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Sample records for australian indigenous population

  1. Social Media and Mobile Apps for Health Promotion in Australian Indigenous Populations: Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Carl; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health promotion interventions, with a particular focus on the Australian context and on health promotion targeted toward an Indigenous audience. Specifically, our research questions were: (1) What is the peer-reviewed evidence of benefit for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management, and health service delivery, with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media? and (2) What social media and mobile software have been used in Indigenous-focused health promotion interventions in Australia with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, or otitis media, and what is the evidence of their effectiveness and benefit? Methods We conducted a scoping study of peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of social media and mobile technologies in health promotion (globally) with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media. A scoping review was also conducted for Australian uses of social media to reach Indigenous Australians and mobile apps produced by Australian health bodies, again with respect to these three areas. Results The review identified 17 intervention studies and seven systematic reviews that met inclusion criteria, which showed limited evidence of benefit from these interventions. We also found five Australian projects with significant social media health components targeting the Indigenous Australian population for health promotion purposes, and four mobile software apps that met inclusion

  2. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  3. Fibrinogen and associated risk factors in a high-risk population: urban indigenous australians, the druid Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Nirjhar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that fibrinogen and CRP are associated with coronary heart disease risk. High CRP in Indigenous Australians has been reported in previous studies including our 'Diabetes and Related diseases in Urban Indigenous population in Darwin region' (DRUID Study. We studied levels of fibrinogen and its cross-sectional relationship with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort. Methods Fibrinogen data were available from 287 males and 628 females (aged ≥ 15 years from the DRUID study. Analysis was performed for associations with the following risk factors: diabetes, HbA1c, age, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, blood pressure, heart rate, urine ACR, smoking status, alcohol abstinence. Results Fibrinogen generally increased with age in both genders; levels by age group were higher than those previously reported in other populations, including Native Americans. Fibrinogen was higher in those with than without diabetes (4.24 vs 3.56 g/L, p Conclusions Fibrinogen is associated with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this urban Indigenous cohort and may be a useful biomarker of CVD in this high-risk population. The apparent different associations of fibrinogen with cardiovascular disease risk markers in men and women should be explored further.

  4. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  5. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  6. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

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    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and incident coronary heart disease in Australian indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; McCulloch, Brad; McDermott, Robyn

    2012-06-01

    This report aims to compare the prediction of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components for morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a cohort of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults (TSIs). A total of 2,100 adults (1,283 Aborigines and 817 TSIs) was followed up for 6 years from 2000. Outcome measures were all CHD events (deaths and hospitalizations). Baseline anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood lipids and glucose were collected. Smoking and alcohol intake was self-reported. We found MetS was more prevalent in TSI (50.3%) compared to Aborigines (33.0%). Baseline MetS doubled the risk of a CHD event in Aborigines. Increased fasting triglycerides was stronger in predicting CHD (hazard ratio (HR): 2.8) compared with MetS after adjusted for age, sex, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and baseline diabetes and albuminuria for Aborigines but not among TSIs. MetS was not more powerful than its components in predicting CHD event. In Australian Aborigines, the "triglyceridemic waist" phenotype strongly predicts CHD event, whereas among TSI, baseline diabetes mediated the prediction of increased fasting glucose for CHD event. PMID:21660075

  8. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

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    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  9. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  10. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  11. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  12. The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous education.…

  13. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL) Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Orchard; John Orchard; Hugh Seward

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL) injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012), covering 162,683 player-ma...

  14. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

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    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  15. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

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    Gwynn Josephine D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

  16. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in Indigenous Australians with diabetes in pregnancy

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    Duong, Victor; Davis, Bronwyn; Falhammar, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To perform a systematic review of reported neonatal and pregnancy outcomes of Indigenous Australians with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP). METHODS: Electronic searches of PubMed and Web of Science were carried out. Articles were selected if they contained original data on DIP outcomes in Indigenous Australians. There were no specific exclusion criteria. RESULTS: A total of eight articles, predominantly from Queensland and Western Australia were identified once inclusion criteria were applied. Birth data from midwifery registries or paper charts encompassing years 1985-2008 were used. A total of 465591 pregnant women with and without DIP were included in the eight studies, with 1363 being Indigenous women with DIP. Indigenous Australians experienced increased rates of many known adverse outcomes of DIP including: macrosomia, caesarean section, congenital deformities, low birth weight, hypoglycaemia, and neonatal trauma. There were regional differences among Indigenous Australians, particularly regional/remote vs metropolitan populations where the regional/remote data showed worse outcomes. Two of the articles did not note a difference between Aboriginals and Caucasians in the rates of measured adverse outcome. Studies varied significantly in size, measured outcomes, and subsequent analysis. CONCLUSION: The health disparities between Indigenous Australians and non-Indigenous Australians are further evidenced by poorer outcomes in DIP. This has broader implications for Indigenous health in general. PMID:26131329

  17. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

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    Cunningham Joan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to

  18. Not all semantics: similarities and differences in reminiscing function and content between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

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    Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember. PMID:24999815

  19. Career Decision-Making: What Matters to Indigenous Australians?

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    Helme, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This article brings together and discusses three research projects that examined the vocational education and career-decision making of Indigenous Australians. These studies focused on the experiences of Indigenous people themselves, in order to provide an Indigenous perspective on vocational and career development. Four main barriers that limit…

  20. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

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    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  1. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelaher Margaret; Ferdinand Angeline; Taylor Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, ...

  2. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston Vanessa; Westphal Darren W; Earnshaw Cyan; Thomas David P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young pe...

  3. Gender Gaps in Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes: Australian Regional Comparisons and International Possibilities

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    Nicholas Biddle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australian Census, this paper provides an analysis across three dimensions of socioeconomic disparity: Indigeneity, gender, and geography. This paper also explores the development of a similar gender-related index as a tool to enable a relative ranking of the performance of Indigenous males and females at the regional level across a set of socioeconomic outcomes.The initial findings suggest that although there is a substantial development gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, the development loss from gender-related inequality for Indigenous Australians is relatively small. Higher life expectancy and education attainment for Indigenous females balances out their slightly lower earnings to a large extent. At the regional level, Indigenous females tend to fare better than Indigenous males for the set of indicators chosen; and, this is particularly true in capital cities.

  4. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  5. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  6. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Woods John A; Katzenellenbogen Judith M; Davidson Patricia M; Thompson Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google ...

  7. Gene frequencies of human platelet antigens 1-5 in indigenous Australians in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J A; Palmer, L J; Musk, A W; Erber, W N

    2002-06-01

    The frequencies of human platelet antigen (HPA) systems vary between different racial groups; however, HPA frequency data for some racial groups are still incomplete. We report the distribution of HPA 1-5 systems in Australian Aborigines from a remote community in the north-west of Australia and compare our findings with HPA observed in a Western Australian blood donor population. Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with sequence-specific primers, 185 indigenous Australians and 1000 Western Australian blood donors were genotyped for each of the HPA 1-5 systems. Comparison of gene frequencies of alleles from HPA-1, -2, -3 and -5 systems showed significant differences between Aboriginal people and Western Australian blood donors (P Australian Aboriginals, from this study, was one of the lowest reported, whilst the frequency of HPA-5b (0.246) was one of the highest for this allele. Gene frequencies were similar to those reported for central Australian Aborigines but with no other ethnic group. In conclusion, this study confirms significant differences in HPA distributions between indigenous Australians, Australian blood donors and other racial groups. These results indicate a higher potential risk of alloimmunization to HPA-1, -2 and -3 in Australian Aborigines receiving transfusion therapy from a Caucasian blood donor population, thereby having practical implications for transfusion and pregnancy risks in people of Aboriginal origin. PMID:12071877

  8. The prevalence of unique SNPs in the renin-angiotensin system highlights the need for pharmacogenetics in Indigenous Australians.

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    Grimson, Steven; Cox, Amanda J; Pringle, Kirsty G; Burns, Christine; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Blackwell, C Caroline; Scott, Rodney J

    2016-02-01

    Genetic differences between ethnic populations affect susceptibility to disease and efficacy of drugs. This study examined and compared the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in a desert community of Indigenous Australians and in non-Indigenous Australians. The polymorphisms were angiotensinogen, AGT G-217A (rs5049); AGT G+174A (rs4762); Angiotensin II type 1 receptor, AGTR1 A+1166C (rs5186); angiotensin converting enzyme, ACE A-240T (rs4291), ACE T-93C (rs4292); renin, REN T+1142C (rs5706). They were measured using allelic discrimination assays. The prevalence of REN T+1142C SNP was similar in the two populations; 99% were homozygous for the T allele. All other SNPs were differently distributed between the two populations (P < 0.0001). In non-Indigenous Australians, the A allele at position 204 of ACE rs4291 was prevalent (61.8%) whereas in the Indigenous Australians the A allele was less prevalent (28%). For rs4292, the C allele had a prevalence of 37.9% in non-Indigenous Australians but in Indigenous Australians the prevalence was only 1%. No Indigenous individuals were homozygous for the C allele of AGTR1 (rs5186). Thus the prevalence of RAS SNPs in this Indigenous Australian desert community was different from non-Indigenous Australians as was the prevalence of cytokine SNPs (as shown in a previous study). These differences may affect susceptibility to chronic renal and cardiovascular disease and may alter the efficacy of drugs used to inhibit the RAS. These studies highlight the need to study the pharmacogenetics of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in Indigenous Australians for safe prescribing guidelines. PMID:26667052

  9. Estimating the Social Rate of Return to Education for Indigenous Australians.

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    Junankar, P. N.; Liu, J.

    2003-01-01

    Compares estimates of the social rate of return to education of Indigenous Australians with those of non-Indigenous Australians. Finds that social rate of return is higher for Indigenous Australians than for non-Indigenous. Draws implications for public policy. (Contains 4 tables and 32 references.)(PKP)

  10. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

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    Thomas Merlin C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  11. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

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    Adam A. Lucero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Māori, and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for Māori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors.

  12. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

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    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  13. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  14. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

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    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  15. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children

    OpenAIRE

    Thurber, Katherine A.; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC c...

  16. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  17. Issues in English Language Assessment of Indigenous Australians

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    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Although English is widely used by Indigenous Australians as the main means of communication, national testing has consistently raised questions as to the level of their English language and literacy achievement. This article examines contextual factors (historical, linguistic, cultural, socio-political and educational) which underlie this…

  18. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

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    Kelaher Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %. The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA. Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help.

  19. Bridging the Gap? A Comparative, Retrospective Analysis of Science Literacy and Interest in Science for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Andrew; Oliver, Mary; Woods-McConney, Amanda; Schibeci, Renato

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has shown that indigenous students in Australia do not enjoy equal educational outcomes with other Australians. This secondary analysis of PISA 2006 confirmed that this continues to be the case in science literacy for secondary students. However, the analysis also revealed that indigenous Australian students held interest in science equal to that of their non-indigenous peers, and that observed variations in science literacy performance were most strongly explained by variations in reading literacy. These findings hold important implications for teachers, teacher educators, policy-makers, and researchers. Firstly, acknowledging and publicly valuing indigenous Australian science knowledge through rethinking school science curriculum seems an important approach to engaging indigenous students and improving their literacy in science. Secondly, appropriate professional learning for practising teachers and the incorporation of indigenous knowing in science methods training in teacher preparation seems warranted. Additionally, we offer a number of questions for further reflection and research that would benefit our understanding of ways forward in closing the science literacy gap for indigenous students. Whilst this research remains firmly situated within the Australian educational context, we at the same time believe that the findings and implications offered here hold value for science education practitioners and researchers in other countries with similar populations striving to achieve science literacy for all.

  20. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

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    Katzenellenbogen Judith M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating

  1. Independent Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems amongst Indigenous Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to…

  2. Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

  3. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

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    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  4. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n = 3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P Australian Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a particularly adverse CVD risk factor profile. An absence of sex dichotomy in HDL-C levels warrants further investigation. PMID:24888391

  5. Predictors of negative attitudes toward Indigenous Australians and a unit of study among undergraduate nursing students: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie; Hunt, Leanne; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-03-01

    Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia. The Bachelor of Nursing program at a large university in Western Sydney embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching program. This paper reviews the negative responses received towards course content on evaluation of the Indigenous health unit and explores the predictors for the negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Two surveys were used (baseline and follow-up) to: 1. Determine the main predictors for negative attitudes towards Indigenous people and; 2. Explore students' perceptions of the educational quality of the Indigenous health unit. The surveys allowed collection of socio-demographic, academic data and included the 18 item 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale and open-ended responses. Students who were: 1. Overseas born, 2. Enrolment category: International student and; 3. Whose primary source of information about Indigenous Australians were the media and school were significantly more likely to have higher negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Qualitative data revealed some unfavourable comments dismissing the value and educational quality of the content within the Indigenous health unit. Community engagement is paramount to enhancing the student experience. Movement away from media driven 'hype' to an educated perspective is necessary to create an accurate portrayal of the Indigenous community. PMID:26775166

  6. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

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    Johnston Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young people with a particular emphasis on the social and cultural processes that underlie tobacco use patterns among this group. Methods This project was undertaken in northern Australia. We undertook group interviews with 65 participants and individual in-depth interviews with 11 youth aged 13–20 years led by trained youth ‘peer researchers.’ We also used visual methods (photo-elicitation with individual interviewees to investigate the social context in which young people do or do not smoke. Included in the sample were a smaller number of non-Indigenous youth to explore any significant differences between ethnic groups in determinants of early smoking experiences. The theory of triadic influence, an ecological model of health behaviour, was used as an organising theory for analysis. Results Family and peer influences play a central role in smoking uptake among Indigenous youth. Social influences to smoke are similar between Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth but are more pervasive (especially in the family domain among Indigenous youth. While Indigenous youth report high levels of exposure to smoking role models and smoking socialisation practices among their family and social networks, this study provides some indication of a progressive denormalisation of smoking among some Indigenous youth. Conclusions Future initiatives aimed at preventing smoking uptake in this population need to focus on changing social normative beliefs around smoking, both at a

  7. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  8. Supervision Provided to Indigenous Australian Doctoral Students: A Black and White Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The number of Indigenous Australians completing doctoral qualifications is disparately below their non-Indigenous contemporaries. Whilst there has been a steady increase in Indigenous completions in recent years, significant work remains to redress the imbalance. Supervision has been identified as a primary influencer of the likely success of…

  9. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  10. Study Protocol: establishing good relationships between patients and health care providers while providing cardiac care. Exploring how patient-clinician engagement contributes to health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in South Australia

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    Roe Yvette L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies that compare Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous patients who experience a cardiac event or chest pain are inconclusive about the reasons for the differences in-hospital and survival rates. The advances in diagnostic accuracy, medication and specialised workforce has contributed to a lower case fatality and lengthen survival rates however this is not evident in the Indigenous Australian population. A possible driver contributing to this disparity may be the impact of patient-clinician interface during key interactions during the health care process. Methods/Design This study will apply an Indigenous framework to describe the interaction between Indigenous patients and clinicians during the continuum of cardiac health care, i.e. from acute admission, secondary and rehabilitative care. Adopting an Indigenous framework is more aligned with Indigenous realities, knowledge, intellects, histories and experiences. A triple layered designed focus group will be employed to discuss patient-clinician engagement. Focus groups will be arranged by geographic clusters i.e. metropolitan and a regional centre. Patient informants will be identified by Indigenous status (i.e. Indigenous and non-Indigenous and the focus groups will be convened separately. The health care provider focus groups will be convened on an organisational basis i.e. state health providers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. Yarning will be used as a research method to facilitate discussion. Yarning is in congruence with the oral traditions that are still a reality in day-to-day Indigenous lives. Discussion This study is nestled in a larger research program that explores the drivers to the disparity of care and health outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who experience an acute cardiac admission. A focus on health status, risk factors and clinical interventions may camouflage critical issues within a patient

  11. Early Life Predictors of Increased Body Mass Index among Indigenous Australian Children.

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    Katherine A Thurber

    Full Text Available Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to be obese and experience chronic disease in adulthood--conditions linked to being overweight in childhood. Birthweight and prenatal exposures are associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI in other populations, but the relationship is unclear for Indigenous children. The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children is an ongoing cohort study of up to 1,759 children across Australia. We used a multilevel model to examine the association between children's birthweight and BMI z-score in 2011, at age 3-9 years, adjusted for sociodemographic and maternal factors. Complete data were available for 682 of the 1,264 children participating in the 2011 survey; we repeated the analyses in the full sample with BMI recorded (n=1,152 after multilevel multiple imputation. One in ten children were born large for gestational age, and 17% were born small for gestational age. Increasing birthweight predicted increasing BMI; a 1-unit increase in birthweight z-score was associated with a 0.22-unit (95% CI:0.13, 0.31 increase in childhood BMI z-score. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant increase (0.25; 95% CI:0.05, 0.45 in BMI z-score. The multiple imputation analysis indicated that our findings were not distorted by biases in the missing data. High birthweight may be a risk indicator for overweight and obesity among Indigenous children. National targets to reduce the incidence of low birthweight which measure progress by an increase in the population's average birthweight may be ignoring a significant health risk; both ends of the spectrum must be considered. Interventions to improve maternal health during pregnancy are the first step to decreasing the prevalence of high BMI among the next generation of Indigenous children.

  12. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J.; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C.; O’Connell, Dianne L.; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M.; Moore, Suzanne P.; Condon, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20–69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000–2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010–2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6–18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3–7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3–1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1–2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9–2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies. PMID:27064273

  13. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20-69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000-2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010-2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3-7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3-1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1-2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9-2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies. PMID:27064273

  14. Indigenous Australian Cultural Perspectives in the Study of Geography.

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    Pring, Adele

    1999-01-01

    Explores Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives, related to geography skills (mapping, locational distribution, directional skills, locational change, decision making), on topics such as geographic place names, location of indigenous language speaking groups, traditional stories as navigational tools, shifts in population, and mining.…

  15. Engaging Indigenous Students in the Australian SKA Project

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    Hollow, Robert; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Brooks, Kate; Boddington, Leonie

    2015-08-01

    The Murchison region of Western Australia is the site of the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) that includes the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) and soon the SKA. This is also traditional land of the Wajarri Yamatji people. As part of its development in the region CSIRO has extensive engagement with the Wajarri Yamatji people. This includes educational, cultural, training and commercial opportunities. We outline the Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) between the Wajarri Yamatji and CSIRO, focusing on the educational and training aspects. Starting with "Wildflowers in the Sky" program in 2006 we have made extensive tours to all schools in the region providing teacher training and student engagement. More recently we have implemented a program where CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science staff visit the Pia Wadjarri Remote Community School, the closest school to the MRO, to mentor students. Students and staff from the school visit the MRO annually to explore the ASKAP telescope and see what is involved in its operation. An educational resource about ASKAP and astronomy that also incorporates traditional sky stories and local ecology is being trialled and developed. A cadetship and trainee program supporting Indigenous students has been implemented with the goal of providing employment opportunities and work skills in a diverse range of areas.

  16. Globalising Aboriginal Reconciliation: Indigenous Australians and Asian (Japanese Migrants

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    Minoru Hokari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, I have attended several political meetings concerned with the refugee crisis, multiculturalism or Indigenous rights in Australia, meetings at which liberal democratic–minded ‘left-wing’ people came together to discuss, or agitate for change in, governmental policies. At these meetings, I always found it difficult to accept the slogans on their placards and in their speeches: ‘Shame Australia! Reconciliation for a united Australia’, ‘Wake up Australia! We welcome refugees!’ or ‘True Australians are tolerant! Let’s celebrate multicultural Australia!’ My uncomfortable feeling came not only from the fact that I was left out because of my Japanese nationality but also because I had never seen or heard words like ‘shame Japan’, ‘wake up Japan’ or ‘true Japanese are ...’ at Japanese ‘left-wing’ political gatherings. In Japan, these are words used only by right-wing nationalists. Indeed it is difficult to even imagine liberal-left intellectuals in postwar Japan calling for a ‘true Japanese’ political response (as if such a response was positive, such is the extent to which the idea of ‘good nationalism’ is now regarded as an oxymoron. This is my starting point for an essay in which I want to be attentive to the different roles played by national(ism in the Japanese and Australian political environments.

  17. Re-Reading Representations of Indigenality in Australian Children's Literature: A History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Gearing, Brooke

    2006-01-01

    Australian children's literature has a history of excluding Indigenous child readers and positioning non-Indigenous readers as the subject. Rather than portray such literature, particularly before the 1950s, as simply racist or stereotypical, I argue that it is important for teachers, of all students, to help readers understand how nationalist or…

  18. Closing the Gaps: competing estimates of Indigenous Australian life expectancy in the scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenstock, Amanda; Mukandi, Bryan; Anthony B Zwi; Hill, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and other Australians within a generation is central to national Indigenous reform policy (Closing the Gap). Over time, various methods of estimating Indigenous life expectancy and with that, the life expectancy gap, have been adopted with differing, albeit non-comparable results. We present data on the extent of the gap and elucidate the pattern of use and interpretations of the different estimates of the gap, between 2007 and ...

  19. Examining the potential contribution of social theory to developing and supporting Australian Indigenous-mainstream health service partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Emma; Taylor, Kate P; Durey, Angela; Bessarab, Dawn; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The substantial gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians has been slow to improve, despite increased dedicated funding. Partnerships between Australian Indigenous and mainstream Western biomedical organisations are recognised as crucial to improved Indigenous health outcomes. However, these partnerships often experience challenges, particularly in the context of Australia’s race and political relations. Methods We examined the relevant literature i...

  20. The health and well-being of Indigenous drug and alcohol workers: results from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann M; Duraisingam, Vinita; Trifonoff, Allan; Tovell, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services among the Australian Indigenous population, complex organisational challenges and limitations, and high unemployment rates are likely to negatively impact Indigenous AOD workers' health and well-being. Building the capacity of Indigenous AOD workers is vital, as they play a crucial role in the delivery of treatment services and offer essential support to their communities. A national online survey was conducted to examine organisational, workplace and individual factors that might contribute to levels of stress and well-being among workers who provide services to Indigenous clients. A total of 294 eligible surveys were completed; 184 (63%) from Indigenous and 108 (37%) from non-Indigenous AOD workers. Multiple regression models were conducted to assess the significant predictors of mental health and well-being, job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention. Indigenous AOD workers typically experienced above average levels of job satisfaction and relatively low levels of emotional exhaustion. However, 1 in 10 reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, a key predictor of turnover intention. Indigenous workers also experienced significantly lower levels of mental health and well-being and greater work/family imbalance, which was a significant contributor to emotional exhaustion. The findings highlight the importance of implementing workforce development strategies that focus on achieving culturally appropriate, equitable and supportive organisational conditions for Indigenous AOD workers. Preventing or managing levels of stress, ensuring adequate and equitable salaries and benefits, and providing more opportunities for career and personal growth may increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover intention among Indigenous workers in the drug and alcohol field. PMID:22425037

  1. Australian indigenous children with low cognitive ability: Family and cultural participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, John; Emerson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Family and cultural inclusion are essential for the healthy development of young Australian Indigenous peoples with low cognitive ability. To date, this issue has received limited research attention. A secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 4 of Footprints in Time, Australia's Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children, was conducted to help address this research gap. The study results indicated that in some areas, Indigenous children with low cognitive ability are at a higher risk of social exclusion than their peers. We discuss the policy implications of these findings with regards to addressing Indigenous disadvantage. PMID:27286466

  2. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  3. Gestational age specific stillbirth risk among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women in Queensland, Australia: a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Coory, Michael; Smith, Gordon C S; Boyle, Frances M; Vlack, Susan; Middleton, Philippa; Roe, Yvette; Flenady, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Background In Australia, significant disparity persists in stillbirth rates between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian) and non-Indigenous women. Diabetes, hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and small-for-gestational age (SGA) have been identified as important contributors to higher rates among Indigenous women. The objective of this study was to examine gestational age specific risk of stillbirth associated with these conditions among Indigenous and non-Indigenous...

  4. Ethnic Differences in the Quality of the Interview Process and Implications for Survey Analysis: The Case of Indigenous Australians.

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    Francisco Perales

    Full Text Available Comparable survey data on Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are highly sought after by policymakers to inform policies aimed at closing ethnic socio-economic gaps. However, collection of such data is compromised by group differences in socio-economic status and cultural norms. We use data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and multiple-membership multilevel regression models that allow for individual and interviewer effects to examine differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in approximate measures of the quality of the interview process. We find that there are both direct and indirect ethnic effects on different dimensions of interview process quality, with Indigenous Australians faring worse than non-Indigenous Australians in all outcomes ceteris paribus. This indicates that nationwide surveys must feature interview protocols that are sensitive to the needs and culture of Indigenous respondents to improve the quality of the survey information gathered from this subpopulation.

  5. Ethnic Differences in the Quality of the Interview Process and Implications for Survey Analysis: The Case of Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Francisco; Baffour, Bernard; Mitrou, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Comparable survey data on Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are highly sought after by policymakers to inform policies aimed at closing ethnic socio-economic gaps. However, collection of such data is compromised by group differences in socio-economic status and cultural norms. We use data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and multiple-membership multilevel regression models that allow for individual and interviewer effects to examine differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in approximate measures of the quality of the interview process. We find that there are both direct and indirect ethnic effects on different dimensions of interview process quality, with Indigenous Australians faring worse than non-Indigenous Australians in all outcomes ceteris paribus. This indicates that nationwide surveys must feature interview protocols that are sensitive to the needs and culture of Indigenous respondents to improve the quality of the survey information gathered from this subpopulation. PMID:26091283

  6. Indigenous Rights and the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process

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    Andrew Gunstone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.

  7. Child-Caregiver Interaction in Two Remote Indigenous Australian Communities

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    Jill eVaughan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As

  8. Reducing the health disparities of Indigenous Australians: time to change focus

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    Durey Angela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of ‘White’, Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Methods Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers’ past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Results Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role ‘Whiteness’ plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised

  9. New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners

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    Watson, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…

  10. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

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    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  11. Towards a Decolonising Pedagogy: Understanding Australian Indigenous Studies through Critical Whiteness Theory and Film Pedagogy

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    Hook, Genine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores student and teacher engagement with Australian Indigenous Studies. In this article I identify key themes in the film "September" (2007) that demonstrate how the film can be used as a catalyst for student learning and discussion. Critical whiteness theory provides a framework to explore three themes, the invisibility of…

  12. Children's Language Input: A Study of a Remote Multilingual Indigenous Australian Community

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    Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Simpson, Jane; Billington, Rosey

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous children growing up in the remote regions of Australia live in multilingual communities which are often undergoing rapid language shift. In these communities, children are exposed to a range of language input, including the traditional language of the area, a local creole and Standard Australian English. The extent to which the…

  13. A Controversial Reform in Indigenous Education: The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy

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    McCollow, John

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a controversial initiative in Indigenous education: the establishment of the Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA). The article provides a brief description of the Academy's three campuses and their communities and considers: the circumstances of its creation, including the role of Noel Pearson and Cape York…

  14. Between Duty Statement and Reality--The "Linguist/Coordinator" at an Australian Indigenous Language Centre

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    Olawsky, Knut J.

    2014-01-01

    The size of Australian Indigenous language centres varies from small programs with a single employment position up to large organisations which may involve several linguists, a manager and a range of support staff. This article is based on the linguist's work at an organisation at the smaller end of the scale--"Mirima Dawang…

  15. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

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    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  16. Menopause and the influence of culture: another gap for Indigenous Australian women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is great variation in experience of menopause in women around the world. The purpose of this study was to review current understanding of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) women’s experiences of menopause. The literature pertaining to the perception, significance and experience of menopause from a number of cultural groups around the world has been included to provide context for why Indigenous women’s experience might be important for their health and differ from that reported in other studies of Australian women and menopause. Methods A search of databases including Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science, AUSThealth, AMED, EMBASE, Global Health and PsychINFO was undertaken from January 2011 to April 2011 using the search terms menopause, Indigenous, Aboriginal, attitudes, and perceptions and repeated in September 2012. Results Considerable research shows significant variation across cultures in the menopausal experience. Biological, psychological, social and cultural factors are associated with either positive or negative attitudes, perceptions or experiences of menopause in various cultures. Comparative international literature shows that neither biological nor social factors alone are sufficient to explain the variation in experiences of the menopausal transition. However, a strong influence of culture on the menopause experience can be found. The variation in women’s experience of menopause indicates that different cultural groups of women may have different understandings and needs during the menopausal transition. While considerable literature exists for Australian women as a whole, there has been little investigation of Australian Indigenous women, with only two research studies related to Indigenous women’s experiences of menopause identified. Conclusions Differences in biocultural experience of menopause around the world suggest the importance of biocultural research. For the Indigenous women of Australia

  17. Practicing Teachers’ Reflections: Indigenous Australian Student Mobility and Implications for Teacher Education

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    Beverley Moriarty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructions of education historically have impacted adversely on marginalised Indigenous Australian students whose mobile lifestyles and cultural positioning challenge teachers’ social inclusion practices. This paper examines the preparation and capacity of pre-service teachers to engage with mobile Indigenous students and their communities. Evidence is drawn from practicing teachers who reflected on their experiences in working with Indigenous students and their communities since graduation and how their experiences, both pre- and post-graduation, impacted on their beliefs and practices. Individual interviews were conducted with four teachers who also participated in the first stage of the study as a group of 24 second year primary pre-service teachers at a regional Australian university. It was found that pre-service teachers representing a range of world views benefit from positive, scaffolded experiences that provide opportunities to develop practices that foster social justice and inclusion. The findings of this study have implications for providing pre-service teachers with opportunities to understand how historical factors impact on Indigenous student mobility in contemporary Australian educational settings and the development of socially inclusive pedagogical practices. Further longitudinal research to expand the evidence base around developing culturally-appropriate pedagogical practices in pre-service teachers is needed to support their transition into teaching.

  18. The Legacy of Racism and Indigenous Australian Identity within Education

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    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Carlson, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism.…

  19. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

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    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  20. Determinants and gaps in preventive care for Indigenous Australians: a cross sectional analysis

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    Ross Stewart Bailie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPotentially preventable chronic diseases are the greatest contributor to the health gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Preventive care is important for earlier detection and control of chronic disease, and a number of recent policy initiatives have aimed to enhance delivery of preventive care. We examined documented delivery of recommended preventive services for Indigenous peoples across Australia, and investigated the influence of health center and client level factors on adherence to best practice guidelines. MethodsClinical audit data from 2012-2014 for 3623 well adult clients (aged 15-54 of 101 health centers from four Australian states and territories were analyzed to determine adherence to delivery of 26 recommended preventive services classified into five different modes of care on the basis of the way in which they are delivered (eg. basic measurement; laboratory tests and imaging; assessment and brief interventions, eye, ear and oral checks; follow-up of abnormal findings. Summary statistics were used to describe the delivery of each service item across jurisdictions. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the variation in service delivery attributable to health center and client level factors and to identify factors associated with higher quality care.ResultsDelivery of recommended preventive care varied widely between service items, with good delivery of most basic measurements but poor follow-up of abnormal findings. Health center characteristics were associated with most variation. Higher quality care was associated with Northern Territory location, urban services and smaller service population size. Client factors associated with higher quality care included age between 25-34 years, female sex and more regular attendance. ConclusionsWide variation in documented preventive care delivery, poor follow-up of abnormal findings, and system factors that

  1. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people. PMID:26599437

  2. A Discussion with Sandy O'Sullivan about Key Issues for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network

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    Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the form of an interview with Sandy O'Sullivan, who is a partner on the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network, about key issues that have arisen through Network discussions. She is a Wiradjuri woman and a Senior Aboriginal researcher at the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education.…

  3. Evaluation of an Australian indigenous housing programme: community level impact on crowding, infrastructure function and hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Bailie, Ross S; McDonald, Elizabeth L; Stevens, Matthew; Guthridge, Steven; Brewster, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim Housing programmes in indigenous Australian communities have focused largely on achieving good standards of infrastructure function. The impact of this approach was assessed on three potentially important housing-related influences on child health at the community level: (1) crowding, (2) the functional state of the house infrastructure and (3) the hygienic condition of the houses. Methods A before-and-after study, including house infrastructure surveys and structured inter...

  4. From the ‘Quiet Revolution’ to ‘Crisis’ in Australian Indigenous Affairs

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    Virginia Watson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the space of one year the Australian federal political leadership transformed its own account of its achievements in Indigenous affairs from that of a ‘quiet revolution’ to a state of ‘crisis’. This article takes this idea that there is a ‘crisis’ taking place across remote Aboriginal communities as its starting point. However, in contrast to most assessments of this ‘crisis’ I argue that claims about ‘crisis’ do not derive naturally from accounts of the critical circumstances of daily life in remote indigenous communities. Rather, the idea of crisis can be understood as a process of narration, one that the federal political leadership has brought into existence through narrative and discourse. As I show, this narrative of crisis has had a very particular strategic effect. It has enabled the federal government to transform its failure to change the fundamentals of indigenous welfare (its ‘quiet revolution’ into a widespread, general crisis. In this way, this narrative of crisis thus marks a turning point: one at which the discourse of government responsibility for citizens has been overtaken and replaced by that of citizen responsibility to government – namely that indigenous people and communities themselves must now be held responsible for (governmental failure in indigenous affairs. Seen in these terms, the critical circumstances of daily life in many remote Indigenous communities far from providing testimony of governmental failure provide something of an alibi, making the idea of crisis seems utterly feasible.

  5. Young Australian Indigenous students' effective engagement in mathematics: the role of language, patterns, and structure

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    Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores the outcomes of the first year of the implementation of a mathematics program ( Representations, oral language and engagement in Mathematics: RoleM) which is framed upon research relating to effectively supporting young Indigenous students' learning. The sample comprised 230 Indigenous students (average age 5.76 years) from 15 schools located across Queensland. The pre-test and post-test results from purposely developed language and mathematics tests indicate that young Indigenous Australian students are very capable learners of mathematics. The results of a multiple regression analysis denoted that their ability to ascertain the structure of patterns and to understand mathematical language were both strong predictors of their success in mathematics, with the latter making the larger contribution.

  6. Transformative learning in first year Indigenous Australian studies: Posing problems, asking questions and achieving change. A Practice Report

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    Elizabeth Mackinlay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australian studies necessarily addresses emotionally-difficult topics related to race, history, colonialism and our identities as Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. As educators in this discipline, it is important for us to find teaching and learning approaches which make space for these topics to be accessed, understood, discussed and engaged with in meaningful ways. Problem-Based Learning (PBL, because of its emphasis on dialogic learning, is a pedagogical tool used in many Indigenous Australian studies classrooms in preference to other methods. In this presentation we want to explore the potential of PBL to allow personal and emotional responses to become accessible, dialogic and discursive, so that the resulting new awareness translates into practical action and change. We will focus on a practice-based initiative which involves the implementation of PBL in a first year introductory course at The University of Queensland and provide practical guidance on the incorporation of PBL in curriculum development.

  7. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

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    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people’s territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  8. Development and preliminary validation of the 'Caring for Country' questionnaire: measurement of an Indigenous Australian health determinant

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    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Caring for Country' is defined as Indigenous participation in interrelated activities with the objective of promoting ecological and human health. Ecological services on Indigenous-owned lands are belatedly attracting some institutional investment. However, the health outcomes associated with Indigenous participation in 'caring for country' activities have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to pilot and validate a questionnaire measuring caring for country as an Indigenous health determinant and to relate it to an external reference, obesity. Methods Purposively sampled participants were 301 Indigenous adults aged 15 to 54 years, recruited during a cross-sectional program of preventive health checks in a remote Australian community. Questionnaire validation was undertaken with psychometric tests of internal consistency, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory one-factor congeneric modelling. Accurate item weightings were derived from the model and used to create a single weighted composite score for caring for country. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to test associations between the caring for country score and body mass index adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results The questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest validity and proxy-respondent validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the 'caring for country' items produced a single factor solution that was confirmed via one-factor congeneric modelling. A significant and substantial association between greater participation in caring for country activities and lower body mass index was demonstrated. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours, an inter-quartile range rise in caring for country scores was associated with 6.1 Kg and 5.3 Kg less body weight for non-pregnant women and men respectively. Conclusion This study indicates preliminary support for

  9. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

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    Jamieson Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.

  10. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in indigenous Australian and Alaska native children with bronchiectasis.

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    Kim M Hare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship

  11. Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes

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    Lee Stoner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the driving force behind the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in many countries. Preceding CVD many indigenous groups exhibit a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including overweight-obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In turn, modifiable lifestyle risk factors contribute to the development of this cluster of cardiometabolic conditions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors include, but are not limited to, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Notably, these metabolic and lifestyle risk factors are relatively simple to monitor and track. The current review will look at modifiable cardiometabolic (overweight-obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure and lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior, and cigarette smoking risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Mβori and the United States (Native Americans. Discussion will focus on the causal relationship between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and cardiometabolic outcomes, as well as, simple measurements for tracking these risk factors.

