inequities and dental caries among indigenous people in Brazil. Dental caries data were gathered from articles identified from electronic databases for the period between 2000 and 2007. Independent variables were obtained from the census of Health Information System for Sanitation Indigenous Populations. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the association between social and environmental characteristics and dental caries (DMFT index) according to the age group. Results were analyzed for 48 indigenous peoples from 19 selected studies. The occurrence of dental caries in particular age groups was inversely associated with the location of villages outside the Amazon region (12, 15 - 19, and 20 - 34 years), availability of electricity (15 - 19 and 20 - 34 years) and proportion of households covered with straw/thatch (20 - 34 years). The presence of schools was statistically associated with higher DMFT averages (15 - 19 and 20 - 34 years). It can be concluded that aspects of location and existing infrastructure in indigenous communities, which are linked to the availability of oral health services, are associated with the occurrence of dental caries in indigenous populations in Brazil.

  18. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claire M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations. The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful

  19. The health impact of tourism on local and indigenous populations in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2008-09-01

    In the vast Travel Health literature there is still a considerable dearth on tourism's impact on local communities. This review attempts to remedy the situation. Its focus is on potential health impacts on populations living at tourist destinations outside the industrialised world. To facilitate a better understanding of how health is linked to tourism today, a brief overview of the historical and theoretical evolution of tourism is presented. Ecotourism is given special attention as it is perceived as a version of the industry that is more benign on environment and people. After discussing Indigenous Tourism, a variety of potential health implications is outlined. These follow a previously suggested classification of indirect and direct impacts, with the indirect impacts being based on economic, environmental, socio-cultural and, more recently, political impacts, and the direct impacts originating from immediate encounters between tourism and people. Finally, the urgent need for more research is highlighted, and some solutions to minimize health impact are suggested.

  20. Maternal health issues and cardio-metabolic outcomes in the offspring: a focus on Indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Brandy A; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease are the leading causes of death worldwide. Indigenous populations are disproportionally affected. In an effort to halt the increasing disease burden, the mechanisms underlying the increasing rate of NCDs are an important area of study. Recent evidence has focused on the perinatal period as an influential period impacting the future cardio-metabolic health of the offspring. This concept has been defined as metabolic foetal programming and supports the importance of the developmental origins of health and disease in research and clinical practice, specifically in prevention efforts to protect future generations from NCDs. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved is not clear as of yet. However, an understanding of these mechanisms is imperative in order to plan effective intervention strategies. As much of the discussion below is gleaned from large epidemiological studies and animal studies, further research with prospective cohorts is necessary. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Identifying Gender Differences in an Australian Youth Offender Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane M. Shepherd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined gender differences in risk factors for violence in a sample of 213 male and female youths held in Youth Justice Centres in Victoria, Australia. Although violence risk factors are considered to be commensurate across gender, a growing body of international literature is categorizing gender-specific criminal trajectories. The study aimed to investigate this concept in an Australian juvenile context. Through the use of a widely validated youth violence risk assessment inventory, the prevalence of salient risk items was compared across gender. Young female offenders were found to present with higher levels of family dysfunction, peer rejection and self-injurious behavior reflecting international female offending pathways literature.

  2. Lactase non-persistence and general patterns of dairy intake in indigenous and mestizo chilean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Catalina I; Montalva, Nicolás; Arias, Macarena; Hevia, Macarena; Moraga, Mauricio L; Flores, Sergio V

    2016-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetic trait that has been studied among different countries and ethnic groups. In Latin America, the frequencies of this trait have been shown to vary according to the degree of admixture of the populations. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between this genetic trait and dairy intake in a multiethnic context through a synthesis of studies conducted in four regions of Chile. Genotypes frequencies for the SNP LCT-13910C>T (rs4988235) and frequency of dairy consumption were obtained from four populations: Polynesians from Easter Island (Rapanui); Amerindians (Mapuche) and Mestizos from the Araucanía region; urban Mestizos from Santiago; and rural Mestizos from the Coquimbo region. Genetic differentiation and association between milk consumption and genotype frequencies were estimated. Genetic differentiation between Native and Mestizo populations was significant; the LP frequency in Mapuche and Rapanui was 10% and 25%, respectively, whereas among the Mestizos, LP frequency was near 40%. Dairy intake was below the nutritional recommendations for the four groups, and extremely below recommendations among the indigenous populations. Association between milk intake and LP was found in Santiago and Rapanui populations. Although the frequency of LP varies among the populations according to their degree of admixture, dairy consumption was very low across the populations. Given that the association between milk consumption and expected phenotype was found only in two of the populations analyzed, it seems that lactase non-persistence (LNP) is not the only cause for dairy avoidance. Thus, it is suggested that SES and cultural preferences are likely affecting dairy consumption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reconceptualising water quality governance to incorporate knowledge and values: Case studies from Australian and Brazilian Indigenous communities

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    Kate A. Berry

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the significance of knowledge and values for water quality and its governance. Modernist approaches to the governance of water quality in rivers and lakes need to be reconceptualised and overhauled. The problems include: perceiving water only as a physical and chemical liquid, defining quality in narrow terms, rendering water knowledge as invisible, boiling down water values to uses of presumed economic importance and limiting how and by whom objectives are set or actions taken. In addressing the need to reframe water quality governance, and as a counter to the objectification of water quality, we propose a framework that explicitly recognises the significance of knowledge and values relating to water. While our framework could apply to other contexts under the influence of modernist water-management regimes, here we pay particular attention to the relevance of the water knowledge, values and governance of water quality by Indigenous people. In the second half of the paper we address issues related to Indigenous water-quality governance in two countries, Brazil and Australia, showing some of the ways in which, despite enormous obstacles, Indigenous communities re-work governance structures through their engagements with water quality and pay attention to water knowledge and values.

  4. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations.

  5. Multilocus genotypic data reveal high genetic diversity and low population genetic structure of Iranian indigenous sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidi, S.M.F.; Faruque, M.O.; Falahati Anbaran, M.; Afraz, F.; Mousavi, S.M.; Boettcher, P.; Joost, S.; Han, J.L.; Colli, L.; Periasamy, K.; Negrini, R.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Iranian livestock diversity is still largely unexplored, in spite of the interest in the populations historically reared in this country located near the Fertile Crescent, a major livestock domestication centre. In this investigation, the genetic diversity and differentiation of 10 Iranian indigenous fat-tailed sheep breeds were investigated using 18 microsatellite markers. Iranian breeds were found to host a high level of diversity. This conclusion is substantiated by the large number of alleles observed across loci (average 13.83, range 7–22) and by the high within-breed expected heterozygosity (average 0.75, range 0.72–0.76). Iranian sheep have a low level of genetic differentiation, as indicated by the analysis of molecular variance, which allocated a very small proportion (1.67%) of total variation to the between-population component, and by the small fixation index (FST = 0.02). Both Bayesian clustering and principal coordinates analysis revealed the absence of a detectable genetic structure. Also, no isolation by distance was observed through comparison of genetic and geographical distances. In spite of high within-breed variation, signatures of inbreeding were detected by the FIS indices, which were positive in all and statistically significant in three breeds. Possible factors explaining the patterns observed, such as considerable gene flow and inbreeding probably due to anthropogenic activities in the light of population management and conservation programmes are discussed. (author)

  6. Radiation treatment compliance in the indigenous population: the pilot of Northern Territory experience and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Hien; Carruthers, Scott; Penniment, Michael; Roos, Daniel; Sullivan, Thomas; Baxi, Siddhartha

    2013-01-01

    There is a perception that Indigenous patients are less likely to attend radiotherapy treatment. This study sought to determine if a difference in radiotherapy treatment compliance rates exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. Secondly, we aimed to ascertain which patient, disease and treatment factors affect compliance in Indigenous patients. All patients treated with radiotherapy at the Alan Walker Cancer Care Centre between March and October 2010 were analysed. Data regarding compliance rates (defined as those who chose and completed the recommended course of treatment), patient, disease and treatment factors were collected, and chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were applied. A total of 41 courses were delivered to Indigenous patients and 224 courses delivered to non-Indigenous patients in this period. There was no difference in compliance between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (83% vs. 81%, P=0.75). Of the factors assessed, it was found that there was an association between toxicity grade and compliance (P=0.048). From this cohort, we cannot support the perception that Indigenous patients have overall poorer compliance with recommended radiation treatment courses. In this study, the only factor which correlated significantly with compliance was toxicity grade. It is felt that a number of factors, which negatively impact on compliance, can potentially be counteracted by a culturally sensitive model of care.

  7. Prevalence of pterygium and cataract in indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazon rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, J S; Thorn, F; Cruz, A A V

    2006-05-01

    To compare the prevalence of pterygium and cataract in four indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazonian rain forest (Arawak, Tukano, Maku, and Yanomami) with different ethnic and social behaviour backgrounds. A cross-sectional pterygium and cataract survey was performed in 624 adult Indians of the Brazilian rain forest belonging to four different ethnic groups. The Indians were classified according to their social behaviour in two groups: Arawak and Tukano (group 1) and Maku and Yanomami (group 2). Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was employed to examine the entire sample. All subjects were classified as 1 or 0 according to the presence or absence pterygium and cataract. Sex and age were also recorded. chi(2)-tests revealed that the prevalence of pterygium and cataract differed significantly between groups 1 and 2. For pterygia: 36.6% (97/265) and 5.0% (18/359), respectively (chi(2)=101.2, P<0.0001), and for cataracts: 24.5% (65/265) and 13.7% (49/359) respectively (chi(2)=12.09, P=0.0005). Gender was not associated with pterygium (P=0.1326) and cataract (P=0.2263) in both groups. Elderly subjects showed a significantly higher prevalence of cataract (P<0.0001). The prevalence of pterygia did not increase with age (P=0.8079) in both groups. Indians of group 1 have higher prevalence of pterygia and cataract than Indians of group 2. Social behaviour, especially the rate of sun exposure, appears to be the main factor for the different rates of pterygium and cataract displayed by these indigenous people of the Brazilian rain forest.

  8. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  9. Comparison of SNP Variation and Distribution in Indigenous Ethiopian and Korean Cattle (Hanwoo Populations

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    Zewdu Edea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified from the bovine genome-sequencing project, few of these have been validated at large in Bos indicus breeds. We have genotyped 192 animals, representing 5 cattle populations of Ethiopia, with the Illumina Bovine 8K SNP BeadChip. These include 1 Sanga (Danakil, 3 zebu (Borana, Arsi and Ambo, and 1 zebu × Sanga intermediate (Horro breeds. The Hanwoo (Bos taurus was included for comparison purposes. Analysis of 7,045 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF was 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.21, 0.23, and 0.29 for Ambo, Arsi, Borana, Danakil, Horro, and Hanwoo, respectively. Significant differences of MAF were observed between the indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations and Hanwoo breed (p < 0.001. Across the Ethiopian cattle populations, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5 accounted for an overall estimated 73.79% of the 7,045 SNPs. The Hanwoo displayed a higher proportion of common variant SNPs (90%. Investigation within Ethiopian cattle populations showed that on average, 16.64% of the markers were monomorphic, but in the Hanwoo breed, only 6% of the markers were monomorphic. Across the sampled Ethiopian cattle populations, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.314 and 0.313, respectively. The level of SNP variation identified in this particular study highlights that these markers can be potentially used for genetic studies in African cattle breeds.

  10. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Maree; Fernando, Jamie K; Gwynn, Josephine D; Glozier, Nick; Hackett, Maree L

    2017-10-11

    Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social-ecological perspective and incorporated 'two-way learning' principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed to identify perceptions or experiences. The

  11. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farnbach

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Study type: Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Methods: Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. Results: We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social–ecological perspective and incorporated ‘two-way learning’ principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed

  12. Profiling the mobile-only population in Australia: insights from the Australian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Bernard; Haynes, Michele; Dinsdale, Shane; Western, Mark; Pennay, Darren

    2016-10-01

    The Australian population that relies on mobile phones exclusively has increased from 5% in 2005 to 29% in 2014. Failing to include this mobile-only population leads to a potential bias in estimates from landline-based telephone surveys. This paper considers the impacts on selected health prevalence estimates with and without the mobile-only population. Using data from the Australian Health Survey - which, for the first time, included a question on telephone status - we examined demographic, geographic and health differences between the landline-accessible and mobile-only population. These groups were also compared to the full population, controlling for the sampling design and differential non-response patterns in the observed sample through weighting and benchmarking. The landline-accessible population differs from the mobile-only population for selected health measures resulting in biased prevalence estimates for smoking, alcohol risk and private health insurance coverage in the full population. The differences remain even after adjusting for age and gender. Using landline telephones only for conducting population health surveys will have an impact on prevalence rate estimates of health risk factors due to the differing profiles of the mobile-only population from the landline-accessible population. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  14. Differential positive selection of malaria resistance genes in three indigenous populations of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuanyao; Yunus, Yushimah; Lu, Dongsheng; Aghakhanian, Farhang; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Deng, Lian; Ali, Mohammad; Wang, Xu; Nor, Fadzilah Mohd; Ghazali, Fadzilah; Rahman, Thuhairah Abdul; Shaari, Shahrul Azlin; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Phipps, Maude E; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Xu, Shuhua; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hoh, Boon-Peng

    2015-04-01

    The indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia, locally known as Orang Asli, continue to adopt an agro-subsistence nomadic lifestyle, residing primarily within natural jungle habitats. Leading a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in a tropical jungle environment, the Orang Asli are routinely exposed to malaria. Here we surveyed the genetic architecture of individuals from four Orang Asli tribes with high-density genotyping across more than 2.5 million polymorphisms. These tribes reside in different geographical locations in Peninsular Malaysia and belong to three main ethno-linguistic groups, where there is minimal interaction between the tribes. We first dissect the genetic diversity and admixture between the tribes and with neighboring urban populations. Later, by implementing five metrics, we investigated the genome-wide signatures for positive natural selection of these Orang Asli, respectively. Finally, we searched for evidence of genomic adaptation to the pressure of malaria infection. We observed that different evolutionary responses might have emerged in the different Orang Asli communities to mitigate malaria infection.