  12. The Body as Language and Expression of the Indigenous Australian Cultural Identity

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    Dolors Soriano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Indigenous Australian oral culture, Tradition and Law are transmitted orally – through songs, tales, legends, etc. – and by visual expressions – engravings and drawings made on rocks, on the ground, on material objects, on bark and on the human body–. Drawings and engravings transform the surface on which they are made from profane to sacred, since they are the transmitters of cultural myths and beliefs, generation after generation. The body, one of the supports of visual expression, actively participates in the transmission of myths, relegating the design to a secondary place. The most important thing is the transmission of the myth and not the way it is transmitted, or the result. The mythological narrative or legend surpasses the aesthetic line of vision. This paper intends to expose the primacy of the use of the body -- human or not–, as a transmitter of the myths and history of the Indigenous Australian culture. In this way the body speaks a non-oral language full of symbolism and meaning.

  13. Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms of Mexican indigenous populations.

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    Sosa-Macías, Martha; Llerena, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in Mexican indigenous populations, who are a part of the wide ethnic diversity of this country. These native groups have a particular historical trajectory that is different from the Mexican Mestizos. This variability may be reflected in the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP genes that encode enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. Therefore, these polymorphisms may affect drug efficacy and safety in indigenous populations in Mexico. The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence of CYP polymorphisms in indigenous Mexicans and to compare the results with studies in Mexican Mestizos. Because the extrapolation of pharmacogenetic data from Mestizos is not applicable to the majority of indigenous groups, pharmacogenetic studies directed at indigenous populations need to be developed. The Amerindians analyzed in this study showed a low phenotypic (CYP2D6) and genotypic (CYP2D6, CYP2C9) diversity, unlike Mexican Mestizos. The frequency of polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 genes was more similar among the Amerindians and Mexican Mestizos, with the exception of the CYP1A2 gene, whose *1F variant frequency in Mexican Amerindians was the highest described to date. PMID:24145057

  14. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  15. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  16. Developing Tests for the Assessment of Traditional Language Skill: A Case Study in an Indigenous Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Simpson, Jane; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development and piloting of a vocabulary recognition test designed for Indigenous Australian children. The research is both application oriented and development oriented. The aims of the article are to determine how well the test is used as a test instrument and the extent to which children recognize vocabulary items in…

  17. "From your own thinking you can't help us": intercultural collaboration to address inequities in services for Indigenous Australians in response to the World Report on Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Anne

    2013-02-01

    Inequity in service provision for Indigenous Australians with communication disability is an issue requiring urgent attention. In the lead article, Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall (2013) note that, even in the relatively affluent Minority World, including Australia, equity in service provision for people with communication disability has not been achieved. In remote communities in the Northern Territory (NT) almost all residents speak a language other than English as their primary language. However, there are no speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the NT who speak an Indigenous language or who share their cultural background. Specific data on the prevalence of communication disability in this population are unavailable due to a range of factors. The disability data that are available, for example, demonstrating the high level of conductive hearing loss, indicates that the risk of communication disability in this population is particularly high. Change is urgently needed to address current inequities in both availability of, and access to, culturally responsive services for Indigenous people with communication disability. Such change must engage Indigenous people in a collaborative process that recognizes their expertise in identifying both their needs and the most effective form of response to these needs. PMID:23072499

  18. More Accounts of Meteoritic Events in the Oral Traditions of Indigenous Australians

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of natural events, such as fireballs and meteorite impacts, are found within Indigenous Australian oral traditions. Studies of oral traditions demonstrate that they extend beyond the realm of myth and legend; they contain structured knowledge about the natural world (science) as well as historic accounts of natural events and geo-hazards. These traditions could lead to the discovery of meteorites and impact sites previously unknown to Western science. In addition to benefiting the scientific study of meteoritics, this study can help social scientists better understand the nature and longevity of oral traditions and further support the growing body of evidence that oral traditions contain historical accounts of natural events. In a previous study led by the author in 2009, no meteorite-related oral traditions were identified that led to the discovery of meteorites and/or impact craters. This paper challenges those initial findings.

  19. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. PMID:25912518

  20. A cohort of Indigenous Australian women and their children through pregnancy and beyond: the Gomeroi gaaynggal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, A M; Collins, C E; Weatherall, L; Brown, L J; Rollo, M E; Clausen, D; Blackwell, C C; Pringle, K G; Attia, J; Smith, R; Lumbers, E R; Rae, K M

    2016-08-01

    Indigenous Australians have high rates of chronic diseases, the causes of which are complex and include social and environmental determinants. Early experiences in utero may also predispose to later-life disease development. The Gomeroi gaaynggal study was established to explore intrauterine origins of renal disease, diabetes and growth in order to inform the development of health programmes for Indigenous Australian women and children. Pregnant women are recruited from antenatal clinics in Tamworth, Newcastle and Walgett, New South Wales, Australia, by Indigenous research assistants. Measures are collected at three time points in pregnancy and from women and their children at up to eight time points in the child's first 5 years. Measures of fetal renal development and function include ultrasound and biochemical biomarkers. Dietary intake, infant feeding and anthropometric measurements are collected. Standardized procedures and validated tools are used where available. Since 2010 the study has recruited over 230 women, and retained 66 postpartum. Recruitment is ongoing, and Gomeroi gaaynggal is currently the largest Indigenous pregnancy-through-early-childhood cohort internationally. Baseline median gestational age was 39.1 weeks (31.5-43.2, n=110), median birth weight was 3180 g (910-5430 g, n=110). Over one third (39.3%) of infants were admitted to special care or neonatal nursery. Nearly half of mothers (47.5%) reported tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Results of the study will contribute to knowledge about origins of chronic disease in Indigenous Australians and nutrition and growth of women and their offspring during pregnancy and postpartum. Study strengths include employment and capacity-building of Indigenous staff and the complementary ArtsHealth programme. PMID:27080434

  1. HIV Epidemic situation among Small Indigenous Populations of Northeast Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Volova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze and assess the real situation of HIV infection among indigenous peoples established , to investigate the prevalence of risky behavior in relation to HIV also determine the level of awareness of the indigenous population about HIV / AIDS.Materials and Methods 1. Analysis of the data cards of the epidemical investigation hearth HIV data form number 283 «About measures on prevention of HIV , hepatitis B and C , detection and treatment of HIV» , form number 61 «Information on the groups of HIV», outpatients patient. 2. The analysis of the statistical prevalence of HIV infection among men and women , including among indigenous representatives , the structure of HIV transmission , coverage of clinical examination. 3. Data analysis of the sociological study among indigenous representatives. The proposed questionnaire contained both closed and open-ended questions to assess the risk factors of respondents’ behavior and their level of awareness of HIV infection. Evaluation of the reliability of the data performed using Student t-test. Results. In 2000, HIV infection in region penetrated into the population of indigenous peoples and continues to spread. Particular way of life and living conditions, such as seasonal migration within the county, early sexual activity, lack of skills in safe sexual behavior , bad habits contributed to the spread of HIV among this ethnic group. Link transition of HIV infection in a group of indigenous peoples is a high incidence of working shifts and workers, among them 30% are already infected with HIV. In connection with this, the spread of HIV infection among women occurs rapidly. Special role in the spread of HIV infection among women of indigenous peoples plays lifestyle and delated psychosocial problems.Conclusion 1. The most vulnerable to HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections by representatives of indigenous peoples living in the

  2. The Role of Cultural and Spiritual Expressions in Affirming a Sense of Self, Place, and Purpose among Young Urban, Indigenous Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marian; Rymarz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article sets out to discuss the impact that urban living has had on the lives of young Indigenous people. It will seek to discover some of the problems that occur when there is a meeting of two cultures, in this case the Indigenous culture of Australian Aboriginal people and the mainstream culture that has been derived largely from west…

  3. The Use of ICT to preserve Australian Indigenous Culture and Language - a Preliminary Proposal using the Activity Theory Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, Sarah; Smith, Stephen; Pang, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Propinquity between Australian Indigenous communities' social structures and ICT purposed for cultural preservation is a modern area of research; historically hindered by the "digital divide" thus limiting plentiful literature and existing information systems in this field in theoretical and practical applications. Henceforth, community consultation is mandatory in deriving and delivering empirically effective processes in a cultural and language preservation IS tool designed to teach future ...

  4. The DRUID study: racism and self-assessed health status in an indigenous population

    OpenAIRE

    Paradies Yin C; Cunningham Joan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is now considerable evidence from around the world that racism is associated with both mental and physical ill-health. However, little is known about the mediating factors between racism and ill-health. This paper investigates relationships between racism and self-assessed mental and physical health among Indigenous Australians as well as potential mediators of these relationships. Methods A total of 164 adults in the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID) s...

  5. Risk Factors for Problem Gambling Among Indigenous Australians: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long history of gambling amongst many Indigenous peoples, knowledge about contemporary Indigenous gambling is sparse. In Australia, previous studies of Indigenous gambling have been severely limited in number, scope and rigour. The research reported in this paper is based on the first Indigenous-specific quantitative gambling research undertaken in Australia since 1996 and draws on the largest sample to date. This study examined numerous aspects of gambling among Indigenous Australi...

  6. Combustion properties of slow pyrolysis bio-oil produced from indigenous Australian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatov, V.; Honnery, D.; Soria, J. [Laboratory for Turbulence Research in Aerospace and Combustion (LTRAC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2006-10-15

    Bio-oil derived via slow pyrolysis process of two indigenous Australian tree species, red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) from the basin of Murray, Victoria, and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) wood from the region of Mount Gambier, South Australia was blended with ethanol and burned in a circular jet spray at atmospheric pressure. Bio-oil flames were shorter, wider and brighter than diesel fuel flames at the same conditions. Adding of flammable polar additives (e.g. ethanol) to bio-oil improved some of the undesired properties of the fuel such as poor atomisation, low calorific value, and high NO{sub x} emission from the flame. Nevertheless, adding of ethanol should be carried out with caution since it leads to a reduction of the heat flux from the flame. Changing the concentration of flammable polar additives in bio-oil can be an optimising factor in achieving the proper balance between the best spray formation and the maximal heat flux from the flame. (author)

  7. Improving Health Promotion Using Quality Improvement Techniques in Australian Indigenous Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers. PMID:27066470

  8. Cervical cancer in Indigenous women: The case of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Franco, Oscar H; Powles, John; Leng, Yue; Pashayan, Nora

    2011-11-01

    Globally, health inequities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations exist. The disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is exemplified by cervical cancer. Current evidence suggests that Indigenous women have higher age standardised incidence and mortality than non-Indigenous women when adjusted for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidities; however, there is little information pertaining to national estimates of cervical cancer in Indigenous women. In this paper we review available evidence on the difference in occurrence and case fatality of cervical cancer among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women. The Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and State- or Territory-based Cancer Registries were utilised to collect surveillance data. To corroborate existing data, further available journal literature was identified through Medline and Embase. All papers selected for review were cross-referenced to identify further relevant studies. The most recent national estimate of age-standardised cervical cancer incidence rate was 16.9 and 7.1 per 100,000 women-years in Indigenous and non-Indigenous women respectively (incidence ratio 2.4). The Indigenous age-standardised mortality rate was 9.9 per 100,000 women years (95% CI 7.1-13.3), over 5 times the non-Indigenous rate. Cervical cancer incidence, in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, has decreased since 1991. Despite the decline, age-standardised incidence among Indigenous women is still higher than non-Indigenous women. The pattern of cervical cancer incidence and survival corroborates the health inequities that exist in Australia. Indigenous women are more likely than non-Indigenous women to develop cervical cancer and are less likely to survive it. Similar patterns exist in Indigenous populations worldwide, such as New Zealander Maoris and Canadian Aboriginals, suggesting that high rates of cervical cancer incidence and

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Maple-Brown Louise J; Cunningham Joan; Zinman Bernard; Mamakeesick Mary; Harris Stewart B; Connelly Philip W; Shaw Jonathan; O'Dea Kerin; Hanley Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous populations of Australia and Canada experience disproportionately high rates of chronic disease. Our goal was to compare cardiovascular (CVD) risk profile and diabetes complications from three recent comprehensive studies of diabetes complications in different Indigenous populations in Australia and Canada. Methods We compared participants from three recent studies: remote Indigenous Australians (2002-2003, n = 37 known diabetes), urban Indigenous Australians (2...

  10. The reproductive transition in an indigenous population of northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Norberto; Valeggia, Claudia; Peláez, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Latin America has been registering a fast decrease in fertility rates since the mid-twentieth century. This change can be linked to the modernization process these populations have been undergoing. However, research with Latin American indigenous populations, which are undergoing relatively similar lifestyle changes, shows very different trends in fertility. The aim of this study was to analyze fertility patterns in the indigenous Toba community of Cacique Sombrero Negro, which is experiencing a rapid process of economic and social Westernization. Fertility patterns were analyzed between 1981 and 1999, the period for which the most accurate records were found. Results showed an overall increase in fertility rates and changes in the age of peak fertility across time periods. It is hypothesized that the lifestyle transition this population is experiencing leads to better access to resources that, in the absence of contraception, allow for a higher number of offspring. Nevertheless, this higher resource availability would be differential, affecting mostly the fertility of younger mothers. PMID:24215260

  11. If you can't comply with dialysis, how do you expect me to trust you with transplantation? Australian nephrologists' views on indigenous Australians' 'non-compliance' and their suitability for kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kate

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Indigenous Australians suffer markedly higher rates of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD but are less likely than their non-Indigenous counterparts to receive a transplant. This difference is not fully explained by measurable clinical differences. Previous work suggests that Indigenous Australian patients may be regarded by treating specialists as 'non-compliers', which may negatively impact on referral for a transplant. However, this decision-making is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate: whether Indigenous patients are commonly characterised as 'non-compliers'; how estimations of patient compliance factor into Australian nephrologists' decision-making about transplant referral; and whether this may pose a particular barrier for Indigenous patients accessing transplants. Methods Nineteen nephrologists, from eight renal units treating the majority of Indigenous Australian renal patients, were interviewed in 2005-06 as part of a larger study. Thematic analysis was undertaken to investigate how compliance factors in specialists' decision-making, and its implications for Indigenous patients' likelihood of obtaining transplants. Results Specialists commonly identified Indigenous patients as both non-compliers and high-risk transplant candidates. Definition and assessment of 'compliance' was neither formal nor systematic. There was uncertainty about the value of compliance status in predicting post-transplant outcomes and the issue of organ scarcity permeated participants' responses. Overall, there was marked variation in how specialists weighed perceptions of compliance and risk in their decision-making. Conclusion Reliance on notions of patient 'compliance' in decision-making for transplant referral is likely to result in continuing disadvantage for Indigenous Australian ESKD patients. In the absence of robust evidence on predictors of post-transplant outcomes, referral decision-making processes

  12. The DRUID study: racism and self-assessed health status in an indigenous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradies Yin C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is now considerable evidence from around the world that racism is associated with both mental and physical ill-health. However, little is known about the mediating factors between racism and ill-health. This paper investigates relationships between racism and self-assessed mental and physical health among Indigenous Australians as well as potential mediators of these relationships. Methods A total of 164 adults in the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID study completed a validated instrument assessing interpersonal racism and a separate item on discrimination-related stress. Self-assessed health status was measured using the SF-12. Stress, optimism, lack of control, social connections, cultural identity and reactions/responses to interpersonal racism were considered as mediators and moderators of the relationship between racism/discrimination and self-assessed health status. Results After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, interpersonal racism was significantly associated with the SF-12 mental (but not the physical health component. Stress, lack of control and feeling powerless as a reaction to racism emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between racism and general mental health. Similar findings emerged for discrimination-related stress. Conclusions Racism/discrimination is significantly associated with poor general mental health among this indigenous population. The mediating factors between racism and mental health identified in this study suggest new approaches to ameliorating the detrimental effects of racism on health. In particular, the importance of reducing racism-related stress, enhancing general levels of mastery, and minimising negative social connections in order to ameliorate the negative consequences of racism.

  13. The Kimberley assessment of depression of older Indigenous Australians: prevalence of depressive disorders, risk factors and validation of the KICA-dep scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo P Almeida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 'never' to 'all the time' (range of scores: 0 to 33. The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. RESULTS: The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7, of whom 143 (57.2% were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8. CONCLUSIONS: The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities.

  14. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Mongolian indigenous cattle populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock production plays an important role in Mongolian economy. Over the last decade it has contributed to around 80-90% of the gross domestic agricultural products and to 30% of the revenues generated from exportations. Cattle is one of the five traditional and most important livestock species of Mongolia together with horse, sheep, goat and camel. Out of a total of 1.57 millions Mongolian cattle, 1.55 millions supposedly belong to three indigenous Bos taurus cattle breeds, namely Mongol, Selenge and Khalkhun Golun, all herded under extensive pastoral systems. Indigenous Mongolian cattle are generally small but look sturdy and strong. They have a well-off coat of hair, solid forward looking shoulders and short stubby snouts, and they are used for meat, milk and transport. Beef production contributes to 30% of the total meat supply in Mongolia. The Mongol breed is by the far the commonest with 1.53 million animals and it is found almost throughout the country. The Selenge breed, found in Selenge province and numbering 9000 heads, was developed in middle of the 20th century by crossing the Kazakh Whiteheaded with the local Mongol cattle. The Khalkhun Golun breed was developed from local Mongol cattle and it is distributed in Eastern and Suhbaatar provinces with about 10,000 heads. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, only a single population of Mongolian cattle has been studied with microsatellite DNA markers and no information is available on the genetic relationship between the Mongolian indigenous cattle breeds. In this study, we collected samples from two populations of the Mongol cattle (sampled at Ikhtamir soum in North Hangay province and Tsogt soum in Govi Altay province) and one population of the Khalkhun Golun cattle (sampled at Tumentsogt soum in Suhbaatar province). Samples were characterised with nine microsatellite markers MGTG4B, ILSTS005, ILSTS006, ILSTS008, ILSTS023, ILSTS028, ILSTS036, ILSTS050 and ILSTS103. To assess the genetic diversity

  15. Relationship of Tooth Wear to Chronological Age among Indigenous Amazon Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Elma Pinto; Barbosa, Mayara Silva; Quintão, Cátia Cardoso Abdo; Normando, David

    2015-01-01

    In indigenous populations, age can be estimated based on family structure and physical examination. However, the accuracy of such methods is questionable. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate occlusal tooth wear related to estimated age in the remote indigenous populations of the Xingu River, Amazon. Two hundred and twenty three semi-isolated indigenous subjects with permanent dentition from the Arara (n = 117), Xicrin-Kayapó (n = 60) and Assurini (n = 46) villages were exami...

  16. Evolution and Otitis Media: A Review, and a Model to Explain High Prevalence in Indigenous Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Mahmood F

    2015-04-01

    Otitis media (OM; inflammation of the middle ear) comprises a group of disorders that are among the most common disorders of childhood. OM is also heritable and has effects on fecundity. This means that OM is subject to evolution, yet the evolutionary forces that may determine susceptibility to OM have not been adequately explored. Here I analyze evolutionary forces that may determine susceptibility to middle ear inflammation. These forces include those affecting function of the middle ear, host immunity, or colonization by and pathogenicity of bacteria. I review existing evolutionary models of host-pathogen interaction and coevolution and apply these to better understand the complex evolutionary landscape of middle ear infection and inflammation in humans, including factors determining transition between stable evolutionary strategies for host and bacteria. This understanding is then applied to an analysis of OM in indigenous populations to devise a new theory for OM prevalence in Australian Aborigine, Native American, Inuit, and Maori populations. I suggest that high prevalence in such groups may have resulted from encounters of these previously isolated populations with European immigrants in the 15th and 16th centuries. This exposed them to new strains of bacteria to which their immune system had not evolved immunity, perturbing a previously stable host-pathogen coevolutionary state. PMID:26829293

  17. Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-Being: Australian Perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…

  18. Health professional's perspectives of the barriers and enablers to cancer care for Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, J A; Adams, J; Valery, P C; Walpole, E T; Martin, J H; Williams, H M; Garvey, G

    2016-03-01

    To investigate health professionals' perspectives about factors that impede or facilitate cancer care for Indigenous people. Semi-structured interviews with 22 health professionals involved in Indigenous cancer care. Data were interpreted using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Participants presented their perspectives on a number of barriers and enablers to Indigenous cancer care. Barriers were related to challenges with communication, the health system and coordination of care, issues around individual and community priorities and views of cancer treatment and health professional judgement. Enablers to cancer care were related to the importance of trust and rapport as well as health care system and support factors. The findings highlighted the need for recording of Indigenous status in medical records and a coordinated approach to the provision of evidence-based and culturally appropriate cancer care. This could go some way to improving Indigenous patient's engagement with tertiary cancer care services. PMID:26918690

  19. Indigenizing Teacher Professional Development: Anticipating the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    It is the Australian Government's intention that all teachers will have, as a minimum, a proficient level of demonstrable professional expertise in both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. A raft of government policies are giving shape to the engagement of the…

  20. Screen Worlds, Sound Worlds and School: A Consideration of the Potential of the Ethnomusicology of Australian Indigenous Film for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fienberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article arises from the authors' belief that there is a need to develop motivating ways for students across Australia to meaningfully encounter Australian indigenous music, the breadth and richness of which is beginning to be conveyed via a diverse range of mainstream media texts. Engaging with theoretical insights from the ethnomusicology of…

  1. Successful Transition to School for Australian Aboriginal Children: The 2005 International Focus Issue of Childhood Education Focused on the Education of Aboriginal and Indigenous Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Mason, Terry; Perry, Bob

    2006-01-01

    Aboriginal people have been described as the most educationally disadvantaged group of people within Australia. Their participation rates at all levels of education are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. In an effort to enhance the learning and teaching of Aboriginal students, education systems are seeking appropriate strategies and…

  2. Differences in primary health care delivery to Australia’s Indigenous population: a template for use in economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Katherine S

    2012-09-01

    mainstream GP practices. It is important that these differences are included in the conduct of economic evaluations to ensure results are relevant to Indigenous Australians. Similar techniques would be generalisable to other disadvantaged minority populations. This will allow resource allocation decision-makers access to economic evidence that more accurately represents the needs and context of disadvantaged groups, which is particularly important if addressing health inequities is a stated goal.

  3. Observations about a central Brazilian indigenous population: the Bakairi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, D

    1994-03-01

    Studies of small, isolated, nonindustrial societies can yield models about the rate of natural increase of indigenous groups, and how changes affect available natural resources, health status, and long-term adaptation. South American Indian populations pose distinct problems. In this study, the aim was to explain population change among the Bakairi of central Brazil in the context of complex historical and social change. Contact with white society has occurred since the 1920s. The fertility rate has been moderate (5.36 children per woman). Information from field research in 1979, 1981, and 1989 was provided on village and household composition marriage patterns, fertility and reproduction, mortality by cause, and recent population trends. Total population was 137 males and 151 females. The estimated crude birth rate was 45.1 births per 1000 people. The crude death rate was 10.4 deaths per 1000 people. Natural rate of increase was 3.47%. The moderate fertility was attributed to the mean birth interval of 4 years, the long breast-feeding period, postpartum sex taboos, and fasting. Other factors may be the nature of forest, which is dry prairie, the limited size of the reservation, and the small percentage of arable land. Other traditional societies have a fertility of 4-8 children; higher fertility is usually associated with colonizing populations that are expanding into new territory. Fertility data was checked several times by first asking individual women for birth and death information, then verifying results with older women in the village, and finally consulting the FUNAI death-birth records, which are considered incomplete. There were 288 Indians living on the Bakairi reservation in 59 households, clustered in a T shape rather than a traditional circle due to FUNAI administrative rules. 80% (47) of households were married couples, and 10% were widows/widowers. Marriage occurred when parents of both families agreed, and took place at an average age of 16

  4. The effect of a periodontal intervention on cardiovascular risk markers in Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease: the PerioCardio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience an overwhelming burden of chronic disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease (inflammation of the tissues surrounding teeth is also widespread, and may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases via pathogenic inflammatory pathways. This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease, and determine if intensive periodontal therapy improves these measures over a 12 month follow-up. The aims of the study are: (i to determine whether there is a dose response relationship between extent and severity of periodontal disease and measures of vascular health and inflammation among Indigenous Australian adults with moderate to severe periodontal disease; and (ii to determine the effects of periodontal treatment on changes in measures of vascular health and inflammation in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design This study will be a randomised, controlled trial, with predominantly blinded assessment of outcome measures and blinded statistical analysis. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits (with the intervention delayed 12 months in participants who are randomised to the control arm. Participants will be Indigenous adults aged ≥25 years from urban centres within the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants assessed to have moderate or severe periodontal disease will be randomised to the study's intervention or control arm. The intervention involves intensive removal of subgingival and supragingival calculus and plaque biofilm by scaling and root-planing. Study visits at baseline, 3 and 12 months, will incorporate questionnaires, non-fasting blood and urine samples, body measurements, blood pressure, periodontal assessment and non-invasive measures of vascular health (pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness. Primary outcome

  5. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFL...

  6. Implications of Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease in Canada’s Indigenous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Julia Petrasek; Barnes, Deborah E.; Middleton, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples in Canada have higher prevalence of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The relative importance of these risk factors on AD risk management is poorly understood. Methods Relative risks from literature and prevalence of risk factors from Statistics Canada or the First Nations Regional Health Survey were used to determine projected population attributable risk (PAR) associated with modifiable risk factors for AD (low education and vascular risk factors) among on- and off-reserve Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada using the Levin formula. Results Physical inactivity had the highest PAR for AD among Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada (32.5% [10.1%–51.1%] and 30.5% [9.2%–48.8%] respectively). The PAR for most modifiable risk factors was higher among Indigenous peoples in Canada, particularly among on-reserve groups. The greatest differences in PAR were for low educational attainment and smoking, which were approximately 10% higher among Indigenous peoples in Canada. The combined PAR for AD for all six modifiable risk factors was 79.6% among on-reserve Indigenous, 74.9% among off-reserve Indigenous, and 67.1% among non-Indigenous peoples in Canada. (All differences significant to p < .001.) Conclusions Modifiable risk factors are responsible for the most AD cases among Indigenous peoples in Canada. Further research is necessary to determine the prevalence of AD and the impact of risk factor modification among Indigenous peoples in Canada. PMID:26495049

  7. IN SEARCH OF POLITICAL INTEGRITY : COMPLIANCE OF AUSTRALIAN LAW IN INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHT LAW IN REPRESENTING INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Fisseha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper articulates the human rights violation of the minority group of Aborigines Community in Australia. Australia has ratified the International Committee for Elimination of Racial Discrimination (ICERD, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, and other human rights doctrines that protect the rights of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders; however the Government of Australia from its inception have done little to ensure that those political protections are effective in ensuring the genuine protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. Most frequently cited is the failure of international laws to ensure the land and self-determination rights of these peoples. However, domestic law could undoubtedly ensure that these rights are in place, if the desire to do so is present within the Australian government.

  8. Spatial-temporal trends and risk of suicide in Central Brazil: an ecological study contrasting indigenous and non-indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesem D. Orellana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine spatial-temporal distribution and risk of suicide, as well as trends in suicide mortality rates, in the indigenous and non-indigenous population of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Data were obtained from the Information Department of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Deaths recorded as voluntary self-inflicted injuries (ICD-10 codes X60.0 to X84.9 were considered suicide. Suicide rates were estimated and adjusted by age in the population > 9 years of age. Kernel analysis was used to assess the spatial distribution of suicide cases, while trend analysis was carried out using a non-parametric test (Mann-Kendall. Results: The suicide risk among the indigenous population was 8.1 (95%CI 7.2-9.0 times higher than in the non-indigenous population. For indigenous residents in the 15-24 age group, the risk was 18.5 (95%CI 17.5-19.6 times higher than in the non-indigenous population. The majority of indigenous cases were concentrated in a few villages in reservation areas, mainly occupied by Guarani-Kaiowá and Guarani-Ñandeva groups. Rate patterns remained stable over time in both groups. Conclusion: Suicide is a serious public health problem in Mato Grosso do Sul, and has had an alarming and disproportionate impact on the indigenous population for more than a decade.

  9. REM: A Collaborative Framework for Building Indigenous Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Tamara; Virdun, Claudia; Sherwood, Juanita; Parker, Nicola; Van Balen, Jane; Gray, Joanne; Jackson, Debra

    2016-09-01

    The well-documented health disparities between the Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous population mandates a comprehensive response from health professionals. This article outlines the approach taken by one faculty of health in a large urban Australian university to enhance cultural competence in students from a variety of fields. Here we outline a collaborative and deeply respectful process of Indigenous and non-Indigenous university staff collectively developing a model that has framed the embedding of a common faculty Indigenous graduate attribute across the curriculum. Through collaborative committee processes, the development of the principles of "Respect; Engagement and sharing; Moving forward" (REM) has provided both a framework and way of "being and doing" our work. By drawing together the recurring principles and qualities that characterize Indigenous cultural competence the result will be students and staff learning and bringing into their lives and practice, important Indigenous cultural understanding. PMID:26069032

  10. Translation of tobacco policy into practice in disadvantaged and marginalized subpopulations: a study of challenges and opportunities in remote Australian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Jan A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia generally, smoking prevalence more than halved after 1980 and recently commenced to decline among Australia's disadvantaged Indigenous peoples. However, in some remote Indigenous Australian communities in the Northern Territory (NT, extremely high rates of up to 83% have not changed over the past 25 years. The World Health Organisation has called for public health and political leadership to address a global tobacco epidemic. For Indigenous Australians, unprecedented policies aim to overcome disadvantage and close the 'health gap' with reducing tobacco use the top priority. This study identifies challenges and opportunities to implementing these important new tobacco initiatives in remote Indigenous communities. Methods: With little empirical evidence available, we interviewed 82 key stakeholders across the NT representing operational- and management-level service providers, local Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants to identify challenges and opportunities for translating new policies into successful tobacco interventions. Data were analysed using qualitative approaches to identify emergent themes. Results The 20 emergent themes were classified using counts of occasions each theme occurred in the transcribed data as challenge or opportunity. The 'smoke-free policies' theme occurred most frequently as opportunity but infrequently as challenge while 'health workforce capacity' occurred most frequently as challenge but less frequently as opportunity, suggesting that policy implementation is constrained by lack of a skilled workforce. 'Smoking cessation support' occurred frequently as opportunity but also frequently as challenge suggesting that support for individuals requires additional input and attention. Conclusions These results from interviews with local and operational-level participants indicate that current tobacco policies in Australia targeting Indigenous smoking are sound and comprehensive

  11. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  12. History, law, and policy as a foundation for health care delivery for Australian indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ngiare

    2009-12-01

    This article identifies significant historical and contemporary issues, programs, and progress to better understand the current policy in Australia relating to Aboriginal child health and well-being. A legislative perspective gives context to contemporary issues based on legally sanctioned historical practices specifically designed to make Aboriginal peoples disappear, particularly through the control and assimilation of Indigenous children. PMID:19962036

  13. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  14. Morbidity and mortality disparities among colonist and indigenous populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang-Yao Pan, William; Erlien, Christine; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2010-02-01

    Rural populations living in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) experience the highest health burden of any region in the country. Two independent studies of colonist and indigenous groups living in the NEA are used to compare their morbidity and mortality experiences. Colonist data are from a probability sample of land plots in 1999, while indigenous data are from a representative sample of the five largest ethnicities (Quichua, Shuar, Huaorani, Cofan, Secoya) collected in 2001. Poisson regression was used to compare morbidity. Results indicate clear differences in health between populations. Indigenous groups had 30% higher probability of mortality and 63% higher incidence rate of all-cause morbidity compared to colonists. Vector-borne, chronic, gastrointestinal, and diseases of unknown origin were particularly high among indigenous groups. Factors associated with morbidity varied: morbidity rates were similar for the two youngest age groups (0-4 and 5-9), but indigenous people aged 15-39 and 40+ had almost double the morbidity compared to colonists; larger households, later months of data collection and less pollution were associated with less morbidity in both groups; better infrastructure access (electricity and roads) was generally associated with lower morbidity in both groups; and associations of land use were different by group with more cultivation of perennials and fewer annuals associated with less morbidity for colonists, but more for indigenous groups. These results demonstrate the health disparities that exist among indigenous and non-indigenous populations even when living in the same geographic region. Land use itself exemplifies the cultural and contextual differences that are evident in health, since land use decisions are related to broader demographic and economic factors that influence overall ecological and human health. Ongoing population-environment and/or environment-health research needs to recognize the broader factors involved when

  15. Morbidity and mortality disparities among colonist and indigenous populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, William Kuang-Yao; Erlien, Christine; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Rural populations living in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) experience the highest health burden of any region in the country. Two independent studies of colonist and indigenous groups living in the NEA are used to compare their morbidity and mortality experiences. Colonist data are from a probability sample of land plots in 1999, while indigenous data are from a representative sample of the five largest ethnicities (Quichua, Shuar, Huaorani, Cofan, Secoya) collected in 2001. Poisson reg...

  16. Granny Rights: Combatting the granny burnout syndrome among Australian Indigenous communities

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Hammill

    2001-01-01

    Jan Hammill argues that family dysfunction is widespread in contemporary western society but is even more so in impoverished Indigenous communities forcibly stripped of their cultural practices. Alcohol and illicit and prescription drugs have become coping elixirs for profound feelings of despair and hopelessness which is then manifested in high rates of child abuse and neglect, interpersonal violence, suicide and early death. Increasingly the impact is borne most heavily by those whose value...

  17. Numerical thought with and without words: Evidence from indigenous Australian children

    OpenAIRE

    Butterworth, Brian; Reeve, Robert; Reynolds, Fiona; Lloyd, Delyth

    2008-01-01

    Are thoughts impossible without the words to express them? It has been claimed that this is the case for thoughts about numbers: Children cannot have the concept of exact numbers until they know the words for them, and adults in cultures whose languages lack a counting vocabulary similarly cannot possess these concepts. Here, using classical methods of developmental psychology, we show that children who are monolingual speakers of two Australian languages with very restricted number vocabular...

  18. Impact of Latent Infection Treatment in Indigenous Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhara, Lucia Suemi; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis (TB), examine the development of active disease among contacts, and assess the effectiveness of treating latent infection in indigenous Brazilians from January 2006 to December 2011. This was a retrospective study consisting of 1,371 tuberculosis contacts, 392 of whom underwent treatment for latent infection. Morbidity-from-TB data were obtained from the Information System for Disease Notification ...

  19. CONFLICTS, DIVISIONS AND POPULATION MOVEMENTS AMONG CHIAPANECANS INDIGENOUS

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Cruz Burguete

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades the border between Mexico and Guatemala has had important changes linked to provoked by 1) New settlements and agrarian conflicts; 2) Economic and political crisis that give rise to militarization, and 3) Community divisions due to religions changes. The first phenomenum, a combinato of individual decisions and gouvernmental policies, have impacted the Lacandon jungle. The second is due to flow of thowsands of indigenous guatemalan refugees from 1978 to 1996, and which...

  20. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Claire M; Kanowski Leonard G; Jorm Anthony F; Hart Laura M; Langlands Robyn L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practic...

  1. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation in Urban and Indigenous Populations of Mexico: Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sobrino, Blanca Z; Pintado-Cortina, Ana P; Sebastián-Medina, Leticia; Morales-Mandujano, Fabiola; Contreras, Alejandra V; Aguilar, Yasnaya E; Chávez-Benavides, Juan; Carrillo-Rodríguez, Aurelio; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Medrano-González, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Aside from the admixture between indigenous people and people from overseas, populations in Mexico changed drastically after the Spanish conquest of the sixteenth century, forming an intricate history that has been underutilized in understanding the genetic population structure of Mexicans. To infer historical processes of isolation, dispersal, and assimilation, we examined the phylogeography of mitochondrial (mt) DNA and Y-chromosome lineages in 3,026 individuals from 10 urban and nine indigenous populations by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms. A geographic array with a predominance of Amerindian lineages was observed for mtDNA, with northern indigenous populations being divergent from the central and southern indigenous populations; urban populations showed low differentiation with isolation by distance. Y-chromosome variation distinguished urban and indigenous populations through the Amerindian haplogroup Q frequency. The MtDNA and the Y-chromosome together primarily distinguished urban and indigenous populations, with different geographic arrays for both. Gene flow across geographical distance and between the urban and indigenous realms appears to have altered the pre-Hispanic phylogeography in central and southern Mexico, mainly by displacement of women, while maintaining the indigenous isolation in the north, southeast, and Zapotec regions. Most Amerindian mtDNA diversity currently occurs in urban populations and appears to be reduced among indigenous people. PMID:27050033

  2. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma McMahon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal. Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability. Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA. Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change.

  3. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  4. Improving Business Investment Confidence in Culture-Aligned Indigenous Economies in Remote Australian Communities: A Business Support Framework to Better Inform Government Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. Fleming

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that culture-aligned economies are more effective in engaging remote-living Indigenous Australians in work long-term. Despite this evidence, governments remain resistant to investing substantially in these economies, with the result that low employment rates persist. This article argues that governmental systems of organisation are not designed to support non-mainstream economies and this position is unlikely to change. Similarly, the commercial sector lacks confidence that investing in culture-aligned economies will generate financial returns. This article presents a localised, pragmatic approach to Indigenous business support that works within existing systems of government, business and culture. Most unsuccessful programs fail to recognise the full suite of critical factors for sustained market engagement by both business and Indigenous people. This article reports on work to bring all critical factors together into a business support framework to inform the design and implementation of an aquaculture development program in a remote Indigenous Australian community.

  5. The Truth That Will Set Us All Free: An Uncertain History of Memorials to Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aborigines and other Australians have not met with amity. Memorials to the Aboriginal people of Australia are not common and some of the more prominent are regularly damaged. Eddies of past tempests slap disturbingly at modern day memorials thousands of kilometres and several generations removed from the eye of furious storms. This article traces a difficult story of what seems at first sight to be blind racism, at a second sight, a rampant colonialism, and at a more reflective third, perhaps, the economy of the pastoralist and the farmer in deadly disharmony to that of the hunter gatherer. Whatever the origins, the consequences of conflict endure for centuries.

  6. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    populations. DESIGN: A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. RESULTS: Of......BACKGROUND: Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared...... with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous...

  7. Impact of latent infection treatment in indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhara, Lucia Suemi; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis (TB), examine the development of active disease among contacts, and assess the effectiveness of treating latent infection in indigenous Brazilians from January 2006 to December 2011. This was a retrospective study consisting of 1,371 tuberculosis contacts, 392 of whom underwent treatment for latent infection. Morbidity-from-TB data were obtained from the Information System for Disease Notification (SINAN) database, and the contacts' data were collected from the clinical records using forms employed by Special Department of Indigenous Health (SESAI) multidisciplinary teams, according to SESAI's instructions. The variables that were associated with latent infection among the contacts were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.04) and close contact with a smear-positive index case (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.59-3.22). The variables associated with the development of active TB among the contacts were a tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥10 mm (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17), age (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03), and treatment of latent infection (RR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.27). The estimated number of latent infection treatments needed to prevent one case of active TB among the contacts was 51 treatments (95% CI: 33-182). In contacts with TST ≥10 mm, 10 (95% CI: 6-19) latent infection treatments were necessary to prevent one case of active TB. Age and close contact with a smear-positive index case were associated with latent TB. Screening with TST is a high priority among individuals contacting smear-positive index cases. Age and TST are associated with the development of active TB among contacts, and treatment of latent infection is an effective measure to control TB in indigenous communities. PMID:23936264

  8. Impact of latent infection treatment in indigenous populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Suemi Yuhara

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to identify risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis (TB, examine the development of active disease among contacts, and assess the effectiveness of treating latent infection in indigenous Brazilians from January 2006 to December 2011. This was a retrospective study consisting of 1,371 tuberculosis contacts, 392 of whom underwent treatment for latent infection. Morbidity-from-TB data were obtained from the Information System for Disease Notification (SINAN database, and the contacts' data were collected from the clinical records using forms employed by Special Department of Indigenous Health (SESAI multidisciplinary teams, according to SESAI's instructions. The variables that were associated with latent infection among the contacts were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.04 and close contact with a smear-positive index case (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.59-3.22. The variables associated with the development of active TB among the contacts were a tuberculin skin test (TST ≥10 mm (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17, age (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03, and treatment of latent infection (RR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.27. The estimated number of latent infection treatments needed to prevent one case of active TB among the contacts was 51 treatments (95% CI: 33-182. In contacts with TST ≥10 mm, 10 (95% CI: 6-19 latent infection treatments were necessary to prevent one case of active TB. Age and close contact with a smear-positive index case were associated with latent TB. Screening with TST is a high priority among individuals contacting smear-positive index cases. Age and TST are associated with the development of active TB among contacts, and treatment of latent infection is an effective measure to control TB in indigenous communities.

  9. Solid cancer risks from radiation exposure for the Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates are made of the risks to the Australian population as a function of age and gender for mortality or morbidity for all solid cancers after exposure to radiation. Excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models are used. The model coefficients are re-evaluated for radiation doses expressed as effective dose using data from the Japanese Life Span Study. Life-table methods are used throughout and the risk measures studied are: the risk of exposure related death, RERD and the risk of exposure related cancer, RERC. Australian life-table data and the age-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates of Australian males and females are taken from recent published tables. No dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor is applied. Sources of uncertainty used to calculate the confidence regions for the estimated risks include the statistical uncertainties of the model parameters and of the extrapolation of the risks beyond the period supported by the epidemiological data. Summary values of the risks are reported as averages of those calculated from the ERR and the EAR models. For males, the mortality risks per sievert range from 14% for 0-9 year age group, 7% at 30-39 years and 4% at 50-59 years. Corresponding values for females are 20%, 10% and 6%. Incidence risks are higher: for males the estimates are 32% for the 0-9 year group, 12% at 30-39 and 5% at 50-59. Corresponding values for females are 56%, 20% and 8%. The 90% confidence regions are about ± 50% of these values. Estimates are given for the risks from CT whole-body scanning or virtual colonoscopy which could be used for cancer screening. If used at 3 year intervals and the effective dose per procedure is 10 mSv, then the RERD for males beginning screening at 40, 50 and 60 years is 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.1%, respectively and for females, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. RERD estimates for a 5 year interval between screens are about one-third smaller. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of

  10. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  11. Cardio-metabolic health risks in indigenous populations of Southeast Asia and the influence of urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, Maude E.; Chan, Kevin KL; Naidu, Rakesh; Mohamad, Nazaimoon W; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Quek, Kia-Fatt; Ahmad, Badariah; Harnida, Siti MI; Zain, Anuar ZM; Kadir, Khalid A

    2015-01-01

    Background South East Asia (SEA) is home to over 30 tribes of indigenous population groups who are currently facing rapid socio-economic change. Epidemiological transition and increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) has occured. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Orang Asli (OA) indigenous people comprise 0 · 6% (150,000) of the population and live in various settlements. OA comprise three distinct large tribes with smaller sub-tribes. The three large tribes include Proto-Malay (sub-...

  12. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  13. Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous populations of Australia and Canada experience disproportionately high rates of chronic disease. Our goal was to compare cardiovascular (CVD risk profile and diabetes complications from three recent comprehensive studies of diabetes complications in different Indigenous populations in Australia and Canada. Methods We compared participants from three recent studies: remote Indigenous Australians (2002-2003, n = 37 known diabetes, urban Indigenous Australians (2003-2005, n = 99 known diabetes, and remote Aboriginal Canadians (2001-2002, n = 188 known diabetes. Results The three groups were similar for HbA1c, systolic BP, diabetes duration. Although leaner by body-mass-index criteria, remote Indigenous Australians displayed a more adverse CVD risk profile with respect to: waist-hip-ratio (1.03, 0.99, 0.94, remote Indigenous Australians, urban Indigenous Australians, remote Canadians, p Conclusions Although there are many similarities in diabetes phenotype in Indigenous populations, this comparison demonstrates that CVD risk profiles and diabetes complications may differ among groups. Irrespective, management and intervention strategies are required from a young age in Indigenous populations and need to be designed in consultation with communities and tailored to community and individual needs.

  14. Oral health investigations of indigenous participants in remote settings: a methods paper describing the dental component of wave III of an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayers Susan M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study has been underway in Australia's Northern Territory since 1987. Inclusion of oral epidemiological information in a follow-up study required flexible and novel approaches with unconventional techniques. Documenting these procedures may be of value to researchers interested in including oral health components in remotely-located studies. The objectives are to compare and describe dental data collection methods in wave III of the ABC study with a more conventional oral health investigation. Methods The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH was considered the 'conventional' study. Differences between this investigation and the dental component of the ABC study were assessed in terms of ethics, location, recruitment, consent, privacy, equipment, examination, clinical data collection and replication. In the ABC study, recording of clinical data by different voice recording techniques were described and assessed for ease-of-use portability, reliability, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results Conventional investigation recruitment was by post and telephone. Participants self presented. Examinations took place in dental clinics, using customised dental chairs with standard dental lights attached. For all examinations, a dental assistant recorded dental data directly onto a laptop computer. By contrast, follow-up of ABC study participants involved a multi-phase protocol with reliance on locally-employed Indigenous advocates bringing participants to the examination point. Dental examinations occurred in settings ranging from health centre clinic rooms to improvised spaces outdoors. The dental chair was a lightweight, portable reclining camp chair and the dental light a fire-fighter's head torch with rechargeable batteries. The digital voice recorder was considered the most suitable instrument for clinical dental data collection in the ABC study in comparison with

  15. Incidence and transmission patterns of tuberculosis among indigenous populations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Atsuko Cunha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of the Brazilian indigenous population lives in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, where a large number of new cases of tuberculosis (TB are reported. This study was conducted to assess TB occurrence, transmission and the utility of TB diagnosis based on the Ogawa-Kudoh (O-K culture method in this remote population. The incidence of TB was estimated by a retrospective review of the surveillance data maintained by the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for the study region. The TB transmission pattern among indigenous people was assessed by genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using the IS 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP technique. Of the 3,093 cases identified from 1999-2001, 610 (~20% were indigenous patients (average incidence: 377/100,000/year. The use of the O-K culture method increased the number of diagnosed cases by 34.1%. Of the genotyped isolates from 52 indigenous patients, 33 (63.5% belonged to cluster RFLP patterns, indicating recently transmitted TB. These results demonstrate high, on-going TB transmission rates among the indigenous people of MS and indicate that new efforts are needed to disrupt these current transmissions.

  16. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight in an Indigenous Population in Central Brazil: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo F. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated factors in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village in Central Brazil. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study between January 2009 and July 2011 in the adult native population of the Jaguapiru village, Central Brazil. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were obtained; anthropometric measures, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. The independent variables were tested by Poisson regression, and the interactions between them were analyzed. Results: 1,608 indigenous people (982 females, mean age 37.7 ± 15.1 years were included. The prevalence of obesity was 23.2% (95% CI 20.9-25.1%. Obesity was more prevalent among 40- to 49-year-old and overweight among 50- to 59-year-old persons. Obesity was positively associated with female sex, higher income, and hypertension. Among indigenous people, interactions were found with hypertension and sedentary lifestyle - hypertension in males and sedentary lifestyle in females. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village is high. Males as well as hypertensive and higher family income individuals have higher rates. Sedentary lifestyle and hypertension leverage the rates of obesity. Prevention and adequate public health policies can be critical for the control of excess weight and its comorbidities among Brazilian indigenous people.

  17. Indigenous vegetation burning practices and their impact on the climate of the northern Australian monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Wyrwoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we pose the question: was there a downturn in summer monsoon precipitation over northern Australia due to Aboriginal vegetation practices over prehistoric time scales? In answering this question we consider the results from a global climate model incorporating ocean, land, ice, atmosphere and vegetation interactions, reducing the total vegetation cover over northern Australia by 20% to simulate the effects of burning. The results suggest that burning forests and woodlands in the monsoon region of Australia led to a shift in the regional climate, with a delayed monsoon onset and reduced precipitation in the months preceding the "full" monsoon. We place these results in a global context, drawing on model results from five other monsoon regions, and note that although the precipitation response is highly varied, there is a general but region specific climate response to reduced vegetation cover in all cases. Our findings lead us to conclude that large-scale vegetation modification over millennial time-scales due to indigenous burning practices, would have had significant impacts on regional climates. With this conclusion comes the need to recognise that the Anthropocene saw the impact of humans on regional-scale climates and hydrologies at much earlier times than generally recognized.

  18. Indigenous vegetation burning practices and their impact on the climate of the northern Australian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwoll, K.-H.; McRobie, F. H.; Notaro, M.; Chen, G.

    2013-08-01

    Here we pose the question: was there a downturn in summer monsoon precipitation over northern Australia due to Aboriginal vegetation practices over prehistoric time scales? In answering this question we consider the results from a global climate model incorporating ocean, land, ice, atmosphere and vegetation interactions, reducing the total vegetation cover over northern Australia by 20% to simulate the effects of burning. The results suggest that burning forests and woodlands in the monsoon region of Australia led to a shift in the regional climate, with a delayed monsoon onset and reduced precipitation in the months preceding the "full" monsoon. We place these results in a global context, drawing on model results from five other monsoon regions, and note that although the precipitation response is highly varied, there is a general but region specific climate response to reduced vegetation cover in all cases. Our findings lead us to conclude that large-scale vegetation modification over millennial time-scales due to indigenous burning practices, would have had significant impacts on regional climates. With this conclusion comes the need to recognise that the Anthropocene saw the impact of humans on regional-scale climates and hydrologies at much earlier times than generally recognized.

  19. A community-based mixed methods approach to developing behavioural health interventions among indigenous adolescent populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. Tingey

    2016-01-01

    Native American and indigenous populations experience the greatest behavioural health disparities in the world. A constellation of factors impacting Native American Tribes contributes to high rates and co-morbidity of mental health disorders, substance use and sexually transmitted infection (STI), a

  20. Cyclospora cayetanensis among expatriate and indigenous populations of West Java, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fryauff, D. J.; Krippner, R.; Prodjodipuro, P.; Ewald, C.; Kawengian, S.; Pegelow, K.; T. Yun; von Heydwolff-Wehnert, C.; Oyofo, B.; Gross, R.

    1999-01-01

    From January 1995 through July 1998, we investigated the occurrence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection associated with gastrointestinal illness or diarrhea in foreign residents and natives of West Java, Indonesia. We found that C. cayetanensis was the main protozoal cause of gastrointestinal illness and diarrhea in adult foreign residents during the wet season. The parasite rarely caused illness in the indigenous population or in children.

  1. Language Shift and the Inclusion of Indigenous Populations in Large-Scale Assessment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Niño, Luis A.; Vázquez-Muñoz, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Indicators of academic achievement for bilingual students can be inaccurate due to linguistic heterogeneity. For indigenous populations, language shift (the gradual replacement of one language by another) is a factor that can increase this heterogeneity and poses an additional challenge for valid testing. We investigated whether and how indigenous…

  2. Platelet antigen allele frequencies in Australian aboriginal and Caucasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lester, S; Boettcher, B; McCluskey, J

    1997-11-01

    We have applied genotyping methods of PCR-SSOP and PCR-RFLP to three, bi-allelic platelet specific antigen systems HPA-1 (Pla), HPA-3 (Bak) and HPA-5 (Br). This combination of techniques offers flexibility for high volume or rapid typing. The phenotype and genotype frequencies of alleles from the three systems differ significantly between the Yuendumu Australian Aboriginals (Wailbri) and Australian Caucasians. The major differences are the very low frequencies of HPA-1b and HPA-3b in Yuendumu Aboriginals which are potentially relevant to platelet transfusion in patients of Australian Aboriginal descent. PMID:9423221

  3. Meeting the challenges of recruitment and retention of Indigenous people into nursing: outcomes of the Indigenous Nurse Education Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Miller, Maria; Turale, Sue; Goold, Sally

    2005-07-01

    It has been recognised internationally that increasing the number of Indigenous people working as health professionals is linked to the improved health status of Indigenous people. When comparing Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, Indigenous people continue to have poorer health standards and are much less likely to be involved in employment in health professions than other Australians. In 2000, the Indigenous Nurse Education Working Group (INEWG) was formed by government with the mandate to work collaboratively with universities and important professional nursing bodies across the nation in an attempt to increase the number of Indigenous registered nurses and to prepare nursing graduates with better understanding of, and skills to assist with, Indigenous health issues. This paper describes the work of the INEWG from 2000 to mid-2003; firstly in developing and implementing strategies aimed at increasing the recruitment and retention of Indigenous people into undergraduate nursing programs; and secondly by helping university schools of nursing increase faculty and student understanding of Indigenous culture, history and health issues through educational processes. Lastly, it summarises the INEWG's 2002 recommendations to achieve a higher rate of Indigenous participation in nursing. The results of research into the success of these recommendations will be the subject of a later paper. PMID:16619917

  4. Physical activity in an indigenous Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population as measured using accelerometry

    OpenAIRE

    Madimenos, FC; Snodgrass, JJ; Blackwell, AD; Liebert, MA; Sugiyama, LS

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Minimal information on physical activity is available for non-Western populations undergoing the transition to a market economy. This is unfortunate given the importance of these data for understanding health issues such as the global obesity epidemic. We consider the utility of using accelerometry technology to examine activity patterns and energy use regulation among indigenous Shuar, an Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population undergoing economic and lifestyle change. We i...

  5. Dense fine speckled indirect immunofluorescence pattern in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadfoot, Andrew; Sivertsen, Terri; Baumgart, Karl

    2016-04-01

    The dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern is an antinuclear antibody (ANA) pattern that has recently become of interest. This particular pattern has not been associated with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disorders (SARD) but has been associated with other inflammatory conditions such as interstitial nephritis, autoimmune thyroid disease and atopic eczema as well as being found in healthy individuals. We have been reporting this pattern in our laboratory for the past 3 years. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of the DFS pattern as detected on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in an Australian population and to assess association of this pattern with other laboratory autoimmune markers. ANA tests performed by IIF from July 2012 until June 2014 were reviewed and the frequency of DFS pattern was determined. All DFS positive samples that had undergone concurrent testing for antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), anti-dsDNA antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (CCP) and anti- phospholipid antibodies were compared. Over the 2 year period, 181,819 patients had ANA tests performed and 51,905 were ANA positive. The DFS pattern was found in 5.7% of ANA positive patients. Within this group of patients, only 1.8% were positive for antibodies to ENA and only 0.7% had anti-dsDNA antibodies level greater than 9 IU/mL. RF and anti-CCP antibodies were positive in 6.3% and 4.1% of DFS positive samples, respectively. There were only two samples positive for anti-phospholipid antibodies when the DFS pattern was present. The presence of the DFS pattern as detected by IIF is infrequently associated with autoimmune markers of SARD which is consistent with international studies. PMID:27020500

  6. Genetic polymorphism and immune response to tuberculosis in indigenous populations: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maronna Praça Longhi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed studies of the immune response to tuberculosis and the genetic polymorphisms associated with Th1-or Th2-mediated cytokine expression in indigenous populations. A bibliographic search was performed on the Medline and ISI databases and included studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. The search terms were tuberculosis, American Indians, Amerindian, indigenous, Indians, native people, aboriginal, immun*, host immune, immune response, cytokine*, polymorphism*, and gene. Regardless of their design, studies that evaluated immunoglobulin, cytokine levels and genetic polymorphisms that altered cytokine expression were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were performed in Latin America, and five investigated the Warao ethnic group of Venezuela. Most of the investigations indirectly evaluated the immune response. Higher anergy to the tuberculin skin test, higher IgG4 and IgM levels, higher IL-5 production and lower TNF-a, IL-12p40 and IFN-I production were found in the indigenous populations. The studies also reported a predominantly Th2-type response in these populations and a possibly higher susceptibility to tuberculosis. A better understanding of the relevant genetic polymorphisms and their role in immune regulation would help to clarify the immunogenetic mechanisms of TB infection in these populations. This information would be useful for identifying new treatments and preventing infection and progression to active disease.

  7. Genetic polymorphism and immune response to tuberculosis in indigenous populations: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Renata Maronna Praça; Zembrzuski, Verônica Marques; Basta, Paulo Cesar; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed studies of the immune response to tuberculosis and the genetic polymorphisms associated with Th1- or Th2-mediated cytokine expression in indigenous populations. A bibliographic search was performed on the Medline and ISI databases and included studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. The search terms were tuberculosis, American Indians, Amerindian, indigenous, Indians, native people, aboriginal, immun*, host immune, immune response, cytokine*, polymorphism*, and gene. Regardless of their design, studies that evaluated immunoglobulin, cytokine levels and genetic polymorphisms that altered cytokine expression were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were performed in Latin America, and five investigated the Warao ethnic group of Venezuela. Most of the investigations indirectly evaluated the immune response. Higher anergy to the tuberculin skin test, higher IgG4 and IgM levels, higher IL-5 production and lower TNF-α, IL-12p40 and IFN-γ production were found in the indigenous populations. The studies also reported a predominantly Th2-type response in these populations and a possibly higher susceptibility to tuberculosis. A better understanding of the relevant genetic polymorphisms and their role in immune regulation would help to clarify the immunogenetic mechanisms of TB infection in these populations. This information would be useful for identifying new treatments and preventing infection and progression to active disease. PMID:23665009

  8. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors assoc...

  9. A community-based mixed methods approach to developing behavioural health interventions among indigenous adolescent populations

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, W.L.J.M.; Santosham, M.; Barlow, A.; Tingey, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    Native American and indigenous populations experience the greatest behavioural health disparities in the world. A constellation of factors impacting Native American Tribes contributes to high rates and co-morbidity of mental health disorders, substance use and sexually transmitted infection (STI), and considerable barriers to prevention and treatment. In Native communities, adolescents are the subgroup most affected by these behavioural health disparities. Suicide is sometimes an outcome of c...

  10. Implications of market integration for cardiovascular and metabolic health among an indigenous Amazonian Ecuadorian population

    OpenAIRE

    Liebert, MA; Snodgrass, JJ; Madimenos, FC; Cepon, TJ; Blackwell, AD; Sugiyama, LS

    2013-01-01

    Background: Market integration (MI), the suite of social and cultural changes that occur with economic development, has been associated with negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, key questions remain about how this transition manifests at the local level. Aim: The present paper investigates the effects of MI on health among Shuar, an indigenous lowland Ecuadorian population, with the goal of better understanding the mechanisms responsible for this health transition...

  11. Physical growth of the shuar: Height, Weight, and BMI references for an indigenous amazonian population

    OpenAIRE

    Urlacher, SS; Blackwell, AD; Liebert, MA; Madimenos, FC; Cepon-Robins, TJ; Gildner, TE; Snodgrass, JJ; Sugiyama, LS

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Objectives: Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development. Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Methods: Mixed-longitudinal measures of height, weight, and b...

  12. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community

  13. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  14. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  15. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael M; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D

    2009-10-23

    Admixture between wild and captive populations is an increasing concern in conservation biology. Understanding the extent of admixture and the processes involved requires identification of admixed and non-admixed individuals. This can be achieved by statistical methods employing Bayesian clustering, but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pairwise F(ST) of 0.047 and 0.053). By analysing a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor rescuing a part of the indigenous population from introgression. PMID:19515653

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of screen time behaviour among North American indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, H J A; Rodgers, C D; Duncan, V; Ferguson, L J

    2016-05-01

    Screen time (computer, television, video game and smartphone/tablet activity) is associated with increased obesity and other health risks. This systematic review evaluates screen time among North American Indigenous populations and compares it with that of North American Europeans. Electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE and EMBASE) were searched, and citations cross-referenced. Included articles reported screen time among First Nations/American Indians, Métis, Inuit/Alaskan Natives or Native Hawaiians. From 788 citations evaluated, 40 identified articles report television, video game, computer and/or overall screen time. Overall screen time was 3.65 ± 1.26 h day(-1) (n = 2,242, 8 articles) among Indigenous children/youth and 3.61 ± 2.95 h day(-1) (n = 155, 1 article) among adults. Among children/youth, 66.0% (n = 11 256, 9 articles) reported less than 2 h day(-1) of television screen time, while only 52.8% (n = 2,458, 1 article) of adults reported this volume. Screen time was generally greater among male population, youth, First Nations/American Indians and overweight/obese individuals. Indigenous children/youth reported greater overall screen time than North American Europeans (4.81 ± 2.84 h day(-1) , n = 1,182 vs. 3.40 ± 2.81 h day(-1) , n = 2,785; 3 articles; p American Indigenous populations. Further research evaluating interventions to reduce screen time and chronic disease risks is required. PMID:26990323

  17. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  18. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Mayor; Pedro Pérez-Peña; Mark Bowler; Pablo E. Puertas; Maire Kirkland; Richard Bodmer

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and year...

  19. The incidence of melanoma is increasing in the susceptible young Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    The number of melanomas removed from Australians is increasing. Despite this, it has been reported that the incidence of melanoma is decreasing in the young Australian population. However, the denominator for these estimates includes individuals at low risk of melanoma, and the proportion of such individuals has changed over recent decades due to immigration. In this study, the incidence was calculated for the susceptible young population. Data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed to determine the number of people younger than 30 years at low risk of developing melanoma in 1982 and 2009. Low risk people were defined as those born in Asia, the Pacific Islands, The Middle East, or Sub-Saharan Africa, or had parents born in these regions. There was a significant increase in the number of young Australians at low risk for melanoma. If these people are not included when calculating the crude rate of melanoma, the rate increased from 5.9 per 100,000 in 1982 to 6.3 in 2009. If the estimated number of young Maoris and young Aborigines is excluded from the susceptible population, the crude rate increased from 6.0 per 100,000 in 1982 to 6.8 in 2009. This is the first calculation of the rate of melanoma for the susceptible young Australian population. PMID:24889972

  20. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  1. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of Vietnamese indigenous cattle populations by microsatellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Lan Doan; Do, Duy Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Trong;

    2013-01-01

    geographic distances. Structure analysis indicated five homogeneous clusters. The Brahman, Lang Son, Ha Giang and U Dau Riu cattle were assigned to independent clusters while Nghe An, Thanh Hoa and Phu Yen cattle were grouped in a single cluster. We conclude that Vietnamese indigenous cattle have high levels...

  2. The vascular health status of a population of adult Canadian Indigenous peoples from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, H J A; Bredin, S S D; Warburton, D E R

    2016-04-01

    Indigenous populations currently experience greater cardiovascular disease burdens. However, subclinical vascular structure and function among these populations is not well known. This investigation evaluated vascular structure and function among Canadian Indigenous populations. Blood pressure, body composition, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), arterial compliance and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Vascular measures were evaluated across sexes and age groups. Vascular assessments were conducted among 55 Indigenous adults (38±18 years, 29 Female), including both First Nations (N=36) and Métis (N=19) individuals. Some differences in vascular measures were found between males and females, respectively (spectral BRS: 9.6±6.8 ms mm Hg(-1) vs 16.9±10.0 ms mm Hg(-1), P=0.01; small arterial compliance: 8.9±3.7 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100 vs 6.4±2.3 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100, P=0.004), with similar measures of overall IMT (0.61±0.14 mm vs 0.57±0.08 mm, P=0.19) and central PWV (5.7±2.5 m s(-1) vs 5.1±2.3 m s(-1), P=0.58). Greater IMT, and lower BRS and arterial compliance were identified among older adults. This relatively healthy population demonstrated healthy vascular measures, with poorer measures among older individuals. PMID:26063562

  3. Type 2 diabetes in young Indigenous Australians in rural and remote areas: diagnosis, screening, management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Peter; Brown, Alex D; Zimmet, Paul; Fahy, Rose E; Dent, Glynis A; Kelly, Martin J; Kranzusch, Kira; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Nossar, Victor; Silink, Martin; Sinha, Ashim K; Stone, Monique L; Wren, Sarah J

    2012-07-01

    The burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Indigenous children and adolescents is much greater than in non-Indigenous young people and appears to be rising, although data on epidemiology and complications are limited. Young Indigenous people living in remote areas appear to be at excess risk of T2DM. Most young Indigenous people with T2DM are asymptomatic at diagnosis and typically have a family history of T2DM, are overweight or obese and may have signs of hyperinsulinism such as acanthosis nigricans. Onset is usually during early adolescence. Barriers to addressing T2DM in young Indigenous people living in rural and remote settings relate to health service access, demographics, socioeconomic factors, cultural factors, and limited resources at individual and health service levels. We recommend screening for T2DM for any Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person aged > 10 years (or past the onset of puberty) who is overweight or obese, has a positive family history of diabetes, has signs of insulin resistance, has dyslipidaemia, has received psychotropic therapy, or has been exposed to diabetes in utero. Individualised management plans should include identification of risk factors, complications, behavioural factors and treatment targets, and should take into account psychosocial factors which may influence health care interaction, treatment success and clinical outcomes. Preventive strategies, including lifestyle modification, need to play a dominant role in tackling T2DM in young Indigenous people. PMID:22762229

  4. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design: A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014 using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results: Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18, reproductive health (n=18, obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9, cardiology (n=7, bone health (n=2, oncology (n=2, endocrinology (n=2 and other (n=2. All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43 and organochlorine pesticides (n=29. Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions: It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit

  5. ATTENTION OF CHILDBIRTH, RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND PUBLIC POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF CHIAPAS

    OpenAIRE

    Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Benito Salvatierra Izaba y Emma Zapata Martelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it’s analyze the tendencies of childbirth attention of urban indigenous women excluded in Chiapas, from rural settlement in Los Altos de Chiapas. It’s an exploratory essay which contributes to clear up the relation that establishes immigrant indigenous population with institutional health services for childbirth attention and modifications in traditional medicine. Are discussed the scopes of these changes in the operation of the institutional program of reproductive health and t...

  6. ATTENTION OF CHILDBIRTH, RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND PUBLIC POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Benito Salvatierra Izaba y Emma Zapata Martelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it’s analyze the tendencies of childbirth attention of urban indigenous women excluded in Chiapas, from rural settlement in Los Altos de Chiapas. It’s an exploratory essay which contributes to clear up the relation that establishes immigrant indigenous population with institutional health services for childbirth attention and modifications in traditional medicine. Are discussed the scopes of these changes in the operation of the institutional program of reproductive health and the risk of mother death.

  7. Biodegradation of trichloroethylene and toluene by indigenous microbial populations in soil.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fan; Scow, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene, incubated separately and in combination, by indigenous microbial populations was measured in three unsaturated soils incubated under aerobic conditions. Sorption and desorption of TCE (0.1 to 10 micrograms ml-1) and toluene (1.0 to 20 micrograms ml-1) were measured in two soils and followed a reversible linear isotherm. At a concentration of 1 micrograms ml-1, TCE was not degraded in the absence of toluene in any of the soils. In comb...

  8. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  9. Is Toxoplasma gondii a threat to the conservation of free-ranging Australian marsupial populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E. Hillman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It has often been asserted that Australian marsupial species are particularly susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii infection and to clinical toxoplasmosis following infection. This implicates T. gondii as a potential threat to marsupial population viability, and contrasts to what is known of T. gondii in populations of several other host species. We reviewed the literature, and found a lack of scientifically robust evidence addressing the occurrence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging populations of Australian marsupial species, and the impacts of the infection on population health. Key limitations included a lack of studies in free-ranging marsupial populations, study findings susceptible to substantial chance influences, and selection, misclassification and confounding biases. The lack of scientifically robust data available on this topic indicates that assertions that free-ranging populations of Australian marsupials are particularly susceptible to T. gondii infection and to toxoplasmosis are premature. The threat of T. gondii to the viability of free-ranging marsupial populations should therefore be regarded, at this stage, as a hypothesis.

  10. Is Toxoplasma gondii a threat to the conservation of free-ranging Australian marsupial populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Alison E; Lymbery, Alan J; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2016-04-01

    It has often been asserted that Australian marsupial species are particularly susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii infection and to clinical toxoplasmosis following infection. This implicates T. gondii as a potential threat to marsupial population viability, and contrasts to what is known of T. gondii in populations of several other host species. We reviewed the literature, and found a lack of scientifically robust evidence addressing the occurrence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging populations of Australian marsupial species, and the impacts of the infection on population health. Key limitations included a lack of studies in free-ranging marsupial populations, study findings susceptible to substantial chance influences, and selection, misclassification and confounding biases. The lack of scientifically robust data available on this topic indicates that assertions that free-ranging populations of Australian marsupials are particularly susceptible to T. gondii infection and to toxoplasmosis are premature. The threat of T. gondii to the viability of free-ranging marsupial populations should therefore be regarded, at this stage, as a hypothesis. PMID:27141439

  11. Indigenous populations of three closely related Lysobacter spp. in agricultural soils using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Joeke; Schilder, Mirjam T; van Hoof, Richard A

    2011-11-01

    Previous research had shown that three closely related species of Lysobacter, i.e., Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, and Lysobacter gummosus, were present in different Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils. However, the population dynamics of these three Lysobacter spp. in different habitats remains unknown. Therefore, a specific primer-probe combination was designed for the combined quantification of these three Lysobacter spp. using TaqMan. Strains of the three target species were efficiently detected with TaqMan, whereas related non-target strains of Lysobacter enzymogenes and Xanthomonas campestris were not or only weakly amplified. Indigenous Lysobacter populations were analyzed in soils of 10 organic farms in the Netherlands during three subsequent years with TaqMan. These soils differed in soil characteristics and crop rotation. Additionally, Lysobacter populations in rhizosphere and bulk soil of different crops on one of these farms were studied. In acid sandy soils low Lysobacter populations were present, whereas pH neutral clay soils contained high populations (respectively, <4.0-5.87 and 6.22-6.95 log gene copy numbers g(-1) soil). Clay content, pH and C/N ratio, but not organic matter content in soil, correlated with higher Lysobacter populations. Unexpectedly, different crops did not significantly influence population size of the three Lysobacter spp. and their populations were barely higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil. PMID:21448673

  12. Is Toxoplasma gondii a threat to the conservation of free-ranging Australian marsupial populations?

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Alison E.; Lymbery, Alan J.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    It has often been asserted that Australian marsupial species are particularly susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii infection and to clinical toxoplasmosis following infection. This implicates T. gondii as a potential threat to marsupial population viability, and contrasts to what is known of T. gondii in populations of several other host species. We reviewed the literature, and found a lack of scientifically robust evidence addressing the occurrence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging populati...

  13. Analysis of dyslexia candidate genes in the Raine cohort representing the general Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Paracchini, S; Ang, Q W; Stanley, F J; Monaco, A. P.; Pennell, C E; Whitehouse, A J O

    2011-01-01

    Several genes have been suggested as dyslexia candidates. Some of these candidate genes have been recently shown to be associated with literacy measures in sample cohorts derived from the general population. Here, we have conducted an association study in a novel sample derived from the Australian population (the Raine cohort) to further investigate the role of dyslexia candidate genes. We analysed markers, previously reported to be associated with dyslexia, located within the MRPL19/C2ORF3, ...

  14. Forecast Accuracy and Uncertainty of Australian Bureau of Statistics State and Territory Population Projections

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Errors from past rounds of population projections can provide both diagnostic information to improve future projections as well as information for users on the likely uncertainty of current projections. This paper assesses the forecast accuracy of official Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) population projections for the states and territories of Australia and is the first major study to do so. For the states and territories, it is found that, after 10-year projection durations, absolute p...

  15. Treatment of Displaced Indigenous Populations in Two Large Hydro Projects in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Consultation practices with affected populations prior to hydro concessions often remained poor in the decade since the World Commission on Dams (WCD although, in some cases the involvement of local people in the details of resettlement has improved. Numerous international and national actors, such as state agencies, multilateral banks, corporate shareholders, and pro-business media, support the development of dams, but intergovernmental agencies struggle to assure the protection of fundamental civil, human, and indigenous rights at the permitting and construction stages. We analyse two large-scale Panamanian dams with persistent disrespect for indigenous land tenure. Free, prior, and informed consent was sidestepped even though each dam required or will require Ngöbe, Emberá, or Kuna villages to relocate. When populations protested, additional human rights violations occurred, including state-sponsored violence. International bodies are slowly identifying and denouncing this abuse of power. Simultaneously, many nongovernmental organisations (NGOs seek change in Panama consistent with WCD’s good-practice guidelines. A number of NGOs have tied hydro projects to unethical greenhouse gas (GHG emissions trade. As private and state institutions market formerly collective water and carbon resources for profit, these Panamanian cases have become central to a public debate over equitable and green hydro development. Media communication feeds disputes through frontline coverage of cooperation and confrontation.

  16. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  17. Review of Indigenous Health Curriculum in Nutrition and Dietetics at One Australian University: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle M.; Mehta, Kaye; Miller, Jacqueline; Yaxley, Alison; Thomas, Jolene; Jackson, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda; Miller, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a review undertaken in 2012-2013 by Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, to assess the Indigenous health curriculum of the Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (BND) and Masters of Nutrition and Dietetics (MND). An action research framework was used to guide and inform inquiry. This involved four stages, each of…

  18. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claire M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations. The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful

  19. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kanowski, Leonard G; Kelly, Claire M; Langlands, Robyn L

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations). The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful and appropriate by the

  20. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  1. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  2. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine indigenous Chinese chicken populations by the Structure program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. F. Li; W. Han; Y. F. Zhu; J. T. Shu; X. Y. Zhang; K. W. Chen

    2009-08-01

    The multi-locus model-based clustering method Structure program was used to infer the genetic structure of nine indigenous Chinese chicken (Gallus gallus) populations based on 16 microsatellite markers. Twenty runs were carried out at each chosen value of predefined cluster numbers $(K)$ under admixture model. The Structure program properly inferred the presence of genetic structure with 0.999 probabilities. The genetic structure not only indicated that the nine kinds of chicken populations were defined actually by their locations, phenotypes or culture, but also reflected the underlying genetic variations. At $K = 2$, nine chicken populations were divided into two main clusters, one light-body type, including Chahua chicken (CHA), Tibet chicken (TIB), Xianju chicken (XIA), Gushi chicken (GUS) and Baier chicken (BAI); and the other heavy-body type, including Beijing You chicken (YOU), Xiaoshan chicken (XIA), Luyuan chicken (LUY) and Dagu chicken (DAG). GUS and DAG were divided into independent clusters respectively when equaled 4, 5, or 6. XIA and BIA chicken, XIA and LUY chicken, TIB and CHA chicken still clustered together when equaled 6, 7, and 8, respectively. These clustering results were consistent with the breeding directions of the nine chicken populations. The Structure program also identified migrants or admixed individuals. The admixed individuals were distributed in all the nine chicken populations, while migrants were only distributed in TIB, XIA and LUY populations. These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an accurate representation of the genetic relationship among the breeds.