  15. Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Braaten, Tonje; Melhus, Marita; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2012-11-05

    Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH) is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people's ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA). Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (Pcultural differences in the conceptualisation of SRH, and confounding effects of health care use, SES and discrimination, make it difficult to appropriately assess how strong this effect is though.

  16. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities.

  17. A retrospective analysis of oral and maxillofacial pathology in an Australian paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, W N; Kelloway, E; Dost, F; Farah, C S

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of oral and maxillofacial pathology has not previously been reported in the Australian paediatric population. This study aimed to audit a large pathology service to provide insight into the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial pathology. Written records of a major Australian oral pathology service were imported into an electronic database. Age, gender and histological diagnosis were assessed. Prevalence of histological diagnoses as a percentage of the major diagnostic categories and of the whole sample were calculated, as well as gender predilections and mean age of presentation of disease. A total of 1305 oral pathology specimens, collected from paediatric patients aged 16 and under were included in the analysis. The most common pathology was dental pathology (24.4%), followed by odontogenic cysts (18.5%) and mucosal pathology (17.0%). The most frequently encountered lesion was the dentigerous cyst (9.4%), followed by fibrous hyperplasia (8.3%), radicular cyst (5.2%) and chronic periapical granuloma (5.2%). In the paediatric population, dental pathology and specifically, the dentigerous cyst is the most common pathology type sent for histopathology, suggesting a high prevalence of pathology of dental origin occurring in Australian children. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On-going surveillance on dog

  19. Estimation of Sex From Index and Ring Finger Lengths in An Indigenous Population of Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Jaydip; Ghosh, Ahana; Mondal, Nitish; Krishan, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forensic anthropology involves the identification of human remains for medico-legal purposes. Estimation of sex is an essential element of medico-legal investigations when identification of unknown dismembered remains is involved. Aim The present study was conducted with an aim to estimate sex from index and ring finger lengths of adult individuals belonging to an indigenous population of eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 500 unrelated adult individuals (18-60 years) from the Rajbanshi population (males: 250, females: 250) took part in the study. A total of 400 (males: 200, 200 female) participants were randomly used to develop sex estimation models using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis (BLR). A separate group of 200 adults (18-60 years) from the Karbi tribal population (males 100, females 100) were included to validate the results obtained on the Rajbanshi population. The univarate and bivariate models derived on the study group (n=400) were tested on hold-out sample of Rajbanshi participants (n=100) and the other test population of the Karbi (n=200) participants. Results The results indicate that Index Finger Length (IFL) and Ring Finger Length (RFL) of both hands were significantly longer in males as compared to females. The ring finger was longer than the index finger in both sexes. The study successfully highlights the existence of sex differences in IFL and RFL (p<0.05). No sex differences were however, observed for the index and ring finger ratio. The predictive accuracy of IFL and RFL in sex estimation ranged between 70%-75% (in the hold out sample from the Rajbanshi population) and 60-66% (in the test sample from the Karbi population). A Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis was performed to test the predictive accuracy after predicting the probability of IFL and RFL in sex estimation. The predicted probabilities using ROC analysis were observed to be higher on the left side and in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The

  20. Feasibility of a novel participatory multi-sector continuous improvement approach to enhance food security in remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, J; Bailie, R; van den Boogaard, C; Wood, B; Liberato, S C; Ferguson, M; Coveney, J; Jaenke, R; Ritchie, J

    2017-12-01

    Food insecurity underlies and compounds many of the development issues faced by remote Indigenous communities in Australia. Multi-sector approaches offer promise to improve food security. We assessed the feasibility of a novel multi-sector approach to enhance community food security in remote Indigenous Australia. A longitudinal comparative multi-site case study, the Good Food Systems Good Food for All Project, was conducted (2009-2013) with four Aboriginal communities. Continuous improvement meetings were held in each community. Data from project documents and store sales were used to assess feasibility according to engagement, uptake and sustainability of action, and impact on community diet, as well as identifying conditions facilitating or hindering these. Engagement was established where: the community perceived a need for the approach; where trust was developed between the community and facilitators; where there was community stability; and where flexibility was applied in the timing of meetings. The approach enabled stakeholders in each community to collectively appraise the community food system and plan action. Actions that could be directly implemented within available resources resulted from developing collaborative capacity. Actions requiring advocacy, multi-sectoral involvement, commitment or further resources were less frequently used. Positive shifts in community diet were associated with key areas where actions were implemented. A multi-sector participatory approach seeking continuous improvement engaged committed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders and was shown to have potential to shift community diet. Provision of clear mechanisms to link this approach with higher level policy and decision-making structures, clarity of roles and responsibilities, and processes to prioritise and communicate actions across sectors should further strengthen capacity for food security improvement. Integrating this approach enabling local decision-making into

  1. Indigenous Australian Texts in European English Departments: A Fence, a Bridge and a Country as an Answer to the Debate over Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Polak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Though non-canonical Anglophone courses in the curriculum of European English departments are no longer seen as oddity, they are often regarded as “marginal” in comparison to the British and American canon. However, courses focusing on the cultural output of postcolonial voices, moreover of the most marginal of postcolonial voices, do not only challenge the extent to which we have managed to shift from Eurocentrism in literary theory, but also reveal the complexities of the current cultural trends, such as the frequently evoked policy of multiculturalism. The paper argues that courses which include texts by Indigenous Australian authors reveal the story of survival in a country that is literally multicultural, and stress the importance of one’s own place of utterance, which is as local as it is global. The above issues are exemplified by the works of the famous Aboriginal writers Doris Pilkington/Nugi Garimara (Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence, 1996, John Muk Muk Burke (Bridge of Triangles, 1994 and Alexis Wright (Carpentaria, 2006.

  2. Moving Up the Income Ladder? Obstacles to Indigenous Population in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Grgurić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is traditionally the region with the highest income and wealth inequality and the indigenous people are the most socially excluded group of the society. The obstacles they face on their way to becoming middle class are numerous. Markets sometimesoperate in an anti-poor way, e.g. capital market imperfections. Next, many Latin American countries are agrarian societies with high land inequality. Also, indigenous people continue to have lower health and education indicators. Possible solutions should include state intervention in providing easier access to credit for the indigenous, land reform, health and education systems that are more universal and better targeting of social transfers.

  3. Implications of market integration for cardiovascular and metabolic health among an indigenous Amazonian Ecuadorian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Melissa A; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Cepon, Tara J; Blackwell, Aaron D; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2013-05-01

    Market integration (MI), the suite of social and cultural changes that occur with economic development, has been associated with negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, key questions remain about how this transition manifests at the local level. The present paper investigates the effects of MI on health among Shuar, an indigenous lowland Ecuadorian population, with the goal of better understanding the mechanisms responsible for this health transition. This study examines associations between measures of MI and several dimensions of cardiovascular and metabolic health (fasting glucose, lipids [LDL, HDL and total cholesterol; triglycerides] and blood pressure) among 348 adults. Overall, Shuar males and females have relatively favourable cardiovascular and metabolic health. Shuar who live closer to town have higher total (p market foods (r = 0.140; p = 0.045) and ownership of consumer products (r = 0.184; p = 0.029). This study provides evidence that MI among Shuar is not a uniformly negative process but instead produces complex cardiovascular and metabolic health outcomes.

  4. Evidence and Consequence of a Highly Adapted Clonal Haplotype within the Australian Ascochyta rabiei Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Mehmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. (syn. Phoma rabiei population has low genotypic diversity with only one mating type detected to date, potentially precluding substantial evolution through recombination. However, a large diversity in aggressiveness exists. In an effort to better understand the risk from selective adaptation to currently used resistance sources and chemical control strategies, the population was examined in detail. For this, a total of 598 isolates were quasi-hierarchically sampled between 2013 and 2015 across all major Australian chickpea growing regions and commonly grown host genotypes. Although a large number of haplotypes were identified (66 through short sequence repeat (SSR genotyping, overall low gene diversity (Hexp = 0.066 and genotypic diversity (D = 0.57 was detected. Almost 70% of the isolates assessed were of a single dominant haplotype (ARH01. Disease screening on a differential host set, including three commonly deployed resistance sources, revealed distinct aggressiveness among the isolates, with 17% of all isolates identified as highly aggressive. Almost 75% of these were of the ARH01 haplotype. A similar pattern was observed at the host level, with 46% of all isolates collected from the commonly grown host genotype Genesis090 (classified as “resistant” during the term of collection identified as highly aggressive. Of these, 63% belonged to the ARH01 haplotype. In conclusion, the ARH01 haplotype represents a significant risk to the Australian chickpea industry, being not only widely adapted to the diverse agro-geographical environments of the Australian chickpea growing regions, but also containing a disproportionately large number of aggressive isolates, indicating fitness to survive and replicate on the best resistance sources in the Australian germplasm.

  5. Challenges to assessing connectivity between massive populations of the Australian plague locust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Marie-Pierre; Popple, Julie-Anne M.; Berthier, Karine; Simpson, Stephen J.; Deveson, Edward; Spurgin, Peter; Steinbauer, Martin J.; Sword, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Linking demographic and genetic dispersal measures is of fundamental importance for movement ecology and evolution. However, such integration can be difficult, particularly for highly fecund species that are often the target of management decisions guided by an understanding of population movement. Here, we present an example of how the influence of large population sizes can preclude genetic approaches from assessing demographic population structuring, even at a continental scale. The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, is a significant pest, with populations on the eastern and western sides of Australia having been monitored and managed independently to date. We used microsatellites to assess genetic variation in 12 C. terminifera population samples separated by up to 3000 km. Traditional summary statistics indicated high levels of genetic diversity and a surprising lack of population structure across the entire range. An approximate Bayesian computation treatment indicated that levels of genetic diversity in C. terminifera corresponded to effective population sizes conservatively composed of tens of thousands to several million individuals. We used these estimates and computer simulations to estimate the minimum rate of dispersal, m, that could account for the observed range-wide genetic homogeneity. The rate of dispersal between both sides of the Australian continent could be several orders of magnitude lower than that typically considered as required for the demographic connectivity of populations. PMID:21389030

  6. Dimensions of social capital of families with thalassemia in an indigenous population in Tamil Nadu, India - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Bharathi; Kosalram, Kalpana; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2017-06-24

    Studies have shown that social capital is positively associated with health, and the association is context-based. Indigenous populations with poor access to health care largely depend on social capital for their health care needs. This study was conducted to explore the dimensions and types of social capital and its utilization by families with thalassemia for their health and well-being in an indigenous population in Tamil Nadu, India. The participants in the study were parents who had children with thalassemia, belonged to an indigenous community in Tamil Nadu, were poor and marginalized, and had poor access to health care. Different dimensions and types of social capital were examined with the help of qualitative in-depth interviews using a phenomenological approach. A total of 8 in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed. Thematic analysis of the data was performed. The social capital identified through the in-depth interviews consisted of various levels of family support, financial support from relatives and neighbors, the provision of information from formal and informal networks, and trust in the physician. Indigenous communities are close-knit due to their geographical remoteness and limited accessibility. Family ties were a form of social capital that encouraged bonding, and provided support and care to the children affected by thalassemia. The bonding also helped to meet the regular requirement of blood donation for the children. Relatives and neighbors were an asset that served as a bridge for the families affected, helping them in times of immediate and urgent financial need, making it easier to sustain long-term treatment and providing emotional support. There were informal networks that bridged parents belonging to indigenous and non-indigenous communities, with the latter providing the former with information to help them choose better health care at an affordable cost. The other formal links were the ties between the parents and

  7. Effect of dispersants on the growth of indigenous bacterial population and biodegradation of crude oil

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Row, A.

    Oil dispersants (5 from Castrol Ltd., Bombay and 2 from British Petroleum, London) were studied individually and in combination with Saudi Arabian crude oil for their effect on the growth of indigenous bacteria and on the biodegradation of oil. None...

  8. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens C; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2017-10-03

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases and xylanolytic enzymes being the most abundant. A 2-DE-based secretome analysis of Aspergillus niger and the less-studied pathogenic fungus Fusarium poae grown on barley flour and wheat arabinoxylan resulted in identification of 82 A. niger and 31 F. poae proteins many of which were hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases. The microorganisms that inhabit the surface of cereal grains are specialized in production of enzymes such as xylanases, which depolymerize plant cell walls. Integration of gel-based proteomics approach with activity assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of fungal secretomes and xylanolytic activities which can lead to identification of new enzymes with interesting properties, as well as provide insight into plant-fungal interactions, fungal pathogenicity and adaptation. Understanding the fungal response to host niche is of importance to uncover novel targets for potential symbionts, anti-fungal agents and biotechnical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical growth of the shuar: Height, Weight, and BMI references for an indigenous amazonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Blackwell, Aaron D; Liebert, Melissa A; Madimenos, Felicia C; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development. Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Mixed-longitudinal measures of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were collected from Shuar participants (n = 2,463; age: 0-29 years). Centile growth curves and tables were created for each anthropometric variable of interest using Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS). Pseudo-velocity and Lambda-Mu-Sigma curves were generated to further investigate Shuar patterns of growth and to facilitate comparison with United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention and multinational World Health Organization growth references. The Shuar are small throughout life and exhibit complex patterns of growth that differ substantially from those of international references. Similar to other Amazonians, Shuar growth in weight compares more favorably to references than growth in height, resulting in BMI curves that approximate international medians. Several additional characteristics of Shuar development are noteworthy, including large observed variation in body size early in life, significant infant growth faltering, extended male growth into adulthood, and a markedly early female pubertal growth spurt in height. Phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection in response to local environmental factors may explain many of these patterns. Providing a detailed reference of growth for the Shuar and other Amazonian populations, this study possesses direct clinical application and affords valuable insight into childhood health and the ecology of human growth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Recurrent glioblastoma: Current patterns of care in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Sagun; Thursfield, Vicky; Cher, Lawrence; Dally, Michael; Drummond, Katharine; Murphy, Michael; Rosenthal, Mark A; Gan, Hui K

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective population-based survey examined current patterns of care for patients with recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) who had previously undergone surgery and post-operative therapy at original diagnosis. The patients were identified from the Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) from 2006 to 2008. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and oncological management were extracted using a standardised survey by the treating clinicians/VCR staff and results analysed by the VCR. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) at diagnosis and progression were calculated. A total of 95 patients (48%) received treatment for first recurrence; craniotomy and post-operative treatment (38), craniotomy only (34) and non-surgical treatment (23). Patients receiving treatment at first progression had a higher median OS than those who did not (7 versus 3 months, ppattern of care survey of treatment for rGBM in an era where post-operative "Stupp" chemo-radiation is standard. First and second line therapy for rGBM is common and associated with significant benefit. Treatment generally includes re-resection and/or systemic therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Forced migration and indigenous knowledge of displaced Emberá and Uitoto populations in Colombia: An ethnobotanical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Gonzalez Betancourt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little attention has been given to documenting changes in the ethnobotanical knowledge of displaced indigenous groups in Colombia. Such information is highly valuable because it contributes to our understanding of the changes that occur during this process of displacement, cultural transformation and loss, and because it eventually could shed some light in designing social, economic, and educational policies that would facilitate their incorporation into main stream culture, through ways that validate their indigenous identity, knowledge, and traditions. Based on our on-going research, herein we summarize ethnobotanical information of two indigenous groups currently residing in the city of Florencia (capital of the Department of Caquetá in the Northwestern Amazon basin: the Emberá, originally from northwestern Colombia, and Uitoto, originally from the Colombian Amazon. By focusing in the indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge of these two displaced groups, we intend to show the revitalization of ethnobotanical knowledge, resilience, and multiple resources in form of ancestral knowledge that are brought and transmitted by these groups as they struggle for survival, in many times hostile urban environments. We hope to draw more attention to and encourage similar studies on other displaced indigenous populations in Colombia as well as in other areas of Latin America. Normal 0 21 false false false ES-MX X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";}

  12. ‘Small Area Social Indicators for the Indigenous Population: Synthetic data methodology for creating small area estimates of Indigenous disadvantage’

    OpenAIRE

    Yogi Vidyattama; Robert Tanton; Nicholas Biddle

    2013-01-01

    The lack of data on how the social condition of Indigenous people varies throughout Australia has created difficulties in allocating government and community programs across Indigenous communities. In the past, spatial microsimulation has been used to derive small area estimates to overcome such difficulties. However, for previous applications, a record unit file from a survey dataset has always been available on which to conduct the spatial microsimulation. For the case of indigenous disadva...

  13. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in the indigenous Qom population of Rosario, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Rosana; Silvestre, Adriana M R; Goñi, Mario; García, Vanina; Mathern, Nora; Jorfen, Marisa; Miljevic, Julio; Dhair, Daniel; Laithe, Matias; Conti, Silvana; Midauar, Fadua; Martin, Maria Celeste; Barrios, Maria Cecilia; Nieto, Romina; Prigione, Cristina; Sanabria, Alvaro; Gervasoni, Viviana; Grabbe, Emilio; Gontero, Romina; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases among the indigenous Qom (Toba) population in the city of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina. An analytical cross-sectional study using methodology of the Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) was performed. Subjects ≥18 years of age were interviewed by advanced students of medicine and nursing, bilingual translator-facilitators, and coordinators. Individuals with musculoskeletal pain (positive cases) were evaluated sequentially for 7 days by internists and rheumatologists for diagnosis and treatment. The study included 1656 individuals (77 % of the census population). Of these, 1020 (61.5 %) were female, with mean age of 35.3 (SD 13.9) years, and 1028 (62.0 %) were bilingual. The public health care system covers 87.1 % of the population. Musculoskeletal pain in the previous 7 days and/or at some time during their life was present in 890 subjects (53.7 %). Of those with pain in the last 7 days, 302 (64.1 %) subjects had an Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score ≥0.8. The most frequent pain sites were lumbar spine (19.3 %), knees (13.0 %), and hands (12.0 %). The prevalence of rheumatic diseases was as follows: mechanical back pain (20.1 %), rheumatic regional pain syndrome (2.9 %), osteoarthritis (4.0 %) rheumatoid arthritis (2.4 %), inflammatory back pain (0.2 %), systemic sclerosis (0.1 %), Sjögren syndrome (0.1 %), fibromyalgia (0.1 %), mixed connective tissue disease (0.06 %), and systemic lupus erythematosus (0.06 %). The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 53.7 % and rheumatic diseases 29.6 %. Rheumatoid arthritis prevalence was 2.4 % using COPCORD methodology, one of the highest reported at present.

  14. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Young Adults: A Study From the South Australian Population-Based Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatandoust, Sina; Price, Timothy J; Ullah, Shahid; Roy, Amitesh C; Beeke, Carole; Young, Joanne P; Townsend, Amanda; Padbury, Robert; Roder, David; Karapetis, Christos S

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy. There is growing evidence that CRC incidence is increasing in the younger population. There is controversy surrounding the prognosis of young patients with CRC. In this study we reviewed Australian patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) who were younger than 40 years of age at the time of diagnosis of metastatic disease. To our knowledge this is the first study to focus on this age group with mCRC. This was a retrospective study using data from the South Australian Metastatic Colorectal Cancer database. We compared patient and disease characteristics, management approaches, and outcomes for age groups Young-onset mCRC patients, when defined as aged younger than 40 years, have equivalent survival compared with their older counterparts. This is despite differences in disease characteristics and management approach between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Guaman Poma de Ayala's "New Chronicle and Good Government" A testimony on the health of the Indigenous populations in XVIth century Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel M. Klohn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic collapse of indigenous population in early colonial Peru after colonial contact raises questions about its possible causes: imported infectious agents, mistreatment, or other. Guaman Poma de Ayala provides a unique first hand account, in an indigenous perspective, of the situation. He identifies as causes of decline of the indigenous population: deportation for forced labour in lethal environments, widespread abuses, exploitation and violence exerted by the colonizers, and disruption of social organization. Guaman Poma's account for Peru is in line with prior accounts by Bartolomé de Las Casas for the Caribbean and Mexico; it also appears, partly, in Spanish XVIth century historiography. Current archaeological research shows a pattern of high biological stress and impaired health of indigenous populations following colonial contact. Early protective measures are discussed together with their consequences and relevance.

  16. Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliassen Bent-Martin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA. Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but our cross-sectional study design does not allow any conclusion with regard to causality. Limitations with regard to wording, categorisations, assumed cultural differences in the conceptualisation of SRH, and confounding effects of health care use, SES and discrimination, make it difficult to appropriately assess how strong this effect is though.

  17. Priority Setting in Indigenous Health: Why We Need an Explicit Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Otim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians have significantly poorer health outcomes than the non-Indigenous population worldwide. The Australian government has increased its investment in Indigenous health through the "Closing the Health Gap" initiative. Deciding where to invest scarce resources so as to maximize health outcomes for Indigenous peoples may require improved priority setting processes. Current government practice involves a mix of implicit and explicit processes to varying degrees at the macro and meso decision making levels. In this article, we argue that explicit priority setting should be emphasized in Indigenous health, as it can ensure that the decision making process is accountable, systematic, and transparent. Following a review of the literature, we outline four key issues that need to be considered for explicit priority setting: developing an Indigenous health "constitution," strengthening the evidence base, selecting mechanisms for priority setting, and establishing appropriate incentives and institutional structure. We then summarize our findings into a checklist that can help a decision makers ensure that explicit priority setting is undertaken in Indigenous health. By addressing these key issues, the benefits of an explicit approach, which include increased efficiency, equity, and use of evidence, can be realized, thereby maximizing Indigenous health outcomes.

  18. Increased bone mineral density in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: impact of body composition differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, L J; Hughes, J; Piers, L S; Ward, L C; Meerkin, J; Eisman, J A; Center, J R; Pocock, N A; Jerums, G; O'Dea, K

    2012-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported to be both higher and lower in Indigenous women from different populations. Body composition data have been reported for Indigenous Australians, but there are few published BMD data in this population. We assessed BMD in 161 Indigenous Australians, identified as Aboriginal (n=70), Torres Strait Islander (n=68) or both (n=23). BMD measurements were made on Norland-XR46 (n=107) and Hologic (n=90) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines. Norland BMD and body composition measurements in these individuals, and also in 36 Caucasian Australians, were converted to equivalent Hologic BMD (BMD(H)) and body composition measurements for comparison. Femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine Z-scores were high in Indigenous participants (mean FN Z-score: Indigenous men +0.98, pAboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander than Caucasian participants, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes and height and remained higher in men after addition of lean mass to the model. We conclude that FN BMD is higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians than Caucasian Australian reference ranges and these differences still remained significant in men after adjustment for lean mass. It remains to be seen whether these BMD differences translate to differences in fracture rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation

  20. Population estimates of Australian children's exposure to food and beverage sponsorship of sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A

    2014-07-01

    Sponsorship by manufacturers of unhealthy food can undermine the health promoting goals of sport. This study aimed to describe Australian children's exposure to organised sport, and compare time spent in specific sports with patterns of sponsorship of children's sport identified in previous studies. Cross-sectional survey on children's sport participation collected by proxy report using a random-digit-dialling survey of 3416 parents. Data from the 2009/10 Australian Sports Commission's Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey were used to calculate weekly total person-time exposure to sports for Australian children, as a product of median weekly exposure (minutes) and the number of children participating. Exposures for children in NSW were calculated based on population distribution. Based on a previous survey of sport clubs in NSW, cumulative weekly exposure to food/beverage sponsorship at sports clubs was estimated for children living in NSW. 77.3% of Australian children aged 5-14 participated in organised sport. In NSW, weekly total person-time exposure for children was highest for outdoor soccer (91,200 children×median frequency of 2 sessions per week of 1h duration=182,400h/week). Considering rates of sponsorship at different sports, children would be exposed to food/beverage sponsorship to the greatest extent for rugby league and outdoor cricket. Children's high frequency of participation in organised sport and time spent engaging in these activities highlights the potentially huge reach of food/beverage sponsorship promotions. Policy interventions to limit children's exposure to this sponsorship should target those sports that have both the highest levels of children's participation and food/beverage sponsorship arrangements. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clonality and α-a recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII population--an emerging outbreak in Australia.

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    Fabian Carriconde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes life-threatening disease in humans and animals. Within C. gattii, four molecular types are recognized (VGI to VGIV. The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the ongoing outbreak at Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada, with same-sex mating being suggested as the driving force behind the emergence of this outbreak, and is nowadays hypothesized as a widespread phenomenon in C. gattii. However, an in-depth characterization of the Australian VGII population is still lacking. The present work aimed to define the genetic variability within the Australian VGII population and determine processes shaping its population structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 54 clinical, veterinary and environmental VGII isolates from different parts of the Australian continent were studied. To place the Australian population in a global context, 17 isolates from North America, Europe, Asia and South America were included. Genetic variability was assessed using the newly adopted international consensus multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme, including seven genetic loci: CAP59, GPD1, LAC1, PLB1, SOD1, URA5 and IGS1. Despite the overall clonality observed, the presence of MATa VGII isolates in Australia was demonstrated for the first time in association with recombination in MATα-MATa populations. Our results also support the hypothesis of a "smouldering" outbreak throughout the Australian continent, involving a limited number of VGII genotypes, which is possibly caused by a founder effect followed by a clonal expansion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The detection of sexual recombination in MATα-MATa population in Australia is in accordance with the natural life cycle of C. gattii involving opposite mating types and presents an alternative to the same-sex mating strategy suggested elsewhere. The potential

  2. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm.