  3. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities. PMID:22172170

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of human Chlamydia pneumoniae strains reveals a distinct Australian indigenous clade that predates European exploration of the continent

    OpenAIRE

    Roulis, Eileen; Bachmann, Nathan; Humphrys, Michael; Myers, Garry; Huston, Wilhelmina; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen, which has been found in a range of hosts including humans, marsupials and amphibians. Whole genome comparisons of human C. pneumoniae have previously highlighted a highly conserved nucleotide sequence, with minor but key polymorphisms and additional coding capacity when human and animal strains are compared. Results In this study, we sequenced three Australian human C. pneumoniae strains, tw...

  5. Genotypic Characterisation of Indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Field Population in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Blažinkov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of thirteen Rhizobium legumnosarum bv. viciae strains isolated from different field sites in continental part of Croatia was investigated. All rhizobial isolates were obtained either from plants grown in pots containing soil samples or from field grown plants. The strains were analyzed for DNA polymorphism using two DNA fingerprinting methods - randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR and repetitive extragenomic palindromic- PCR (rep-PCR. Both methods resulted in very similar grouping of strains. Cluster analysis of rep- and RAPD-PCR profi les showed significant differences among Rh. leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates. The highest differences were detected among reference strains and all field isolates revealing considerable genetic diversity of rhizobial field populations. These results suggest the presence of adapted indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains, probably with higher competitive ability, whose symbiotic properties have to be evaluated in further investigations.

  6. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  7. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On

  8. Social Media and Mobile Apps for Health Promotion in Australian Indigenous Populations: Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brusse, Carl; Gardner, Karen; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health pr...

  9. Aspiration, achievement and access: The ACT-Indigenous Success pathway to university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele J. Fleming

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically the preserve of the elite, higher education around the world remains dominated by students from middle and upper classes (Gale, Tranter, Bills, Hattam & Comber, 2010. In recent decades, numerous equity initiatives have targeted specific groups with some degrees of success. The Bradley Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley, Noonan, Nugent & Scales, 2008 identified the three most disadvantaged groups in Australian higher education. These are Indigenous Australians, students from rural and remote areas, and those from low socio-economic status (SES backgrounds. Moreover, they remain the three groups that have shown the least improvement in participation rates (Centre for the Study of Higher Education, 2008; Gale et al., 2010. Given the high proportion of the rural and remote population who are also Indigenous (Baxter, Gray & Hayes, 2011, and the high numbers of Indigenous people who are also socioeconomically disadvantaged (Hunter, 1996, it is not surprising that the Behrendt Review (Behrendt, Larkin, Griew & Kelly, 2012 revealed a continuation of lower participation and completion rates by Indigenous students in higher education. At all levels of study there is huge disparity between the numbers of Indigenous students participating (Barney, 2013; Pechenkina, Kowal & Paradies, 2011 both compared to the Indigenous population as a whole, and to other under-represented groups. While Indigenous university students are typically older than their non-Indigenous peers (Pechenkina & Anderson, 2011, the numbers of Indigenous students entering university directly from school remain low in part due to inadequate preparation (Anderson & Potok, 2010 and high dropout rates during high school (Helme & Lamb, 2011. Thus, in specifically targeting aspirations for higher education and the transition from high school to university, the University of Canberra has developed a program for Indigenous students – the ACT-Indigenous Success (ACT

  10. At risk in two worlds: injury mortality among indigenous people in the US and Australia, 1990-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M R; Wallace, L J; Harrison, J; Moller, J; Smith, R J

    1998-10-01

    This paper outlines the commonalties and unique differences in injury experience among the indigenous people in the United States and Australia. Injury mortality rates among Indigenous people in the United States and Australia are approximately 2-3 times greater than rates for the non-Indigenous population in each country. Motor vehicle-related injuries accounted for one-third of the injury deaths for Native Americans and Australian Aboriginals. Suicide accounted for more deaths in Native Americans (15.5 per 100,000) than it did for Australian Aboriginals (11.1 per 100,000), whereas the injury death rate in Australian Aboriginals due to poisoning was almost twice that of Native Americans. Culturally appropriate interventions tailored to specific local settings and problems will be necessary to reduce injury mortality among Indigenous people. PMID:9848955

  11. Body Image and Obesity among Australian Adolescents from Indigenous and Anglo-European Backgrounds: Implications for Health Promotion and Obesity Prevention among Aboriginal Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Renata Leah; O'Dea, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between body image and obesity, among 4367 indigenous and Anglo-European adolescents in Australia in 2006. It shows that indigenous adolescents, male and female, were more likely than their non-indigenous counterparts to desire and pursue weight gain. Indigenous males showed the greatest tendencies to gain…

  12. Radiation treatment compliance in the indigenous population: the pilot of Northern Territory experience and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a perception that Indigenous patients are less likely to attend radiotherapy treatment. This study sought to determine if a difference in radiotherapy treatment compliance rates exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. Secondly, we aimed to ascertain which patient, disease and treatment factors affect compliance in Indigenous patients. All patients treated with radiotherapy at the Alan Walker Cancer Care Centre between March and October 2010 were analysed. Data regarding compliance rates (defined as those who chose and completed the recommended course of treatment), patient, disease and treatment factors were collected, and chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were applied. A total of 41 courses were delivered to Indigenous patients and 224 courses delivered to non-Indigenous patients in this period. There was no difference in compliance between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (83% vs. 81%, P=0.75). Of the factors assessed, it was found that there was an association between toxicity grade and compliance (P=0.048). From this cohort, we cannot support the perception that Indigenous patients have overall poorer compliance with recommended radiation treatment courses. In this study, the only factor which correlated significantly with compliance was toxicity grade. It is felt that a number of factors, which negatively impact on compliance, can potentially be counteracted by a culturally sensitive model of care.

  13. Indigenous Australian Texts in European English Departments: A Fence, a Bridge and a Country as an Answer to the Debate over Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Polak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Though non-canonical Anglophone courses in the curriculum of European English departments are no longer seen as oddity, they are often regarded as “marginal” in comparison to the British and American canon. However, courses focusing on the cultural output of postcolonial voices, moreover of the most marginal of postcolonial voices, do not only challenge the extent to which we have managed to shift from Eurocentrism in literary theory, but also reveal the complexities of the current cultural trends, such as the frequently evoked policy of multiculturalism. The paper argues that courses which include texts by Indigenous Australian authors reveal the story of survival in a country that is literally multicultural, and stress the importance of one’s own place of utterance, which is as local as it is global. The above issues are exemplified by the works of the famous Aboriginal writers Doris Pilkington/Nugi Garimara (Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence, 1996, John Muk Muk Burke (Bridge of Triangles, 1994 and Alexis Wright (Carpentaria, 2006.

  14. Demographic History of Indigenous Populations in Mesoamerica Based on mtDNA Sequence Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio González-Martín

    Full Text Available The genetic characterization of Native American groups provides insights into their history and demographic events. We sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop region (control region of 520 samples from eight Mexican indigenous groups. In addition to an analysis of the genetic diversity, structure and genetic relationship between 28 Native American populations, we applied Bayesian skyline methodology for a deeper insight into the history of Mesoamerica. AMOVA tests applying cultural, linguistic and geographic criteria were performed. MDS plots showed a central cluster of Oaxaca and Maya populations, whereas those from the North and West were located on the periphery. Demographic reconstruction indicates higher values of the effective number of breeding females (Nef in Central Mesoamerica during the Preclassic period, whereas this pattern moves toward the Classic period for groups in the North and West. Conversely, Nef minimum values are distributed either in the Lithic period (i.e. founder effects or in recent periods (i.e. population declines. The Mesomerican regions showed differences in population fluctuation as indicated by the maximum Inter-Generational Rate (IGRmax: i Center-South from the lithic period until the Preclassic; ii West from the beginning of the Preclassic period until early Classic; iii North characterized by a wide range of temporal variation from the Lithic to the Preclassic. Our findings are consistent with the genetic variations observed between central, South and Southeast Mesoamerica and the North-West region that are related to differences in genetic drift, structure, and temporal survival strategies (agriculture versus hunter-gathering, respectively. Interestingly, although the European contact had a major negative demographic impact, we detect a previous decline in Mesoamerica that had begun a few hundred years before.

  15. Mathematics Education in Multilingual Contexts for the Indigenous Population in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra, Aldo; Mendes, Jackeline; Valero, Paola;

    2016-01-01

    of Indigenous mathematics education in multilingual contexts, based on existing research carried out in Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. We consider the relationship between language policy and educational policy, as well as bilingualism and its implementation in relation to Indigenous education. We discuss...

  16. Primary healthcare costs associated with sleep problems up to age 7 years: Australian population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Quach, J.; Gold, L; Hiscock, H; Mensah, F. K.; Lucas, N.; Nicholson, J M; Wake, M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In Australian 0–7-year olds with and without sleep problems, to compare (1) type and costs to government of non-hospital healthcare services and prescription medication in each year of age and (2) the cumulative costs according to persistence of the sleep problem. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a longitudinal population study. Setting Data from two cohorts participating in the first two waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Child...

  17. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmn NikNadia

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71, which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001, and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001 and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001 were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  18. Changes in exposure to ‘life stressors’ in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, 2002 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Matthew; Paradies, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Background The Negative Life Events Scale (NLES) has been included in nationally representative surveys of the Indigenous and Australian population since 2002 as a measure of exposure to a range of ‘life stressors’. There has been limited reporting or analysis of estimates of the NLES from these surveys. This paper reports changes in exposure to stressors from 2002 to 2008 for the Indigenous population, and examines inter-relationships between eleven NLES items. Data for the 2006 Australian p...

  19. Mean organ weights of an Australian population of fetuses and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, L; Scurry, J; Mitropoulos, G; McTigue, C; Gross, J

    1990-04-01

    Charts of organ weights for an Australian population of fetuses and infants are presented. The organ-weight charts were compiled from 1337 stillbirths and liveborn babies whose gestational age ranged from 20 to 43 weeks, and who lived less than 72 h. Macerated stillbirths, multiple births and malformed organs were excluded. Pathological conditions aside from malformations were not excluded, leading to higher standard deviations compared with currently used charts. The organ weights are presented in two-week increments from 20 to 43 weeks' gestation as means, with standard deviations. PMID:2361065

  20. The evolution and diversity of TNF block haplotypes in European, Asian and Australian Aboriginal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, F P; Tan, C R T; Temple, S E; Phipps, M; Witt, C S; Kaur, G; Gut, I; McGinn, S; Allcock, R J N; Chew, C S N; Price, P

    2009-10-01

    The region spanning the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) cluster in the human major histocompatibility complex is implicated in susceptibility to immunopathological disease, but ethnic differences and linkage disequilibrium have hampered identification of critical polymorphisms. Here, we investigate Europeans, Asians (Bidayuh, Chinese, Indian, Jehai, Malay, Temuan) and Australian Aborigines to provide a framework for disease-association studies. DNA from 999 unrelated healthy donors was genotyped at 38 loci, primarily in coding and promoter regions over a 60-kb region spanning seven genes near TNF. The PHASE algorithm was used to statistically infer TNF block haplotypes and estimate their frequencies in each population. The TNF block is carried as 31 haplotypes in all populations combined, with 160,000 years ago. Some haplotypes are unique to isolated populations, but they do not contain unique SNP. Hence, they reflect restricted migration and/or extinction of some families rather than de novo mutation. PMID:19536152

  1. Library Support for Indigenous University Students: Moving from the Periphery to the Mainstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This research project explored the models of Indigenous support programs in Australian academic libraries, and how they align with the needs of the students they support. The research objective was to gather feedback from Indigenous students and obtain evidence of good practice models from Australian academic libraries to inform the development and enhancement of Indigenous support programs. The research presents the viewpoints of both Indigenous students and librarians. Methods – The research methods comprised an online survey using SurveyMonkey and a focus group. The survey was conducted nationally in Australia to gather evidence on the different models of Indigenous support provided by academic libraries. The survey explored the nature of support services such as specialized study spaces and resources, information literacy education, and liaison services for Indigenous students. The survey also asked respondents to comment on the challenges they encountered and improvements they would recommend in providing Indigenous student support. To provide a student perspective, a small cohort of Indigenous students at a small university in South East Queensland was interviewed in a focus group about their library experiences. The focus group explored Indigenous students’ perceptions of the library, their frequency of use and where they go for help with their studies. Results – The survey found that 84% of academic libraries provide some specific support for Indigenous students with 89% of those support services being conducted in a place other than the library. Across the sector, Australian academic libraries have a strong commitment to the success of Indigenous students and considerable engagement with Indigenous issues. The focus group found that Indigenous students’ needs and concerns about using the library were not differentiated by their cultural background. Rather their concerns were similar to issues being raised

  2. Influence of admixture components on CYP2C9*2 allele frequency in eight indigenous populations from Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Macías, M; Lazalde-Ramos, B P; Galaviz-Hernández, C; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Salazar-Flores, J; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; Martínez-Fierro, M L; Dorado, P; Wong, M L; Licinio, J; LLerena, A

    2013-12-01

    We previously documented the lowest frequency of CYP2C9*2 in Mexican indigenous Tepehuanos followed by Mestizos and Mexican-Americans populations, suggesting a negative correlation between the CYP2C9*2 frequency and the degree of Asian ancestry in indigenous Americans. We determined the influence of ethnic admixture components on the CYP2C9 allele distribution in 505 Amerindian from eight indigenous populations through genotyping CYP2C9*2, *3 and *6 alleles by real-time PCR and molecular evaluation of ancestry. The frequencies for CYP2C9*2 were 0.026 in Seris and 0.057 in Mayos, being higher than in Asians (P<0.001). CYP2C9*3 was found in Tarahumaras (0.104), Mayos (0.091), Tepehuanos (0.075), Guarijíos (0.067), Huicholes (0.033) and Coras (0.037), with East Asians having lower frequencies than the former three groups (P<0.001). CYP2C9*6 was not found. The frequency of CYP2C9*2 was lower in Amerindians than in European populations, and higher than their Asian ancestors. The presence of this allele in ethnic groups in Mexico can be explained by European admixture. PMID:23358499

  3. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemy, Naomi; Flavel, Ambika; Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    An important component of forensic investigation is the identification of deceased (and increasingly living) individuals, which is often the role of the forensic anthropologist. One of the most valuable steps towards identification is via a biological profile, developed through the application of population specific standards. In disaster victim identification scenarios, fleshed feet are often recovered in footwear; footprints are another potential source of trace evidence found at crime scenes. In medico-legal investigations, feet and footprints can be useful for extrapolating living height, it is thus expedient to determine whether sex can be estimated from the same anthropometric data. The aim of the present study is to develop accurate sex estimation standards for a contemporary Western Australian population from measurements of the feet and footprints. The sample comprises 200 adults (90 males, 110 females). Three bilateral linear measurements were taken from each foot and seven bilateral measurements were acquired from static footprints obtained using a Podograph. A precision test was first conducted to assess data accuracy and reliability. Measurement data are then analysed using a range of parametric statistical tests. Results show that males were significantly (Pclassification accuracies ranged from 71% to 91%. Although in many instances the sex bias was large (>±5%), this study provides viable alternatives for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals with accuracy equivalent to established standards developed from foot bones. PMID:23806341

  4. Forced migration and indigenous knowledge of displaced Emberá and Uitoto populations in Colombia: An ethnobotanical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Gonzalez Betancourt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little attention has been given to documenting changes in the ethnobotanical knowledge of displaced indigenous groups in Colombia. Such information is highly valuable because it contributes to our understanding of the changes that occur during this process of displacement, cultural transformation and loss, and because it eventually could shed some light in designing social, economic, and educational policies that would facilitate their incorporation into main stream culture, through ways that validate their indigenous identity, knowledge, and traditions. Based on our on-going research, herein we summarize ethnobotanical information of two indigenous groups currently residing in the city of Florencia (capital of the Department of Caquetá in the Northwestern Amazon basin: the Emberá, originally from northwestern Colombia, and Uitoto, originally from the Colombian Amazon. By focusing in the indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge of these two displaced groups, we intend to show the revitalization of ethnobotanical knowledge, resilience, and multiple resources in form of ancestral knowledge that are brought and transmitted by these groups as they struggle for survival, in many times hostile urban environments. We hope to draw more attention to and encourage similar studies on other displaced indigenous populations in Colombia as well as in other areas of Latin America. Normal 0 21 false false false ES-MX X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";}

  5. Skeletal age estimation in a contemporary Western Australian population using the Tanner-Whitehouse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Ariane; Flavel, Ambika; Hart, Rob; Franklin, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Various age estimation techniques have been utilised in Australia to evaluate the age of individuals who do not have documentation to determine legal majority/culpability. These age estimation techniques rely on the assessment of skeletal development as visualised in radiographs, CT scans, MRI or ultrasound modalities, and subsequent comparison to reference standards. These standards are not always population specific and are thus known to be less accurate when applied outside of the original reference sample, leading to potential ethical implications. Therefore, the present study aims to: (i) explore the variation in developmental trajectories between the established Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) age estimation standards and a Western Australian population; and (ii) develop specific hand-wrist age estimation standards for the latter population. The present study examines digital anterior-posterior hand-wrist radiographs of 360 individuals 0 to 24.9 years of age, equally represented by sex. Each radiograph was assessed using the RUS, Carpal and 20-bone methods of Tanner et al. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was calculated for each method (range: ♀ SEE ±0.4-11.5 years; ♂ SEE ±0.9-10.1 years). The most accurate method was TW3 RUS for females and the TW2 Carpal system for males. The 50th centile skeletal maturity scores for each year age group were plotted against average chronological age to produce polynomial regression standards with a demonstrated accuracy of (♀ SEE ±0.09-3.46 years; ♂ SEE ±0.02-3.42 years) for females and males, respectively. The standards presented here can be used in future forensic investigations that require age estimation of hand-wrist bones in a Western Australian population, however, they are not appropriate for establishing age of majority (18 years), as skeletal maturity was attained on average earlier than 15 years of age in both sexes for all three systems examined. PMID:27080619

  6. Guaman Poma de Ayala's "New Chronicle and Good Government" A testimony on the health of the Indigenous populations in XVIth century Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel M. Klohn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic collapse of indigenous population in early colonial Peru after colonial contact raises questions about its possible causes: imported infectious agents, mistreatment, or other. Guaman Poma de Ayala provides a unique first hand account, in an indigenous perspective, of the situation. He identifies as causes of decline of the indigenous population: deportation for forced labour in lethal environments, widespread abuses, exploitation and violence exerted by the colonizers, and disruption of social organization. Guaman Poma's account for Peru is in line with prior accounts by Bartolomé de Las Casas for the Caribbean and Mexico; it also appears, partly, in Spanish XVIth century historiography. Current archaeological research shows a pattern of high biological stress and impaired health of indigenous populations following colonial contact. Early protective measures are discussed together with their consequences and relevance.

  7. Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliassen Bent-Martin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA. Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but our cross-sectional study design does not allow any conclusion with regard to causality. Limitations with regard to wording, categorisations, assumed cultural differences in the conceptualisation of SRH, and confounding effects of health care use, SES and discrimination, make it difficult to appropriately assess how strong this effect is though.

  8. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (ppractices and mass vaccination. PMID:26100405

  9. Dental arch form in three Pacific populations: a comparison with Japanese and Australian aboriginal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, K; Kanazawa, E; Aboshi, H; Richards, L C; Matsuno, M

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information about arch shape variations among South Pacific populations. The application of Fourier transforms, Y(phi i) = ao/2 + sigma (aicos phi i + bisin phi i) was used to separate two components of variation; size and shape. Dental arch size can be described by one coefficient (ao), while the shape can be summarized by the first three harmonics (amp1-3) in the Fourier series. The materials used in this study were dental casts of South Pacific populations (Fiji, Western Samoa and Kiribati), Australian Aboriginals and Japanese. Fijians, Western Samoans and Kiribati people have larger upper and lower dental arches than that of Japanese. These populations were separated by the arch size and first Fourier amplitudes which showed the arch depth/width ratio. The Fijian upper and lower dental arches were significantly larger than those found in other populations and was characterized by a wide posterior arch breadth. The Western Samoan and Kiribati arch shape was more similar to the Japanese arch shape than the Fijian. Distribution patterns of arch shape characteristics in these populations showed the same tendencies in the upper and lower arches. PMID:9476433

  10. Ashkenazi Jewish population screening for Tay-Sachs disease: the international and Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Delatycki, Martin B; Bankier, Agnes; Aizenberg, Harry; Field, Michael J; Berman, Yemima; Fleischer, Ronald; Fietz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) preconception screening of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals and couples has led to effective primary prevention of TSD. In Australia, adolescent preconception genetic screening programs operate mainly in Jewish community high schools. These existing programs offer an effective means of primary prevention of TSD, are cost effective and safe. However, in the broader Australian community TSD screening is not systematically performed and cases still occur in unscreened AJ individuals. In order to improve the effectiveness of Australian screening, there is a need for definitive guidelines for healthcare professionals to facilitate extension of the proven benefits of preconception TSD screening to all AJ individuals at risk. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature relating to AJ pre-conception and antenatal screening for TSD. The evidence was assessed using an established National Health and Medical Research Council evidence grading system. Evaluations of efficacy of TSD screening programs design and execution, cost-benefit and cost-utility health economic evaluation, and population outcomes were undertaken. The results have been used to propose a model for universal AJ TSD preconception and antenatal screening for the primary care setting. PMID:24923490

  11. Mathematical and descriptive classification of variations in dental arch shape in an Australian aborigine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, J K; Molnar, S

    1988-01-01

    The ability to describe dental arch shape is necessary for biomechanical studies of occlusion as well as for anthropological studies of human and primate dental variation. A mathematical method of describing and classifying human dental arch shape was used to assess the nature of individual variability. The method involved the calculation of a series of third-degree polynomials which were fitted to coordinate points along the dental arcade. The slopes of the polynomials, evaluated at these coordinate points, provided a multivariate description of shape, independent of arch size. Graphic representations of arch shape could be constructed from the polynomial equations. These mathematical techniques were used in association with multivariate and univariate statistics to explore the types of variability in dental arch shape among a population of Australian aborigines. The results illustrated the ambiguities of conventional subjective classifications. PMID:3256297

  12. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K; Gilkerson, James R; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6-32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  13. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6–32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1–63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1–55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0–99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1–297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  14. Morphometric analysis of pelvic sexual dimorphism in a contemporary Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Cardini, Andrea; Flavel, Ambika; Marks, Murray K

    2014-09-01

    Requisite to routine casework involving unidentified skeletal remains is the formulation of an accurate biological profile, including sex estimation. Choice of method(s) is invariably related to preservation and by association, available bones. It is vital that the method applied affords statistical quantification of accuracy rates and predictive confidence so that evidentiary requirements for legal submission are satisfied. Achieving the latter necessitates the application of contemporary population-specific standards. This study examines skeletal pelvic dimorphism in contemporary Western Australian individuals to quantify the accuracy of using pelvic measurements to estimate sex and to formulate a series of morphometric standards. The sample comprises pelvic multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) scans from 200 male and 200 female adults. Following 3D rendering, the 3D coordinates of 24 landmarks are acquired using OsiriX® (v.4.1.1) with 12 inter-landmark linear measurements and two angles acquired using MorphDb. Measurements are analysed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant functions analyses employing jackknife validation of classification results. All except two linear measurements are dimorphic with sex differences explaining up to 65 % of sample variance. Transverse pelvic outlet and subpubic angle contribute most significantly to sex discrimination with accuracy rates between 100 % (complete pelvis-10 variables) and 81.2 % (ischial length). This study represents the initial forensic research into pelvic sexual dimorphism in a Western Australian population. Given these methods, we conclude that this highly dimorphic bone can be used to classify sex with a high degree of expected accuracy. PMID:24789357

  15. Assisting Australian indigenous resource management and sustainable utilization of species through the use of GIS and environmental modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Julian; Pearson, Diane; Whitehead, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Information on distribution and relative abundance of species is integral to sustainable management, especially if they are to be harvested for subsistence or commerce. In northern Australia, natural landscapes are vast, centers of population few, access is difficult, and Aboriginal resource centers and communities have limited funds and infrastructure. Consequently defining distribution and relative abundance by comprehensive ground survey is difficult and expensive. This highlights the need for simple, cheap, automated methodologies to predict the distribution of species in use, or having potential for use, in commercial enterprise. The technique applied here uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to make predictions of probability of occurrence using an inductive modeling technique based on Bayes' theorem. The study area is in the Maningrida region, central Arnhem Land, in the Northern Territory, Australia. The species examined, Cycas arnhemica and Brachychiton diversifolius, are currently being 'wild harvested' in commercial trials, involving sale of decorative plants and use as carving wood, respectively. This study involved limited and relatively simple ground surveys requiring approximately 7 days of effort for each species. The overall model performance was evaluated using Cohen's kappa statistics. The predictive ability of the model for C. arnhemica was classified as moderate and for B. diversifolius as fair. The difference in model performance can be attributed to the pattern of distribution of these species. C. arnhemica tends to occur in a clumped distribution due to relatively short distance dispersal of its large seeds and vegetative growth from long-lived rhizomes, while B. diversifolius seeds are smaller and more widely dispersed across the landscape. The output from analysis predicts trends in species distribution that are consistent with independent on-site sampling for each species and therefore should prove useful in gauging the extent of

  16. Contributions to the genetic and mean bone-marrow doses of the Australian population from radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a national survey of radiological procedures used for diagnosis and therapy in medicine, dentistry and chiropracty are reviewed. Statistical data for the distribution and frequency of various procedures in Australian hospitals and practices are summarised, together with their associated radiation doses. Annual genetically significant and mean bone-marrow doses to the Australian population arising from these procedures are derived for the survey year of 1970. Values of 176 microgray and 651 microgray for the annual (per capita) genetic and mean bone-marrow doses respectively are reported. These compare closely with corresponding estimates in other countries with similar medical practices to those in Australia

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Hui-Fang; Song Wei-Tao; Shu Jing-Ting; Chen Kuan-Wei; Zhu Wen-Qi; Han Wei; Xu Wen-Juan

    2010-04-01

    The genetic structure and diversity of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds were investigated using 29 microsatellite markers. The total number of animals examined were 569, on average 57 animals per breed were selected. The microsatellite marker set analysed provided 177 alleles (mean 6.1 alleles per locus, ranging from 3 to 10). All populations showed high levels of heterozygosity with the lowest estimate of 0.539 for the Jinding ducks, and the highest 0.609 observed for Jingjiang partridge ducks. The global heterozygote deficit across all populations ($F_{\\text{IT}}$) amounted to $-0.363$. About 10% of the total genetic variability originated from differences among breeds, with all loci contributing significantly. An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the NeighborNet tree based on the Reynold’s genetic distance. The structure software was used to assess genetic clustering of these egg-type duck breeds. Clustering analysis provided an accurate representation of the current genetic relations among the breeds. An integrated analysis was undertaken to obtain information on the population dynamics in Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds, and to better determine the conservation priorities.

  18. "Move over and Make Room for Meeka": The Representation of Race, Otherness and Indigeneity on the Australian Children's Television Programme "Play School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2008-01-01

    "Play school" is an icon of Australian children's television and an important part of Australian life--this programme, perhaps more than any other, has taken and continues to take centre stage in our living rooms and social worlds as young children. "Play school" is invested with an enormous amount of cultural capital and hence plays a significant…

  19. Relationship between cecal population levels of indigenous bacteria and translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes.

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, E K; Berg, R D

    1983-01-01

    Translocation is defined as the passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and other organs. The extent of translocation of certain indigenous, oxygen-tolerant bacteria from the cecum to the MLN, spleen, liver, kidney, and peritoneal cavity were determined in diassociated or triassociated gnotobiotic mice. Minimal bacterial translocation occurred to the spleen, liver, kidney, or peritoneal cavity. However, most bacterial strains readily tran...

  20. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mayor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin.

  1. The (noneffects of lethal population control on the diet of Australian dingoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Allen

    Full Text Available Top-predators contribute to ecosystem resilience, yet individuals or populations are often subject to lethal control to protect livestock, managed game or humans from predation. Such management actions sometimes attract concern that lethal control might affect top-predator function in ways ultimately detrimental to biodiversity conservation. The primary function of a predator is predation, which is often investigated by assessing their diet. We therefore use data on prey remains found in 4,298 Australian dingo scats systematically collected from three arid sites over a four year period to experimentally assess the effects of repeated broad-scale poison-baiting programs on dingo diet. Indices of dingo dietary diversity and similarity were either identical or near-identical in baited and adjacent unbaited treatment areas in each case, demonstrating no control-induced change to dingo diets. Associated studies on dingoes' movement behaviour and interactions with sympatric mesopredators were similarly unaffected by poison-baiting. These results indicate that mid-sized top-predators with flexible and generalist diets (such as dingoes may be resilient to ongoing and moderate levels of population control without substantial alteration of their diets and other related aspects of their ecological function.

  2. Adherence to treatment guidelines in the pharmacological management of chronic heart failure in an Australian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-Kuo Yao; Le-Xin Wang; Shane Curran; Patrick Ball

    2011-01-01

    Background To document the pharmacotherapy of chronic heart failure (CHF) and to evaluate the adherence to treatment guidelines in Australian population.Methods The pharmacological management of 677 patients (female 46.7%,75.5±11.6 years) with CHF was retrospectively analyzed.Results The use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and fl-blockers were 58.2%and 34.7%,respectively.Major reasons for non-use of ACE inhibitors/ARBs were hyperkalemia and elevated serum creatimne level.For patients who did not receive β-blockers,asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the main contraindications.Treatment at or above target dosages for ACE inhibitors/ARBs and β-blockers was low for each medication (40.3% and 28.9%,respectively).Conclusions Evidenced-based medical therapies for heart failure were under used in a rural patient population.Further studies are required to develop processes to improve the optimal use of heart failure medications.

  3. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  4. Diversity in Leadership: Australian women, past and present

    OpenAIRE

    Damousi, Joy; Rubenstein, Kim; Tomsic, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in Leadership: Australian women, past and present provides a new understanding of the historical and contemporary aspects of Indigenous and non-Indigenous women’s leadership in a range of local, national and international contexts.

  5. "They should come out here ...": research findings on lack of local palliative care services for Australian aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Holewa, Hamish; Kail-Buckley, Stasia

    2007-01-01

    Although Aboriginal Australians experience morbidity and mortality rates far greater than that of the wider Australian population, to date, their access to culturally appropriate palliative care services has remained unexplored. This article provides findings from an Australian National Health and Medical Research funded study that documents the availability of palliative care services to Aboriginal peoples of the Northern Territory, Australia. The data were collected through a series of open-ended, qualitative interviews with a cross section of Aboriginal peoples and health professionals conducted during a 2-year period. The findings provide an overview of the palliative care services that are presently available and reflect a serious lack of local, culturally appropriate palliative care services. This research shows the similarities in the struggles and difficulties faced by Australian Aboriginals and Indigenous peoples worldwide. The hope is that the suggestions put forward for improvement will one day be useful for the world's Indigenous peoples. PMID:17502434

  6. Stories from the Sky: Astronomy in Indigenous Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australian practices, developed and honed over thousands of years, weave science with storytelling. In this Indigenous science series, we'll look at different aspects of First Australians' traditional life and uncover the knowledge behind them - starting today with astronomy.

  7. GETTING INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND MARGINALIZED POPULATIONS TO SHARE TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES TO WATER AND FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Frimpong-Mensah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The depth of traditional knowledge found in indigenous and marginalized communities dictates the extent to which their populations adapt to and mitigates climate change much as the intactness of biodiversity of the agro-ecosystems on which they depend does. Often, a lot more is done to ensure the intactness of biodiversity than the effective sharing of traditional knowledge in a quest to empower indigenous and marginalized populations to adapt to and mitigate climate change. But the latter is equally important as the former, and the two ought to go close together in empowering indigenous and marginalized populations. Nonetheless, the effective sharing of a dynamic commodity as traditional knowledge requires an all inclusive approach which involves consultation with all groups as the leaving out or the limited participation of any group could undermine the sharing process. However, there are issues that arise in ensuring an all-inclusive traditional knowledge sharing process. Issues may be viewed as challenges or opportunities to the effective sharing of traditional knowledge, and arise as a result of cultural, political, economic, legal, geographical, technical, historical, and institutional differences (subtle as they may be within/among indigenous and marginalized groups. Thus, this paper captures these challenges and opportunities that characterize the all-inclusive sharing of traditional knowledge within/among the different groups in indigenous and marginalized populations. And, recommends the best way forward by using competent actors who are self-motivated to bring all their competences to the facilitation of all-inclusive traditional knowledge sharing within/among the different groups for oneness of voice of indigenous and marginalized communities.

  8. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa; Girosi, Federico; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background New DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders were published in 2013. Adolescent cohort studies in the Australian community indicate that the point prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders may be as high as 15% in females and 3% in males. The goal of the current study was to determine the 3-month prevalence of DSM-5 disorders in a representative sample of Australian older adolescents and adults. A secondary aim was to explore the demographic correlates of these disorders, specific...

  9. From the Sidelines to the Centre: Indigenous Support Units in Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Indigenous Australians are significantly disadvantaged in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians on all socioeconomic indicators. Education and training are seen as a means of reducing inequality, and high levels of Indigenous participation in vocational education and training (VET) indicate that this sector has a central role in this process.…

  10. Using Mobile Phones as Placed Resources for Literacy Learning in a Remote Indigenous Community in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Glenn; Snyder, Ilana; Henderson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite massive funding from the Australian government, the literacy achievement of Australian Indigenous children remains significantly lower than for non-Indigenous. With the aim of identifying innovative ways to improve Indigenous children's literacy achievement, this study explored the social practices surrounding everyday mobile phone use by…

  11. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  12. Prevalence of Treatment Choices for Snoring and Sleep Apnea in an Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Matharu, Kabir S; Williams, Anthony; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of treatment and diagnosis of snoring and sleep apnea in the population of New South Wales Australia. Methods: Postal survey of 10,000 people randomly selected from the electoral roll, half aged 18 to 24 and half aged 25 to 64, with telephone follow-up for some nonresponders. Weighted prevalences are reported. Results The overall response rate was 35.6% (18–24 n = 1421 and 25–64 n = 1879). One hundred and fifty-nine respondents reported seeking medical help for snoring or sleep apnea (6.3%, 95% confidence interval 5.46–7.12%), with 133 of these being aged 25 to 64. Fifty-one respondents reported subsequent treatment (2.0%; 95% CI 1.49–2.43), with some reporting more than 1 treatment. Continuous positive airway pressure was received in 17 cases, mandibular advancement splints in 9 cases, and upper airway or nasal surgery in 31 cases. Eighty-six reported receiving an overnight sleep study (polysomnography). Most surgical patients did not report having their sleep measured with a sleep study (22/31). Conclusions: The population of New South Wales has had the longest potential exposure to continuous positive airway pressure. However, few of those in even the middle-aged group reported ever being recommended continuous positive airway pressure treatment. It is more common to have a surgical intervention for snoring or sleep apnea. Surprisingly, most surgical patients do not report any associated sleep study to quantify their snoring or sleep apnea or measure the efficacy of surgery. Since a substantial proportion of patients who experience snoring and sleep apnea are not assessed via a sleep study, it is necessary to increase awareness of undergoing such clinical procedures. Citation: Marshall NS; Bartlett DJ; Matharu KS; Williams A; Grunstein RR. Prevalence of treatment choices for snoring and sleep apnea in an Australian population. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):695–699. PMID:18198802

  13. The role of pharmacological stress Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging in an Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This observational study was performed in order to assess the exercise-related incremental diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in a hospital-based Australian population, and to assess the relative roles of exercise and pharmacological stress in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Two hundred and eight adult patients who had both Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography within a median time of 16 weeks were studied. The diagnostic end-point was coronary artery lesions of ≥50% and >70% stenosis detected on angiography. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the overall diagnostic accuracy was calculated, as well as the comparative accuracies in patients who undertook various levels of exercise stress testing (n=130) and those who received pharmacological (dipyridamole) stress testing (n=78). The overall respective diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m sestamibi MPI for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (>70% stenosis) was 81% and 76% when using the diagnostic criterion of ≥50% stenosis. On direct comparison of perfusion defects with angiographic stenoses, the respective sensitivity and specificity for the detection of >70% stenosis in each coronary artery territory was 73% and 79%. Pharmacological MPI showed a significantly greater sensitivity for the detection of localised stenoses compared to the overall group who had exercise MPI performed. Consequently, exercise stress MPI showed significantly more false negative lesions compared to dipyridamole stress imaging (p<0.003). However, a large proportion of patients were unable to perform to adequate exercise levels in this patient sample. We conclude that Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging is an accurate non-invasive test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Where any doubt exists as to the patient's ability to achieve exercise levels at or above 85% of the predicted value for age and gender, pharmacological

  14. Deeper insight into maternal genetic assessments and demographic history for Egyptian indigenous chicken populations using mtDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltanany, Marwa A; Hemeda, Shabaan A

    2016-09-01

    This study principally sought to reveal the demographic expansion of Egyptian indigenous chickens (EIC) using representative breeds: Sinai (North), Fayoumi (Middle) and Dandarawi (South) of Egypt as well as to deeply clarify their genetic diversity, possible matrilineal origin and dispersal routes. A total of 33 partial mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated from EIC and compared with a worldwide reference dataset of 1290 wild and domestic chicken sequences. Study populations had 12 polymorphic variable sites and 7 haplotypes. A lack of maternal substructure between EIC was detected (F ST  = 0.003). The unimodal mismatch distribution and negative values of Tajima's D (-0.659) and Fu's Fs (-0.157) indicated demographic expansion among EIC and pointed to Fayoumi as the oldest EIC population. Egyptian haplotypes were clustered phylogenetically into two divergent clades. Their phylogeography revealed an ancient single maternal lineage of Egyptian chickens likely derived from Indian-Subcontinent. Moreover, a recent maternal commercial heritage possibly originated in Yunnan-Province and/or surrounding areas was admixed restrictedly into Sinai. It is implied that Egypt was an entry point for Indian chicken into Africa and its further dispersal route to Europe. This study provides a clue supporting the previous assumption that urged utilizing consistent founder populations having closely related progenitors for synthetizing a stabilized homogenous crossbreed as a sustainable discipline in breeding program. PMID:27489728

  15. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  16. Statistics for Community Governance: The Yawuru Indigenous Population Survey, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of an exercise in Aboriginal community governance in Australia. It sets out the background events that led the Yawuru Native Title Holders Aboriginal Corporation in the town of Broome on Australia’s northwest coast to secure information for its own needs as an act of self-determination and essential governance, and it presents some of the key findings from that exercise. As the Indigenous rights agenda shifts from the pursuit of restitution to the management and implementation of benefits, those with proprietary rights are finding it increasingly necessary to build internal capacity for post-native title governance and community planning, including in the area of information retrieval and application. As an incorporated land-holding group, the Yawuru people of Broome are amongst the first in Australia to move in this area of information gathering, certainly in terms of the degree of local control, participation, and conceptual thinking around the logistics and rationale for such an exercise. An innovative addition has been the incorporation of survey output data into a Geographic Information System to provide for spatial analysis and a decision support mechanism for local community planning. In launching and administering the "Knowing our Community" household survey in Broome, the Yawuru have set a precedent in the acquisition and application of demographic information for internal planning and community development in the post-native title determination era.