  3. Argument for Inclusion of Strongyloidiasis in the Australian National Notifiable Disease List

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    Meruyert Beknazarova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the helminth, Strongyloides stercoralis. Up to 370 million people are infected with the parasite globally, and it has remained endemic in the Indigenous Australian population for many decades. Strongyloidiasis has been also reported in other Australian populations. Ignorance of this disease has caused unnecessary costs to the government health system, and been detrimental to the Australian people’s health. This manuscript addresses the 12 criteria required for a disease to be included in the Australian National Notifiable Disease List (NNDL under the National Health Security Act 2007 (Commonwealth. There are six main arguments that provide compelling justification for strongyloidiasis to be made nationally notifiable and added to the Australian NNDL. These are: The disease is important to Indigenous health, and closing the health inequity gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is a priority; a public health response is required to detect cases of strongyloidiasis and to establish the true incidence and prevalence of the disease; there is no alternative national surveillance system to gather data on the disease; there are preventive measures with high efficacy and low side effects; data collection is feasible as cases are definable by microscopy, PCR, or serological diagnostics; and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG # 6 on clean water and sanitation.

  4. Content and cultural validity in the development of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale.

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    Dender, Alma M; Stagnitti, Karen E

    2017-08-01

    Culturally relevant assessments of Australian Indigenous children's social pretend play do not exist. This study investigated the content validity and cultural validity of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale (I-PPS). Six pairs of children (i.e. 12 children) aged four-six years from a remote Australian town were videoed playing in pairs, and 14 community elders and mothers participated across three focus groups. The social interactions between the children were transcribed from the videos. Nineteen verbs, grouped into five categories of social interaction, described the social interactions between the pairs of children. The descriptions of the social interaction verbs were presented to the community elders and mothers in a focus group. The themes from the focus groups were 'background of Indigenous understanding of play' and 'proposed social interaction verbs'. The first theme reflected community collaboration, children playing in multi-aged groups and the role of older children within the play. Guided by the focus group discussion, the videos were re-analysed and 20 social interaction verbs were described that reflected the cultural context of play. The content and cultural validity of the I-PPS was established through community consultation. Twenty social interaction verbs, which form the basis of the items of the I-PPS, reflected Indigenous cultural values of being non-judgemental of Indigenous children's social interactions during pretend play. Culturally relevant assessments for Australian Indigenous children do not disadvantage this population group and are essential for practice in occupational therapy. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

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    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  6. Health-care costs of underweight, overweight and obesity: Australian population-based study.

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    Clifford, Susan A; Gold, Lisa; Mensah, Fiona K; Jansen, Pauline W; Lucas, Nina; Nicholson, Jan M; Wake, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    Child health varies with body mass index (BMI), but it is unknown by what age or how much this attracts additional population health-care costs. We aimed to determine the (1) cross-sectional relationships between BMI and costs across the first decade of life and (2) in longitudinal analyses, whether costs increase with duration of underweight or obesity. Baby (n = 4230) and Kindergarten (n = 4543) cohorts in the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Medicare Benefits Scheme (including all general practitioner plus a large proportion of paediatrician visits) plus prescription medication costs to federal government from birth to sixth (Baby cohort) and fourth to tenth (Kindergarten cohort) birthdays. biennial BMI measurements over the same period. Among Australian children under 10 years of age, 5-6% were underweight, 11-18% overweight and 5-6% obese. Excess costs with low and high BMI became evident from age 4-5 years, with normal weight accruing the least, obesity the most, and underweight and overweight intermediate costs. Relative to overall between-child variation, these excess costs per child were very modest, with a maximum of $94 per year at age 4-5 years. Nonetheless, this projects to a substantial cost to government of approximately $13 million per annum for all Australian children aged less than 10 years. Substantial excess population costs provide further economic justification for promoting healthy body weight. However, obese children's low individual excess health-care costs mean that effective treatments are likely to increase short-term costs to the public health purse during childhood. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Motivation Matters: Profiling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students' Motivational Goals

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    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…

  8. A Sustainable and Resilient Housing Model for Indigenous Populations of the Mosquitia Region (Honduras)

    OpenAIRE

    Gambino, Valeria; Micangeli, Andrea; Naso, Vincenzo; Michelangeli, Emanuele; Mario, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a sustainable housing model for the Mosquitia region of Honduras, aimed at improving the living conditions of indigenous communities and reducing their vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The improved housing efficiency and resilience will contribute to strengthen sanitation and hygiene, improve the living comfort and reduce environmental impact, particularly focusing on preserving the forest biodiversity. The project was developed following the criteria of env...

  9. Constitution and anthropometric parameters in indigenous population of Southern Altai Mountains.

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    Sayapin, V S; Schmidt, I R; Podkhomutnikova, O V; Van, V Ch; Van, L V; Malevik, V F; Zhestikova, M G

    2003-03-01

    Analysis of anthropometric parameters of 645 indigenous residents of Southern Altai Mountains belonging to two subethnic groups (165 Telengites and 480 Altai-Kizhi) revealed constitutional characteristics distinguishing these groups from each other and from Europeans. Differences in body length and weight, distribution by constitution types, sexual dimorphism, and AB0 blood groups were detected. The specific features of constitution together with environmental factors can determine predisposition of individuals belonging of these subethnic groups to some diseases.

  10. "… Trial and error …": Speech-language pathologists' perspectives of working with Indigenous Australian adults with acquired communication disorders.

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    Cochrane, Frances Clare; Brown, Louise; Siyambalapitiya, Samantha; Plant, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    This study explored speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perspectives about factors that influence clinical management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with acquired communication disorders (e.g. aphasia, motor speech disorders). Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, seven SLPs working in North Queensland, Australia with experience working with this population participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify categories and overarching themes within the data. Four categories, in relation to barriers and facilitators, were identified from participants' responses: (1) The Practice Context; (2) Working Together; (3) Client Factors; and (4) Speech-Language Pathologist Factors. Three overarching themes were also found to influence effective speech pathology services: (1) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Practices; (2) Information and Communication; and (3) Time. This study identified many complex and inter-related factors which influenced SLPs' effective clinical management of this caseload. The findings suggest that SLPs should employ a flexible, holistic and collaborative approach in order to facilitate effective clinical management with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with acquired communication disorders.

  11. PEARLs, Problems and Politics: Exploring Findings from Two Teaching and Learning Projects in Indigenous Australian Studies at the University of Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of PEARL (Political, Embodied, Active, and Reflective Learning) in two courses at The University of Queensland: a first-year introductory Indigenous Studies course and a second year Indigenous Education course. We draw on findings from a 2-year (2010-2011) Office for Learning and Teaching (then ALTC) funded…

  12. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

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    Pedro Mayor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin.

  13. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples

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    Garth Nettheim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

  14. Ashkenazi Jewish population screening for Tay-Sachs disease: the international and Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Delatycki, Martin B; Bankier, Agnes; Aizenberg, Harry; Field, Michael J; Berman, Yemima; Fleischer, Ronald; Fietz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) preconception screening of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals and couples has led to effective primary prevention of TSD. In Australia, adolescent preconception genetic screening programs operate mainly in Jewish community high schools. These existing programs offer an effective means of primary prevention of TSD, are cost effective and safe. However, in the broader Australian community TSD screening is not systematically performed and cases still occur in unscreened AJ individuals. In order to improve the effectiveness of Australian screening, there is a need for definitive guidelines for healthcare professionals to facilitate extension of the proven benefits of preconception TSD screening to all AJ individuals at risk. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature relating to AJ pre-conception and antenatal screening for TSD. The evidence was assessed using an established National Health and Medical Research Council evidence grading system. Evaluations of efficacy of TSD screening programs design and execution, cost-benefit and cost-utility health economic evaluation, and population outcomes were undertaken. The results have been used to propose a model for universal AJ TSD preconception and antenatal screening for the primary care setting. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Analysis of 16 autosomal STRs and 17 Y-STRs in an indigenous Maya population from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sergio; Sevillano, Rubén; Illescas, María J; de Pancorbo, Marian Martínez

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute new data on autosomal STR and Y-STR markers of the Mayas from Guatemala in order to improve available databases of forensic interest. We analyzed 16 autosomal STR markers in a population sample of 155 indigenous Maya and 17 Y-chromosomal STR markers in the 100 males of the sample. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium between autosomal STR markers were not observed at any loci. The combined power of exclusion was estimated as 99.9991% and the combined power of discrimination was >99.999999999999%. Haplotype diversity of Y-STRs was calculated as 0.9984 ± 0.0018 and analysis of pairwise genetic distances (Rst) supported the Native American background of the population.

  16. Children's sleep patterns from 0 to 9 years: Australian population longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna M H; Brown, Judith E; Bittman, Michael; Wake, Melissa; Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    To provide accurate population normative data documenting cross-sectional, age-specific sleep patterns in Australian children aged 0-9 years. The first three waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two cohorts recruited in 2004 at ages 0-1 years (n=5107) and 4-5 years (n=4983), and assessed biennially. Children with analysable sleep data for at least one wave. At every wave, parents prospectively completed 24-h time-use diaries for a randomly selected week or weekend day. 'Sleeping, napping' was one of the 26 precoded activities recorded in 15-min time intervals. From 0 to 9 years of age, 24-h sleep duration fell from a mean peak of 14 (SD 2.2) h at 4-6 months to 10 (SD 1.9) h at 9 years, mainly due to progressively later mean sleep onset time from 20:00 (SD 75 min) to 21:00 (SD 60 min) and declining length of day sleep from 3.0 (SD 1.7) h to 0.03 (SD 0.2) h. Number and duration of night wakings also fell. By primary school, wake and sleep onset times were markedly later on weekend days. The most striking feature of the centile charts is the huge variation at all ages in sleep duration, sleep onset time and, especially, wake time in this normal population. Parents and professionals can use these new centile charts to judge normalcy of children's sleep. In future research, these population parameters will now be used to empirically determine optimal child sleep patterns for child and parent outcomes like mental and physical health.

  17. Dietary Energy Density in the Australian Adult Population from National Nutrition Surveys 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (Pdensity recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density density density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations. The change was largely due to increased energy density of older adult's diets, while young adults had high dietary energy density at both time points. These data suggest efforts now focus on the evaluation of the role of modifying energy density of the diet to reduce the risk of weight gain in adults. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [The new methods in gerontology for life expectancy prediction of the indigenous population of Yugra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, T V; Es'kov, V M; Khadartsev, A A; Khimikova, O I; Sokolova, A A

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the state vector of human cardio-vascular system in different age groups according to methods of theory of chaos-self-organization and methods of classical statistics was investigated. Observations were made on the indigenous people of North of the Russian Federation. Using methods of the theory of chaos-self-organization the differences in the parameters of quasi-attractors of the human state vector of cardio-vascular system of the people of Russian Federation North were shown. Comparison with the results obtained by classical statistics was made.

  19. Who Uses the Internet as a Source of Nutrition and Dietary Information? An Australian Population Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Pulker, Claire Elizabeth; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Scott, Jane Anne

    2015-08-26

    The Internet contains a plethora of nutrition information. Health organizations are increasingly using the Internet to deliver population-wide health information and interventions. Effective interventions identify their target population and their needs; however, little is known about use of the Internet as a source of nutrition information. The aim was to assess the change in prevalence and demographic characteristics of Western Australian adults accessing the Internet as a source of nutrition information and identify specific information needs. Data were pooled from the Western Australian Department of Health's 3-yearly Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone survey between 1995 and 2012 of 7044 participants aged 18 to 64 years. Outcome variables were the main sources of nutrition information used in the last year and yes/no responses to 4 suggestions to what would make it easier to eat a healthy diet. Sociodemographic variables were collected. The proportion of respondents using the Internet for nutrition information increased from Internet for this information increased significantly in 2009 (OR 2.84, 95% CI 2.07-3.88) and 2012 (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3.86-7.02, PInternet as a source were more likely to be female (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60, P=.02), live in a metropolitan area (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P=.03), born in countries other than Australia/UK/Ireland (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.85, P=.02), more educated (university: OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.77-3.42, PInternet for nutrition information were more likely than nonusers to want to know quicker ways to prepare healthy foods (83.0% vs 78.1%, P=.005) and information on choosing healthy foods (76.3% vs 67.3%, PUse of the Internet as a main source of nutrition information has grown rapidly since 2004; one-third of Western Australian adults reported using the Internet for this purpose in 2012. Information on preparing healthy foods (ideas, quicker ways), choosing ingredients, and knowing more about cooking would make it

  20. Who Uses the Internet as a Source of Nutrition and Dietary Information? An Australian Population Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet contains a plethora of nutrition information. Health organizations are increasingly using the Internet to deliver population-wide health information and interventions. Effective interventions identify their target population and their needs; however, little is known about use of the Internet as a source of nutrition information. Objective The aim was to assess the change in prevalence and demographic characteristics of Western Australian adults accessing the Internet as a source of nutrition information and identify specific information needs. Methods Data were pooled from the Western Australian Department of Health’s 3-yearly Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone survey between 1995 and 2012 of 7044 participants aged 18 to 64 years. Outcome variables were the main sources of nutrition information used in the last year and yes/no responses to 4 suggestions to what would make it easier to eat a healthy diet. Sociodemographic variables were collected. Results The proportion of respondents using the Internet for nutrition information increased from Internet for this information increased significantly in 2009 (OR 2.84, 95% CI 2.07-3.88) and 2012 (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3.86-7.02, PInternet as a source were more likely to be female (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60, P=.02), live in a metropolitan area (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P=.03), born in countries other than Australia/UK/Ireland (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.85, P=.02), more educated (university: OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.77-3.42, PInternet for nutrition information were more likely than nonusers to want to know quicker ways to prepare healthy foods (83.0% vs 78.1%, P=.005) and information on choosing healthy foods (76.3% vs 67.3%, PInternet as a main source of nutrition information has grown rapidly since 2004; one-third of Western Australian adults reported using the Internet for this purpose in 2012. Information on preparing healthy foods (ideas, quicker ways), choosing ingredients, and knowing more

  1. Socioeconomic Correlates of Eating Disorder Symptoms in an Australian Population-Based Sample.

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    Brittany Mulders-Jones

    Full Text Available Recent research has challenged the stereotype that eating disorders are largely limited to young, White, upper-class females. This study investigated the association between indicators of socioeconomic status and eating disorder features.Data were merged from cross-sectional general population surveys of adults in South Australia in 2008 (n = 3034 and 2009 (n = 3007 to give a total sample of 6041 participants. Multivariate logistic regressions were employed to test associations between indicators of socioeconomic status (household income, educational level, employment status, indigenous status and urbanicity and current eating disorder features (objective binge eating, subjective binge eating, purging, strict dieting and overvaluation of weight/shape. Eating disorder features occurred at similar rates across all levels of income, education, indigenous status, and urbanicity (p > 0.05. However, compared to working full-time, not working due to disability was associated with an increased risk of objective binge eating (odds ratio (OR = 2.30, p < 0.01 and purging (OR = 4.13, p < 0.05, engagement in home-duties with an increased risk of overvaluation of weight/shape (OR = 1.39, p < 0.05, and unemployment with an increased risk of objective binge eating (OR = 2.02, p < 0.05 and subjective binge eating (OR = 2.80, p < 0.05. Furthermore, participants with a trade or certificate qualification were at a significantly increased risk of reporting strict dieting compared to participants without a tertiary qualification (OR = 1.58, p <0.01. Limitations included the small numbers of indigenous participants (n = 115 and participants who reported purging (n = 54, exclusion of excessive exercise (which is associated with eating disorders, particularly in males, and the conduct of interviews by laypersons.Overall, symptoms of eating disorders are distributed equally across levels of socioeconomic status. This study highlights the need for universal access to

  2. An evaluation of the telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular care in remote Australian Indigenous communities: - protocol for the telehealth eye and associated medical services network [TEAMSnet] project, a pre-post study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, Laima; Jenkins, Alicia; Keech, Anthony; Ryan, Chris; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    2017-01-05

    Despite substantial investment in detection, early intervention and evidence-based treatments, current management strategies for diabetes-associated retinopathy and cardiovascular disease are largely based on real-time and face-to-face approaches. There are limited data re telehealth facilitation in type 2 diabetes management. Therefore, we aim to investigate efficacy of telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease care in high-risk vulnerable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in remote/very remote Australia. Using a pre-post intervention design, 600 Indigenous Australians with type 2 diabetes will be recruited from three primary-care health-services in the Northern Territory. Diabetes status will be based on clinical records. There will be four technological interventions: 1. Baseline retinal imaging [as a real-time patient education/engagement tool and telehealth screening strategy]. 2. A lifestyle survey tool administered at ≈ 6-months. 3. At ≈ 6- and 18-months, an electronic cardiovascular disease and diabetes decision-support tool based on current guidelines in the Standard Treatment Manual of the Central Australian Rural Practitioner's Association to generate clinical recommendations. 4. Mobile tablet technology developed to enhance participant engagement in self-management. Data will include: Pre-intervention clinical and encounter-history data, baseline retinopathy status, decision-support and survey data/opportunistic mobile tablet encounter data. The primary outcome is increased participant adherence to clinical appointments, a marker of engagement and self-management. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed. Remoteness is a major barrier to provision and uptake of best-practice chronic disease management. Telehealth, beyond videoconferencing of consultations, could facilitate evidence-based management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indigenous Australians and serve as a model for other conditions. Australia

  3. Sociodemographic and clinical overview of the indigenous population admitted to the Hospital General de México “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”

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    T. Colmenares-Roa

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates the precarious living conditions of hospitalised indigenous peoples and the difficulties they face in fighting diseases given their socioeconomic conditions. Recommendations are made to address the way the indigenous peoples are identified in the hospital, on recognising them as a vulnerable population, as well as the need for records of sociodemographic and health information regarding this population in hospital settings, so that it is reliable and comparable and to serve as a strong case for the implementation of local actions which meet national and international standards.

  4. HIGHER PARENTAL PERCEPTIONS OF WEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIRTH OF MORE SONS IN AN AUSTRALIAN POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, A M; O'Donnell, M H

    2017-09-20

    Many industrialized nations are currently experiencing a decline in average secondary sex ratio (SSR) resulting in fewer boys being born relative to girls. While many potential factors may explain the decline in the birth of males relative to females, it seems most studies support the idea that male offspring are produced less often when environmental conditions are poor owing to males being more susceptible to loss in harsh environments. This study investigates the maternal factors that are associated with the sex of offspring in a cohort of the Australian population. It found that greater parental perceptions of wealth were significantly associated with an increase in the number of sons produced. These results suggest that male offspring are born at increased numbers to women with higher available resources, which may reflect the fact that male offspring are more vulnerable in poor environments.

  5. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stalder

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis, a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus. In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus, 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius. In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI of 22.6-32.2%, but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7% in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2 were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9% of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0% in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8. Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  6. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K; Gilkerson, James R; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6-32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  7. Construction of an almond linkage map in an Australian population Nonpareil × Lauranne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson John P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a high genetic similarity to peach, almonds (Prunus dulcis have a fleshless fruit and edible kernel, produced as a crop for human consumption. While the release of peach genome v1.0 provides an excellent opportunity for almond genetic and genomic studies, well-assessed segregating populations and the respective saturated genetic linkage maps lay the foundation for such studies to be completed in almond. Results Using an almond intraspecific cross between 'Nonpareil' and 'Lauranne' (N × L, we constructed a moderately saturated map with SSRs, SNPs, ISSRs and RAPDs. The N × L map covered 591.4 cM of the genome with 157 loci. The average marker distance of the map was 4.0 cM. The map displayed high synteny and colinearity with the Prunus T × E reference map in all eight linkage groups (G1-G8. The positions of 14 mapped gene-anchored SNPs corresponded approximately with the positions of homologous sequences in the peach genome v1.0. Analysis of Mendelian segregation ratios showed that 17.9% of markers had significantly skewed genotype ratios at the level of P ® 3 were compared, and their high degree of similarity was evident despite the positional inconsistency of a few markers. Conclusions We presented a moderately saturated Australian almond map, which is highly syntenic and collinear with the Prunus reference map and peach genome V1.0. Therefore, the well-assessed almond population reported here can be used to investigate the traits of interest under Australian growing conditions, and provides more information on the almond genome for the international community.

  8. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6–32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1–63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1–55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0–99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1–297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  9. Clonality and α-a recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII population - an emerging outbreak in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriconde, Fabian; Gilgado, Félix; Arthur, Ian; Ellis, David; Malik, Richard; van de Wiele, Nathalie; Robert, Vincent; Currie, Bart J.; Meyer, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes life-threatening disease in humans and animals. Within C. gattii, four molecular types are recognized (VGI to VGIV). The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the

  10. Contributions to the genetic and mean bone-marrow doses of the Australian population from radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.; Morris, N.D.

    1980-06-01

    The results of a national survey of radiological procedures used for diagnosis and therapy in medicine, dentistry and chiropracty are reviewed. Statistical data for the distribution and frequency of various procedures in Australian hospitals and practices are summarised, together with their associated radiation doses. Annual genetically significant and mean bone-marrow doses to the Australian population arising from these procedures are derived for the survey year of 1970. Values of 176 microgray and 651 microgray for the annual (per capita) genetic and mean bone-marrow doses respectively are reported. These compare closely with corresponding estimates in other countries with similar medical practices to those in Australia

  11. Association of periodontal disease with lifestyle, diabetes mellitus and oral health care practices in an indigenous Bangladeshi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the potential association of periodontal diseases among the indigenous "Garo" population in Bangladesh with their lifestyle, diabetes mellitus and routine oral health care practices. Adult males and females of the community were selected for the study. Data were recorded through one to one, face-to-face interview using a set of standard questionnaire. All teeth except the third molars were examined at 6 sites for gingival colour and swelling, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depths (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Gingival Index (GI was recorded according to Loe and Silness. The greatest score for each of the 6 sites was used for assessing the PPD and CAL. Of 240 subjects, 64% were female. The mean number of teeth present was 26, and the mean number of affected teeth was 8.9 (PPD ≥3 mm. The mean ± standard deviations of GI, PPD and CAL of the community were 0.43±0.70, 2.34±0.47 and 2.70±0.77 respectively. Betel-leaf was chewed by 75%, 57.5% were tooth brush user and remaining 42.5% used traditional ways. A statistically significant difference in PPD and CAL was found between smokers and non-smokers; tooth-brush users and non-users; diabetics and non-diabetics. PPD and CAL were significantly high among frequent betel-leaf chewers and in older age-group. Without having an access to a professional dentist or part of any oral health care awareness programme, the relatively low prevalence of periodontal diseases can possibly be attributed, in part, to the traditional eating habits of the indigenous "Garo" population.

  12. Comparing spatial diversification and meta-population models in the Indo-Australian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmandrier, Loïc; Albouy, Camille; Descombes, Patrice; Sandel, Brody; Faurby, Soren; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Pellissier, Loïc

    2018-03-01

    Reconstructing the processes that have shaped the emergence of biodiversity gradients is critical to understand the dynamics of diversification of life on Earth. Islands have traditionally been used as model systems to unravel the processes shaping biological diversity. MacArthur and Wilson's island biogeographic model predicts diversity to be based on dynamic interactions between colonization and extinction rates, while treating islands themselves as geologically static entities. The current spatial configuration of islands should influence meta-population dynamics, but long-term geological changes within archipelagos are also expected to have shaped island biodiversity, in part by driving diversification. Here, we compare two mechanistic models providing inferences on species richness at a biogeographic scale: a mechanistic spatial-temporal model of species diversification and a spatial meta-population model. While the meta-population model operates over a static landscape, the diversification model is driven by changes in the size and spatial configuration of islands through time. We compare the inferences of both models to floristic diversity patterns among land patches of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Simulation results from the diversification model better matched observed diversity than a meta-population model constrained only by the contemporary landscape. The diversification model suggests that the dynamic re-positioning of islands promoting land disconnection and reconnection induced an accumulation of particularly high species diversity on Borneo, which is central within the island network. By contrast, the meta-population model predicts a higher diversity on the mainlands, which is less compatible with empirical data. Our analyses highlight that, by comparing models with contrasting assumptions, we can pinpoint the processes that are most compatible with extant biodiversity patterns.

  13. Comparing spatial diversification and meta-population models in the Indo-Australian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmandrier, Loïc; Albouy, Camille; Descombes, Patrice; Sandel, Brody; Faurby, Soren; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2018-01-01

    Reconstructing the processes that have shaped the emergence of biodiversity gradients is critical to understand the dynamics of diversification of life on Earth. Islands have traditionally been used as model systems to unravel the processes shaping biological diversity. MacArthur and Wilson's island biogeographic model predicts diversity to be based on dynamic interactions between colonization and extinction rates, while treating islands themselves as geologically static entities. The current spatial configuration of islands should influence meta-population dynamics, but long-term geological changes within archipelagos are also expected to have shaped island biodiversity, in part by driving diversification. Here, we compare two mechanistic models providing inferences on species richness at a biogeographic scale: a mechanistic spatial-temporal model of species diversification and a spatial meta-population model. While the meta-population model operates over a static landscape, the diversification model is driven by changes in the size and spatial configuration of islands through time. We compare the inferences of both models to floristic diversity patterns among land patches of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Simulation results from the diversification model better matched observed diversity than a meta-population model constrained only by the contemporary landscape. The diversification model suggests that the dynamic re-positioning of islands promoting land disconnection and reconnection induced an accumulation of particularly high species diversity on Borneo, which is central within the island network. By contrast, the meta-population model predicts a higher diversity on the mainlands, which is less compatible with empirical data. Our analyses highlight that, by comparing models with contrasting assumptions, we can pinpoint the processes that are most compatible with extant biodiversity patterns. PMID:29657753

  14. Coronary heart disease events in Aboriginal Australians: incidence in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Pamela J; Alfonso, Helman S; Finn, Judith C; Owen, Julie; Thompson, Peter L

    2009-05-18

    To determine the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in an urban Aboriginal population. Cohort study of 906 Aboriginal people without CHD from 998 who had undergone risk-factor assessment in the Perth Aboriginal Atherosclerosis Risk Study (PAARS) in 1998-1999. PAARS cohort data were electronically linked to a range of databases that included Western Australian hospital morbidity data and death registry data. We analysed data from January 1980 to December 2006 to identify previous admissions for CHD from 1980 to baseline (1998-1999) and new events from baseline to 2006. First CHD event (hospital admission or death). There were 891 linked records for the 906 participants without previous CHD. The event rate was 12.6/1000 person-years (95% CI, 10.2-15.6/1000 person-years). Annual CHD event rates ranged from 8 to 18/1000 person-years. After adjustment for age (sex was not associated with the risk factors assessed), factors associated with risk of a CHD event in the PAARS cohort were a history of diabetes, overweight or obesity (indicated by body mass index), smoking, and hypertension, but not waist circumference. People with these risk factors were 1.9-2.7 times more likely to experience a CHD event. Compared with previously published information from a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory, the incidence of CHD events among urban-dwelling Aboriginal people was not significantly different (P > 0.05 overall and for subgroups defined by age and sex). City-dwelling Aboriginal Australians have an incidence of CHD events comparable to that of Aboriginal people living in remote northern Australia.