  17. The "Stolen Generations" and Cultural Genocide: The Forced Removal of Australian Indigenous Children from Their Families and Its Implications for the Sociology of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krieken, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Examined the development and outcomes of Australian government policy of forced child removal from Aboriginal families. Discusses policy antecedents, its surrounding philosophy and politics, and the emergence of a more critical understanding of this policy in recent years. Examines the general implications of this history for the sociology of…

  18. Effective population size of an indigenous Swiss cattle breed estimated from linkage disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective population size is an important parameter for the assessment of genetic diversity within a livestock population and its development over time. If pedigree information is not available, linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis might offer an alternative perspective for the estimation of effecti...

  19. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By...

  20. Host Specificity of Microsporidia (Protista: Microspora) from European Populations of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to Indigenous North American Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solter; Maddox; McManus

    1997-03-01

    Results of traditional laboratory bioassays may not accurately represent ecological (field) host specificity of entomopathogens but, if carefully interpreted, may be used to predict the ecological host specificity of pathogens being considered for release as classical biological control agents. We conducted laboratory studies designed to evaluate the physiological host specificity of microsporidia, which are common protozoan pathogens of insects. In these studies, 49 nontarget lepidopteran species indigenous to North America were fed five biotypes of microsporidia that occur in European populations of Lymantria dispar but are not found in North American populations of L. dispar. These microsporidia, Microsporidium sp. from Portugal, Microsporidium sp. from Romania, Microsporidium sp. from Slovakia, Nosema lymantriae, and Endoreticulatus sp. from Portugal, are candidates for release as classical biological control agents into L. dispar populations in the United States. The microsporidia produced a variety of responses in the nontarget hosts and, based on these responses, the nontarget hosts were placed in the following categories: (1) no infection (refractory), (2) atypical infections, and (3) heavy infections. Endoreticulatus sp. produced patent, host-like infections in nearly two-thirds of the nontarget hosts to which it was fed. Such generalist species should not be recommended for release. Infections comparable to those produced in L. dispar were produced in 2% of the nontarget hosts fed Microsporidium sp. from Portugal, 19% of nontarget hosts fed Microsporidium sp. from Romania, 13% fed spores of Microsporidium sp. from Slovakia, and 11% of nontarget species fed N. lymantriae. The remaining nontarget species developed infections that, despite production of mature spores, were not typical of infection in L. dispar. We believe it is very unlikely that these atypical infections would be horizontally transmitted within nontarget insect populations in the United

  1. Pilot of Te Tomokanga: A Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service Evaluation Tool for an Indigenous Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahu McClintock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe acceptability of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Indigenous peoples is little studied. There has been a lack of evaluation tools able to take account of the more holistic approach to the attainment of mental health that characterises Māori, the Indigenous population of Aotearoa (New Zealand. This study aimed to develop such an instrument and establish some of its psychometric properties. Then, to use the measure to establish whānau (family or caregiver views on desirable CAMHS characteristics.MethodA self-administered survey, Te Tomokanga, was developed by modifying a North American questionnaire, the Youth Services Survey for Families (YSS-F. The intent of the tool was to record whānau experiences and views on service acceptability.The Te Tomokanga survey is unique in that it incorporates questions designed to examine CAMHS delivery in light of the Whare Tapa Whā[1], a Māori comprehensive model of health with a focus on whānau involvement and culturally responsive services. This mail or telephone survey was completed by a cohort of 168 Māori whānau. Their children had been referred to one of the three types of CAMHS, mainstream, bicultural, and kaupapa Māori[2], of the District Health Board (DHBs in the Midland health region, Aotearoa. The Midland health region is an area with a large Māori population with high levels of social deprivation.ResultsThe Te Tomokanga instrument was shown to have a similar factor structure to the North American questionnaire from which it had been derived. It identified issues relevant to Māori whānau satisfaction with CAMHS. The work supports the concept that Māori desire therapeutic methods consistent with the Whare Tapa Whā, such as whānau involvement and the importance of recognising culture and spirituality.The participants were generally positive about the services they received from the three different CAMHS types, which shows good acceptability of CAMHS for

  2. Frequency-Dependent Social Transmission and the Interethnic Transfer of Female Genital Modification in the African Diaspora and Indigenous Populations of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody T; Campiño, Patricia Joyas; Winterhalder, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    We present a quantitative account based on ethnographic and documentary research of the prevalence of female genital modification (FGMo) in the African diaspora and indigenous populations of Colombia. We use these data to test hypotheses concerning the cultural evolutionary drivers of costly trait persistence, attenuation, and intergroup transmission. The uptake of FGMo by indigenous populations in Colombia is consistent with frequency-dependent hypotheses for the social transmission of the FGMo trait from the African diaspora population in the period following the era of slavery in Colombia. The prevalence and severity of practices related to FGMo decline with level of sociocultural integration into mainstream Colombian culture. Our results provide empirical support for the cultural evolutionary models proposed by Ross et al. (2015) to describe the transmission dynamics of FGMo and other costly traits. Analysis of costly trait dynamics contributes knowledge useful to applied anthropology and may be of interest in policy design and human rights monitoring in Colombia and elsewhere. PMID:26471377

  3. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Michael M; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D.

    2009-01-01

    Admixture between wild and captive populations is an increasing concern in conservation biology. Understanding the extent of admixture and the processes involved requires identification of admixed and non-admixed individuals. This can be achieved by statistical methods employing Bayesian clustering, but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943–1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic dif...

  4. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  5. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (p0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations. PMID:25227845

  6. Molecular genetic diversity and genetic structure of Vietnamese indigenous pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, L. D.; Do, Duy Ngoc; Nam, L. Q.;

    2014-01-01

    alleles (MNA = 10.1), gene diversity (He = 0.82), allele richness (5.33) and number of private alleles (10). Thirteen percentage of the total genetic variation observed was due to differences among populations. The neighbour-joining dendrogram obtained from Nei's standard genetic distance differentiated...

  7. DNA barcoding of populations of Fallopia multiflora, an indigenous herb in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X Q; Bai, M M; Yao, H; Guo, J L; Li, M M; Hang, Y Y

    2013-01-01

    Fallopia multiflora, locally known as Heshouwu, is one of the most important and widely used Chinese medicinal herbs. However, there is still considerable confusion concerning its different provenances. DNA barcoding is a recent aid to taxonomic identification and uses a short standardized DNA region to discriminate plant species. We assessed the applicability of 4 candidate DNA barcodes (matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2) to identify populations of F. multiflora. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt involving the plant kingdom to apply DNA barcoding at a level lower than species. Four DNA loci (matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2) of 105 samples, including the wild F. multiflora distributed in 17 provinces of China and 4 cultivated F. multiflora lines, were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The 4 loci were evaluated by PCR amplification for sequence quality, extent of genetic divergence, DNA barcoding gap, and the ability to discriminate between populations by BLAST1 and Nearest Distance. We found that psbA-trnH was the best barcode, with significant inter-population variability and best potential for identifying F. multiflora. The combination of loci gave better performance for distinguishing populations than a single locus. We recommend using matK + rbcL + psbA-trnH + ITS2 or psbA-trnH alone for this species. This research demonstrates the utility of DNA barcoding for geoherbalism identifications. PMID:24089097

  8. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

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    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    apparent. In addition, First Nations women reported significantly less uptake of mammography screening(P < 0.001 but similar rates for cervical cancer screening.Conclusions: Based on the findings of this retrospective study, the future cancer burden is expected to be high in the First Nations on-reserve population. Interventions, utilizing existing and new health and social authorities, and long-term institutional partnerships, are required to combat cancer risk disparities, while governments address economic disparities.Keywords: indigenous population, cancer risk, health behaviors, metabolic diseases, cancer screening

  9. Development and validation of the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE

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    Paradies Yin C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades there has been increasing evidence of a relationship between self-reported racism and health. Although a plethora of instruments to measure racism have been developed, very few have been described conceptually or psychometrically Furthermore, this research field has been limited by a dearth of instruments that examine reactions/responses to racism and by a restricted focus on African American populations. Methods In response to these limitations, the 31-item Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE was developed to assess self-reported racism for Indigenous Australians. This paper describes the development of the MIRE together with an opportunistic examination of its content, construct and convergent validity in a population health study involving 312 Indigenous Australians. Results Focus group research supported the content validity of the MIRE, and inter-item/scale correlations suggested good construct validity. A good fit with a priori conceptual dimensions was demonstrated in factor analysis, and convergence with a separate item on discrimination was satisfactory. Conclusion The MIRE has considerable utility as an instrument that can assess multiple facets of racism together with responses/reactions to racism among indigenous populations and, potentially, among other ethnic/racial groups.

  10. Media consumption impact on policies about indigenous people support. Evaluation of Mexican population positioning

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    Alma Rosa Saldierna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico discriminatory attitudes of the population towards social minorities can still be detected. For Indians, this discrimination causes them to be segregated and forgotten, often lacking political support. In this sense, the media contribute to the formation of stereotypes that affect how we perceive that minority group. It is therefore necessary to know the influence of the media in Mexico in the construction of stereotypes about Mexican Indians, and how it affects support policies aimed at this segment of the population. The study is based on the paradigm of the Cultivation Theory. We used a telephone survey administered to adult citizens by the states of the republic. Findings showed that media consumption reinforced support for segregationist policies, but in lesser degree than negative stereotypes and racism held by the people.

  11. Library Support for Indigenous University Students: Moving from the Periphery to the Mainstream

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Hare; Wendy Abbott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective – This research project explored the models of Indigenous support programs in Australian academic libraries, and how they align with the needs of the students they support. The research objective was to gather feedback from Indigenous students and obtain evidence of good practice models from Australian academic libraries to inform the development and enhancement of Indigenous support programs. The research presents the viewpoints of both Indigenous students and librari...

  12. Treatment of Displaced Indigenous Populations in Two Large Hydro Projects in Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Finley-Brook; Curtis Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Consultation practices with affected populations prior to hydro concessions often remained poor in the decade since the World Commission on Dams (WCD) although, in some cases the involvement of local people in the details of resettlement has improved. Numerous international and national actors, such as state agencies, multilateral banks, corporate shareholders, and pro-business media, support the development of dams, but intergovernmental agencies struggle to assure the protection of fundamen...

  13. Media consumption impact on policies about indigenous people support. Evaluation of Mexican population positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Rosa Saldierna; Carlos Muñiz

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico discriminatory attitudes of the population towards social minorities can still be detected. For Indians, this discrimination causes them to be segregated and forgotten, often lacking political support. In this sense, the media contribute to the formation of stereotypes that affect how we perceive that minority group. It is therefore necessary to know the influence of the media in Mexico in the construction of stereotypes about Mexican Indians, and how it affects support policies aime...

  14. Indigenous Populations of Three Closely Related Lysobacter spp. in Agricultural Soils Using Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Joeke; Schilder, Mirjam T.; van Hoof, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research had shown that three closely related species of Lysobacter, i.e., Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, and Lysobacter gummosus, were present in different Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils. However, the population dynamics of these three Lysobacter spp. in different habitats remains unknown. Therefore, a specific primer–probe combination was designed for the combined quantification of these three Lysobacter spp. using TaqMan. Strains of the three target species were effic...

  15. Positioning the School in the Landscape: Exploring Black History with a Regional Australian Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a project establishing an Indigenous Australian artists-in-residence program at a regional Australian primary school to foreground its Black History. Primary school students worked with Indigenous Australian story tellers, artists, dancers and musicians to explore ways in which they could examine print and non-print texts for…

  16. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    OpenAIRE

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serologic...

  17. The ERAP2 gene is associated with preeclampsia in Australian and Norwegian populations

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Matthew P.; Roten, Linda T.; Dyer, Thomas D.; East, Christine E.; Forsmo, Siri; Blangero, John; Brennecke, Shaun P.; Austgulen, Rigmor; Moses, Eric K.

    2009-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a heritable pregnancy disorder that presents new onset hypertension and proteinuria. We have previously reported genetic linkage to preeclampsia on chromosomes 2q, 5q and 13q in an Australian/New Zealand (Aust/NZ) familial cohort. This current study centered on identifying ]the susceptibility gene(s) at the 5q locus. We firstly prioritized candidate genes using a bioinformatic tool designed for this purpose. We then selected a panel of known SNPs within 10 prioritized genes an...

  18. Evaluation of paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in an Australian population using linked administrative hospital data

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sally; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Hauck, Yvonne; Finn, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Background Research into nursing-sensitive outcomes using administrative health data has focussed on hospitalised adults. However, we developed algorithms for the identification of 13 paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes, which we seek to examine for clinical utility. The aims were to determine the rates of paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in a Western Australian hospital and ascertain sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with a greater risk of developing nursing-sen...

  19. Abundance, viability and diversity of the indigenous microbial populations at different depths of the NEEM Greenland ice core

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    Vanya Miteva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2537-m-deep North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM core provided a first-time opportunity to perform extensive microbiological analyses on selected, recently drilled ice core samples representing different depths, ages, ice structures, deposition climates and ionic compositions. Here, we applied cultivation, small subunit (SSU rRNA gene clone library construction and Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS targeting the V4–V5 region, to examine the microbial abundance, viability and diversity in five decontaminated NEEM samples from selected depths (101.2, 633.05, 643.5, 1729.75 and 2051.5 m deposited 300–80 000 years ago. These comparisons of the indigenous glacial microbial populations in the ice samples detected significant spatial and temporal variations. Major findings include: (a different phylogenetic diversity of isolates, dominated by Actinobacteria and fungi, compared to the culture-independent diversity, in which Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were more frequent; (b cultivation of a novel alphaproteobacterium; (c dominance of Cyanobacteria among the SSU rRNA gene clones from the 1729.75-m ice; (d identification of Archaea by NGS that are rarely detected in glacial ice; (e detection of one or two dominant but different genera among the NGS sequences from each sample; (f finding dominance of Planococcaceae over Bacillaceae among Firmicutes in the brittle and the 2051.5-m ice. The overall beta diversity between the studied ice core samples examined at the phylum/class level for each approach showed that the population structure of the brittle ice was significantly different from the two deep clathrated ice samples and the shallow ice core.

  20. Effects of mining on reindeer/caribou populations and indigenous livelihoods : community-based monitoring by Sami reindeer herders in Sweden and First Nations in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Thora Martina; Sandström, Per; Cuciurean, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of human disturbances associated with mine development in the Arctic on habitat and populations of reindeer/caribou (both Rangifer tarandus), and implications for reindeer husbandry and caribou hunting of indigenous Sami people in Sweden and First Nations in Canada. Through three case studies, we illustrate how Cree and Naskapi communities develop commu- nity-based geospatial information tools to collect field data on caribou migration and habitat changes, and ...

  1. Determining adult type 2 diabetes-related health care needs in an indigenous population from rural Guatemala: a mixed-methods preliminary study

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    Chary Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Guatemala, diabetes is an emerging public health concern. Guatemala has one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America, and this population frequently does not access the formal health care system. Therefore, knowledge about the emergence of diabetes in this population is limited. Methods Interview participants (n=23 were recruited from a convenience sample of indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes at one rural diabetes clinic in Guatemala. A structured interview was used to assess knowledge about diabetes and its complications; access to diabetes-related health care and treatment; dietary and lifestyle changes; and family and social supports for individuals living with diabetes. Interviews were supplemented with two group interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Thematic analysis was used to produce insights into diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In addition, a chart review of the clinic’s electronic medical record identified all adult patients (n=80 presenting in one calendar year for a first-time diabetic consultation. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were extracted and summarized from these records. Results Salient demographic factors in both the structured interview and chart review samples included low educational levels and high indigenous language preference. In the interview sample, major gaps in biomedical knowledge about diabetes included understanding the causes, chronicity, and long-term end-organ complications of diabetes. Medication costs, medical pluralism, and limited social supports for dietary and lifestyles changes were major practical barriers to disease management. Quantitative data from medical records review revealed high rates of poor glycemic control, overweight and obesity, and medication prescription. Conclusions This study provides a preliminary sketch of type 2 diabetes in an indigenous Guatemalan population. Combined qualitative and

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the embera-chami indigenous population of Cristianía (Jardín Antioquia, Colombia

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    Cataño Bedoya, John Ubéimar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was studied in 488 individuals over the age of 14 years in the Karmata Rua indigenous population of Cristianía, Colombia. The following rates were found: arterial hypertension 18.1%, family history of diabetes mellitus 3.3%, serum glucose over 126 mg/dL 0.7%, smoking habit 15%, overweight 40.2%, obesity 8.0%, hypercholesterolemia 21.4%, hypertriglyceridemia 33.3% and dyslipidemia 56.2%. Values of body mass index, total cholesterol, glucose, waist circumference, waist/hip index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed a positive and significant correlation with age. Higher level of education showed negative correlation with waist circumference, the waist/hip index, blood sugar and blood pressure. In comparison with other indigenous and non-indigenous communities of Colombia and other countries, prevalence of diabetes mellitus was between three and four times lower in the studied population; prevalence or high blood pressure was also lower despite a tendency to overweight. For other risk factors no significant differences were found, but they were more common in women, in people with low level of schooling and in elder individuals. Probably this difference is caused by genetic and environmental factors, such as increased physical activity in men, diet, and population structure.

  3. Prevalence of tuberculosis among immigrants and impact on indigenous populations of Europe

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    Victoria Alikari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-'80s, the phenomenon of increasing cases of tuberculosis (TB, due to immigration, in developed low prevalence of disease countries, is illustrated by many studies. The particular characteristics of the disease makes the treatment from National Health Systems as a matter of highest interest and the in-depth study of the phenomenon at the level of prevention, diagnosis, treatment and control as urgent. The aim of the study was to review the literature about the prevalence of TB due to immigration to European countries. The methodology of work included search of epidemiologic studies in the electronic data base Pub Med that was reported in the increase of tuberculosis cases because immigration in European countries. The search covers the period 1980-2008 and the words used were: "epidemiology", "resurgence", "tuberculosis", "immigrants", "Europe". Results: In all studies was observed increase of frequency of TB in migrants compared with local populations and independent rate of disease transmission. Higher rates of disease were immigrants from Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. The low socioeconomic level of migrants, drug and alcohol abuse, increased incidence of AIDS, increasing antimicrobial resistance and multi-management, delay in diagnosis and social problems such as unemployment, are some of the aggravating factors in this population. The conformity of migrants in terms of treatment and prevention of transmission was low in most countries. Conclusions: We reassess the sorting process (screening of immigrants in entering the country, continuous upgrading of the guidelines, knowledge on the disease, especially among young people. Axes control prevention is: the Mantoux test, the radiograph of thorax, the chimeioprofylaxis.

  4. Locally harvested foods support serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D sufficiency in an indigenous population of Western Alaska

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    Bret Luick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low serum vitamin D is associated with higher latitude, age, body fat percentage and low intake of fatty fish. Little documentation of vitamin D concentrations is available for Alaska Native populations. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations of the Yup'ik people of southwestern Alaska in relation to demographic and lifestyle variables, particularly with the use of locally harvested (local foods. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We estimated 25(OHD, dietary vitamin D and calcium, percent of energy from local foods and demographic variables in 497 Yup'ik people (43% males aged 14–92 residing in southwestern Alaska. Sampling was approximately equally divided between synthesizing and non-synthesizing seasons, although the preponderance of samples were drawn during months of increasing daylight. Results: Mean vitamin D intake was 15.1±20.2 µg/d, while local foods accounted for 22.9±17.1% of energy intake. The leading sources of vitamin D were local fish (90.1% followed by market foods. Mean 25(OHD concentration was 95.6±40.7 nmol/L. Participants in the upper 50th percentile of 25(OHD concentration tended to be older, male, of lower body mass index, sampled during the synthesizing season, and among the upper 50th percentile of local food use. Conclusions: A shift away from locally harvested foods will likely increase the risk for serum 25(OHD insufficiency in this population.

  5. Family agriculture for bottom-up rural development: a case study of the indigenous Mayan population in the Mexican Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Laksmi Reddiar; Krishnamurthy, Sumithra

    2016-01-01

    Since pre-colonial times the indigenous communities of Mayan origin in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, widely practice home gardens on a sustainable basis as the principal form of family agriculture. This study analyzes the structural complexity, functional diversity and management strategy of these indigenous home gardens in order to attempt to propose recommendations for improved family farming. The Mayan home gardens are structured into three or more vertical layers of multiple plant sp...

  6. Effect of impoundment on the indigenous fish population in Indrasarobar Reservoir, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrasarobar reservoir at Kulekhani, Nepal, was formed by damming the Kulekhani River as part of long-term hydroelectric power development. Construction was completed in 1981 and the reservoir which formed is ca 7 km long, 380 m wide, and has a volume of 85.3 million m3. The valley in which the reservoir is located has steep sides, consequently the water level varies greatly, from a maximum depth of 105 m to as low as 78 m. Changes in the fish species composition resulting from the river damming are discussed. There has been a decline in bottom-feeding insectivores, especially of the families Cobitidae, Channidae, Sisoridae, and Cyprinidae. In particular, Garra lamta and Puntius species have disappeared and Schizothorax richardsoni has declined sharply. Native omnivorous species such as Accrossocheilus haxagonolepis and Puntius chilinoides have become dominant. The growth of planktivorous carps, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis, is similar to growth in other areas of Nepal. The changes in the fish population in Indrasarobar and other artificial Indian lakes are briefly compared. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Assessment of reductive acetogenesis with indigenous ruminal bacterium populations and Acetitomaculum ruminis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Van, T D; Robinson, J A; Ralph, J; Greening, R C; Smolenski, W J; Leedle, J A; Schaefer, D M

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of reductive acetogenesis as an alternative H2 disposal mechanism in the rumen. H2/CO2-supported acetogenic ruminal bacteria were enumerated by using a selective inhibitor of methanogenesis, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES). Acetogenic bacteria ranged in density from 2.5 x 10(5) cells/ml in beef cows fed a high-forage diet to 75 cells/ml in finishing steers fed a high-grain diet. Negligible endogenous acetogenic activity was demonstrated in incubations containing ruminal contents, NaH13CO3, and 100% H2 gas phase since [U-13C]acetate, as measured by mass spectroscopy, did not accumulate. Enhancement of acetogenesis was observed in these incubations when methanogenesis was inhibited by BES and/or by the addition of an axenic culture of the rumen acetogen Acetitomaculum ruminis 190A4 (10(7) CFU/ml). To assess the relative importance of population density and/or H2 concentration for reductive acetogenesis in ruminal contents, incubations as described above were performed under a 100% N2 gas phase. Both selective inhibition of methanogenesis and A. ruminis 190A4 fortification (>10(5) CFU/ml) were necessary for the detection of reductive acetogenesis under H2-limiting conditions. Under these conditions, H2 accumulated to 4, 800 ppm. In contrast, H2 accumulated to 400 ppm in incubations with active methanogenesis (without BES). These H2 concentrations correlated well with the pure culture H2 threshold concentrations determined for A. ruminis 190A4 (3,830 ppm) and the ruminal methanogen 10-16B (126 ppm). The data demonstrate that ruminal methanogenic bacteria limited reductive acetogenesis by lowering the H2 partial pressure below the level necessary for H2 utilization by A. ruminis 190A4. PMID:9726893

  8. Reference genotype and exome data from an Australian Aboriginal population for health-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dave; Anderson, Denise; Francis, Richard W; Syn, Genevieve; Jamieson, Sarra E; Lassmann, Timo; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing (WES), provide powerful tools for the analysis of complex and rare genetic diseases. To date there are no reference data for Aboriginal Australians to underpin the translation of health-based genomic research. Here we provide a catalogue of variants called after sequencing the exomes of 72 Aboriginal individuals to a depth of 20X coverage in ∼80% of the sequenced nucleotides. We determined 320,976 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 47,313 insertions/deletions using the Genome Analysis Toolkit. We had previously genotyped a subset of the Aboriginal individuals (70/72) using the Illumina Omni2.5 BeadChip platform and found ~99% concordance at overlapping sites, which suggests high quality genotyping. Finally, we compared our SNVs to six publicly available variant databases, such as dbSNP and the Exome Sequencing Project, and 70,115 of our SNVs did not overlap any of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites in all the databases. Our data set provides a useful reference point for genomic studies on Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27070114

  9. Globalización y enfermedades infecciosas en las poblaciones indígenas de México Globalization and infectious diseases in Mexico's indigenous population

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    Roberto Castro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis sobre la salud de los indígenas de México. La primera parte analiza el concepto de globalización y busca identificar sus principales vínculos con la salud de las poblaciones. La segunda muestra, con base en datos estadísticos, el grado de rezago en que se encuentran las poblaciones indígenas y el incumplimiento del presupuesto de equidad, central en la teoría de los beneficios de la globalización. La tercera parte presenta un análisis de la salud de los indígenas en México basado en los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000 y muestra la existencia de importantes inconsistencias de esta información. En la sección de discusión se propone que tales inconsistencias derivan del hecho de que las mediciones estadísticas no contemplan las particularidades culturales de los pueblos indígenas, lo que lleva a interpretaciones erróneas. Se concluye que las estadísticas de salud de los indígenas deben ser valoradas con precaución y atendiendo a los desarrollos alcanzados en las ciencias sociales.This paper discusses the health status of indigenous populations in Mexico. The first section characterizes the concept of globalization and its links to the population's health. Based on available statistical data, the second section documents the current indigenous populations' health status in the country. The article then argues that the presupposition of equity, crucial to globalization theory, does not apply to this case. Using the Mexican National Health Survey (2000, the third section further analyzes the health status of indigenous populations and identifies important inconsistencies in the data. The discussion section contends that these inconsistencies derive from the fact that such health surveys fail to contemplate the cultural specificities of indigenous peoples, thus leading to erroneous interpretations of the data. The article concludes that statistics on indigenous peoples' health must be interpreted

  10. A Longitudinal Analysis of Mosquito Net Ownership and Use in an Indigenous Batwa Population after a Targeted Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sierra; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lwasa, Shuaib; Namanya, Didacus; Twesigomwe, Sabastian; Kulkarni, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Major efforts for malaria prevention programs have gone into scaling up ownership and use of insecticidal mosquito nets, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where the malaria burden is high. Socioeconomic inequities in access to long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are reduced with free distributions of nets. However, the relationship between social factors and retention of nets after a free distribution has been less studied, particularly using a longitudinal approach. Our research aimed to estimate the ownership and use of LLINs, and examine the determinants of LLIN retention, within an Indigenous Batwa population after a free LLIN distribution. Two LLINs were given free of charge to each Batwa household in Kanungu District, Uganda in November 2012. Surveyors collected data on LLIN ownership and use through six cross-sectional surveys pre- and post-distribution. Household retention, within household access, and individual use of LLINs were assessed over an 18-month period. Socioeconomic determinants of household retention of LLINs post-distribution were modelled longitudinally using logistic regression with random effects. Direct house-to-house distribution of free LLINs did not result in sustainable increases in the ownership and use of LLINs. Three months post-distribution, only 73% of households owned at least one LLIN and this period also saw the greatest reduction in ownership compared to other study periods. Eighteen-months post distribution, only a third of households still owned a LLIN. Self-reported age-specific use of LLINs was generally higher for children under five, declined for children aged 6-12, and was highest for older adults aged over 35. In the model, household wealth was a significant predictor of LLIN retention, controlling for time and other variables. This research highlights on-going socioeconomic inequities in access to malaria prevention measures among the Batwa in southwestern Uganda, even after free distribution of LLINs, and

  11. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

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    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  12. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago

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    Giles Jenny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp. and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.. Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Results Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Conclusion Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may

  13. Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Max; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2003-07-01

    To study the evolutionary history of the Australian and New Guinean indigenous peoples, we analyzed 101 complete mitochondrial genomes including populations from Australia and New Guinea as well as from Africa, India, Europe, Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The genetic diversity of the Australian mitochondrial sequences is remarkably high and is similar to that found across Asia. This is in contrast to the pattern seen in previously described Y-chromosome data where an Australia-specific haplotype was found at high frequency. The mitochondrial genome data indicate that Australia was colonized between 40 and 70 thousand years ago, either by a single migration from a heterogeneous source population or by multiple movements of smaller groups occurring over a period of time. Some Australian and New Guinea sequences form clades, suggesting the possibility of a joint colonization and/or admixture between the two regions. PMID:12840039

  14. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  15. Reducing suicidal thoughts in the Australian general population through web-based self-help: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Spijker, Bregje AJ; Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J; Mackinnon, Andrew J.; Gosling, John A; Kerkhof, Ad JFM; Solomon, Daniela; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicidal thoughts are common in the general population, causing significant disability. However, a substantial number of people struggling with suicidality do not access appropriate services. Online self-help may help overcome barriers to help-seeking. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an online self-help program targeted at reducing suicidal thoughts compared with an attention-matched control condition in the Australian adult population. This trial is based on a Dutc...

  16. The foot-health of people with diabetes in a regional Australian population: a prospective clinical audit

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    Perrin Byron M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited understanding of the foot-health of people with diabetes in Australian regional areas. The aim of this study was to document the foot-health of people with diabetes who attend publically funded podiatric services in a regional Australian population. Methods A three month prospective clinical audit was undertaken by the publically-funded podiatric services of a large regional area of Victoria, Australia. The primary variables of interest were the University of Texas (UT diabetic foot risk classification of each patient and the incidence of new foot ulceration during the study period. Age, gender, diabetes type, duration of diabetes and the podiatric service the patients attended were the other variables of interest. Results Five hundred and seventy six patients were seen during the three month period. Over 49% had a UT risk classification at a level at least peripheral neuropathy or more serious diabetes-related foot morbidity. Higher risk at baseline was associated with longer duration of diabetes (F = 31.7, p χ2 = 40.3, p 0.001 and type 1 diabetes (χ2 = 37.3, p 0.001. A prior history of foot pathology was the overwhelming predictor for incident ulceration during the time period (OR 8.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 18.2, p Conclusions The publically funded podiatric services of this large regional area of Australia deal with a disproportionally large number of people with diabetes at high risk of future diabetes-related foot complications. These findings may be useful in ensuring appropriate allocation of resources for future public health services involved in diabetic foot health service delivery in regional areas.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Mobile Ear Screening and Surveillance Service versus an Outreach Screening, Surveillance and Surgical Service for Indigenous Children in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Huong Nguyen

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high rate of ear disease and hearing loss, yet they have a lower rate of service access and utilisation compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Screening, surveillance and timely access to specialist ear, nose and throat (ENT services are key components in detecting and preventing the recurrence of ear diseases. To address the low access and utilisation rate by Indigenous Australians, a collaborative, community-based mobile telemedicine-enabled screening and surveillance (MTESS service was trialled in Cherbourg, the third largest Indigenous community in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the MTESS service using a lifetime Markov model that compares two options: (i the Deadly Ears Program alone (current practice involving an outreach ENT surgical service and screening program, and (ii the Deadly Ears Program supplemented with the MTESS service. Data were obtained from the Deadly Ears Program, a feasibility study of the MTESS service and the literature. Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated from a societal perspective with both costs (in 2013-14 Australian dollars and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs discounted at 5% annually. The model showed that compared with the Deadly Ears Program, the probability of an acceptable cost-utility ratio at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY was 98% for the MTESS service. This cost effectiveness arises from preventing hearing loss in the Indigenous population and the subsequent reduction in associated costs. Deterministic and probability sensitivity analyses indicated that the model was robust to parameter changes. We concluded that the MTESS service is a cost-effective strategy. It presents an opportunity to resolve major issues confronting Australia's health system such as the inequitable provision and access to quality healthcare for rural and remotes communities, and for Indigenous Australians

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Mobile Ear Screening and Surveillance Service versus an Outreach Screening, Surveillance and Surgical Service for Indigenous Children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Smith, Anthony C; Armfield, Nigel R; Bensink, Mark; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience a high rate of ear disease and hearing loss, yet they have a lower rate of service access and utilisation compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Screening, surveillance and timely access to specialist ear, nose and throat (ENT) services are key components in detecting and preventing the recurrence of ear diseases. To address the low access and utilisation rate by Indigenous Australians, a collaborative, community-based mobile telemedicine-enabled screening and surveillance (MTESS) service was trialled in Cherbourg, the third largest Indigenous community in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the MTESS service using a lifetime Markov model that compares two options: (i) the Deadly Ears Program alone (current practice involving an outreach ENT surgical service and screening program), and (ii) the Deadly Ears Program supplemented with the MTESS service. Data were obtained from the Deadly Ears Program, a feasibility study of the MTESS service and the literature. Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated from a societal perspective with both costs (in 2013-14 Australian dollars) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) discounted at 5% annually. The model showed that compared with the Deadly Ears Program, the probability of an acceptable cost-utility ratio at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY was 98% for the MTESS service. This cost effectiveness arises from preventing hearing loss in the Indigenous population and the subsequent reduction in associated costs. Deterministic and probability sensitivity analyses indicated that the model was robust to parameter changes. We concluded that the MTESS service is a cost-effective strategy. It presents an opportunity to resolve major issues confronting Australia's health system such as the inequitable provision and access to quality healthcare for rural and remotes communities, and for Indigenous Australians. Additionally, it may

  19. Indigenous Wellbeing Frameworks in Australia and the Quest for Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data…

  20. Defining 'Indigenous': Between Culture and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pritchard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers a range of discourses on identity and the definition of culture. I have little doubt that, generally speaking, Indigenous people are quite capable of defining the meaning of ‘Indigenous person’ or ‘culture’ in a way that satisfies their specific immediate needs and interests. My concern here is with the definition of ‘Aboriginal or Indigenous person’ in Australian law and legislation and with the critical response, by members of the scientific community as well as cultural theorists, to references to a biological basis of identity.

  1. Defining 'Indigenous': Between Culture and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Pritchard

    2013-01-01

    This essay considers a range of discourses on identity and the definition of culture. I have little doubt that, generally speaking, Indigenous people are quite capable of defining the meaning of ‘Indigenous person’ or ‘culture’ in a way that satisfies their specific immediate needs and interests. My concern here is with the definition of ‘Aboriginal or Indigenous person’ in Australian law and legislation and with the critical response, by members of the scientific community as well as cultura...

  2. Forced migration and indigenous knowledge of displaced Emberá and Uitoto populations in Colombia: An ethnobotanical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Hugo Gonzalez Betancourt; Patricio Ortiz; Gina Frausin

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been given to documenting changes in the ethnobotanical knowledge of displaced indigenous groups in Colombia. Such information is highly valuable because it contributes to our understanding of the changes that occur during this process of displacement, cultural transformation and loss, and because it eventually could shed some light in designing social, economic, and educational policies that would facilitate their incorporation into main stream culture, throu...

  3. Genetic impact on two wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations after release of non-indigenous hatchery spawners

    OpenAIRE

    Skaala, Øystein; Jørstad, Knut Eirik; Borgstrøm, Reidar

    1996-01-01

    A genetically marked hatchery strain of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was employed to study the genetic impact from non-indigenous hatchery fish on wild stocks. The hatchery spawners were released in autumn 1989 into the spawning localities of two wild trout stocks in River Øyreselv, Norway. The F1 generation was sampled and genotyped at the 0+, 1+, and 2+ stages. Juveniles carrying the genetic markers were found in both localities, proving that the introduced spawners had spawned among...