  15. ORIGIN AND PREVALENCE OF HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE 1 (HTLV-1 AND TYPE 2 (HTLV-2 AMONG INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS IN THE AMERICAS

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    Arthur Paiva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2 is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events.

  16. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  17. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to…

  18. Potential Factors Influencing Indigenous Education Participation and Achievement. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas; Cameron, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This report examines two sets of issues, the first being whether Indigenous Australians obtain a lower return on investment in education and training than other Australians. If they do, then this would partly explain why, in general, Indigenous participation in education and training is relatively low. The second issue is whether Indigenous…

  19. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  20. The (noneffects of lethal population control on the diet of Australian dingoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Allen

    Full Text Available Top-predators contribute to ecosystem resilience, yet individuals or populations are often subject to lethal control to protect livestock, managed game or humans from predation. Such management actions sometimes attract concern that lethal control might affect top-predator function in ways ultimately detrimental to biodiversity conservation. The primary function of a predator is predation, which is often investigated by assessing their diet. We therefore use data on prey remains found in 4,298 Australian dingo scats systematically collected from three arid sites over a four year period to experimentally assess the effects of repeated broad-scale poison-baiting programs on dingo diet. Indices of dingo dietary diversity and similarity were either identical or near-identical in baited and adjacent unbaited treatment areas in each case, demonstrating no control-induced change to dingo diets. Associated studies on dingoes' movement behaviour and interactions with sympatric mesopredators were similarly unaffected by poison-baiting. These results indicate that mid-sized top-predators with flexible and generalist diets (such as dingoes may be resilient to ongoing and moderate levels of population control without substantial alteration of their diets and other related aspects of their ecological function.

  1. Construction of an almond linkage map in an Australian population Nonpareil × Lauranne

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite a high genetic similarity to peach, almonds (Prunus dulcis) have a fleshless fruit and edible kernel, produced as a crop for human consumption. While the release of peach genome v1.0 provides an excellent opportunity for almond genetic and genomic studies, well-assessed segregating populations and the respective saturated genetic linkage maps lay the foundation for such studies to be completed in almond. Results Using an almond intraspecific cross between 'Nonpareil' and 'Lauranne' (N × L), we constructed a moderately saturated map with SSRs, SNPs, ISSRs and RAPDs. The N × L map covered 591.4 cM of the genome with 157 loci. The average marker distance of the map was 4.0 cM. The map displayed high synteny and colinearity with the Prunus T × E reference map in all eight linkage groups (G1-G8). The positions of 14 mapped gene-anchored SNPs corresponded approximately with the positions of homologous sequences in the peach genome v1.0. Analysis of Mendelian segregation ratios showed that 17.9% of markers had significantly skewed genotype ratios at the level of P almond map, which is highly syntenic and collinear with the Prunus reference map and peach genome V1.0. Therefore, the well-assessed almond population reported here can be used to investigate the traits of interest under Australian growing conditions, and provides more information on the almond genome for the international community. PMID:20932335

  2. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exome Sequencing Provides Evidence of Polygenic Adaptation to a Fat-Rich Animal Diet in Indigenous Siberian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Hallmark, Brian; Watkins, Joseph; Karafet, Tatiana M; Osipova, Ludmila P; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Hammer, Michael F

    2017-11-01

    Siberia is one of the coldest environments on Earth and has great seasonal temperature variation. Long-term settlement in northern Siberia undoubtedly required biological adaptation to severe cold stress, dramatic variation in photoperiod, and limited food resources. In addition, recent archeological studies show that humans first occupied Siberia at least 45,000 years ago; yet our understanding of the demographic history of modern indigenous Siberians remains incomplete. In this study, we use whole-exome sequencing data from the Nganasans and Yakuts to infer the evolutionary history of these two indigenous Siberian populations. Recognizing the complexity of the adaptive process, we designed a model-based test to systematically search for signatures of polygenic selection. Our approach accounts for stochasticity in the demographic process and the hitchhiking effect of classic selective sweeps, as well as potential biases resulting from recombination rate and mutation rate heterogeneity. Our demographic inference shows that the Nganasans and Yakuts diverged ∼12,000-13,000 years ago from East-Asian ancestors in a process involving continuous gene flow. Our polygenic selection scan identifies seven candidate gene sets with Siberian-specific signals. Three of these gene sets are related to diet, especially to fat metabolism, consistent with the hypothesis of adaptation to a fat-rich animal diet. Additional testing rejects the effect of hitchhiking and favors a model in which selection yields small allele frequency changes at multiple unlinked genes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Measures of indigenous social capital and their relationship with well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    To provide the first estimates of a comprehensive measure of social capital for the Indigenous population and to link the indicators to well-being. Observational study-based. Household survey. Nationally representative sample of 7823 Indigenous Australians aged 15 years and over who were usual residents of private dwellings. Whether or not the respondent felt happy in the last 4 weeks all or most of the time (happiness), and whether or not they felt so sad that nothing could cheer them up at least a little bit of the time over the same period (sadness). There were no consistent differences in social capital measures between Indigenous men and women, nor were there consistent differences between the remote and non-remote population. High levels of social capital were, however, associated with higher subjective well-being. Social capital is both an indicator and determinant of well-being. It was possible to derive an index of social capital for Indigenous Australians that had a strong positive association with self-reported happiness and a negative association with self-reported sadness. However, the analysis also showed that there are a set of related domains of social capital, rather than there being a single underlying concept. © 2012 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. A Sustainable and Resilient Housing Model for Indigenous Populations of the Mosquitia Region (Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Gambino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a sustainable housing model for the Mosquitia region of Honduras, aimed at improving the living conditions of indigenous communities and reducing their vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The improved housing efficiency and resilience will contribute to strengthen sanitation and hygiene, improve the living comfort and reduce environmental impact, particularly focusing on preserving the forest biodiversity. The project was developed following the criteria of environmental, technical, social and economic sustainability to propose a shared model, reproducible by the beneficiaries living in different kinds of Mosquitian ecosystems. Increased building efficiency is obtained through optimization of construction techniques and improvement of materials’ performances. The main material of the proposed dwelling is wood, coherently with the “Miskita” tradition; the increase of its durability, which is obtained by proper seasoning and protection from atmospheric agents and parasites, contributes to the optimization of the use of this natural resource and to reducing the impact on deforestation, which threatens forest biodiversity. The data collection campaign, conducted before developing the housing model design and which has aimed at obtaining information on technical and social aspects related to residences’ welfare and health conditions, has highlighted the great importance of improving the construction model. Despite the advance in sanitary conditions and the economic level, the data collection campaign revealed that even the most developed communities amongst those visited have been perpetrating substantial construction errors, which reduce the resilience of structures to extreme natural phenomena, such as tropical storms and hurricanes, which frequently affect the Mosquitia region. This unexpected discovery increased the importance of housing model design in order to correct these improper construction

  6. Teaching Indigenous Geography in a Neo-Colonial World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David

    2017-01-01

    Australian universities are increasingly embedding Indigenous content and perspectives within curriculum to promote Indigenous cultural competency. We present teaching challenges in an Indigenous geography course designed to present an engaged, intercultural learning experience. We critically reflect on student evaluations, informal discussions…

  7. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  8. Working Together: Strategies That Support Cross-Cultural Engagement of Indigenous Teacher Assistants Working in Indigenous Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Danielle; Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous teacher assistants (ITAs) are often employed in schools to assist in addressing educational issues relating to Indigenous students. While, this practice has occurred for over 40 years in most Australian states, little has been written about their contribution in assisting Indigenous students to learn. This paper explores the influence…

  9. Population densities of indigenous Acidobacteria change in the presence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Sadaf; Das, Subha Narayan; Basu, Anirban; Podile, Appa Rao

    2017-05-01

    Rhizosphere microbial community has diverse metabolic capabilities and plays a crucial role in maintaining plant health. Oligotrophic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), along with difficult-to-culture microbial fractions, might be involved synergistically in microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Among the difficult-to-culture microbial fractions, Acidobacteria constitutes the most dominant phylum thriving in rhizospheric soils. We selected effective PGPR for tomato and black gram and studied their effect on population densities of acidobacterial members. Three facultatively oligotrophic PGPR were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Sphingobacterium sp. (P3), Variovorax sp. (P4), and Roseomonas sp. (A2); the latter being a new report of PGPR. In presence of selected PGPR strains, the changes in population densities of Acidobacteria were monitored in metagenomic DNA extracted from bulk and rhizospheric soils of tomato and black gram using real time qPCR. A gradual increase in equivalent cell numbers of Acidobacteria members was observed over time along with a simultaneous increase in plant growth promotion by test PGPR. We report characterization of three effective PGPR strains and their effects on indigenous, underexplored difficult-to-culture phylum-Acidobacteria. We suggest that putative interactions between these two bacterial groups thriving in rhizospheric soils could be beneficial for plant growth. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Predictors of mental health competence in a population cohort of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Incledon, Emily; O'Connor, Meredith; Mensah, Fiona

    2014-05-01

    The child mental health epidemiology literature focuses almost exclusively on reporting the prevalence and predictors of child mental disorders. However, there is growing recognition of positive mental health or mental health competence as an independent outcome that cannot be inferred from the absence of problems, and requires epidemiological investigation in its own right. We developed a novel measure of child mental health competence within the framework of the Australian Early Development Index, a three-yearly national census of early child development. Predictors of this outcome were investigated by linking these census data at individual level to detailed background information collected by a large longitudinal cohort study. Predictors of competence were consistent with previously described theoretical and empirical models. Overall, boys were significantly less likely than girls to demonstrate a high level of competence (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). Other strong predictors of competence were parent education and a relative absence of maternal psychological distress; these factors also appeared to attenuate the negative effect of family hardship on child competence. This measure of mental health competence shows promise as a population-level indicator with the potential benefit of informing and evaluating evidence-based public health intervention strategies that promote positive mental health.

  11. Ontogeny of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis in a modern Queensland, Australian population using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottering, Nicolene; MacGregor, Donna M; Alston, Clair L; Gregory, Laura S

    2015-05-01

    Due to disparity regarding the age at which skeletal maturation of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis occurs in forensic and biological literature, this study provides recalibrated multislice computed tomography (MSCT) age standards for the Australian (Queensland) population, using a Bayesian statistical approach. The sample comprises retrospective cranial/cervical MSCT scans obtained from 448 males and 416 females aged birth to 20 years from the Skeletal Biology and Forensic Anthropology Research Osteological Database. Fusion status of the synchondrosis was scored using a modified six-stage scoring tier on an MSCT platform, with negligible observer error (κ = 0.911 ± 0.04, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.994). Bayesian transition analysis indicates that females are most likely to transition to complete fusion at 13.1 years and males at 15.6 years. Posterior densities were derived for each morphological stage, with complete fusion of the synchondrosis attained in all Queensland males over 16.3 years of age and females aged 13.8 years and older. The results demonstrate significant sexual dimorphism in synchondrosis fusion and are suggestive of intrapopulation variation between major geographic regions in Australia. This study contributes to the growing repository of contemporary anthropological standards calibrated for the Queensland milieu to improve the efficacy of the coronial process for medicolegal death investigation. As a stand-alone age indicator, the basicranial synchondrosis may be consulted as an exclusion criterion when determining the age of majority that constitutes 17 years in Queensland forensic practice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  13. Pilot of Te Tomokanga: A Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service Evaluation Tool for an Indigenous Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahu McClintock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe acceptability of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Indigenous peoples is little studied. There has been a lack of evaluation tools able to take account of the more holistic approach to the attainment of mental health that characterises Māori, the Indigenous population of Aotearoa (New Zealand. This study aimed to develop such an instrument and establish some of its psychometric properties. Then, to use the measure to establish whānau (family or caregiver views on desirable CAMHS characteristics.MethodA self-administered survey, Te Tomokanga, was developed by modifying a North American questionnaire, the Youth Services Survey for Families (YSS-F. The intent of the tool was to record whānau experiences and views on service acceptability.The Te Tomokanga survey is unique in that it incorporates questions designed to examine CAMHS delivery in light of the Whare Tapa Whā[1], a Māori comprehensive model of health with a focus on whānau involvement and culturally responsive services. This mail or telephone survey was completed by a cohort of 168 Māori whānau. Their children had been referred to one of the three types of CAMHS, mainstream, bicultural, and kaupapa Māori[2], of the District Health Board (DHBs in the Midland health region, Aotearoa. The Midland health region is an area with a large Māori population with high levels of social deprivation.ResultsThe Te Tomokanga instrument was shown to have a similar factor structure to the North American questionnaire from which it had been derived. It identified issues relevant to Māori whānau satisfaction with CAMHS. The work supports the concept that Māori desire therapeutic methods consistent with the Whare Tapa Whā, such as whānau involvement and the importance of recognising culture and spirituality.The participants were generally positive about the services they received from the three different CAMHS types, which shows good acceptability of CAMHS for

  14. Frequency-Dependent Social Transmission and the Interethnic Transfer of Female Genital Modification in the African Diaspora and Indigenous Populations of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody T; Campiño, Patricia Joyas; Winterhalder, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    We present a quantitative account based on ethnographic and documentary research of the prevalence of female genital modification (FGMo) in the African diaspora and indigenous populations of Colombia. We use these data to test hypotheses concerning the cultural evolutionary drivers of costly trait persistence, attenuation, and intergroup transmission. The uptake of FGMo by indigenous populations in Colombia is consistent with frequency-dependent hypotheses for the social transmission of the FGMo trait from the African diaspora population in the period following the era of slavery in Colombia. The prevalence and severity of practices related to FGMo decline with level of sociocultural integration into mainstream Colombian culture. Our results provide empirical support for the cultural evolutionary models proposed by Ross et al. (2015) to describe the transmission dynamics of FGMo and other costly traits. Analysis of costly trait dynamics contributes knowledge useful to applied anthropology and may be of interest in policy design and human rights monitoring in Colombia and elsewhere.

  15. Identifying the quality of life effects of urinary incontinence with depression in an Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Jodie C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life. Methods Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2% were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610, and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459 of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression were more likely to be aged between 15 and 34 years and never married when compared to those with incontinence only. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in people with incontinence, the risk of having comorbid depression was increased by an overall health status of Fair or Poor, or the perception that their incontinence was moderately or very serious. Respondents reporting that they experienced incontinence with comorbid depression scored significantly lower than those experiencing incontinence without depression on all dimensions of the SF-36. The interaction of the presence of incontinence and the presence of depression was significantly associated with the dimensions of physical functioning. Conclusions Depression and incontinence both reduce QOL. When they occur together there appears to be an additive effect which affects both physical and mental health, perhaps by increasing a person’s negative perceptions of their illness. Clinicians should identify and manage comorbid depression when treating patients who have incontinence to improve their overall QOL.

  16. Validation of a risk prediction model for Barrett’s esophagus in an Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireland CJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Colin J Ireland,1 Andrea L Gordon,2 Sarah K Thompson,3 David I Watson,4 David C Whiteman,5 Richard L Reed,6 Adrian Esterman1,7 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4Department of Surgery, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA, Australia; 5Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, Australia; 6Discipline of General Practice, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA, Australia; 7Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a disease that has a high mortality rate, the only known precursor being Barrett’s esophagus (BE. While screening for BE is not cost-effective at the population level, targeted screening might be beneficial. We have developed a risk prediction model to identify people with BE, and here we present the external validation of this model. Materials and methods: A cohort study was undertaken to validate a risk prediction model for BE. Individuals with endoscopy and histopathology proven BE completed a questionnaire containing variables previously identified as risk factors for this condition. Their responses were combined with data from a population sample for analysis. Risk scores were derived for each participant. Overall performance of the risk prediction model in terms of calibration and discrimination was assessed. Results: Scores from 95 individuals with BE and 636 individuals from the general population were analyzed. The Brier score was 0.118, suggesting reasonable overall performance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic was 0.83 (95% CI 0.78–0.87. The Hosmer–Lemeshow statistic was p=0

  17. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Loss Among the Indigenous Peoples of the World: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Keel, Stuart; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Bourne, Rupert A; Wormald, Richard; Crowston, Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Studies have documented a higher disease burden in indigenous compared with nonindigenous populations, but no global data on the epidemiology of visual loss in indigenous peoples are available. A systematic review of literature on visual loss in the world's indigenous populations could identify major gaps and inform interventions to reduce their burden of visual loss. To conduct a systematic review on the prevalence and causes of visual loss among the world's indigenous populations. A search of databases and alternative sources identified literature on the prevalence and causes of visual loss (visual impairment and blindness) and eye diseases in indigenous populations. Studies from January 1, 1990, through August 1, 2017, that included clinical eye examinations of indigenous participants and, where possible, compared findings with those of nonindigenous populations were included. Methodologic quality of studies was evaluated to reveal gaps in the literature. Limited data were available worldwide. A total of 85 articles described 64 unique studies from 24 countries that examined 79 598 unique indigenous participants. Nineteen studies reported comparator data on 42 085 nonindigenous individuals. The prevalence of visual loss was reported in 13 countries, with visual impairment ranging from 0.6% in indigenous Australian children to 48.5% in native Tibetans 50 years or older. Uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment (21.0%-65.1%) in 5 of 6 studies that measured presenting visual acuity. Cataract was the main cause of visual impairment in all 6 studies measuring best-corrected acuity (25.4%-72.2%). Cataract was the leading cause of blindness in 13 studies (32.0%-79.2%), followed by uncorrected refractive error in 2 studies (33.0% and 35.8%). Most countries with indigenous peoples do not have data on the burden of visual loss in these populations. Although existing studies vary in methodologic quality and reliability, they suggest that most

  18. Health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D-5L: South Australian population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Currow, David C; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2016-09-20

    Although a five level version of the widely-used EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument has been developed, population norms are not yet available for Australia to inform the future valuation of health in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to estimate HrQOL normative values for the EQ-5D-5L preference-based measure in a large, randomly selected, community sample in South Australia. The EQ-5D-5L instrument was included in the 2013 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey, an interviewer-administered, face-to-face, cross-sectional survey. Respondents rated their level of impairment across dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression) and global health rating on a visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Utility scores were derived using the newly-developed UK general population-based algorithm and relationships between utility and EQ-VAS scores and socio-demographic factors were also explored using multivariate regression analyses. Ultimately, 2,908 adults participated in the survey (63.4 % participation rate). The mean utility and EQ-VAS scores were 0.91 (95 CI 0.90, 0.91) and 78.55 (95 % CI 77.95, 79.15), respectively. Almost half of respondents reported no problems across all dimensions (42.8 %), whereas only 7.2 % rated their health >90 on the EQ-VAS (100 = the best health you can imagine). Younger age, male gender, longer duration of education, higher annual household income, employment and marriage/de facto relationships were all independent, statistically significant predictors of better health status (p measured with the EQ-VAS. Only age and employment status were associated with higher utility scores, indicating fundamental differences between these measures of health status. This is the first Australian study to apply the EQ-5D-5L in a large, community sample. Overall, findings are consistent with EQ-5D-5L utility and VAS scores reported for other countries and indicate that the majority of South

  19. Indigenous homelessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...

  20. Making an APPropriate Care Program for Indigenous Cardiac Disease: Customization of an Existing Cardiac Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, DanaKai; Hansen, David; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem for all Australians and is the leading cause of death in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. In 2010, more then 50% of all heart attack deaths were due to repeated events. Cardiac rehabilitation programs have been proven to be effective in preventing the recurrence of cardiac events and readmission to hospitals. There are however, many barriers to the use of these programs. To address these barriers, CSIRO developed an IT enabled cardiac rehabilitation program delivered by mobile phone through a smartphone app and succesfully trialed it in an urban general population. If these results can be replicated in Indigenous populations, the program has the potential to significantly improve life expectancy and help close the gap in health outcomes. The challenge described in this paper is customizing the existing cardiac health program to make it culturally relevant and suitable for Indigenous Australians living in urban and remote communities.

  1. [Infection by hepatitis virus among the indigenous populations of South America: a review of the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, J M; Blitz-Dorfman, L; Pujot, F H

    1996-09-01

    After the report of the epidemic outbreak of delta hepatitis among the Yukpa amerindians in the early 80s, the viral hepatitis arose as an important health problem in all the Amerindian communities from the north of South America and the Amazonian Basin. Despite the few data available, the results obtained in different communities from Venezuela (Yukpa, Barí, Yanomami) have shown a high endemicity of hepatitis B and D virus infections and a significant prevalence of hepatitis E virus-specific antibody among their members. By contrast, the infection by hepatitis C virus, which is present in all the urban areas from South America, seems uncommon, or even absent among some Amerindian populations. At the moment, a satisfactory explanation for this findings has not yet been arised. However, it could be possible that the margination of these populations regarding the health care system has been keeping them free of an infection largely linked worldwide to iatrogeny. Vaccination of Amerindian populations against hepatitis B should be taken as a priority of the health care programs. Moreover, such programs should consider the iatrogenic transmission of the HCV as a matter of concern regarding such populations, since parenterally transmitted hepatitis viruses seems to spread quickly among their members once they are introduced, giving rise to serious health problems.

  2. The "ripple effect": Health and community perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program on Thursday Island in the Torres Strait, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Plater, Suzanne; Canuto, Karla; Dickson, Michelle; Gwynn, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2018-02-19

    Physical inactivity is a key health risk among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. We examined perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program (IMP) in a remote Torres Strait island community. Semi-structured interviews with community and program stakeholders (n = 18; 14 Indigenous) examined barriers and enablers to running and the influence of the IMP on the community. A questionnaire asked 104 running event participants (n = 42 Indigenous) about their physical activity behaviours, running motivation and perceptions of program impact. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews revealed six main themes: community readiness, changing social norms to adopt healthy lifestyles, importance of social support, program appeal to hard-to-reach population groups, program sustainability and initiation of broader healthy lifestyle ripple effects beyond running. Barriers to running in the community were personal (cultural attitudes; shyness) and environmental (infrastructure; weather; dogs). Enablers reflected potential strategies to overcome described barriers. Indigenous questionnaire respondents were more likely to report being inspired to run by IMP runners than non-Indigenous respondents. Positive "ripple" effects of the IMP on running and broader health were described to have occurred through local role modelling of healthy lifestyles by IMP runners that reduced levels of "shame" and embarrassment, a common barrier to physical activity among Indigenous Australians. A high initial level of community readiness for behaviour change was also reported. SO WHAT?: Strategies to overcome this "shame" factor and community readiness measurement should be incorporated into the design of future Indigenous physical activity programs. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  3. Australian Film Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  4. Uptake of external cephalic version for term breech presentation: an Australian population study, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Yu Sun; Roberts, Christine L; Nicholl, Michael C; Ford, Jane B

    2017-07-26

    The safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version (ECV) for term breech presentation has been demonstrated. Clinical guidelines recommend ECV for all eligible women, but the uptake of this procedure in the Australian healthcare setting is unknown. This study aimed to describe ECV uptake in New South Wales, the most populous state of Australia, during 2002 to 2012. Data from routine hospital and birth records were used to identify ECVs conducted at ≥36 weeks' gestation. Women with ECV were compared to women who were potentially eligible for but did not have ECV. Eligibility for ECV was based on clinical guidelines. For those with ECV, birth outcomes following successful and unsuccessful procedures were examined. In N = 32,321 singleton breech pregnancies, 10.5% had ECV, 22.3% were ineligible, and 67.2% were potentially eligible but did not undergo ECV. Compared to women who were eligible but who did not attempt ECV, those who had ECV were more likely to be older, multiparous, overseas-born, public patients at delivery, and to deliver in tertiary hospitals in urban areas (p < 0.01). Fewer women who underwent ECV smoked during pregnancy, fewer were morbidly obese, and fewer had a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, compared to those who were eligible. Caesarean section occurred in 25.9% of successful compared to 95.6% of unsuccessful ECVs. Infant outcomes did not differ by ECV success. The majority of women with a breech presentation did not receive ECV. It is unclear whether this is attributable to issues with service provision or low acceptability among women. Policies to improve access to and information about ECV appear necessary to improve uptake among women with term breech presentation. Improved data collection around the diagnosis of breech presentation, ECV attempts, and outcomes may help to identify specific barriers to ECV uptake.

  5. The role of pharmacological stress Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging in an Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, D.M.; Booker, J.A.; Tan, T.S.K.; Bellamy, G.R.; Hardy, D.B.; Howarth, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    This observational study was performed in order to assess the exercise-related incremental diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in a hospital-based Australian population, and to assess the relative roles of exercise and pharmacological stress in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Two hundred and eight adult patients who had both Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography within a median time of 16 weeks were studied. The diagnostic end-point was coronary artery lesions of ≥50% and >70% stenosis detected on angiography. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the overall diagnostic accuracy was calculated, as well as the comparative accuracies in patients who undertook various levels of exercise stress testing (n=130) and those who received pharmacological (dipyridamole) stress testing (n=78). The overall respective diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m sestamibi MPI for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (>70% stenosis) was 81% and 76% when using the diagnostic criterion of ≥50% stenosis. On direct comparison of perfusion defects with angiographic stenoses, the respective sensitivity and specificity for the detection of >70% stenosis in each coronary artery territory was 73% and 79%. Pharmacological MPI showed a significantly greater sensitivity for the detection of localised stenoses compared to the overall group who had exercise MPI performed. Consequently, exercise stress MPI showed significantly more false negative lesions compared to dipyridamole stress imaging (p<0.003). However, a large proportion of patients were unable to perform to adequate exercise levels in this patient sample. We conclude that Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging is an accurate non-invasive test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Where any doubt exists as to the patient's ability to achieve exercise levels at or above 85% of the predicted value for age and gender, pharmacological

  6. Public Attitudes to the Use of Wildlife by Aboriginal Australians: Marketing of Wildlife and its Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath

    2005-01-01

    Attitudes of a sample of the Australian public towards the subsistence use of wildlife by indigenous Australians and whether or not indigenous Australians should be allowed to sell wildlife and wildlife products is examined. It has been suggested that allowing such possibilities would provide economic incentives for nature conservation among local people. We explore whether those sampled believe that indigenous Australians should do more than other groups and institutions to conserve Australi...