  4. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives. PMID:26348278

  5. Epidemiology of cancer of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Colin; Price, Timothy; Roder, David

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer in Australia is low at about one third the world average but increases are evident. South Australian registry data have been used to describe: age-standardized incidence and mortality trends; and disease-specific survivals, using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression. The study included 1,220 incident cancers (901 hepatocellular carcinomas; 201 cholangiocarcinomas; 118 other types) and 983 deaths. Incidence and mortality rates increased by 2-3 fold during 1977-2007. Incidence increases affected males, females and all ages. There was a strong: male predominance (3 to 1); and age gradient (70+ year old incidence >30 times under 50 year old incidence). Compared with hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas and other histology types more often affected females and older ages and less often the Asian born. All histology types showed similar incidence increases. Apart from recognized risk factors (e.g., hepatitis B/C infection and aflatoxins for hepatocellular carcinoma; liver-fluke infection for cholangiocarcinomas, etc.), common risk factors may include excess alcohol consumption and possibly obesity and diabetes mellitus. Five-year disease-specific survival in 1998-2007 was 16%, with higher fatalities applying for earlier periods, older patients, males, lower socio-economic groups, and cholangiocarcinomas. Aboriginal patients tended to have higher case fatalities (p=0.054). Survival increases may be due to earlier diagnosis from alpha feta protein testing and diagnostic imaging, plus more aggressive treatment of localized disease. Mortality increases require a preventive response, including hepatitis B vaccination, prevention of viral infection though contaminated blood and other body fluids, early detection initiatives for high-risk patients, aggressive surgery for localized disease, and experimentation with new systemic therapies. PMID:21338184

  6. Moving toward culturally sensitive services for Indigenous people: a non-Indigenous mental health nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Anthony Tony

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous psychiatric morbidity, whilst culturally different in presentation to white communities has been suggested to run at a mean prevalence rate of 13.5% of the major disorders found in non-Indigenous communities. This paper discusses the socio-political and cross cultural issues to do with mental health for Australian Indigenous from a non-Indigenous perspective. The paper is particularly concerned with the effects of racism on Indigenous mental health and how racism effectively limits Indigenous people from full participation in the pluralist mainstream. Racism has been seen to be a major contributor to mental illness. The scope of this paper addresses the issue of transforming mainstream culture as well as highlighting the need for protection, participation and collaborative involvement in mental health service delivery. PMID:16594878

  7. Poverty, Indigenous Culture and Ecotourism in Remote Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Don Fuller; Julia Caldicott; Grant Cairncross; Simon Wilde

    2007-01-01

    Significant challenges exist for Indigenous people in identifying suitable economic and commercial development opportunities directed at enhancing economic and human development within their communities. Ecotourism is seen as one sector that could provide such opportunities. Don Fuller and his colleagues examine the importance and implications of Indigenous culture for ecotourism developments in remote Australian Indigenous communities, in order to evaluate the potential of ecotourism venture...

  8. Recrudescent Infection Supports Hendra Virus Persistence in Australian Flying-Fox Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Kung, Nina Y.; Grant, William E.; Scanlan, Joe C.; Field, Hume E

    2013-01-01

    Zoonoses from wildlife threaten global public health. Hendra virus is one of several zoonotic viral diseases that have recently emerged from Pteropus species fruit-bats (flying-foxes). Most hypotheses regarding persistence of Hendra virus within flying-fox populations emphasize horizontal transmission within local populations (colonies) via urine and other secretions, and transmission among colonies via migration. As an alternative hypothesis, we explore the role of recrudescence in persisten...

  9. Analysis of alcohol dependence in indigenous peoples in Northern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Savchenko

    2015-06-01

    More severe course of alcoholism among indigenous population of North of Siberia leads to the destruction of traditional lifestyles and reduction of the indigenous population in the northern territories of the Russian Federation.

  10. Indigenous Students' Wellbeing and the Mobilisation of Ethics of Care in the Contact Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGill, Bindi Mary; Blanch, Faye

    2013-01-01

    Schools have historically been a location of oppression for Indigenous students in Australian schools. This paper explores the processes of democratising (Giroux, 1992, p. 24) the school space by Aboriginal Community Education Officers (henceforward ACEOs) through an Indigenous ethics of care framework. The enactment of Indigenous ethics of care…

  11. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  12. Recrudescent infection supports Hendra virus persistence in Australian flying-fox populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    Full Text Available Zoonoses from wildlife threaten global public health. Hendra virus is one of several zoonotic viral diseases that have recently emerged from Pteropus species fruit-bats (flying-foxes. Most hypotheses regarding persistence of Hendra virus within flying-fox populations emphasize horizontal transmission within local populations (colonies via urine and other secretions, and transmission among colonies via migration. As an alternative hypothesis, we explore the role of recrudescence in persistence of Hendra virus in flying-fox populations via computer simulation using a model that integrates published information on the ecology of flying-foxes, and the ecology and epidemiology of Hendra virus. Simulated infection patterns agree with infection patterns observed in the field and suggest that Hendra virus could be maintained in an isolated flying-fox population indefinitely via periodic recrudescence in a manner indistinguishable from maintenance via periodic immigration of infected individuals. Further, post-recrudescence pulses of infectious flying-foxes provide a plausible basis for the observed seasonal clustering of equine cases. Correct understanding of the infection dynamics of Hendra virus in flying-foxes is fundamental to effectively managing risk of infection in horses and humans. Given the lack of clear empirical evidence on how the virus is maintained within populations, the role of recrudescence merits increased attention.

  13. Socioeconomic disparities in the mental health of Indigenous children in Western Australia

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    Shepherd Carrington CJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of mental health problems among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is a major public health problem in Australia. While socioeconomic factors are implicated as important determinants of mental health problems in mainstream populations, their bearing on the mental health of Indigenous Australians remains largely uncharted across all age groups. Methods We examined the relationship between the risk of clinically significant emotional or behavioural difficulties (CSEBD and a range of socioeconomic measures for 3993 Indigenous children aged 4–17 years in Western Australia, using a representative survey conducted in 2000–02. Analysis was conducted using multivariate logistic regression within a multilevel framework. Results Almost one quarter (24% of Indigenous children were classified as being at high risk of CSEBD. Our findings generally indicate that higher socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced risk of mental health problems in Indigenous children. Housing quality and tenure and neighbourhood-level disadvantage all have a strong direct effect on child mental health. Further, the circumstances of families with Indigenous children (parenting quality, stress, family composition, overcrowding, household mobility, racism and family functioning emerged as an important explanatory mechanism underpinning the relationship between child mental health and measures of material wellbeing such as carer employment status and family financial circumstances. Conclusions Our results provide incremental evidence of a social gradient in the mental health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Improving the social, economic and psychological conditions of families with Indigenous children has considerable potential to reduce the mental health inequalities within Indigenous populations and, in turn, to close the substantial racial gap in mental health. Interventions that target housing quality, home

  14. Le droit étatique mexicain et les populations indigènes : fonction de reconnaissance ou fonction d’intégration Mexican State law and indigenous populations: recognition function or integration function

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    Akuavi Adonon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available L’articulation de l’État, du droit et de la réalité indigène au Mexique pose le problème de la reconnaissance. La reconnaissance de populations indigènes qui se distinguent du reste de la population mexicaine mais qui aspirent à être incluses de plein droit dans une notion d’État forcément renouvelée. En effet, le cadre constitutionnel mexicain accorde difficilement une place aux populations indigènes et reflète le tiraillement entre une conception unitaire de l’État et du droit étatique et une réalité multiculturelle de plus en plus présente et exigeante d’une inclusion explicite de la diversité. Le droit étatique est perçu comme un lieu privilégié de reconnaissance, il est également perçu comme un instrument de revendication. Pour les populations indigènes, le droit positif peut opérer la réconciliation, cependant ce droit étatique semble bel et bien avoir des limites face aux attentes légitimes d’un secteur important de la population.The way in which the State, the Law and the indigenous reality are articulated in Mexico involves the question of their recognition; the recognition of indigenous people, who are different in certain aspects from the rest of the population, but who want to be included with full rights in a definition of the State that has to be renewed. As a matter of fact, Mexican Constitution does not completely grant a place to indigenous people, this a document does not solve the tension between a unitary conception of the State and State law, and a multicultural reality that actually demands a bigger and more explicit recognition. State Law is seen by indigenous people as the main instrument of recognition, and it is also seen as a vindication instrument; they are looking for their recognition, they try to get it and to achieve reconciliation through the law. However, State law seems to have serious limits when faced with the rightful expectations of this important part of population.

  15. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093

  16. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

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    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  17. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. PMID:25040768

  18. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B. W.; Nichols, M.; Allender, S.;

    2012-01-01

    : Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4-18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day's intake and typical intake over the last week...... and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed......Background: Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods...

  19. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  20. Postpartum anxiety, depression and social health: findings from a population-based survey of Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Stephanie J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst the prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression are well established, far less is known about postpartum anxiety. Studies have described the association between socio-demographic factors and postpartum depression, yet few have explored the association between stressors in women's lives around the time of having a baby and maternal psychological morbidity. This study aimed to describe the population prevalence of postpartum depression, anxiety, co-morbid anxiety and depression and social health issues; and to examine the association between postpartum psychological and social health issues experienced in the six months following birth. Methods Population-based survey of all women who gave birth in Victoria and South Australia in September/October 2007. Women were mailed the survey questionnaire six months following birth. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Results Questionnaires were completed by 4,366 women. At six months postpartum the proportion of women scoring above the 'normal' range on the DASS-21 was 12.7% for anxiety,17.4% for depression, and 8.1% for co-morbid depression and anxiety. Nearly half the sample reported experiencing stressful life events or social health issues in the six months following birth, with 38.3% reporting one to two and 8.8% reporting three or more social health issues. Women reporting three or more social health issues were significantly more likely to experience postnatal anxiety (Adj OR = 4.12, 95% CI 3.0-5.5 or depression (Adj OR = 5.11, 95% CI = 3.9-6.7 and co-morbid anxiety and depression (Adj OR = 5.41, 95% CI 3.8-7.6 than women who did not report social health issues. Conclusions Health care providers including midwives, nurses, medical practitioners and community health workers need to be alert to women's social circumstances and life events experienced in the perinatal period and the interplay between social and

  1. Indigenous religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2009-01-01

    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  2. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda J. Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years. Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OHD concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OHD concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001. However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types.

  3. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lucinda J.; Jacoby, Peter; Nowson, Caryl A.; Daly, Robin M.; Lucas, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years). Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OH)D concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L), adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg) increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types. PMID:27338462

  4. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Hoy, W E; Kincaid-Smith, P; Seymour, A E; Bertram, J F

    2000-09-01

    We have previously described the prevalence of glomerulomegaly in biopsy specimens from Australian Aborigines with renal disease, a phenomenon documented in a number of other indigenous populations. Many of the biopsy specimens showed variable degrees of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Correlations between glomerular size and FSGS have been described in various animal models, as well as studies of humans. The aim of this study is to determine whether a relation exists between glomerular volume and severity of FSGS in biopsy specimens from Australian Aboriginals in the Northern Territory and Aboriginal inhabitants of the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst Island and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia). Consecutive clinical biopsy specimens were obtained from 78 non-Tiwi and 72 Tiwi Aboriginals. Glomerular volume was estimated using the stereological method of Weibel and Gomez. FSGS was graded from 0 to 4; 0 indicates no sclerosis and 4 indicates severe sclerosis. A biphasic relationship between glomerular size and severity of FSGS was identified. As the severity of FSGS increased from grade 0 to grade 3, glomerular size also increased. For both populations studied, glomeruli scored as grades 1, 2, and 3 were approximately 50% (PAustralian Aborigines. PMID:10977779

  5. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  6. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  7. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic disease in the Warao, Kari'ña, and Chaima indigenous populations of Monagas State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Ysabel; Rosillo, Celenia; Cedeño, Ligia; Martínez, Yanira; Sánchez, Gloris; López, Geovalis; Pérez, Fernando; Martínez, Damarys; Maestre, Gabriela; Berbin, Sol; Chacón, Rosa; Stekman, Iván; Valls, Evart; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in the Warao, Kari'ña, and Chaima indigenous populations of Monagas State, Venezuela. A cross-sectional, analytical, community-based study was conducted in 1537 indigenous subjects ≥18 years old (38.6 % male, mean age 41.4 ± 17.5 years). The cross-culturally validated Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) diagnostic questionnaire was applied. Subjects with a positive COPCORD diagnosis (either historic or current pain) were evaluated by primary care physicians and rheumatologists. A descriptive analysis was performed and comparisons made using analysis of variance and the chi-square test. Pain in the last 7 days was reported by 32.9 %, with pain intensity, according to a Likert-type scale [no pain, 195 (38.5 %); minimal pain, 231 (45.6 %); strong pain, 68 (13.4 %); intense pain, 5 (0.9 %)], 38.0 % reported historical pain, and 641 (41.7 %) had either historic or current pain. Of the COPCORD-positive subjects, pain most frequently occurred in the knee, back, and hands. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases included osteoarthritis (14.1 %), back pain (12.4 %), rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) (9.7 %), undifferentiated arthritis (1.5 %), rheumatoid arthritis (1.1 %), and fibromyalgia (0.5 %). Chaima (18.3 %) and Kari'ña (15.6 %) subjects had a high prevalence of osteoarthritis, and Warao subjects had a high prevalence of low back pain (13.8 %). The prevalence of RRPS was high in all three ethnic groups. The Chaima group had the highest prevalence of rheumatic diseases, with 2.0 % having rheumatoid arthritis. This study provides useful information for health care policy-making in indigenous communities. PMID:26895629

  8. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  9. The Population Ecology of Two Tropical Trees, Brachychiton diversifolius (Malvaceae) and Bombax ceiba (Bombaceae), Harvested by Indigenous Woodcarvers in Arnhem Land, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    We describe the population ecology of two tropical deciduous trees, Bombax ceiba leiocarpum A. Robyns and Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br., which are in high demand for Indigenous sculpture production in Arnhem Land, Australia. We monitored tagged populations of both species at two locations for 2 years to examine their reproduction, growth, and survival rates and their response to harvest. Both species have similar life histories: they reproduce during the dry season (June-November) producing a high seed load, seed predation was high, seeds did not survive in the soil past the following wet season to form a seed bank, and germination rates were low and variable for both species. Average annual circumference growth rates were 1.07 cm year-1 for B. ceiba and 0.98 cm year-1 for B. diversifolius, with most of the growth occurring during the early wet season. Most (65-88 %) of the harvested B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems coppiced. Coppice and stem size class were the main factors influencing tree growth rates with coppice stems growing up to six times faster than similar sized non-coppice stems. The survival of B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems was size class dependent and affected by local site factors (e.g. fire and other disturbances) so that the smaller size classes had a low probability of survival. Given the resprouting potential of both species, their wild harvest is likely to have only minimal local impact on wild populations. However, further population modelling is required to determine whether the small and disjunct B. ceiba populations can sustain harvesting at current levels.

  10. Association of BMI and interpregnancy BMI change with birth outcomes in an Australian obstetric population: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Agarwal, Catherine R; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) and interpregnancy BMI changes in an Australian obstetric population. Methods A retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken. BMI for 14 875 women was categorised as follows: underweight (≤18 kg/m2); normal weight (19–24 kg/m2); overweight (25–29 kg/m2); obese class I (30–34 kg/m2); obese class II (35–39 kg/m2) and obese class III (40+ kg/m2). BMI categories and maternal, neonatal and birthing outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Interpregnancy change in BMI and the risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy were also examined. Results Within this cohort, 751 (5.1%) women were underweight, 7431 (50.0%) had normal BMI, 3748 (25.1%) were overweight, 1598 (10.8%) were obese class I, 737 (5.0%) were obese class II and 592 (4.0%) were obese class III. In bivariate adjusted models, obese women were at an increased risk of caesarean section, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and neonatal morbidities including macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA), hypoglycaemia, low 5 min Apgar score and respiratory distress. Multiparous women who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher adjusted OR (AOR) (CI) of the following adverse outcomes in their subsequent pregnancy: low 5-min Apgar score 3.242 (1.557 to 7.118); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) 3.258 (1.129 to 10.665) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 3.922 (1.243 to 14.760). These women were more likely to give birth vaginally 2.030 (1.417 to 2.913). Conversely, women whose parity changed from 0 to 1 and who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher AOR (CI) of caesarean section in their second pregnancy 1.806 (1.139 to 2.862). Conclusions Women who are overweight or obese have a significantly increased risk of various adverse outcomes. Interpregnancy weight gain, regardless

  11. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  12. Immune response to an indigenously developed r-Hepatitis B vaccine in mixed population: Study of an accelerated vaccination schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Chowdhury; A Santra; CM Habibullah; AA Khan; J Karunakaramaiah; TSA Kishore; AVR Raju; S Lahiri

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the safety and efficacy of an indigenously developed r-hepatitis B vaccine using an accelerated schedule and to highlight the social awareness and commitment in preventing the spreading of hepatitis B virus infection.METHODS: The study was a multicentric, double blind,randomized (3:1) study using three doses of vaccine immunization schedule (20 μg for those above 10 years old and 10 μg for those below 10 years old) on d 0, 30and 60. One hundred and sixty-six subjects were enrolled(87 males and 76 females aged 5-35 years). The main outcome measure was assessment of immunogenicity and safety.RESULTS: A 100% seroconversion response was observed on the 30th d after the 1st injection in both the experimental groups. The sero-protection data reported a 41.2-65.6% response on the 30th d after the 1st injection and reached 100% on the 60th d. Descriptive statical analysis showed a geometric mean titer value of 13.77 mIU/mL in the test (BEVAC) group and 10.95 mIU/mL in the commercial control (ENGERIX-B) group on the 30th d after the 1st injection. The response on the 60th d showed a geometric mean titre value (GMT) of 519.84 mIU/mL in the BEVAC group and 475.46 mIU/mL in the ENGERIX-B group. On the 90th d, the antibody titer response was observed to be 2627.58 mIU/mL in the BEVAC group and 2272.72 mIU/mL in the ENGERIX-B group. Two subjects in each group experienced pains at injection site after the first vaccination. A total of six subjects in both groups experienced a solicited adverse reaction, which included pains, swelling and redness at the injection site, three subjects in the group-B had a pain at the injection site after the third dose. No other serious adverse events occurred and no dose-related local or general symptoms were observed during the study.CONCLUSION: The vaccine is safe, efficacious and immunogenic in comparison with the well documented ENGERIX-B.

  13. Quantitative Selective PCR of 16S Ribosomal DNA Correlates Well with Selective Agar Plating in Describing Population Dynamics of Indigenous Pseudomonas spp. in Soil Hot Spots

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Kaare; Enger, Øivind; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Thirup, Laila; Torsvik, Vigdis

    1999-01-01

    We used a quantitative PCR method targeting 16S ribosomal DNA using competitive PCR for specific detection of indigenous Pseudomonas DNA in soil hot spots. The amount of Pseudomonas DNA corresponded to the number of culturable Pseudomonas bacteria on Gould’s S1 agar. This represents the first use of PCR for quantification of indigenous bacteria in more than one sample of soil.

  14. Fostering Indigenous Students’ Participation in Business Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vitartas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Australian higher education context Indigenous students have consistently been under-represented in business education compared to other disciplines, such as education and arts, and compared to non-Indigenous students. According to Asmar, Page and Radloff (2011. “Compared with non-Indigenous students, Indigenous students… were more likely to be studying in the humanities; slightly more likely to be studying education, in a field of health, or in the creative arts; and less likely to be studying science, engineering or business” (p. 4. Progress on participation rates in business education has been slow as evidenced by Schwab making similar observations of the pattern of Indigenous participation in higher education in 1996 (Schwab 1996. The literature has revealed various attempts to increase overall Indigenous commencement and completion rates at universities (see e.g., Asmar et al., 2011; Barney, 2013; Behrendt et al., 2012; Raciti et al., 2014; Rahman, 2013. Nevertheless, little research has been undertaken on the topic of improving the uptake of higher education in business courses in particular (see Behrendt et al., 2012 and Rkein & Norris 2012 for exceptions. Among various measures, fostering Indigenous students’ participation in business education is ‘crucial for [indirectly] fostering [economic] independence’ (Foley, 2013, p. 25 and required if more Indigenous businesses are to be created. Against this backdrop, this paper contributes to our understanding of the complex issue of Indigenous students’ participation in business education. It begins by providing a brief review of the literature exploring enrolment and completion rates in business disciplines at the tertiary level. The paper then presents a case study of an innovative intervention developed by an Australian higher educational institution designed to inspire young Indigenous students to consider tertiary business studies as a viable option which would result

  15. Community Development in Indigenous Australia: Self-Determination or Indirect Rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinsworth, David

    1996-01-01

    As Aborigines have gained self-determination, the incorporation of their communities into the mainstream can actually increase state supervision and threaten cultural independence. Indigenous Australians are forced to operate according to nonindigenous criteria such as return on investment. (SK)

  16. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  17. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  18. Are supernovae recorded in indigenous astronomical traditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the skywatching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in indigenous oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral traditions and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Aboriginal Australian traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Aboriginal traditions, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous Australian oral or material traditions.

  19. Dreamtime Astronomy: development of a new Indigenous program at Sydney Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Wyatt, Geoffrey; Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    The Australian National Curriculum promotes Indigenous culture in school education programs. To foster a broader appreciation of cultural astronomy, to utilise the unique astronomical heritage of the site, and to develop an educational program within the framework of the National Curriculum, Sydney Observatory launched Dreamtime Astronomy, a program incorporating Australian Indigenous culture, astronomy, and Sydney's astronomical history and heritage. This paper reviews the development and implementation of this program and discusses modifications following an evaluation by schools.

  20. 'Hero to Healing' drink-driving program for Indigenous communities in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Michelle S; Palk, Gavan R

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related road crashes are a leading cause of the injury burden experienced by Indigenous Australians. Existing drink driving programs are primarily designed for the mainstream population. The 'Hero to Healing' program was specifically developed with Indigenous communities and is underpinned by the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the program from delivery in two Far North Queensland communities. Methods Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted with drink driver participants (n=17) and other Elders and community members (n=8) after each program. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise the transcripts. Results The CRA appealed to participants because of its flexible nature and encouragement of rearranging lifestyle factors, without specific focus on alcohol use. Participants readily identified with the social and peer-related risk and protective factors discussed. Cofacilitation of the program with Elders was identified as a key aspect of the program. More in-depth discussion about cannabis and driving, anger management skills and relationship issues are recommended. Conclusions Participants' recognition of content reinforced earlier project results, particularly the use of kinship pressure to motivate younger family members to drink drive. Study findings suggest that the principles of the CRA are useful; however, some amendments to the CRA components and program content were necessary. So what? Treating drink driving in regional and remote Indigenous Australian communities as a community and social issue, rather than an individual phenomenon, is likely to lead to a reduction in the number of road-related injuries Indigenous people experience. PMID:26857181

  1. Biodiversity of Indigenous Saccharomyces Populations from Old Wineries of South-Eastern Sicily (Italy): Preservation and Economic Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity. In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small ar...

  2. Detection of Indigenous Halobacillus Populations in Damaged Ancient Wall Paintings and Building Materials: Molecular Monitoring and Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Ramos, Cayo; Rölleke, Sabine; Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Vybiral, Dietmar; Lubitz, Werner; Denner, Ewald B M

    2001-01-01

    Several moderately halophilic gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria have been isolated by conventional enrichment cultures from damaged medieval wall paintings and building materials. Enrichment and isolation were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescent in situ hybridization. 16S ribosomal DNA analysis showed that the bacteria are most closely related to Halobacillus litoralis. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments identified the isolates as a population of hitherto u...

  3. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, Menaka A.; Owen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). Conclusions This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public health An oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel

  4. Infantile Malnutrition in Mbyá-Guarani indigenous population: ethnoepidemiological study Desnutrição infantil em indígenas Mbyá-Guarani: estudo etnoepidemiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Pinto Saavedra; Sheila Câmara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the infantile malnutrition prevalence in children from zero to five years old, as well as the associated ethnographical aspects in an indigenous population Mbyá-Guarani in the south of Brazil. To reach this complex phenomenon the integration of several methods was used: semi-structured interviews with children’s mothers suffering from malnutrition and with the healers, participant observation, social demographic survey, alimentary 24-hour survey ...

  5. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...... languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......–2004. This article focuses on dictionaries of the languages of the Ainu populations in the borderlands between the nation-states Japan and Russia. The main argument is that the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act promulgated in 1997 had a significant impact on the production and purpose of Ainu dictionaries...

  6. Establishing the cardiothoracic ratio using chest radiographs in an indigenous Ghanaian population: a simple tool for cardiomegaly screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiothoracic ratio is a simple and cheap tool in the estimation of heart size. It is a useful index of cardiac size evaluation, and a value of 50% is generally considered to indicate the upper limit of normal. This study is to ascertain the normal mean value in cardiothoracic ratio of Ghanaians using chest radiography to serve as baseline for screening for cardiomegaly. Standard postero-anterior radiographs of the -clients/patients were used in the study. The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) was obtained by dividing the transverse cardiac diameter [sum of the horizontal distances from the right and left lateral-most margins of the heart to the midline (spinous processes of the vertebral bodies)] by the maximum internal thoracic diameter. Systematic sampling with appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to obtain a sample size of 1989. The mean transverse cardiac diameter and cardiothoracic ratio increased with age. The transverse thoracic diameter increased with age until the sixth decade when it reduced with age. The mean CTR increased gradually with age with females having greater values than males. The mean CTR of the study population were 0.459, 0.467 and 0.452 for the general population, females and males respectively. This study has been able to establish 0.459 as the mean CTR values for Ghanaians. It has also shown the relationship between age and clients /patient’s cardiothoracic ratio which compares favourably with findings of a similar study in Nigeria, a neighbouring country in the West African sub region with similar ethnic and social structure. (au)

  7. Empowering Indigenous Women

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous People movements are present in Latin American regions since the 80’s (Betancur, 2011:7) In the case of Peru, the State has incorporated international treatments related to indigenous people rights, such as ILO 169 Convention as well as the United Nation’s Declaration of Indigenous people rights. (Chirif and García, 2011:116) Despite of this, indigenous people are still victims of racism, exploitation and discrimination nowadays. Recently, inside indigenous people own movement,...

  8. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  9. Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

  10. Study protocol: national research partnership to improve primary health care performance and outcomes for Indigenous peoples

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott Robyn; Thompson Sandra; Weeramanthri Tarun; Connors Christine; Anderson Ian; Nagel Tricia; Scrimgeour David J; Rowley Kevin; Semmens James; Shannon Cindy; Si Damin; Bailie Ross; Burke Hugh; Moore Elizabeth; Leon Dallas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Strengthening primary health care is critical to reducing health inequity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Audit and Best practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE) project has facilitated the implementation of modern Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) approaches in Indigenous community health care centres across Australia. The project demonstrated improvements in health centre systems, delivery of primary care services and in patient intermedia...

  11. Biodiversity of indigenous Saccharomyces populations from old wineries of south-eastern Sicily (Italy: preservation and economic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Di Maio

    Full Text Available In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity.In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy where traditional (non-industrial winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices.

  12. Daryl Lindsay and the appreciation of indigenous art: no mere collection of interesting curiosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an era when the acceptance of Indigenous art within our galleries is assumed confidently as self-evident, it is easy to overlook how such a remarkable transformation occurred almost within the space of a decade. Even more misunderstood is the prominent role Daryl Lindsay played in the early acceptance and legitimisation of Australian indigenous art. Within months of becoming director of the NGV, Lindsay prepared a major exhibition of primitive art, including Australian indigenous works, an event that became the defining catalyst for a cultural shift towards indigenous art. In the early 1960s, in the influential role of chair of the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board, Lindsay advocated for the inclusion of Australian Aboriginal art, chosen for aesthetic merit as a dedicated collecting stream in the future NGA. It was a decisive objective, and one that was a central tenet of his vision for Australian art. Yet it is clear that Lindsays role in encouraging the re-evaluation of Australian Indigenous art remains poorly understood within the field of Australian gallery practice. Even within recent years, art historians have misattributed later events as being the catalyst for change, either positioning Lindsay as a reactionary late in his term as director, or placing him outside the formative years of the shift in attitude altogether. This paper explores Lindsays young adult experiences in Central Australia, the backdrop for his empathy with Australian Indigenous culture, and the remarkable shift in Australian Art Museum practice undertaken during his directorship that saw Indigenous artefacts exhibited and appreciated for their artistic merit.

  13. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32 and Roebuck Bays (n = 25, and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19 and the North West Cape (n = 18. All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins and 13 (for humpback dolphins microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001 and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001. The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06 to 0.13 (0.03-0.24. These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for

  14. Tuberculosis control in a highly endemic indigenous community in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croda, Mariana Garcia; Trajber, Zelik; Lima, Rosangela da Costa; Croda, Julio

    2012-04-01

    In Latin America, indigenous populations have high rates of non-completion of TB treatment and case fatality and have been defined as a priority group for investments. To evaluate TB control, a retrospective cohort study was performed to identify factors predictive of non-completion of treatment and mortality in an indigenous and non-indigenous population between 2002 and 2008 in Dourados, Brazil. A 90% reduction in non-completion of TB treatment was observed in the indigenous population after DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) implementation (20% vs 2%). In the non-indigenous population, the number of patients not completing TB treatment continued to increase. Non-indigenous TB patients had 4.5 times higher mortality than indigenous TB patients (9% vs 2%). In multivariate analysis, non-indigenous race [odds ratio (OR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.32-4.10] was associated with non-completion of TB treatment, and HIV-positive status (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.38-13.07) was associated with mortality. Implementation of DOTS in the indigenous populations in Dourados showed a significant reduction in non-completion of TB treatment. Nevertheless, a high rate of TB in children and young adults indicates the continuous transmission and maintenance of the epidemic in this community. Among the non-indigenous population, the TB case fatality rate is closely linked to the HIV prevalence. PMID:22365154

  15. Exposure to Internet-Based Tobacco Advertising and Branding: Results From Population Surveys of Australian Youth 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background Since legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising in traditional media, online communication platforms and social media have become one of the few avenues for the tobacco industry to promote its products to Australians. Little is currently known about the exposure of young people to these new media promotions. Objective To measure exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among Australian youth, identify common formats of branding encountered, and examine the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility. Methods The Tobacco Promotion Impact Study is a repeat cross-sectional telephone survey of young people (12-24 years) in 2 Australian states, conducted yearly from 2010 to 2013 (total n=8820). The survey included questions about past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and tobacco company branding. Changes in levels of exposure, characteristics of exposed youth, and the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility were explored. Results Past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among young people increased over the years of the survey (advertising: 21% in 2010 to 29% in 2013; branding: 20% in 2010 to 26% in 2013). The participants who were younger, female, from lower socioeconomic status, and never-smokers were more likely to report exposure. Facebook was the most commonly cited platform for encountering tobacco branding in 2013 (22% of all branding). Compared with young people interviewed in 2013, participants in 2010 were significantly less likely to report exposure to tobacco branding on social media (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.33, Pbranding (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57, P=.002) or branding alone (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.77, P=.007) were significant predictors of smoking susceptibility. Conclusions Ensuring tobacco advertising bans are inclusive of Internet-based media is essential. Given the global nature of Internet-based content, cooperation among signatory

  16. First Genome-Wide Association Study in an Australian Aboriginal Population Provides Insights into Genetic Risk Factors for Body Mass Index and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard W.; Syn, Genevieve; Scaman, Elizabeth S. H.; Davis, Elizabeth; Miles, Simon J.; McLeay, Toby; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip) in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G) reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as PAboriginal people in Australia >45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7) for BMI lies 5’ of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7) was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5), previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6) for T2D lies 5’ of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin’s transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1) and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1) functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4) for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6) for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population. PMID:25760438

  17. First genome-wide association study in an Australian aboriginal population provides insights into genetic risk factors for body mass index and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Anderson

    Full Text Available A body mass index (BMI >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7 for BMI lies 5' of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R. PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7 was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5, previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6 for T2D lies 5' of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin's transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1 and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1 functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4 for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6 for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population.

  18. Perception of Mattering and Suicide Ideation in the Australian Working Population: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; Page, K M; LaMontagne, A D

    2016-07-01

    Thoughts about suicide are a risk factor for suicide deaths and attempts and are associated with a range of mental health outcomes. While there is considerable knowledge about risk factors for suicide ideation, there is little known about protective factors. The current study sought to understand the role of perceived mattering to others as a protective factor for suicide in a working sample of Australians using a cross-sectional research design. Logistic regression analysis indicated that people with a higher perception that they mattered had lower odds of suicide ideation than those with lower reported mattering, after controlling for psychological distress, demographic and relationship variables. These results indicate the importance of further research and intervention studies on mattering as a lever for reducing suicidality. Understanding more about protective factors for suicide ideation is important as this may prevent future adverse mental health and behavioural outcomes. PMID:26939798

  19. RENAL GLOMERULAR NUMBER AND SIZE IN AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES, AFRICAN AMERICANS AND WHITE POPULATIONS FROM THE SAME LOCATIONS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bertram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available End stage renal disease is a major health problem for Australian Aborigines and African Americans. Abnormally enlarged glomeruli are commonly observed in biopsies from Aborigines and African Americans and may represent a compensatory hypertrophic response to reduced nephron endowment. We have commenced a study examining glomerular number and size, and their associations in Australian Aborigines and whites, and US African Americans and whites. Kidneys at autopsy are perfusion-fixed and subsampled for stereological estimation of total glomerular number (Nglom; using the physical disector/fractionator combination, and mean renal corpuscle (Vcorp and glomerular volume (Vglom. Kidneys from 58 people have been studied to date with ages ranging from newborn to 84 years. Preliminary findings are: (1 an almost 9-fold range in Nglom (from 210,332 to 1,825,380 with a mean of 762,302; (2 Nglom decreased with age in adult life (p = 0.014; (3 Vcorp varied 19-fold in the series and 5.5-fold in adults; (4 Vglom was inversely correlated with Nglom (p = 0.004; (5 total renal corpuscle volume (Nglom × Vcorp ranged by a factor of 13.2; (6 kidney weight was correlated with body surface area (BSA at all ages (p < 0.001; (7 BSA-corrected kidney weight did not vary with age, it ranged from 47 g/m2 to 175 g/m2, a 3.7 fold difference, with an average of 92 ± 25 g/m2. These preliminary results have revealed several new and important correlations. No racial differences in glomerular number or size have yet been identified, but with greater sample sizes such differences may be revealed.

  20. Double Oppressions of Racism and Sexism: Australian Indigenous Women in Prichard's Fiction about the Aborigines%种族与性别的双重压迫:普里查德土著题材小说中的澳大利亚土著女性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐在中

    2011-01-01

    澳大利亚作家凯瑟琳·苏珊娜·普里查德,在她的土著题材作品中,努力克服种族偏见,对土著民和土著文化倾注了同情、理解和尊重;不仅如此,作为一个女性作家,她还对土著女性的不利生存地位给予了特别的关注,这使得她的土著题材作品既有反对种族主义的一面,又有关注性别歧视的一面。本文结合《库娜图》等四部作品,探讨了澳大利亚土著女性在19世纪末至20世纪初的殖民时期所遭受的种族和性别的双重压迫。%In her fictional writing about the Australian Aborigines, Katharine Susannab Prichard uniquely attempts to free herself from racial prejudice and expresses her sympathy, understanding and respect towards the Aborigines in general. As a woman writer, she also concerns with Indigenous women's disadvantaged living status. This renders her novels and other works characteristically anti- racist and anti-sexist. In the study of Coonardoo and her three other works, this paper examines the double oppressions of racism and sexism imposed upon Indigenous women in colonial Australia in the late 19th and early 20th century.

  1. Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despagne, Colette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

  2. The application of traditional and geometric morphometric analyses for forensic quantification of sexual dimorphism: preliminary investigations in a Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Cardini, Andrea; Flavel, Ambika; Kuliukas, Algis

    2012-07-01

    A current limitation of forensic practice in Western Australia is a lack of contemporary population-specific standards for biological profiling; this directly relates to the unavailability of documented human skeletal collections. With rapidly advancing technology, however, it is now possible to acquire accurate skeletal measurements from 3D scans contained in medical databases. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to explore the accuracy of using cranial form to predict sex in adult Australians. Both traditional and geometric morphometric methods are applied to data derived from 3D landmarks acquired in CT-reconstructed crania. The sample comprises multi-detector computed tomography scans of 200 adult individuals; following 3D volume rendering, 46 anatomical landmarks are acquired using OsiriX (version 3.9). Centroid size and shape (first 20 PCs of the Procrustes coordinates) and the inter-landmark (ILD) distances between all possible pairs of landmarks are then calculated. Sex classification effectiveness of the 3D multivariate descriptors of size and shape and selected ILD measurements are assessed and compared; robustness of findings is explored using resampling statistics. Cranial shape and size and the ILD measurements are sexually dimorphic and explain 3.2 to 54.3 % of sample variance; sex classification accuracy is 83.5-88.0 %. Sex estimation using 3D shape appears to have some advantages compared to approaches using size measurements. We have, however, identified a simple and biologically meaningful single non-traditional linear measurement (glabella-zygion) that classifies Western Australian individuals according to sex with a high degree of expected accuracy (87.5-88 %). PMID:22399102

  3. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  4. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  5. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  6. Is a history of school bullying victimization associated with adult suicidal ideation?: a South Australian population-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen; Korossy-Horwood, Rebecca; Eckert, Kerena A; Goldney, Robert D

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether a history of school bullying victimization is associated with suicidal ideation in adult life. A random and representative sample of 2907 South Australian adults was surveyed in Autumn, 2008. Respondents were asked "When you were at school, did you experience traumatic bullying by peers that was particularly severe, for example, being frequently targeted or routinely harassed in any way by 'bullies'?" Depression was determined by the mood module of the PRIME-MD which includes a suicidal ideation question; "In the last 2 weeks, have you had thoughts that you would be better off dead or hurting yourself in some way?" The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in postschool age respondents was 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.8%-4.2%) in 2008. Bullying by peers was recalled by 18.7% (17.2%-20.3%). Respondents with a history of being bullied were approximately 3 times (odds ratio: 3.2) more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with those who did not. The association between being bullied and suicidal ideation remained after controlling for both depression and sociodemographic variables (odds ratio: 2.1). The results from the present research suggest that there is a strong association between a history of childhood bullying victimization and current suicidal ideation that persists across all ages. Bullying prevention programs in schools could hold the potential for longer lasting benefits in this important area of public health. PMID:20921863

  7. An Australian Sense of Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Burney

    2009-01-01

    Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.

  8. Describing and analysing primary health care system support for chronic illness care in Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory – use of the Chronic Care Model

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Allison; Dowden Michelle; Robinson Gary; Cunningham Joan; Bailie Ross; Si Damin; Connors Christine; Weeramanthri Tarun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territ...

  9. Vegetation fire smoke, indigenous status and cardio-respiratory hospital admissions in Darwin, Australia, 1996–2005: a time-series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanigan Ivan C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in Darwin, Northern Australia, is dominated by smoke from seasonal fires in the surrounding savanna that burn during the dry season from April to November. Our aim was to study the association between particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns diameter (PM10 and daily emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases for each fire season from 1996 to 2005. We also investigated whether the relationship differed in indigenous Australians; a disadvantaged population sub-group. Methods Daily PM10 exposure levels were estimated for the population of the city from visibility data using a previously validated model. We used over-dispersed Poisson generalized linear models with parametric smoothing functions for time and meteorology to examine the association between admissions and PM10 up to three days prior. An interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was included to examine differences in the impact on indigenous people. Results We found both positive and negative associations and our estimates had wide confidence intervals. There were generally positive associations between respiratory disease and PM10 but not with cardiovascular disease. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in same-day estimated ambient PM10 was associated with a 4.81% (95%CI: -1.04%, 11.01% increase in total respiratory admissions. When the interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was assessed a statistically different association was found between PM10 and admissions three days later for respiratory infections of indigenous people (15.02%; 95%CI: 3.73%, 27.54% than for non-indigenous people (0.67%; 95%CI: -7.55%, 9.61%. There were generally negative estimates for cardiovascular conditions. For non-indigenous admissions the estimated association with total cardiovascular admissions for same day ambient PM10 and admissions was -3.43% (95%CI: -9.00%, 2.49% and the estimate for indigenous admissions was -3.78% (95%CI: -13.4%, 6

  10. Second Cancer Risk and Late Mortality in Adult Australians Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdic, Claire M; Mayson, Eleni; Dodds, Anthony J; O'Brien, Tracey; Wilcox, Leonie; Nivison-Smith, Ian; Le Marsney, Renate; Daniels, Benjamin; Ashton, Lesley J

    2016-05-01

    We quantified the risk of second cancer and late mortality in a population-based Australian cohort of 3273 adult (≥15 years) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (1992 to 2007). Most recipients received nonradiation-based conditioning and a peripheral blood graft from a matched related donor. Using record linkage with death and cancer registries, 79 second cancers were identified a median of 3.5 years after transplantation. The competing-risk adjusted cumulative incidence of second cancers was 3.35% (95% CI, 2.59 to 4.24) at 10 years, and the cancer risk relative to the matched general population was 2.10 (95% CI, 1.65 to 2.56). We observed an excess risk of melanoma and lip, tongue, esophagus, and soft tissue cancers. Cancer risk relative to the general population was elevated for those transplanted for lymphoma, some leukemia subtypes, and severe aplastic anemia, recipients who developed chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and irrespective of radiation-based conditioning or stem cell source. In those alive 2 years after transplantation (n = 1463), the cumulative incidence of late mortality was 22.2% (95% CI, 19.7 to 24.9) at 10 years, and the risk of death relative to the matched general population was 13.8 (95% CI, 12.2 to 15.6). In multivariable modeling, risk of late death was reduced for females compared with males and those transplanted for chronic myeloid leukemia compared with acute myeloid leukemia; risk was increased for recipients with discordant sex donors, cGVHD, those undergoing second transplants, and disease relapse. Adults undergoing allogeneic transplantation have unique cancer and mortality risk profiles that continue to warrant prevention and surveillance activities targeted at high-risk subgroups. PMID:26860637

  11. Indigenous Storytelling in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    fairytales to outsiders with little relevance to the physical world, they are very functional and foundational for communities where storytelling is enacted. This paper debates concepts related to indigenous storytelling and its relevance to knowledge and learning for indigenous youths. In an attempt to...... understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias and...

  12. Disturbances and Dislocations: Understanding Teaching and Learning Experiences in Australian Aboriginal Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    A White Australian professor of a class on Indigenous women's dance has her Aboriginal sister-in-law conduct workshops on Indigenous dance. The classroom dynamics resulting from the complex power relationships (teacher as White woman, Aboriginal family member, and students) disturbs Western paradigms. The responsibility of "safely delivering"…

  13. Aboriginal Placenames : Naming and re-naming the Australian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hercus, Luise; Koch, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases,...

  14. Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669

  15. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD: A large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. Methods This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841 to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Results Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6. Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9 and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9 also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3 compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6. Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Conclusions Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co

  16. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  17. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  18. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, th...

  19. Bottlenecks, population differentiation and apparent selection at microsatellite loci in Australian Drosophila buzzatii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, J.S.F.; Frydenberg, Jane; González, J.; Davies, H.I.; Ruiz, A; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    original population simply due to genetic drift. Disentangling the effects of founder drift and selection after colonization is crucial to understanding the adaptive process. Drosophila buzzatii colonized Australia some 600-700 generations ago, and spread rapidly over a wide geographical range. Genetic......Species colonizing new areas disjunct from their original habitat may be subject to novel selection pressures, and exhibit adaptive genetic changes. However, if colonization occurs through a small number of founders, the genetic composition of the colonized population may differ from that of the...

  20. Are Supernovae Recorded in Indigenous Astronomical Traditions?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the sky-watching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Australian Aboriginal traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Indigenous traditions, and an account of a nova in Aboriginal traditions has been confirmed, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous oral or material traditions.

  1. Critical Indigenous Studies: From Difference to Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Andersen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.

  2. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.

  3. Comparison of prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of the intestinal spirochaetes Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli in four Australian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, C J; Riley, T V; Hampson, D J

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of the intestinal spirochaetes Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli in different Western Australian (WA) populations. Faecal samples included 287 from rural patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, comprising 142 from non-Aboriginal and 145 from Aboriginal people; 227 from recent healthy migrants to WA from developing countries; and 90 from healthy non-Aboriginal individuals living in Perth, WA. DNA was extracted from faeces, and subjected to PCR assays for both species. B. pilosicoli-positive individuals were confined to the rural Aboriginal (14.5%) and migrant (15.0%) groups. B. aalborgi was detected at a lower but similar prevalence in all four groups: rural non-Aboriginals, 5.6%; rural Aboriginals, 6.9%; migrants, 7.9%; controls, 5.6%. In migrants and Aborigines, the presence of B. pilosicoli and B. aalborgi was associated (PAboriginal patients, logistic regression identified both spirochaete species as being associated with chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive and being underweight. Both species may have pathogenic potential, but B. aalborgi appears more host-adapted than the opportunistic B. pilosicoli. PMID:16638167

  4. Urban population vulnerability to climate extremes: mitigating urban heat through technology and water-sensitive urban design in Australian cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Australia recently endured what was arguably its worst drought in 200 years. The 'Millennium Drought' lasted from 1999 until 2009, producing acute water shortages for several major Australian cities. Towards the end of the drought an extreme heat wave with temperatures approaching 50 C claimed the lives of several hundred people in Melbourne and Adelaide. One outcome of the extreme conditions was that the spectre of climate change and its impacts became very real for most Australians and contributed to the 2007 signing of the Kyoto Protocol by the Australian Government. Issues of extreme heat and water security also led to increased interest in adapting Australian cities to climate change. These concerns ultimately led to the establishment of the Australian Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Water Sensitive Cities, a $110 million research initiative to utilise storm water in Australian cities to create cooler and more liveable environments with increased levels of water security. This paper provides an overview of the work being undertaken within the urban climate program of the CRC to identify heat-health vulnerability in our cities and to evaluate the efficacy of irrigated green infrastructure to produce more liveable environments. This papers discusses some of the early research outputs that involve measurement, modelling and remote sensing at a range of scales in Australian cities.

  5. An explanatory analysis of economic and health inequality changes among Mexican indigenous people, 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Servan-Mori, Edson; Torres-Pereda, Pilar; Orozco, Emanuel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mexico faces important problems concerning income and health inequity. Mexico’s national public agenda prioritizes remedying current inequities between its indigenous and non-indigenous population groups. This study explores the changes in social inequalities among Mexico’s indigenous and non-indigenous populations for the time period 2000 to 2010 using routinely collected poverty, welfare and health indicator data. Methods We described changes in socioeconomic indicators (housin...

  6. Longitudinal, Whole-population Data Examining Pathways of Risk from Conception to Disease: The Western Australian Schizophrenia High-risk e-Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A. Morgan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This database has been constructed to support a program of work designed to untangle genetic and environmental contributions to the risk for schizophrenia and other adverse outcomes in the offspring of mothers with schizophrenia and other severe mental illness. To do this, it utilises Western Australian whole-population health and social services databases. Records on the Western Australian psychiatric case register have been linked to Midwives’ Notification of Birth records and to Registrations of Births (for paternal links as well as to other data sets. Maternal links identify women with psychosis who gave birth in Western Australia between 1980 and 2001. Comparison mothers are those with no record of psychiatric illness who gave birth in Western Australia over the same period. The study database comprises 246,873 mothers and 467,945 children: 889 mothers with schizophrenia (1,672 children; 1,644 mothers with bipolar disorder (3,358 children; 4,200 mothers with unipolar major depression (8,864 children; 775 mothers with other psychoses (1,592 children; and 239,365 comparison mothers (452,459 children. Full psychiatric histories for mothers, fathers and children have been extracted. At the time of the most recent update to the psychiatric data on children, 33,363 children had a history of psychiatric illness; 5,500 of these had had at least one contact with mental health services at which a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder had been recorded. Data have also been collected on obstetric complications and a range of infant and childhood morbidities including birth defects, intellectual disability, educational achievement, childhood abuse, criminal offending.The program aims are to: (i determine the frequency and distribution of obstetric complications in women with schizophrenia compared to a non-psychiatric comparison group of mothers; (ii explore the spectrum of outcomes for the children born to women with schizophrenia compared to comparison

  7. Longitudinal, Whole-population Data Examining Pathways of Risk from Conception to Disease: The Western Australian Schizophrenia High-risk e-Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A. Morgan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This database has been constructed to support a program of work designed to untangle genetic and environmental contributions to the risk for schizophrenia and other adverse outcomes in the offspring of mothers with schizophrenia and other severe mental illness. To do this, it utilises Western Australian whole-population health and social services databases. Records on the Western Australian psychiatric case register have been linked to Midwives’ Notification of Birth records and to Registrations of Births (for paternal links as well as to other data sets. Maternal links identify women with psychosis who gave birth in Western Australia between 1980 and 2001. Comparison mothers are those with no record of psychiatric illness who gave birth in Western Australia over the same period. The study database comprises 246,873 mothers and 467,945 children: 889 mothers with schizophrenia (1,672 children; 1,644 mothers with bipolar disorder (3,358 children; 4,200 mothers with unipolar major depression (8,864 children; 775 mothers with other psychoses (1,592 children; and 239,365 comparison mothers (452,459 children. Full psychiatric histories for mothers, fathers and children have been extracted. At the time of the most recent update to the psychiatric data on children, 33,363 children had a history of psychiatric illness; 5,500 of these had had at least one contact with mental health services at which a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder had been recorded. Data have also been collected on obstetric complications and a range of infant and childhood morbidities including birth defects, intellectual disability, educational achievement, childhood abuse, criminal offending. The program aims are to: (i determine the frequency and distribution of obstetric complications in women with schizophrenia compared to a non-psychiatric comparison group of mothers; (ii explore the spectrum of outcomes for the children born to women with schizophrenia compared to comparison

  8. Contrasting Colonist and Indigenous Impacts on Amazonian Forests

    OpenAIRE

    LU, FLORA; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Mena, Carlos F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; BARBIERI, ALISSON; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist ...

  9. The Protection of the Traditional Knowledge of Indigenous Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Gosart, Julia

    2013-01-01

    I examined the social content of the United Nations (UN) policies that aim at the protection of "traditional knowledge" (TK) of populations classified by international law as indigenous peoples. The UN category "traditional knowledge" embraces a wide range of products of the indigenous cultural and intellectual activities. I conjectured that while the TK policies were ostensibly aimed at protecting indigenous peoples from the misappropriation of these products, the major factor leading to cre...

  10. Dadirri: Using a Philosophical Approach to Research to Build Trust between a Non-Indigenous Researcher and Indigenous Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Marie Stronach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—a rather narrow perspective that fails to acknowledge the situational complexity and socio-cultural diversity of elite athletes. With such a range of personal circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that athletes from different cultural groups will have different individual SCT needs. The researcher is non-Indigenous and mature aged: she encountered a number of challenges in her efforts to understand Indigenous culture and its important sensitivities, and to build trust with the Indigenous male participants she interviewed. An Indigenous philosophy known as Dadirri, which emphasises deep and respectful listening, guided the development of the research design and methodology. Consistent with previous studies conducted by non-Indigenous researchers, an open-ended and conversational approach to interviewing Indigenous respondents was developed. The objective was for the voices of the athletes to be heard, allowing the collection of rich data based on the participants’ perspectives about SCT. An overview of the findings is presented, illustrating that Indigenous athletes experience SCT in complex and distinctive ways. The article provides a model for non-Indigenous researchers to conduct qualitative research with Indigenous people.

  11. Relationship Between Soil Type and N2O Reductase Genotype (nosZ) of Indigenous Soybean Bradyrhizobia: nosZ-minus Populations are Dominant in Andosols

    OpenAIRE

    Shiina, Yoko; Itakura, Manabu; Choi, Hyunseok; Saeki, Yuichi; Hayatsu, Masahito; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains that have the nosZ gene, which encodes N2O reductase, are able to mitigate N2O emissions from soils (15). To examine the distribution of nosZ genotypes among Japanese indigenous soybean bradyrhizobia, we isolated bradyrhizobia from the root nodules of soybean plants inoculated with 32 different soils and analyzed their nosZ and nodC genotypes. The 1556 resultant isolates were classified into the nosZ+/nodC+ genotype (855 isolates) and nosZ−/nodC+ genotype (701...

  12. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson Lynne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189 were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Indigenous Research Guidelines to Inform Genomic Research in Indigenous Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Maddock; Nicole K. Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous ...

  14. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  15. La pura opinión de Vladimiro Weisser y la población indígena de Antofalla en la Colonia temprana Vladimir Weisser's pure opinion and the Antofalla indigenous population in early colonial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro F. Haber

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este texto es mostrar las evidencias de ocupación indígena del área del Salar de Antofalla durante los siglos XVI y XVII. Se delinea el contexto histórico colonial en el que dichas ocupaciones se habrían desenvuelto, y se exploran algunas posibles formas de inserción de las poblaciones locales en ese contexto. Se contrapone este panorama con el reiterado mutismo de la arqueología y la historiografía documental para con las poblaciones indígenas del área durante la colonia temprana. También se sugieren algunas contextualizaciones intelectuales para comprender esos silencios.The aim of this paper is to present evidence of the indigenous occupation of the Antofalla Salt Lake area during the sixteenth and seventieth centuries. The historical context of the occupation is outlined, and ways in which the local population may have operated within that context are explored. The panorama of the indigenous occupation of the area during the early colonial times thus obtained is brought to bear on the repeated silence of archaeology and documentary history on the same issue. Ways of understanding the intellectual context for that silence are suggested.

  16. Conversations on Indigenous Education, Progress, and Social Justice in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Elizabeth Alva Sumida

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to contribute to our expanding definitions of Indigenous education within a globalized world. Additionally, the article critiques notions of progress modeled by powerful nation-states due to their histories based on the intended consequences of marginalizing Indigenous populations for the purposes of material gain. Last,…

  17. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

  18. Maori University Graduates: Indigenous Participation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Reremoana; Tustin, Karen; Kiro, Cynthia; Gollop, Megan; Taumoepeau, Mele; Taylor, Nicola; Chee, Kaa-Sandra; Hunter, Jackie; Poulton, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Maori, the indigenous population of New Zealand, are gaining university qualifications in greater numbers. This article describes the history of Maori university graduates, their current situation and the implications for indigenous futures. Section one provides a brief overview of historical policies and practices that, similar to those used on…

  19. The quality of Indigenous identification in administrative health data in Australia: insights from studies using data linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sandra C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing or incorrect Indigenous status in health records hinders monitoring of Indigenous health indicators. Linkage of administrative data has been used to improve the ascertainment of Indigenous status. Data linkage was pioneered in Western Australia (WA and is now being used in other Australian states. This systematic review appraises peer-reviewed Australian studies that used data linkage to elucidate the impact of under-ascertainment of Indigenous status on health indicators. Methods A PubMed search identified eligible studies that used Australian linked data to interrogate Indigenous identification using more than one identifier and interrogated the impact of the different identifiers on estimation of Indigenous health indicators. Results Eight papers were included, five from WA and three from New South Wales (NSW. The WA papers included a self-identified Indigenous community cohort and showed improved identification in hospital separation data after 2000. In CVD hospitalised patients (2000–05, under-identification was greater in urban residents, older people and socially more advantaged Indigenous people, with varying algorithms giving different estimates of under-count. Age-standardised myocardial infarction incidence rates (2000–2004 increased by about 10%-15% with improved identification. Under-ascertainment of Indigenous identification overestimated secular improvements in life expectancy and mortality whereas correcting infectious disease notifications resulted in lower Indigenous/ non-Indigenous rate ratios. NSW has a history of poor Indigenous identification in administrative data systems, but the NSW papers confirmed the usefulness of data linkage for improving Indigenous identification and the potential for very different estimates of Indigenous disease indicators depending upon the algorithm used for identification. Conclusions Under-identification of Indigenous status must be addressed in health analyses

  20. Imagining the Good Indigenous Citizen: Race War and the Pathology of Patriarchal White Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Moreton-Robinson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In June 2007, the Australian federal government sent military and policy into Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory on the premise that sexual abuse of children was rampant and a national crisis. This article draws on Foucault’s work on sovereignty and rights to argue that patriarchal white sovereignty as a regime of power deploys a discourse of pathology in the exercising of sovereign right to subjugate and discipline Indigenous people as good citizens.

  1. The Economic Value of Environmental Services on Indigenous-Held Lands in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Australians could be willing to pay from $878m to $2b per year for Indigenous people to provide environmental services. This is up to 50 times the amount currently invested by government. This result was derived from a nationwide survey that included a choice experiment in which 70% of the 927 respondents were willing to contribute to a conservation fund that directly pays Indigenous people to carry out conservation activities. Of these the highest values were found for benefits that are like...

  2. Social media and digital technology use among Indigenous young people in Australia: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Emma S.; Haynes, Emma; Royce, Paul; Sandra C Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of social media and digital technologies has grown rapidly in Australia and around the world, including among Indigenous young people who face social disadvantage. Given the potential to use social media for communication, providing information and as part of creating and responding to social change, this paper explores published literature to understand how Indigenous Australian youth use digital technologies and social media, and its positive and negative impacts. Metho...

  3. The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy Three Years On: What Is the Evidence? What Does It Indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollow, John

    2012-01-01

    The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA), which began operation as part of the government schooling system in 2010, incorporates activities across three overlapping "domains": Class--the formal schooling component; Culture--Indigenous and non-Indigenous cultural knowledge; and Club--sporting, cultural, music and physical…

  4. Delivery of maternal health care in Indigenous primary care services: baseline data for an ongoing quality improvement initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwedza Ru K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous populations have disproportionately high rates of adverse perinatal outcomes relative to other Australians. Poorer access to good quality maternal health care is a key driver of this disparity. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of delivery of maternity care and service gaps in primary care services in Australian Indigenous communities. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional baseline audit for a quality improvement intervention. Medical records of 535 women from 34 Indigenous community health centres in five regions (Top End of Northern Territory 13, Central Australia 2, Far West New South Wales 6, Western Australia 9, and North Queensland 4 were audited. The main outcome measures included: adherence to recommended protocols and procedures in the antenatal and postnatal periods including: clinical, laboratory and ultrasound investigations; screening for gestational diabetes and Group B Streptococcus; brief intervention/advice on health-related behaviours and risks; and follow up of identified health problems. Results The proportion of women presenting for their first antenatal visit in the first trimester ranged from 34% to 49% between regions; consequently, documentation of care early in pregnancy was poor. Overall, documentation of routine antenatal investigations and brief interventions/advice regarding health behaviours varied, and generally indicated that these services were underutilised. For example, 46% of known smokers received smoking cessation advice/counselling; 52% of all women received antenatal education and 51% had investigation for gestational diabetes. Overall, there was relatively good documentation of follow up of identified problems related to hypertension or diabetes, with over 70% of identified women being referred to a GP/Obstetrician. Conclusion Participating services had both strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of maternal

  5. Connecting Indigenous Stories with Geology: Inquiry-Based Learning in a Middle Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Damian; King, Donna; Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    One way to integrate indigenous perspectives in junior science is through links between indigenous stories of the local area and science concepts. Using local indigenous stories about landforms, a teacher of Year 8 students designed a unit on geology that catered for the diverse student population in his class. This paper reports on the…

  6. "Stay with Your Words": Indigenous Youth, Local Policy, and the Work of Language Fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Elizabeth Sumida; Martin, Nathan D.; Chosa, Carnell T.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the work of cultural and language maintenance and fortification with Indigenous youth populations. Here, the idea of work represents two strands of thought: first, research that is partnered with Indigenous youth-serving institutions and that prioritizes Indigenous youth perspectives; and second, the work of cultural and…

  7. Four Scholars Speak to Navigating the Complexities of Naming in Indigenous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bronwyn; Berglund, Jeff; Harris, Michelle; Poata-Smith, Evan Te Ahu

    2014-01-01

    Universities in Australia are expanding their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies programs to include Indigenous populations from around the globe. This is also the case for the Indigenous Studies Unit at the University of Wollongong (UOW). Although systems of nomenclature in Indigenous Studies seek to be respectful of difference, the…

  8. Understanding Public Support for Indigenous Natural Resource Management in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous-led natural resource management (NRM on traditionally owned land in northern Australia has raised important questions in relation to policies that compensate indigenous Australians for providing environmental services. A choice experiment survey was mailed out to respondents across the whole of Australia to assess if and to what extent Australian people think that society benefits from these services and how much they would pay for them. More than half the respondents would in principle support indigenous NRM in northern Australia, with a high willingness to pay for carbon, biodiversity, and recreational services. Social aspects of indigenous NRM, however, were not valued by the society, emphasizing the need for awareness raising and clarifications of benefits that indigenous people gain while carrying out land management on their traditional country. Any marketing campaign should take into account preference variation across Australian society, which this research shows is substantial, particularly between people from the north and those from the south. People from the south were more likely to support indigenous NRM, a significant finding for campaigns targeting potential donors.

  9. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  10. Does Australia have the appropriate health reform agenda to close the gap in Indigenous health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Ronald; Segal, Leonie

    2013-05-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the national Indigenous reform strategy - known as Closing the Gap - in the context of broader health system reforms underway to assess whether current attempts at addressing Indigenous disadvantage are likely to be successful. Drawing upon economic theory and empirical evidence, the paper analyses key structural features necessary for securing system performance gains capable of reducing health disparities. Conceptual and empirical attention is given to the features of comprehensive primary healthcare, which encompasses the social determinants impacting on Indigenous health. An important structural prerequisite for securing genuine improvements in health outcomes is the unifying of all funding and policy responsibilities for comprehensive primary healthcare for Indigenous Australians within a single jurisdictional framework. This would provide the basis for implementing several key mutually reinforcing components necessary for enhancing primary healthcare system performance. The announcement to introduce a long-term health equality plan in partnership with Aboriginal people represents a promising development and may provide the window of opportunity needed for implementing structural reforms to primary healthcare. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Notwithstanding the intention of previous policies, considerable health disparity exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Australia has now embarked on its most ambitious national Indigenous health reform strategy, but there has been little academic analysis of whether such reforms are capable of eliminating health disadvantage for Aboriginal people.WHAT DOES THE PAPER ADD? This paper provides a critical analysis of Indigenous health reforms to assess whether such policy initiatives are likely to be successful and outlines key structural changes to primary healthcare system arrangements that are necessary to secure genuine system performance gains and improve health

  11. Indigenous forest management in 21st-century New Zealand: towards a ‘postproductivist’ indigenous forest – farmland interface?

    OpenAIRE

    Geoff A. Wilson; P Ali Memon

    2005-01-01

    The critique of indigenous forest management in New Zealand in this paper contextualises the discussion in light of recent Eurocentric debates on the transition towards ‘postproductivist’ and ‘multifunctional’ agricultural and forestry regimes. The research findings confirm recent criticisms of Australian writers with regard to the direct transferability of the notion of a transition towards postproductivism developed by European researchers and also lend support to Holmes’s (2002) notion of ...

  12. Dadirri: Using a Philosophical Approach to Research to Build Trust between a Non-Indigenous Researcher and Indigenous Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Marie Stronach; Daryl Adair

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT) experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—...

  13. A review of the ever increasing threat to European crayfish from non-indigenous crayfish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Holdich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS in Europe now outnumber indigenous crayfish species (ICS 2:1, and it has been predicted that they may dominate completely in the next few decades unless something is done to protect them. Of the ten NICS introduced at least nine have become established in areas occupied by four of the five ICS. A decline in stocks of ICS has been recorded in many countries in the face of increasing populations of NICS. Most European countries retain at least one ICS but all are under threat from habitat loss, deteriorating water quality, overfishing, climate change, and most importantly from NICS and crayfish plague. The threat to ICS is so great in some countries that “ark”sanctuary sites are being established.The three most widely-spread NICS are the North American species: Pacifastacus leniusculus, Orconectes limosus and Procambarus clarkii. These can be considered as “Old NICS”, which were introduced before 1975, compared with the “New NICS”, which were introduced after 1980, such as the North American species: Orconectes immunis, Orconectes juvenilis, Orconectes virilis, Procambarus sp. and Procambarus acutus; and the Australian species: Cherax destructor and Cherax quadricarinatus, all of which have much narrower ranges in Europe. The North American species are potentially capable of acting as vectors of crayfish plague. Outbreaks of this disease occur regularly where there are high concentrations of vectors.In addition to the NICS currently established in the wild, a further threat exists through the aquarium trade, where many American and Australian species are available via the internet and in aquarist centres. Owners of such species may discard them into the freshwater environment when they grow too big as with some Cherax spp. and Orconectes spp., or multiply too frequently as with Procambarus sp. (a parthenogenetic species. A conceptual model is presented as a possible way forward for protecting the

  14. The protocol for the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS study, a randomised controlled trial of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in a remote Aboriginal Australian health care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley Julia V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders (Indigenous Australians smoke at much higher rates than non-Indigenous people and smoking is an important contributor to increased disease, hospital admissions and deaths in Indigenous Australian populations. Smoking cessation programs in Australia have not had the same impact on Indigenous smokers as on non-Indigenous smokers. This paper describes the protocol for a study that aims to test the efficacy of a locally-tailored, intensive, multidimensional smoking cessation program. Methods/Design This study is a parallel, randomised, controlled trial. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers aged 16 years and over, who are randomly allocated to a 'control' or 'intervention' group in a 2:1 ratio. Those assigned to the 'intervention' group receive smoking cessation counselling at face-to-face visits, weekly for the first four weeks, monthly to six months and two monthly to 12 months. They are also encouraged to attend a monthly smoking cessation support group. The 'control' group receive 'usual care' (i.e. they do not receive the smoking cessation program. Aboriginal researchers deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to help Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders quit smoking. Data collection occurs at baseline (when they enrol and at six and 12 months after enrolling. The primary outcome is self-reported smoking cessation with urinary cotinine confirmation at 12 months. Discussion Stopping smoking has been described as the single most important individual change Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers could make to improve their health. Smoking cessation programs are a major priority in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and evidence for effective approaches is essential for policy development and resourcing. A range of strategies have been used to encourage Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders to quit

  15. The Honey Ant Readers: An Innovative and Bold Approach to Engaging Rural Indigenous Students in Print Literacy through Accessible, Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    On entering school, rural Australian children from Indigenous backgrounds are thrown into an unfamiliar environment, linguistically and culturally, which sets them up for failure. The author, working closely with elders and community in Alice Springs, has drawn on her considerable experience in both Indigenous education and TESOL to address this…

  16. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  17. Iron status markers in 224 indigenous Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate iron status in indigenous Greenlanders and its relationship to gender, age and intake of traditional Greenlandic foods. Methods: Serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and haemoglobin were evaluated in a population survey in 1993-1994 comprising 224 Greenlandic indivi...

  18. Las agresiones del desarrollo: pueblos indígenas, normas internacionales e industrias extractivas | Aggressions from development: indigenous populations, international rules and extractive industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis RODRÍGUEZ-PIÑERO ROYO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las estrategias empleadas por la red de derechos indígenas ante el impacto de las industrias extractivas dentro de un esquema emergencia y difusión de normas internacionales y de socialización de estas normas por parte de los actores estatales, organizaciones internacionales y otros actores transnacionales. El artículo argumenta que los casos de explotación de recursos en comunidades específicas y sus devastadores impactos para la supervivencia cultural y material de estas comunidades han servido tanto de fuentes de información para legitimar las demandas internacionales de reconocimiento como para exigir responsabilidades morales o jurídicas. A pesar del interés primario de los actores estatales y de las empresas en el acceso a los recursos naturales en los territorios tradicionales indígenas, las actividades extractivas se ven cada vez más disciplinadas por normas internacionales que limitan en cierta manera la capacidad de acción de estos actores, y afectan a la definición de sus intereses.  This article analyzes the strategies used by the network of indigenous rights before the impact of the extractive industries, inside a scheme of development and diffusion of international norms, and the assumption of these norms on the part of the state actors, international organizations and other transnational actors. The article argues that the cases of exploitation of resources in specific communities and its devastating impacts for the cultural and material survival of these communities have served both as sources of information to legitimize the international claims for recognition, and as tools in demanding moral or juridical responsibilities. In spite of the primary interest of the states and companies in the access to the natural resources in the traditional indigenous territories, these activities meet themselves increasingly disciplined by international procedures that limit in certain ways the capacity of

  19. Effects of "Find Thirty Every Day [R]": Cross-Sectional Findings from a Western Australian Population-Wide Mass Media Campaign, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shilton, Trevor; Maitland, Clover; Barnes, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, over the last four decades large-scale mass media campaigns have been delivered to promote physical activity and its associated health benefits. In 2002-2005, the first Western Australian statewide adult physical activity campaign "Find Thirty. It's Not a Big Exercise" was launched. In 2007, a new…

  20. Dientes ChiquiTICOS: an analysis of juvenile dentition and dental health in Costa Rican indigenous communities

    OpenAIRE

    García, Alfredo; Guzzo, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    This study surveyed the dental health of three Costa Rican indigenous populations and two rural, non-indigenous communities. Sixty-six individuals, both children and adults, were interviewed regarding dental hygiene practices and the dentition of eighty-eight children from the ages of two to thirteen was examined. The indigenous populations, on average, showed a more important number of anterior dental pathologies as compared to a non-indigenous group (42% vs 20%). Collectively, both access t...

  1. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimond Eric

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Methods Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices – life expectancy, educational attainment, and income – were combined into a single HDI measure. Results Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. Conclusion The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.

  2. Representation of Indigenous Women in Contemporary Aboriginal Short Stories of Australia and India: A Study in Convergences and Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Acharya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to review and reassess the tribal situation with special reference to the tribal women in India and Australia. It is an attempt to locate the ‘Aboriginal woman’ question in the context of women’s movement in both countries. In Australia the women’s movement, on the whole, has not been successful in incorporating Aboriginal women into its concerns and activities. Relations with Aboriginal women have constituted a problem with the women’s movement. Despite many differences in socio-cultural set up the stories of Anil Gharai and those of Australian Aboriginal writers share many common traits and cut across cultural differences. It establishes the theory of pan-aboriginality that exists in countries that possess a sizeable population of indigenous people.

  3. Relationship between soil type and N₂O reductase genotype (nosZ) of indigenous soybean bradyrhizobia: nosZ-minus populations are dominant in Andosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yoko; Itakura, Manabu; Choi, Hyunseok; Saeki, Yuichi; Hayatsu, Masahito; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains that have the nosZ gene, which encodes N2O reductase, are able to mitigate N2O emissions from soils (15). To examine the distribution of nosZ genotypes among Japanese indigenous soybean bradyrhizobia, we isolated bradyrhizobia from the root nodules of soybean plants inoculated with 32 different soils and analyzed their nosZ and nodC genotypes. The 1556 resultant isolates were classified into the nosZ+/nodC+ genotype (855 isolates) and nosZ-/nodC+ genotype (701 isolates). The 11 soil samples in which nosZ- isolates significantly dominated (P Andosols (a volcanic ash soil prevalent in agricultural fields in Japan), whereas the 17 soil samples in which nosZ+ isolates significantly dominated were mainly alluvial soils (non-volcanic ash soils). This result was supported by a principal component analysis of environmental factors: the dominance of the nosZ- genotype was positively correlated with total N, total C, and the phosphate absorption coefficient in the soils, which are soil properties typical of Andosols. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing of representative isolates showed that the nosZ+ and nosZ- isolates of B. japonicum fell mainly into the USDA110 (BJ1) and USDA6 (BJ2) groups, respectively. These results demonstrated that the group lacking nosZ was dominant in Andosols, which can be a target soil type for an N2O mitigation strategy in soybean fields. We herein discussed how the nosZ genotypes of soybean bradyrhizobia depended on soil types in terms of N2O respiration selection and genomic determinants for soil adaptation. PMID:25476067

  4. Relationship Between Soil Type and N2O Reductase Genotype (nosZ) of Indigenous Soybean Bradyrhizobia: nosZ-minus Populations are Dominant in Andosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yoko; Itakura, Manabu; Choi, Hyunseok; Saeki, Yuichi; Hayatsu, Masahito; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains that have the nosZ gene, which encodes N2O reductase, are able to mitigate N2O emissions from soils (15). To examine the distribution of nosZ genotypes among Japanese indigenous soybean bradyrhizobia, we isolated bradyrhizobia from the root nodules of soybean plants inoculated with 32 different soils and analyzed their nosZ and nodC genotypes. The 1556 resultant isolates were classified into the nosZ+/nodC+ genotype (855 isolates) and nosZ−/nodC+ genotype (701 isolates). The 11 soil samples in which nosZ− isolates significantly dominated (P Andosols (a volcanic ash soil prevalent in agricultural fields in Japan), whereas the 17 soil samples in which nosZ+ isolates significantly dominated were mainly alluvial soils (non-volcanic ash soils). This result was supported by a principal component analysis of environmental factors: the dominance of the nosZ− genotype was positively correlated with total N, total C, and the phosphate absorption coefficient in the soils, which are soil properties typical of Andosols. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing of representative isolates showed that the nosZ+ and nosZ− isolates of B. japonicum fell mainly into the USDA110 (BJ1) and USDA6 (BJ2) groups, respectively. These results demonstrated that the group lacking nosZ was dominant in Andosols, which can be a target soil type for an N2O mitigation strategy in soybean fields. We herein discussed how the nosZ genotypes of soybean bradyrhizobia depended on soil types in terms of N2O respiration selection and genomic determinants for soil adaptation. PMID:25476067

  5. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

  6. Fire in the sky: The southern lights in Indigenous oral traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2015-01-01

    Parts of Australia have been privileged to see dazzling lights in the night sky as the Aurora Australis (known as the southern lights) puts on a show this year. Aurorae are significant in Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions. Aboriginal people associate aurorae with fire, death, blood, and omens, sharing many similarities with Native American communities.