  7. Determining adult type 2 diabetes-related health care needs in an indigenous population from rural Guatemala: a mixed-methods preliminary study

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    Chary Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Guatemala, diabetes is an emerging public health concern. Guatemala has one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America, and this population frequently does not access the formal health care system. Therefore, knowledge about the emergence of diabetes in this population is limited. Methods Interview participants (n=23 were recruited from a convenience sample of indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes at one rural diabetes clinic in Guatemala. A structured interview was used to assess knowledge about diabetes and its complications; access to diabetes-related health care and treatment; dietary and lifestyle changes; and family and social supports for individuals living with diabetes. Interviews were supplemented with two group interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Thematic analysis was used to produce insights into diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In addition, a chart review of the clinic’s electronic medical record identified all adult patients (n=80 presenting in one calendar year for a first-time diabetic consultation. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were extracted and summarized from these records. Results Salient demographic factors in both the structured interview and chart review samples included low educational levels and high indigenous language preference. In the interview sample, major gaps in biomedical knowledge about diabetes included understanding the causes, chronicity, and long-term end-organ complications of diabetes. Medication costs, medical pluralism, and limited social supports for dietary and lifestyles changes were major practical barriers to disease management. Quantitative data from medical records review revealed high rates of poor glycemic control, overweight and obesity, and medication prescription. Conclusions This study provides a preliminary sketch of type 2 diabetes in an indigenous Guatemalan population. Combined qualitative and

  8. Conventional clinical and prognostic variables in 150 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases from the indigenous population of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Muhammad Mohiuddin; Jamal, Qamar; Mirza, Talat

    2016-01-01

    To analyze clinical and prognostic variables of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cases from the indigenous population of Karachi and to correlate with the common risk factor of tobacco habit. The study was conducted at Ziauddin University, Karachi. One hundred fifty OSCC cases were collected from the Oncology Department of Ziauddin University Hospital, North Nazimabad, Karachi and Otolaryngology ward of Civil Hospital, Karachi, during 2011 and 2015. The reporting included demographic details and variables like intra-oral subsites, clinical stage and histological grade. Recurrence of tumor after initial resection was also documented. The patient's population comprised of 98 males and 52 females. The mean age was 47.1± 12.22 (range:20-78 years). Maximum numbers were seen in the 41-50 years age group. Urdu-speaking community was the most affected ethnic group (n=75). Clinico-pathological analysis revealed that majority of cases were moderately differentiated (59%) and were either clinical stage II (35%) or IV (29%) tumors. The most common intra-oral subsite came out to be buccal mucosa of cheeks (56%) followed by lateral borders of tongue (21%), lips (13%), alveolar (6%), palate (2.6%) floor of mouth (1.3%), etc. Recurrence was observed in 08 out of 150 cases. All patients underwent primary resection±neck dissection and reconstruction where possible. Overall experience with oral squamous cell carcinoma shows that it has a high tendency for local invasion as well as dissemination to regional lymph nodes, i.e. cervical lymph nodes, both are associated with a poor prognosis. Preventable risk factor of tobacco chewing has been observed in majority of these cases.

  9. Three-dimensional technology for linear morphological studies: a re-examination of cranial variation in four southern African indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, D; Freedman, L; Milne, N

    2005-01-01

    In order to compare linear dimensions made by traditional anthropometric techniques, and those obtained from three-dimensional coordinates, samples of four indigenous southern African populations were analysed. Linear measurements were obtained using mathematically transformed, three-dimensional landmark data on 207 male crania of Cape Nguni, Natal Nguni, Sotho and Shangaan. Univariate comparisons for accuracy of the transformed linear data were made with those in a traditional linear study by de Villiers (The Skull of the South African Negro: A Biometrical and Morphological Study. Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg) on similar samples and equivalent landmarks. Comparisons were not made with her Penrose (Ann Eugenics 18 (1954) 337) analysis as an apparently anomalous 'shape'-'size' statistic was found. The univariate comparisons demonstrated that accurate linear measurements could be derived from three-dimensional data, showing that it is possible to simultaneously obtain data for three-dimensional geometric 'shape' and linear interlandmark analyses. Using Penrose and canonical variates analyses of the transformed three-dimensional interlandmark measurements, similar population distances were found for the four indigenous southern African populations. The inter-population distance relationships took the form of three separated pairs of distances, with the within-pair distances very similar in size. The cranial features of the four populations were found to be overall very similar morphometrically. However the populations were each shown by CVA to have population specific features, and using discriminant analyses 50% or more of the individual crania (with the exception of the Sotho) could be referred to their correct populations.

  10. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the embera-chami indigenous population of Cristianía (Jardín Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataño Bedoya, John Ubéimar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was studied in 488 individuals over the age of 14 years in the Karmata Rua indigenous population of Cristianía, Colombia. The following rates were found: arterial hypertension 18.1%, family history of diabetes mellitus 3.3%, serum glucose over 126 mg/dL 0.7%, smoking habit 15%, overweight 40.2%, obesity 8.0%, hypercholesterolemia 21.4%, hypertriglyceridemia 33.3% and dyslipidemia 56.2%. Values of body mass index, total cholesterol, glucose, waist circumference, waist/hip index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed a positive and significant correlation with age. Higher level of education showed negative correlation with waist circumference, the waist/hip index, blood sugar and blood pressure. In comparison with other indigenous and non-indigenous communities of Colombia and other countries, prevalence of diabetes mellitus was between three and four times lower in the studied population; prevalence or high blood pressure was also lower despite a tendency to overweight. For other risk factors no significant differences were found, but they were more common in women, in people with low level of schooling and in elder individuals. Probably this difference is caused by genetic and environmental factors, such as increased physical activity in men, diet, and population structure.

  11. Our games our health: a cultural asset for promoting health in indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth; Meiklejohn, Beryl; Patterson, Carla; Edwards, Ken; Preece, Cilia; Shuter, Patricia; Gould, Trish

    2006-08-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher morbidity and mortality rates than non-Indigenous Australians. Until recently, few health promotion interventions have had more than limited success in Indigenous populations. This community-based health promotion initiative introduced traditional Indigenous games into schools and community groups in Cherbourg and Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). A joint community forum managed the project, and the Indigenous community-based project officers co-ordinated training in traditional games and undertook community asset audits and evaluations. The games have been included in the activities of a range of community organisations in Cherbourg and Stradbroke Island. Several other organisations and communities in Australia have included them in their projects. A games video and manual were produced to facilitate the initiative's transferability and sustainability. Conventional approaches to health promotion generally focus on individual risk factors and often ignore a more holistic perspective. This project adopted a culturally appropriate, holistic approach, embracing a paradigm that concentrated on the communities' cultural assets and contributed to sustainable and transferable outcomes. There is a need for appropriate evaluation tools for time-limited community engagement projects.

  12. Can administrative data provide insights into the mental health of Indigenous Queenslanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Pais, Joanne

    2011-07-01

    The Australian Government has provided $20 million to establish the Population Health Research Network (PHRN), with representation from all States and Territories to facilitate population health research through data linkage. Health LinQ is part of the Queensland node involving four Queensland universities, Queensland Health and the Australian e-Health Research Centre. This paper reviews the potential for using administrative databases to study the mental health experience of Indigenous Queenslanders. Researchers can define cohorts for study within the administrative data or link them to their own data. Robust protocols preserve confidentiality so that researchers only receive anonymized data. Indigenous status can be defined either through place of residence or through the recording of Indigenous status in datasets such as the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection. Available data include hospital morbidity, mental health data and mortality. Indigenous status is correctly identified in about 89% of cases with variation by definition used. Administrative data provide researchers and decision makers with accessible, cost-effective information without the intrusion and cost of additional data collection. These techniques are especially useful in studying regional, rural and remote populations where access may be difficult.

  13. How institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped population health planning in Australian regional primary health care organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanparast, Sara; Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Ziersch, Anna; Mackean, Tamara; Reed, Richard; Sanders, David

    2018-03-20

    Worldwide, there are competing norms driving health system changes and reorganisation. One such norm is that of health systems' responsibilities for population health as distinct from a focus on clinical services. In this paper we report on a case study of population health planning in Australian primary health care (PHC) organisations (Medicare Locals, 2011-2015). Drawing on institutional theory, we describe how institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped such planning. We reviewed the planning documents of the 61 Medicare Locals and rated population health activities in each Medicare Local. We also conducted an online survey and 50 interviews with Medicare Local senior staff, and an interview and focus group with Federal Department of Health staff. Despite policy emphasis on population health, Medicare Locals reported higher levels of effort and capacity in providing clinical services. Health promotion and social determinants of health activities were undertaken on an ad hoc basis. Regulatory conditions imposed by the federal government including funding priorities and time schedules, were the predominant forces constraining population health planning. In some Medicare Locals, this was in conflict with the normative values and what Medicare Locals felt ought to be done. The alignment between the governmental and the cultural-cognitive forces of a narrow biomedical approach privileged clinical practice and ascribed less legitimacy to action on social determinants of health. Our study also shed light on the range of PHC actors and how their agency influenced Medicare Locals' performance in population health. The presence of senior staff or community boards with a strong commitment to population health were important in directing action towards population health and equity. There are numerous institutional, normative and cultural factors influencing population health planning. The experience of Australian Medicare Locals highlights the difficulties of planning in

  14. The Genetic Structure of Australian Populations of Mycosphaerella musicola Suggests Restricted Gene Flow at the Continental Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, H L; Carlier, J; Aitken, E A B

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT Mycosphaerella musicola causes Sigatoka disease of banana and is endemic to Australia. The population genetic structure of M. musicola in Australia was examined by applying single-copy restriction fragment length polymorphism probes to hierarchically sampled populations collected along the Australian east coast. The 363 isolates studied were from 16 plantations at 12 sites in four different regions, and comprised 11 populations. These populations displayed moderate levels of gene diversity (H = 0.142 to 0.369) and similar levels of genotypic richness and evenness. Populations were dominated by unique genotypes, but isolates sharing the same genotype (putative clones) were detected. Genotype distribution was highly localized within each population, and the majority of putative clones were detected for isolates sampled from different sporodochia in the same lesion or different lesions on a plant. Multilocus gametic disequilibrium tests provided further evidence of a degree of clonality within the populations at the plant scale. A complex pattern of population differentiation was detected for M. musicola in Australia. Populations sampled from plantations outside the two major production areas were genetically very different to all other populations. Differentiation was much lower between populations of the two major production areas, despite their geographic separation of over 1,000 km. These results suggest low gene flow at the continental scale due to limited spore dispersal and the movement of infected plant material.

  15. Evaluation of body adiposity index (BAI) to estimate percent body fat in an indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Patricia C; Vieira Filho, João Paulo B; Franco, Luciana; Dal Fabbro, Amaury; Franco, Laercio J; Moises, Regina S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Body Adiposity Index (BAI) as a predictor of body fat in Xavante Indians and to investigate which anthropometric measures of adiposity best correlate with body fat in this population. We evaluated 974 individuals (476 male), aged 42.3 ± 19.5 years. Percentage of body fat (%BF) determined by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used as the reference measure of adiposity. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between the two methods: BAI and BIA. Associations between anthropometric measures of adiposity were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis. BAI overestimates %BF (mean difference: 4.10%), mainly at lower levels of adiposity. Significant correlations were found between %BF and all measurements, being the strongest correlation with BAI. However, stratified analyses according to gender showed that among men waist circumference has the strongest correlation (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and among women BAI (r = 0.71, p < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) performed similarly. BAI can be a useful tool to predict %BF in Xavante Indians, although it has some limitations. However, it is not a better predictor of adiposity than waist circumference in men or BMI and waist circumference in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease among indigenous populations in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel, Mariana; Tafflet, Muriel; Noël, Baptiste; Parks, Tom; Axler, Olivier; Robert, Jacques; Nadra, Marie; Phelippeau, Gwendolyne; Descloux, Elodie; Cazorla, Cécile; Missotte, Isabelle; Gervolino, Shirley; Barguil, Yann; Rouchon, Bernard; Laumond, Sylvie; Jubeau, Thierry; Braunstein, Corinne; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the leading acquired heart disease in the young worldwide. We aimed at assessing outcomes and influencing factors in the contemporary era. Hospital-based cohort in a high-income island nation where RHD remains endemic and the population is captive. All patients admitted with newly diagnosed RHD according to World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria were enrolled (2005-2013). The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACEs) including heart failure, peripheral embolism, stroke, heart valve intervention and cardiovascular death was calculated, and their determinants identified. Of the 396 patients, 43.9% were male with median age 18 years (IQR 10-40)). 127 (32.1%) patients presented with mild, 131 (33.1%) with moderate and 138 (34.8%) with severe heart valve disease. 205 (51.8%) had features of acute rheumatic fever. 106 (26.8%) presented with at least one MACE. Among the remaining 290 patients, after a median follow-up period of 4.08 (95% CI 1.84 to 6.84) years, 7 patients (2.4%) died and 62 (21.4%) had a first MACE. The annual incidence of first MACE and of heart failure were 59.05‰ (95% CI 44.35 to 73.75) and 29.06‰ (95% CI 19.29 to 38.82), respectively. The severity of RHD at diagnosis (moderate vs mild HR 3.39 (0.95 to 12.12); severe vs mild RHD HR 10.81 (3.11 to 37.62), pdisease and no secondary prophylaxis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L.; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C.; Rosa, Alberto L.

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities. PMID:28424672

  18. Trends in knee arthroscopy and subsequent arthroplasty in an Australian population: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee arthroscopy is a common procedure in orthopaedic surgery. In recent times the efficacy of this procedure has been questioned with a number of randomized controlled trials demonstrating a lack of effect in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Consequently, a number of trend studies have been conducted, exploring rates of knee arthroscopy and subsequent conversion to Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) with varying results. Progression to TKA is seen as an indicator of lack of effect of primary knee arthroscopy. The aim of this paper is to measure overall rate