  7. Recognising Change and Seeking Affirmation: Themes for Embedding Indigenous Knowledges on Teaching Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Juliana M.; Whatman, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The imperative for Indigenous education in Australia is influenced by national political, social and economic discourses as Australian education systems continue to grapple with an agreed aspiration of full participation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Innovations within and policies guiding our education systems are often…

  8. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  9. Cultural Dimensions of Indigenous Participation in Vocational Education and Training: New Perspectives. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Alfred Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new evidence on the inter-relationships between Indigenous Australians' association with their traditional culture and their engagement with vocational education and training. It builds on previous work to develop a "richer" measure of the concept of cultural attachment. This report discusses the links between cultural identity…

  10. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  11. Organochlorines and heavy metals in wild caught food as a potential human health risk to the indigenous Māori population of South Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael; Phillips, Ngaire R; Olsen, Greg; Hickey, Christopher W; Tipa, Gail

    2011-05-01

    Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants in wild kai (food) of cultural, recreational and economic importance to the indigenous Māori of New Zealand is a potential human health risk. Contaminants that are known to bioaccumulate through the food chain (e.g., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PCBs and selected heavy metals) were analysed in important kai species including eel (Anguilla sp.), brown trout (Salmo trutta), black flounder (Rhombosolea retiaria) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) from important harvesting sites in the region of South Canterbury. Eels contained relatively high wet weight concentrations of p,p'-DDE (8.6-287ng/g), PCBs ((32)Σ(PCB); 0.53-58.3ng/g), dieldrin (Trout and flounder contained lower concentrations of organochlorines than eels, with p,p'-DDE wet weight concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 18.5ng/g for trout and 6.4 to 27.8ng/g for flounder. Total arsenic wet weight concentrations were below detection limits for eels but ranged from 0.27 to 0.89μg/g for trout and 0.12 to 0.56μg/g for flounder. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.56μg/g, 0.11 to 0.50μg/g and 0.04 to 0.10μg/g (ww) for eel, trout and flounder respectively. Lifetime excess cancer risk was calculated through established risk assessment procedures, highlighting dieldrin, ΣPCBs and p,p'-DDE in eels and arsenic in trout and flounder as primary contaminants of concern. A second non-cancer chronic health risk assessment indicated that mercury and PCBs were a potential concern in eels and mercury in trout. A cumulative lifetime cancer risk assessment showed potential health risk for consumption of some species, even at low consumption rates and provided the basis for establishing recommended dietary consumption limits for harvest sites within the study region. PMID:21402398

  12. Strength-based well-being indicators for Indigenous children and families: A literature review of Indigenous communities' identified well-being indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Jennifer; Smith, Addie

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream child and family well-being indicators frequently are based on measuring health, economic, and social deficits, and do not reflect Indigenous holistic and strength-based definitions of health and well-being. The present article is a review of literature that features Indigenous communities' self-identified strength-based indicators of child and family well-being. The literature search included Indigenous communities from across the world, incorporating findings from American Indians and Alaska Natives, First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, and Sámi communities. Sorting the identified indicators into the quadrants of the Relational Worldview, an Indigenous framework for well-being based on medicine wheel teachings that views health and well-being as a balance among physical, mental, contextual, and spiritual factors, the authors discuss the findings. PMID:27383093

  13. “It’s a safe environment for us Indigenous students” – Creating a culturally safe learning space for Indigenous Pre-Tertiary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Australia tertiary enabling or ‘bridging’ programs have been introduced as alternative entry pathways to address the still proportionally low numbers of certain marginal groups accessing and being successful in Higher Education. Included in these marginal groups are Indigenous students. In the mainstream these enabling programs tend to focus on the academic skills required for success at a first year University level. However, one program that has been specifically designed for Indigenous students has recognised that these students benefit from a more holistic approach. The Preparation for Tertiary Success (PTS program, which is part of the Australian Centre for Indigenous Knowledges and Education (ACIKE - a partnership between Batchelor Institute and Charles Darwin University – takes a multifaceted approach to enabling education. At the centre of this approach is the knowledge that it has been designed specifically for Indigenous students and is shaped by the concepts of cultural safety, ‘Both Ways’ learning and the cultural interface.

  14. Strategic Conservation of Orchard Germplasm Based on Indigenous Knowledge and Genetic Diversity: a Case Study of Sour Orange Populations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ming; Qi-Kun Liu; Jin-Lel Shi; Wei Wang; Bao-Rong Lu

    2009-01-01

    To effectively conserve sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) germplasm on two Islands at the estuary of the Yangtze River In China, we estimated genetic variation and relationships of the known parental trees and their proposed descendents (young trees) using the fingerprinta of random amplified polymorphic DHA (RAPD). Results based on RAPD analyses showed considerable genetic diversity In the parental populations (H = 0.202). The overall populations including the parental and young trees showed slightly higher genetic diversity (H = 0.298) than the parents, with about 10% variation between populations. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis dendrogram based on cluster analysis of the Jaccard similarity among individuals demonstrated a more complicated relationship of the parental and young trees from the two islands, although the young trees showed a clear association with parental trees. This indicates a slgnificant contribution of parental trees in establishing the sour orange populations on the two islands. According to farmers' knowledge, conservation of only one or two parental trees would be sufficient because they believed that the whole populations were generated from a single mother tree. However, this study suggests that preserving most parental trees and some selected young trees with distant genetic relationships should be an effective conservation strategy for sour orange germplasm on the two islands.

  15. Authenticity and Appropriation in the Australian Visual Contact Zone of Brenda L. Croft

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    In the Australian contact zone, visual art has for a long time been represented as colonial property and contemporary Indigenous art has often been studied as an appropriation or worse a stealing of this property. According to this study, the alienable nature of visual technologies has been largely denied by neo-colonial discourses because it implies a relation with other users. The recognition of Indigenous contemporary visual art as legitimate and authentic would be an admittance of co-habi...

  16. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen SC; Hollinsworth D

    2016-01-01

    Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both de...

  17. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in bot...

  18. Associations between immune traits and genetic variation of Mx gene in Shandong indigenous chicken populations%山东地方鸡种 Mx 基因遗传变异与免疫性状的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世波; 雷秋霞; 李福伟; 韩海霞; 周艳; 李桂明; 曹顶国; 单虎

    2012-01-01

    The PCR-SSCP was used to study the associations between immune traits (sheep red blood cell, avian influenza and newcastle disease) and polymorphic loci of the Mx gene in Shandong indigenous chicken populations(Lu-qin chicken, Shi qiza chicken, Langya chicken, Laiwu black chicken and Jining Bairi chicken). The fragment of Mx gene about 150 bp including intron 13 and exon 14 was amplified. The results showed that two single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the five indigenous chicken populations by PCR-SSCP: 1 892 points of coding sequence of Mx gene G→K (Ser→Asn) ; 1911 points G→A, which couldn't lead to amino acid mutation. Through the analysis on the association between the polymorphic loci of the exon 14 and the antibody response, the SNPs on the 1892 points of coding sequence of Mx gene in Luqin chicken, Langya chicken and Laiwu black chicken was correlated to antibody response of H9 significantly ( P < 0. 05 ) .%采用 PCR-SSCP 技术研究山东地方鸡种(鲁禽鸡、琅琊鸡、石歧杂鸡、汶上芦花鸡、莱芜黑鸡、济宁百日鸡)Mx基因多态位点与绵羊红细胞(sheep red blood cell,SRBC)免疫抗体滴度和禽流感(avian influenza,AI)、新城疫(newcastle disease,ND)免疫抗体滴度等免疫性状的关系.扩增包含Mx基因intron 13和exon 14约150 bp的片段,通过SSCP分型、测序,在5个地方鸡种共发现2个SNP突变位点分别为Mx基因编码序列第1 892位点G→A (Ser→Asn),第1 911位点G→A.与免疫性状进行关联分析,发现鲁禽鸡、琅琊鸡、莱芜黑鸡 Mx 基因编码序列1 892位点与H9抗体滴度显著相关(P<0.05).

  19. Cultural Resiliency and the Rise of Indigenous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Moscato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Valerie Alia’s book, The New Media Nation: Indigenous Peoples and Global Communication (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012, 270 pp., points the way to major communication breakthroughs for traditional communities around the world, in turn fostering a more democratic media discourse. From Canada to Japan, and Australia to Mexico, this ambitious and wide-reaching work examines a broad international movement that at once protects ancient languages and customs but also communicates to audiences across countries, oceans, and political boundaries. The publication is divided roughly into five sections: The emergence of a global vision for Indigenous communities scattered around the world; government policy obstacles and opportunities; lessons from Canada, where Indigenous media efforts have been particularly dynamic; the global surge in television, radio and other technological media advances; and finally the long-term prospects and aspirations for Indigenous media. By laying out such a comprehensive groundwork for the rise of global Indigenous media over a variety of formats, particularly over the past century, Alia shows how recent social media breakthroughs such as the highly successful #IdleNoMore movement—a sustained online protest by Canada’s First Nations peoples—have been in fact inevitable. The world’s Indigenous communities have leveraged media technologies to overcome geographic isolation, to foster new linkages with Indigenous populations globally, and ultimately to mitigate structural power imbalances exacerbated by non-Indigenous media and other institutions.

  20. Education for indigenous childhood at the Indigenous Reservation Napalpí (Chaco, Argentina. 1911-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Laura Artieda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On this article we approach the education for indigenous childhood at the Indigenous Reservation napalpí (Chaco, Argentina between 1911 and 1936, where the first plan of the national state for the confinement and discipline of the subjected natives, members of the Qom, moqoit, shinpi’ peoples, was implemented in a highly conflicting scenario of military campaigns of the national state for controlling the territorial and political indigenous domains of the territory, the expansion of capitalism and the progressive proletarian condition of those populations in the regional farms. We analyze the schooling project for the indigenous childhood in the Reservation, we present some notes on its development during the first three decades of the twentieth century and the conceptions on childhood and the educating forms attributed to the indigenous populations.this work is registered on the social history of education, it deepens previous inquiries of our authorship and it integrates anthropological and regional history researches. Our corpus of data is based in state’s legislations, civil servants reports and national organizations memoirs.

  1. Defending what is ours: Territorial property rights, maps and indigeneity in the Peruvian central rain forest

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Ida Elise

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to identify and analyse central dynamics in the encounter between the indigenous population and settlers in a Native Community in the Peruvian central Amazon. The indigenous residents are subsistence farmers, practice hunting, fishing and hold domestic animals. This implies that the territory is crucial in their everyday life. Having the settlers inside if the community therefore brings great consequences as this makes land become scarce. The indigenous population emp...

  2. Las barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud en la población indígena de Rabinal en Guatemala Barriers to accessing health care services for the indigenous population in Rabinal, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Hautecoeur

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y documentar las barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud en la población indígena de Rabinal en Guatemala. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se privilegió el análisis cualitativo y la recopilación de datos se realizó en Rabinal durante dos meses (Guatemala. Se realizaron quince entrevistas semi dirigidas a indígenas achís y cinco entrevistas a profesionales de la salud. Un grupo de discusión fue formado para validar la información recogida durante las entrevistas individuales; la retranscripción de éstas y la compilación de los datos permitieron hacer el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las barreras de acceso están interrelacionadas y las barreras geográficas están relacionadas con la distancia y con la escasez de transporte; las barreras económicas son los precios de las consultas y de los medicamentos, además, entre las barreras culturales, la lengua española es un obstáculo. Los indígenas tienen otra concepción de la medicina y de los tratamientos y se quejan en ocasiones de trato abusivo por parte de los profesionales sanitarios. A su vez, los profesionales de la salud reconocen que el trauma de la guerra está presente y critican las malas condiciones de vida y la falta de recursos. CONCLUSIONES: Los servicios de salud no son adecuados ni suficientes para responder a las necesidades de la población local.OBJECTIVE: To identify and document access barriers to health care services for the indigenous population in Rabinal, Guatemala. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative analysis was used. Over a period of two months, 20 semi-directional interviews were conducted in Rabinal, Guatemala: 15 with Achis indigenous people and five with health professionals. A focus group was done to verify the information collected during the individual interviews. The qualitative analysis was based on the transcription of interviews and the compilation of the data. RESULTS: Barriers to access are inter-relational. Geographic

  3. Indigenous Continuance: Collaboration and Syncretism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous…

  4. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  5. Science, research and social change in Indigenous health--evolving ways of knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter W

    2009-11-01

    History tells us of the overwhelming destructive influence of exotic culture, politics and knowledge forms upon the worldview and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians. The power of dominant culture to oppress, control and dominate traditional Indigenous ways of knowing and being has been identified as a being a crucial influence on the health status, future hopes and aspirations of Indigenous Australians. Fundamental to this assertion is that the alienating effect of the belief in and application of the scientific method in relation to learning and knowing is a phenomenon that is incompatible with the law and cultural ways of traditional Indigenous people. The establishment of the Centre of Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE) is predicated upon and responds to a deep need in our community today to synthesise the ideological and epistemological premises of an increasing range of cultures and world views. It recognises that clinical research, for example, is important to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, but also that the way such research is designed and carried out is also crucial to its potential to effect change in and improve the state of Indigenous health in Australia. This paper examines knowledge principles and processes associated with research in Indigenous communities, explores emerging research trends in science and proposes an epistemological framework for synthesis of traditional approaches with those of the scientific paradigm. PMID:20166912

  6. Remembering Yarrie: An Indigenous Australian and the 1852 Gundagai Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardiningsih Soerjohardjo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Story of Yarrie has been in the memory of Gundagai people for generations. Such a memory has been strengthened by the presence of memorials dedicated to Yarrie during the 1852 flood. The cultural production performed by the memorialisation of Yarrie’s role during the 1852 flood was made possible through the activities of the local community, the Gundagai Historical Society, the local museum, local government, prominent citizens and the popular media.

  7. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  8. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  9. Indigenous Peoples of the World: An Introduction to Their Past, Present, and Future. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Brian

    Suitable for introductory courses on indigenous peoples, this book analyzes the effects of industrial capitalism and modernity on indigenous people and their economies. Specifically, the book traces world history and synthesizes common themes regarding the detrimental effects of European expansionism on indigenous populations. Currently, there are…

  10. Wrong Directions and New Maps of Voice, Representation, and Engagement: Theorizing Cultural Tourism, Indigenous Commodities, and the Intelligence of Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Doreen E.

    2012-01-01

    This research delves into the impact of established intellectual imperialistic representations and codes of culture imposed on Indigenous populations. The author offers new ways of viewing the critiques of Indigenous peoples and discussions of those representation acts by situating them within Indigenous identity and the manifestations of…

  11. SPONSORSHIP, COMMUNITY, AND SOCIAL CAPITAL RESOURCES IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    JANE SWINNEY

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in heavily indigenous communities was undertaken to investigate entrepreneurial perceptions of community (sense of place, image, and positioning) and social capital (reciprocity, shared vision, and density of networks) resources present in rural communities, and the sponsorship involvement of the entrepreneurs in community activities. The uniqueness of the study was its focus on indigenous communities with a higher than state average Native-American population...

  12. [Health and indigenous peoples in Brazil: reflections based on the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Jr, E A Coimbra

    2014-04-01

    The current configuration of indigenous peoples' health in Brazil results from a complex historical trajectory, responsible for major delays for this population segment in the countrywide social advances seen in recent decades, particularly in the fields of health, education, housing, and sanitation. The main focus of this contribution is to review synthetically a selection of the main results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition, conducted in the period 2008-2009, which visited 113 villages across the Brazil and interviewed 6,692 women and 6,128 children. Among the results, emphasis is given to the observed poor sanitation conditions in villages, high prevalence of chronic malnutrition, anemia, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections in children, and the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases in women. The scenario depicted by this survey requires urgent critical review of indigenous health policy in order to better meet the health needs of Brazil's indigenous population. PMID:24896060

  13. Greek or Indigenous? From Potsherd to Identity in Early Colonial Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Søren; Jacobsen, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous pottery plays a vital role in interpretations of the relationship between the indigenous population and the Greek settlers in south Italy. Indigenous pottery habitually turns up in otherwise Greek habitation, ritual and mortuary contexts. Whereas imported Greek or ‘colonial’ pottery from...... indigenous contexts has been dealt with in considerable detail, the finds of indigenous pottery in Greek colonial contexts have not been thoroughly investigated in the western Mediterranean. Much more scholarly attention focused on the Black Sea region has, however, concentrated on the presence of indigenous...... Scythian and Taurian pottery in the Greek apoikiai, especially in the north-western Black Sea region. Similarities in the archaeological record of the two areas are numerous. In this paper we compare the occurrence of indigenous pottery in Greek contexts in the two regions and discuss some of the different...

  14. Dientes ChiquiTICOS: an analysis of juvenile dentition and dental health in Costa Rican indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfredo; Guzzo, Christina M

    2007-07-01

    This study surveyed the dental health of three Costa Rican indigenous populations and two rural, non-indigenous communities. Sixty-six individuals, both children and adults, were interviewed regarding dental hygiene practices and the dentition of eighty-eight children from the ages of two to thirteen was examined. The indigenous populations, on average, showed a more important number of anterior dental pathologies as compared to a non-indigenous group (42% vs 20%). Collectively, both access to and utilization of dental healthcare were worse within the indigenous communities; however, there was still great variation amongst all five sites. PMID:18523604

  15. Health service utilization by indigenous cancer patients in Queensland: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardes Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Indigenous Australians experience more aggressive cancers and higher cancer mortality rates than other Australians. Cancer patients undergoing treatment are likely to access health services (e.g. social worker, cancer helpline, pain management services. To date Indigenous cancer patients’ use of these services is limited. This paper describes the use of health services by Indigenous cancer patients. Methods Indigenous cancer patients receiving treatment were recruited at four major Queensland public hospitals (Royal Brisbane Women’s Hospital, Princess Alexandra, Cairns Base Hospital and Townsville Hospital. Participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview which sought information about their use of community and allied health services. Results Of the 157 patients interviewed most were women (54.1%, of Aboriginal descent (73.9%, lived outer regional areas (40.1% and had a mean age of 52.2 years. The most frequent cancer types were breast cancer (22.3%, blood related (14.0%, lung (12.1% and gastroenterological (10.8%. More than half of the participants reported using at least one of the ‘Indigenous Health Worker/Services’ (76.4%, ‘Allied Health Workers/Services’ (72.6% and ‘Information Sources’ (70.7%. Younger participants 19–39 years were more likely to use information sources (81.0% than older participants who more commonly used community services (48.8%. The cancer patients used a median of three health services groups while receiving cancer treatment. Conclusions Indigenous cancer patients used a range of health services whilst receiving treatment. Indigenous Health Workers/Services and Allied Health Workers/Services were the most commonly used services. However, there is a need for further systematic investigation into the health service utilization by Indigenous cancer patients.

  16. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. PMID:25110340

  17. Infantile Malnutrition in Mbyá-Guarani indigenous population: ethnoepidemiological study Desnutrição infantil em indígenas Mbyá-Guarani: estudo etnoepidemiológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pinto Saavedra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to know the infantile malnutrition prevalence in children from zero to five years old, as well as the associated ethnographical aspects in an indigenous population Mbyá-Guarani in the south of Brazil. To reach this complex phenomenon the integration of several methods was used: semi-structured interviews with children’s mothers suffering from malnutrition and with the healers, participant observation, social demographic survey, alimentary 24-hour survey and antropometric measurement, through the triangulation process. The nutritional deficit was verified in macronutrients and micronutrients as well as the existence of 38% of malnutrition for height/age index and 7,6% for height/weight index. Despite the data found on malnutrition, this population does not recognize its existence, but the presence of a Guarani disease called “kamby riru jere”. So, the therapeutic carried out by the white people is replaced by xamânicos treatments. This study emphasized the importance of the performed interventions in these people seeking the united construction of health practices which respect the indigenous culture, attaining thus greater effectiveness.

    Este estudo objetivou conhecer a prevalência da desnutrição infantil em crianças de zero a cinco anos, assim como aspectos etnográficos associados, em uma reserva indígena Mbyá-Guarani no sul do Brasil. Para abarcar esse fenômeno complexo utilizou-se a integração de diversos métodos: entrevistas semiestruturadas com as mães de crianças com diagnóstico de desnutrição e com os curandeiros, observação participante, questionário sociodemográfico, alimentar de 24 horas e medidas antropométricas, por meio do processo de triangulação. Verificou-se a existência de déficit nutricional de macronutrientes e micronutrientes, bem como a existência de 38,4% de desnutrição para o índice altura/idade e 7,6% para o índice peso/altura. Apesar dos dados

  18. Understanding the social determinants of health among Indigenous Canadians: priorities for health promotion policies and actions

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Kolahdooz; Forouz Nader; Kyoung J. Yi; Sangita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indigenous Canadians have a life expectancy 12 years lower than the national average and experience higher rates of preventable chronic diseases compared with non-Indigenous Canadians. Transgenerational trauma from past assimilation policies have affected the health of Indigenous populations. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the social determinants of health (SDH), in order to identify priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Design: ...

  19. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    OpenAIRE

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED; ISLAM RAKIBUL

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio...

  20. Understanding suicide among indigenous adolescents: a review using the PRECEDE model.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, V. A.; Frankish, C. J.; Green, L W

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To use the available literature to identify the causes of suicide among indigenous adolescents. METHOD: The PRECEDE model provided a framework to organize the material and identify the areas where relatively little research had been reported. RESULTS: The epidemiological diagnosis showed that suicide was greater in indigenous than non-indigenous populations and particularly high among adolescent males. Environments of native persons are characterized by remoteness, poverty, cultural disp...

  1. International approaches to Indigenous dental care: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J; Hearn, L; Gibson, B; Slack-Smith, L M

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous populations around the world have significantly poorer oral health and inequalities in access to dental care largely attribute to the social determinants of health. Reviewing international literature offers an opportunity to better understand appropriate approaches for policy and practice in Australia. This article is a descriptive narrative review based on primary research literature discussing informative international approaches to Indigenous dental care. Approaches identified in the literature included integration of dentistry with primary health care and traditional practice, training and use of oral health professionals and approaches used at different stages of life, particularly in the management of early childhood caries. The international literature provides a range of approaches to Indigenous oral health. Tailored, culturally appropriate family and community based initiatives that address the multidisciplinary issues confronting Indigenous communities were most highly regarded. PMID:25159709

  2. THE REPRESENTATION INDIGENOUS GUARANI MEMOIR IN BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hermínio Maldonado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The works of authors memoir, researched this, depict the lifestyles Guarani and conflicts involving territorial disputes between the eighteenth and mid-twentieth century. They report experiences and seek their opinion about the relationship between indigenous people and migrants, as the authors themselves, who came to southern Ontario then on business and looking for productive land. From these works it is understood as the Indians managed to hide the regional history and justify their judgments about this population without considering the culture and without social organization. The research is to understand the phenomenon of invisibility to which they are subject, not only the Guarani, but the other indigenous peoples today the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

  3. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2014-11-01

    In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

  4. Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhner, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

  5. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson Lynne; Da Costa Cliff; Jamison Jennifer R; Walker Bruce F; Vindigni Dein; Blunden Steve

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal an...

  6. The Double Binds of Indigeneity and Indigenous Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ludlow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, indigenous peoples have often embraced the category of indigenous while also having to face the ambiguities and limitations of this concept. Indigeneity, whether represented by indigenous people themselves or others, tends to face a “double bind”, as defined by Gregory Bateson, in which “no matter what a person does, he can’t win.” One exit strategy suggested by Bateson is meta-communication—communication about communication—in which new solutions emerge from a questioning of system-internal assumptions. We offer case studies from Ecuador, Peru and Alaska that chart some recent indigenous experiences and strategies for such scenarios.

  7. The development of an 'Indigenous team' in a mainstream mental health service in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielke, Ken; Cord-Udy, Nigel; Buckskin, John; Lattanzio, Adriana

    2009-08-01

    The Social Justice Report 2005 recommended that the governments of Australia commit to achieving equal health status for all Australians "within a generation". Improving the accessibility of mainstream health services for Aboriginal people is highlighted as a central requirement. This paper describes the establishment, roles and functions of the 'Indigenous team' embedded within the South Australian Rural and Remote Mental Health Service (RRMHS) as one strategy to improve access and responsiveness of mental health services to Aboriginal patients in South Australia. We report on our progress to date and possible future directions for the team. PMID:19579113

  8. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept......In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese companies in their vast numbers have been very successful in exploiting their access to low-cost labour and have established themselves as unbeatable high volume low-cost manufacturing...

  9. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  10. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means

  11. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  12. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  13. Information Technology and Indigenous People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

  14. Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enn, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

  15. Pedagogical Mentorship as an In - Service Training Resource: Perspectives From Teachers in Guatemalan R ural and Indigenous Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Katy de la Garza

    2016-01-01

    Rural and Indigenous populations have the lowest educational achievement indicators and teachers with the least years of training. Global education movements have led to an increase in access to schooling by rural and Indigenous populations but high drop-out rates persist and education policies, curricular contents, and teacher trainings have progressively become urban-biased and insensitive to context. Using a case from Guatemala, this study offers policy knowledge on rural and Indigenous te...

  16. Plasmin: indigenous milk proteinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important characteristic of plasmin, as significant indigenous milk proteinase, its concentration, concentration measuring procedure and activity of plasmin are described. The most important factors, which have an influence on concentration and plasmin activity in milk, are stage of lactation and mastitis (high somatic cell count – SCC. In high SCC milk indigenous proteinase activity increased, especially in plasmin and plasminogen system.Specific hydrolytic activity of plasmin during primary proteolysis of some casein fractions is described. ß-CN is most susceptible fraction, but αs1-CN and αs2-Cn are less susceptible to degradation by plasmin. Almost all fractions of κ-CN are resistant to degradation by plasmin. Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is very complex biochemical process influenced by activators and inhibitors in milk, and can be increased in high SCC milk. There are many various types of inhibitors in milk serum and ßlactoglobulin is the most important after its thermal denaturation. Addition of aprotinin and soybean tripsin inhibitors in milk inhibits plasmin activity. Most important characteristic of plasmin is its thermostability onpasteurisation and even sterilisation. Mechanism of thermal inactivation of plasmin with developing covalent disulphide interaction between molecule of plasmin and serum proteins (mostly ß-laktoglobulin is described. Thermosensitive inhibitors of plasminogen activators and inhibitors of plasmin are inactivated by short pasteurisation and therefore increase plasmin activity,while higher temperature and longer treatment time inactivate plasmin activity.

  17. Responding to Cultural Loss: Providing an Integral Indigenous Perspective of a "Kichwa Child"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maigua, Yolanda Terán; Gutierrez-Gomez, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    As Indigenous populations around the world migrate, urbanize, and come into contact with a variety of other cultures, they risk loss of their ancient languages and cultural practices. In 2007, the UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. In addition to the broader human rights like employment, security, and…

  18. "Urban-Rural" Dynamics and Indigenous Urbanization: The Case of Inuit Language Use in Ottawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donna; Budach, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of cities in Canada has played a pivotal role in the displacement, dispossession, and marginalization of Indigenous peoples. Yet, more than half of the Indigenous population now resides in cities, and urbanization continues to increase. This paper addresses a specific aspect of Inuit mobility--namely, migration and the dynamic…

  19. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jepsen

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  20. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  1. The spectrum of thyroid dysfunction in an Australian hepatitis C population treated with combination Interferon-α2β and Ribavirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batey Robert G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to assess the pattern of thyroid response to combination Interferon-α2β (IFN-α and Ribavirin (RBV anti-viral therapy in an Australian hepatitis C cohort. These include the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction (TD including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism and their possible predictors, the common overall pattern of thyroid function tests whilst receiving therapy and TD outcomes, and the correlation with HCV status outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis of all medical records was performed to assess thyroid function in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV patients who were treated at the Hunter Area hepatitis C treatment center between 1995 and March 2004. The centre is part of the John Hunter hospital, a major tertiary referral centre in New South Wales, Australia. Results There were 272 cases available for review. The prevalence of TD is 6.7 percent and is made up predominantly of females (80 percent. There were 3 (1.1 percent cases of hyperthyroidism with 2 (67 percent females. Thirteen out of fifteen (80 percent cases of hypothyroidism were females with the overall prevalence of 5.5 percent. The majority of hypothyroid patients still required Thyroxine supplement at the end of follow up. Conclusion Ninety three percent of HCV treated patients have intact thyroid function at the end of treatment. The predominant TD is hypothyroidism. The predominant pattern of thyrotoxicosis (TTX is that of thyroiditis although the number is small. Graves' like disease was not observed. People with pre-existing thyroid auto-antibodies should be closely monitored for thyroid dysfunction, particularly hypothyroidism.

  2. Beyond Savagery: The Limits of Australian ‘Aboriginalism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Anderson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ideas and representations of the supposedly savage condition of the New World's indigenous peoples have informed a now familiar account of colonialism. These have been understood as the ‘constructions’ of a discourse concerned to justify its colonisation of indigenous lands, and to legitimate its dispossession of indigenous peoples. There is no doubt that racial stereotypes were invoked to support colonialism. But their instrumentalisation—as self-serving constructions of ‘otherness’—has not only tended to define the colonial ‘encounter’ as a unilateral exercise of power; in so doing, it has effaced its very character as an encounter. In this paper, we critically engage this account of colonial discourse in its application to the Australian colonial context. Drawing less upon Edward Said’s description of the power of discourse, and more upon Homi Bhabha’s attempt to elicit its limits, our aim here is to restore to the Australian colonial encounter something of its specificity as an encounter. For this encounter, we argue here, provides a salient—if not a crucial—instance of the failure of colonial discourse to ‘construct’ Aboriginal peoples as savages.

  3. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  4. "To Take Their Heritage in Their Hands": Indigenous Self-Representation and Decolonization in the Community Museums of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoobler, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This article features the museums of Oaxaca, the place where the community museum movement in Mexico got started. Oaxaca has the largest Indigenous population in Mexico, with about 36.6% of the population over five years old, or about 1.027 million people, speaking an Indigenous language. Tourists spend large amounts on group or personalized tours…

  5. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  6. Indigenous plant remedies in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinemana, F; Drummond, R B; Mavi, S; de Zoysa, I

    1985-01-01

    Two household surveys undertaken in Zimbabwe between 1981 and 1983 revealed extensive use of indigenous plant remedies in the home-management of childhood diarrhoea and many adult illnesses. Names of the local plants, trees and shrubs are listed, together with the part of the plant used and the type of condition treated. The usage of medicinal plants underscores the need for further study of indigenous pharmacopoeias and the therapeutic properties of plants. The role of indigenous plant remedies within local health care systems is also worthy of closer investigation. PMID:4094463

  7. Australian G20 Presidency

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei G. Sakharov; Andrei V. Shelepov; Elizaveta A. Safonkina; Mark R. Rakhmangulov

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Australian presidency took place against the backdrop of multiple challenges in both global economy and international politics, with Ukrainian crisis, Syrian conflict, Islamic State, and Ebola. Thus, despite being an economic forum, the G20 could not avoid addressing these issues, with discussions taking place during the bilateral meetings and on the sidelines of the forum. The article attempts to analyze the Australian G20 Presidency within a functional paradigm, assessing G20 perfo...

  8. Many Bottles for Many Flies: Managing Conflict over Indigenous Peoples’ Cultural Heritage in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ritter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article critically considers the legal regulation of Indigenous people's cultural heritage in Western Australia and its operation within the framework of Australia's federal system of government. The article also sets out the different ways in which Indigenous cultural heritage is conceptualised, including as a public good analogous to property of the crown, an incidental right arising from group native title and as the subject of private contract. The article explores the various notions of 'Indigenous cultural heritage' that exist under Western Australian public law and the significant role of private contractual arrangements. Particular attention is devoted to the uneasy nexus between the laws of native title and heritage in Western Australia.

  9. 来自澳大利亚的经验:成人急性淋巴细胞白血病用Hyper-CVAD治疗的结果%Outcome of Treatment of Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Hyperfractionated Cyclophosphamide,Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Dexamethasone/Methotrexate, Cytarabine: Results from An Australian Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军民; 陆泽生

    2011-01-01

    1 文献来源Morris K,Weston H,Mollee P,et al.Outcome of treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia with hypeffractionated Cyclophosphamide,Doxorubicin,Vincristine,Dexamethasone/Methotrexate,Cytarabine:Results from an Australian population [J].Leuk Lymphoma,2011,52( 1 ):85-91.2 证据水平2b.%Department of Hematology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong Unverisity School of Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Shanghai 200025, China

  10. Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program on Hospital Admissions and Readmissions in an Australian Population with Heart Disease or Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamar, G Brent; Rula, Elizabeth Y.; Wells, Aaron; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E.; Larkin, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    Chronic disease management programs (CDMPs) were introduced in Australia to reduce unnecessary health care utilization by the growing population with chronic conditions; however, evidence of effectiveness is needed. This study evaluated the impact of a comprehensive CDMP, My Health Guardian (MHG), on rate of hospital admissions, readmissions, and average length of hospital stay (ALOS) for insured individuals with heart disease or diabetes. Primary outcomes were assessed through retrospective ...

  11. Indigenous knowledge and science revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.; Ogawa, Masakata

    2007-07-01

    This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.

  12. Variation in quality of preventive care for well adults in Indigenous community health centres in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hains Jenny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset and high prevalence of chronic disease among Indigenous Australians call for action on prevention. However, there is deficiency of information on the extent to which preventive services are delivered in Indigenous communities. This study examined the variation in quality of preventive care for well adults attending Indigenous community health centres in Australia. Methods During 2005-2009, clinical audits were conducted on a random sample (stratified by age and sex of records of adults with no known chronic disease in 62 Indigenous community health centres in four Australian States/Territories (sample size 1839. Main outcome measures: i adherence to delivery of guideline-scheduled services within the previous 24 months, including basic measurements, laboratory investigations, oral health checks, and brief intervention on lifestyle modification; and ii follow-up of abnormal findings. Results Overall delivery of guideline-scheduled preventive services varied widely between health centres (range 5-74%. Documentation of abnormal blood pressure reading ([greater than or equal to]140/90 mmHg, proteinuria and abnormal blood glucose ([greater than or equal to]5.5 mmol/L was found to range between 0 and > 90% at the health centre level. A similarly wide range was found between health centres for documented follow up check/test or management plan for people documented to have an abnormal clinical finding. Health centre level characteristics explained 13-47% of variation in documented preventive care, and the remaining variation was explained by client level characteristics. Conclusions There is substantial room to improve preventive care for well adults in Indigenous primary care settings. Understanding of health centre and client level factors affecting variation in the care should assist clinicians, managers and policy makers to develop strategies to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous communities.

  13. A long way from home: Access to cancer care for rural Australians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002, the Commonwealth Radiation Oncology Inquiry reported that access to cancer care services in Australia was seriously limited. Several recommendations were made, including improving access to cancer care in rural areas by increasing the number of comprehensive oncology facilities outside the cities. Much has changed since 2002, with the establishment of a number of Regional Integrated Cancer Centres. This has been boosted again in 2011 by further Commonwealth Government funding. Cancer is primarily a disease of the elderly and, with the ageing population access to cancer care for rural and remote Australians remains a major challenge. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in Australia, exceeded only by cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that the relative risk of dying of cancer within 5 years of diagnosis is 35% higher for those living in remote locations compared with major cities. Overall cancer mortality is significantly higher in rural and remote locations (206 deaths per 100,000) compared with urbanised areas (172 per 100,000). Cancer mortality is higher again for the Aboriginal population (230 per 100,000). The reasons for the disparity in cancer outcomes for metropolitan versus non-metropolitan Australians are varied. In general, rural and remote residents have to travel long distances and stay away from home, family and work for long periods of time to access the care they need. Hence, distance is the overriding barrier to access, compounded by the financial costs and disruption to family life, not to mention the endemic lack of specialist medical and allied health workforce outside the major cities. Some rural and remote Australians choose to compromise, accessing whatever care they can locally, although this contributes to the need for cancer care services close to where people choose to live and die, to deal with the complex associated morbidities. Recent government investment in new regional cancer care infrastructure is

  14. Non-indigenous freshwater plants

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Non-indigenous species (NIS) are species that are moved by man outside their native range. NIS that successfully pass through a number of invasion phases (i.e. introduction, establishment and invasion) are referred to as invasive species. Invasive species potentially cause severe environmental and economic impacts. This thesis highlights the invasion process of non-indigenous aquatic plant species. Patterns and processes in the establishment phase were assessed with a general focus. The impor...

  15. Introductory Essay: An Rx for Indigenous Health Inequality: The Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Spence

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is with great pleasure that I am able to serve as the first Special Guest Editor (health of the Inter-nationalIndigenous Policy Journal. This special edition is a compilation of some of the best research con-ducted on Indigenous populations. Moving beyond the disturbing trends so many of us are already well aware of, this body of research provides new theoretical, policy, and practical approaches for researchers, decision makers,and communities seeking to improve health outcomes for Indigenous populations.

  16. Insulin Resistance in Chileans of European and Indigenous Descent: Evidence for an Ethnicity x Environment Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Celis-Morales, C.A.; Perez-Bravo, F.; Ibañes, L.; Sanzana, R.; Hormazabal, E.; Ulloa, N.; Calvo, C.; Bailey, M.E.S.; Gill, J. M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. Methodology/Principal Findings: 123 Rural Ma...

  17. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  18. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin Lyle; Dharmage Shyamali C; Dassanayake Jayantha; Sundararajan Vijaya; Payne Warren R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001) and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity ...

  19. A systematic review of suicide prevention interventions targeting indigenous peoples in Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Anton C; Christopher M. Doran; Tsey, Komla

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand experience disproportionately high rates of suicide. As such, the methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting these Indigenous populations should be rigorously examined, in order to determine the extent to which they are effective for reducing rates of Indigenous suicide and suicidal behaviours. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify published evaluations of suicide p...

  20. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexu...