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Sample records for australian indigenous communities

  1. Understanding food security issues in remote Western Australian Indigenous communities.

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    Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.

  2. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

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    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  3. Child-Caregiver Interaction in Two Remote Indigenous Australian Communities

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    Jill eVaughan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As

  4. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  5. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities

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    Felicity A. Smout

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively. The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7% and soil (55.6% in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to “closing the gap” in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  6. Proposing a health promotion framework to address gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities.

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    Fogarty, Marisa; Coalter, Nicola; Gordon, Ashley; Breen, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Gambling impacts affect Australian Indigenous families and communities in diverse and complex ways. Indigenous people throughout Australia engage in a broad range of regulated and unregulated gambling activities. Challenges in this area include the complexities that come with delivering services and programmes between the most remote regions, to highly populated towns and cities of Australia. There is little knowledge transfer between states and territories in Australia and no conceptual understanding or analysis of what constitutes 'best practice' in gambling service delivery for Indigenous people, families and communities. This article reviews health promotion approaches used in Australia, with a particular focus on Indigenous and gambling-based initiatives. Contributing to this review is an examination of health promotion strategies used in Indigenous gambling service delivery in the Northern Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia, demonstrating diversity and innovation in approaches. The article concludes by emphasizing the potential value of adopting health promotion strategies to underpin programme and service delivery for addressing gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. However, success is contingent on robust, evidence-based programme design, implementation and evaluation that adhere to health promotion principles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

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    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  8. Mapping Point-of-Purchase Influencers of Food Choice in Australian Remote Indigenous Communities

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    Joanna Henryks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians relies, in part, on addressing the poor levels of nutrition in remote Indigenous communities (RIC. This article identifies and maps key influencers of food choice at the point-of-purchase (POP in Australian RIC and identifies gaps in our knowledge. It is based on a narrative review of the literature pertaining to food in RIC from a range of disciplinary perspectives including nutrition, ethnography, public health, anthropology, and remote health to map POP drivers of food choice. In particular, the role of habit is identified as a key factor that has previously not been discussed in the literature. The conceptual framework can be used as a basis for future POP research in RIC and provides guidance for social marketers, public health, nutrition, and policy workers operating in this field.

  9. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

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    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.

  10. An Australian Indigenous community-led suicide intervention skills training program: community consultation findings.

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    Nasir, Bushra; Kisely, Steve; Hides, Leanne; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Gill, Neeraj S; Hayman, Noel; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree

    2017-06-13

    Little is known of the appropriateness of existing gatekeeper suicide prevention programs for Indigenous communities. Despite the high rates of Indigenous suicide in Australia, especially among Indigenous youth, it is unclear how effective existing suicide prevention programs are in providing appropriate management of Indigenous people at risk of suicide. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with Indigenous communities in rural and regional areas of Southern Queensland. Thematic analysis was performed on the gathered information. Existing programs were time-intensive and included content irrelevant to Indigenous people. There was inconsistency in the content and delivery of gatekeeper training. Programs were also not sustainable for rural and regional Indigenous communities. Appropriate programs should be practical, relevant, and sustainable across all Indigenous communities, with a focus on the social, emotional, cultural and spiritual underpinnings of community wellbeing. Programs need to be developed in thorough consultation with Indigenous communities. Indigenous-led suicide intervention training programs are needed to mitigate the increasing rates of suicide experienced by Indigenous peoples living in rural and remote locations.

  11. Reporting rates of child sexual abuse in Indigenous communities in two Australian jurisdictions.

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    Bailey, Cate; Powell, Martine; Brubacher, Sonja

    2017-06-01

    Child sexual abuse is a significant problem in many Indigenous communities; there is also evidence of chronic under-reporting of this crime. This study aimed to compare reporting rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous cases of child sexual abuse across two Australian jurisdictions. Datasets comprising child sexual abuse reports from the Police Information Management Systems of the two jurisdictions were used to calculate reporting rates, and to compare case characteristics and case progression. Results indicated that the reporting rate for child sexual abuse of Indigenous children was between two and four times that of non-Indigenous children. In the Indigenous cases, the second jurisdiction had lower reporting rates than the first jurisdiction. Further analysis of the Indigenous cases only found that cases in the second jurisdiction were more severe, more likely to have a forensic interview, and more likely for the suspect to be charged, than in the first jurisdiction. However, there were no significant differences in conviction rates between the two jurisdictions. Differences observed in severity and case progression suggest that the lower reporting rates observed in the second jurisdiction may be due to comparatively high levels of under-reporting, rather than lower actual levels of child sexual abuse. In conclusion, reporting rates of child sexual abuse can be better understood when further information, such as case characteristics and case progression rates, is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon profiles of remote Australian Indigenous communities: A base for opportunities

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    Stewart, J.; Anda, M.; Harper, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A decision-making model was constructed to assist remote Australian Indigenous communities select appropriate climate change mitigation programs. The Resilient Community and Livelihood Asset Integration Model (ReCLAIM) comprises six steps that focus on community assets and aspirations. The second of these steps is to determine the baseline carbon profiles of communities based on six sources of carbon emissions: materials, construction processes, stationary energy, transport, water systems and waste. The methodology employed an annualised lifecycle analysis of housing materials and construction, and an annual inventory of other emission sources. Profiles were calculated for two remote communities and compared to the Australian average and also average electricity consumption by remote communities in the Northern Territory. The results, expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO 2 -e), showed that average household carbon profiles of the two communities (6.3 and 4.1 tCO 2 -e/capita/yr) were generally lower than the Australian average (7.3 tCO 2 -e/capita/yr). The stationary energy results revealed that infrastructure and building design could raise fuel consumption and costs, and therefore carbon emissions, despite modest lifestyles. The carbon emission categories differed between the two communities highlighting the need for an individualised approach to understanding the drivers of carbon emissions and mitigation responses. - Highlights: •We model carbon profiles of two remote Aboriginal communities. •Community carbon profiles were lower than the Australian average. •We compare stationary energy with a 72-community sample average. •Low-carbon communities are possible with renewable energy systems. •Building design and energy source can impact significantly on emissions.

  13. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

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    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  14. Sleep and academic performance in Indigenous Australian children from a remote community: an exploratory study.

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    Cooper, Patrick; Kohler, Mark; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Disruptions to sleep in childhood are associated with poor behaviour and deficits in academic performance and executive function. Although academic performance of indigenous children from remote communities in Australia is documented as well below that of non-indigenous children, the extent of sleep disruption and its contribution to academic performance among this population has not been assessed. This pilot study aimed to objectively assess the sleep of remote indigenous children and the association between sleep disruption and both academic performance and executive function. Twenty-one children from a remote Australian indigenous community aged 6-13 years wore actigraphy for two consecutive nights, reported subjective sleepiness, and were objectively assessed for academic performance (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition) and executive function (NEuroloPSYcological Assessment-II). Results show marked reduction in sleep time, sleep fragmentation, academic performance and auditory attention compared with non-indigenous norms. Sleep duration was not associated with performance, possibly because of reduced sleep and performance observed across the entire group. Sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced reading and numerical skills (P sleep of indigenous children in remote communities is an important area of future inquiry, and our initial findings of poor sleep and an association between sleep disruption and academic performance may have important implications for intervention strategies aimed at 'closing the gap'. Further studies should assess a broader range of demographic, social and economic factors to better understand the associations reported here and guide future intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Using breath carbon monoxide to validate self-reported tobacco smoking in remote Australian Indigenous communities

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    Ivers Rowena G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the specificity and sensitivity of a breath carbon monoxide (BCO test and optimum BCO cutoff level for validating self-reported tobacco smoking in Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory (NT. Methods In a sample of 400 people (≥16 years interviewed about tobacco use in three communities, both self-reported smoking and BCO data were recorded for 309 study participants. Of these, 249 reported smoking tobacco within the preceding 24 hours, and 60 reported they had never smoked or had not smoked tobacco for ≥6 months. The sample was opportunistically recruited using quotas to reflect age and gender balances in the communities where the combined Indigenous populations comprised 1,104 males and 1,215 females (≥16 years. Local Indigenous research workers assisted researchers in interviewing participants and facilitating BCO tests using a portable hand-held analyzer. Results A BCO cutoff of ≥7 parts per million (ppm provided good agreement between self-report and BCO (96.0% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity. An alternative cutoff of ≥5 ppm increased sensitivity from 96.0% to 99.6% with no change in specificity (93.3%. With data for two self-reported nonsmokers who also reported that they smoked cannabis removed from the analysis, specificity increased to 96.6%. Conclusion In these disadvantaged Indigenous populations, where data describing smoking are few, testing for BCO provides a practical, noninvasive, and immediate method to validate self-reported smoking. In further studies of tobacco smoking in these populations, cannabis use should be considered where self-reported nonsmokers show high BCO.

  16. The hookwormAncylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

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    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  17. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

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    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Culture and healthy lifestyles: a qualitative exploration of the role of food and physical activity in three urban Australian Indigenous communities.

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    Crowe, Ruth; Stanley, Rebecca; Probst, Yasmine; McMahon, Anne

    2017-08-01

    1) To explore the links between Indigenous Australian children's perspectives on culture, and healthy lifestyle behaviours. 2) To provide insight into how to approach the development of a health intervention targeting lifestyle behaviours in Australian Indigenous children. Seven semi-structured focus groups sessions were conducted with Australian Indigenous children aged 5-12 years living on the South Coast of New South Wales. Audio-recordings were transcribed and thematic analyses were conducted and related to principles of grounded theory. Participants had connections to aspects of Australian Indigenous culture that were embedded in their everyday lives. Healthy lifestyle behaviours (such as healthy eating and physical activity) were found to be interconnected with Australian Indigenous culture and positive emotional wellbeing was identified as an important outcome of connecting Australian Indigenous children to cultural practices. Understanding the importance of culture and its role in healthy lifestyles is critical in the development of health interventions for Indigenous populations. Health interventions embedded with Australian Indigenous culture may have potential to improve physical and emotional health within Australian Indigenous communities. However, it is unlikely that a 'one size fits all' approach to health interventions can be taken. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Indigenous Australian women's colonial sexual intimacies: positioning indigenous women's agency.

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    Sullivan, Corrinne Tayce

    2018-04-01

    Colonialist views of Indigenous bodies and sexualities continue to affect Indigenous peoples worldwide. For Indigenous Australians, this burden has resulted in repression and oppression of power, sex and desire. Focusing on the sexual intimacies of Indigenous Australian women, this paper provides an account of the dominant Australian historical discourses, finding that Indigenous women were viewed as exotic, erotic, something to be desired, yet simultaneously something to be feared. Our sexualities were described as savage, promiscuous and primitive and we were often viewed as prostitutes with our voices and views constrained by patriarchal and imperial regimes of power. But within this context, Indigenous women fought back through both individual and collective acts of agency. This paper demonstrates how Indigenous Australian women's agency not as a new phenomenon but rather as a position that disrupts the popular discourses of exploitation and victimhood that have been persistently perpetrated against Indigenous women.

  20. Stages of Change, Smoking Behaviour and Readiness to Quit in a Large Sample of Indigenous Australians Living in Eight Remote North Queensland Communities

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    Robyn McDermott

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major health issue for Indigenous Australians, however there are few interventions with demonstrated efficacy in this population. The Transtheoretical Model may provide a useful framework for describing smoking behaviour and assessing readiness to quit, with the aim of developing better interventions. Interviews were conducted with 593 Indigenous Australians in eight rural and remote communities in north Queensland, to examine stages of change and smoking behaviour. Among current smokers, 39.6% and 43.4% were in Precontemplation and Contemplation stages respectively. A further 13.9% were making preparations to quit (Preparation whilst only 3.2% said they were actively trying to quit (Action. When analysed by stage of change, the pattern of smoking-related behaviours conformed to the results of past research using the model. Importantly however, distribution of individuals across the stages opposes those observed in investigations of smoking behaviour in non-Indigenous Australian populations. The Transtheoretical Model can be used to meaningfully classify Indigenous smokers in remote north Queensland according to stages along the behaviour change continuum. Importantly, in this large sample across eight communities, most Indigenous smokers were not making preparations to change their smoking behaviour. This suggests that interventions should focus on promoting movement toward the Preparation and Action stages of change.

  1. Translation of tobacco policy into practice in disadvantaged and marginalized subpopulations: a study of challenges and opportunities in remote Australian Indigenous communities

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    Robertson Jan A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia generally, smoking prevalence more than halved after 1980 and recently commenced to decline among Australia's disadvantaged Indigenous peoples. However, in some remote Indigenous Australian communities in the Northern Territory (NT, extremely high rates of up to 83% have not changed over the past 25 years. The World Health Organisation has called for public health and political leadership to address a global tobacco epidemic. For Indigenous Australians, unprecedented policies aim to overcome disadvantage and close the 'health gap' with reducing tobacco use the top priority. This study identifies challenges and opportunities to implementing these important new tobacco initiatives in remote Indigenous communities. Methods: With little empirical evidence available, we interviewed 82 key stakeholders across the NT representing operational- and management-level service providers, local Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants to identify challenges and opportunities for translating new policies into successful tobacco interventions. Data were analysed using qualitative approaches to identify emergent themes. Results The 20 emergent themes were classified using counts of occasions each theme occurred in the transcribed data as challenge or opportunity. The 'smoke-free policies' theme occurred most frequently as opportunity but infrequently as challenge while 'health workforce capacity' occurred most frequently as challenge but less frequently as opportunity, suggesting that policy implementation is constrained by lack of a skilled workforce. 'Smoking cessation support' occurred frequently as opportunity but also frequently as challenge suggesting that support for individuals requires additional input and attention. Conclusions These results from interviews with local and operational-level participants indicate that current tobacco policies in Australia targeting Indigenous smoking are sound and comprehensive

  2. The Prevalence and Causes of Vision Loss in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians: The National Eye Health Survey.

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    Foreman, Joshua; Xie, Jing; Keel, Stuart; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Sandhu, Sukhpal Singh; Ang, Ghee Soon; Fan Gaskin, Jennifer; Crowston, Jonathan; Bourne, Rupert; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To conduct a nationwide survey on the prevalence and causes of vision loss in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based survey. Indigenous Australians aged 40 years or older and non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older. Multistage random-cluster sampling was used to select 3098 non-Indigenous Australians and 1738 Indigenous Australians from 30 sites across 5 remoteness strata (response rate of 71.5%). Sociodemographic and health data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Trained examiners conducted standardized eye examinations, including visual acuity, perimetry, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure, and fundus photography. The prevalence and main causes of bilateral presenting vision loss (visual acuity Indigenous Australians and 6.5% (95% CI, 5.3-7.9) in non-Indigenous Australians. Vision loss was 2.8 times more prevalent in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians after age and gender adjustment (17.7%, 95% CI, 14.5-21.0 vs. 6.4%, 95% CI, 5.2-7.6, P Indigenous Australians, the leading causes of vision loss were uncorrected refractive error (61.3%), cataract (13.2%), and age-related macular degeneration (10.3%). In Indigenous Australians, the leading causes of vision loss were uncorrected refractive error (60.8%), cataract (20.1%), and diabetic retinopathy (5.2%). In non-Indigenous Australians, increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.72 per decade) and having not had an eye examination within the past year (OR, 1.61) were risk factors for vision loss. Risk factors in Indigenous Australians included older age (OR, 1.61 per decade), remoteness (OR, 2.02), gender (OR, 0.60 for men), and diabetes in combination with never having had an eye examination (OR, 14.47). Vision loss is more prevalent in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians, highlighting that improvements in eye healthcare in Indigenous communities are required. The leading causes of

  3. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

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    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  4. Healthier times?: revisiting Indigenous Australian health history.

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    Blyton, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The perception that Indigenous Australians were primitive hunters and gatherers who lived in a nomadic 'Stone Age' culture resonates through most narratives found on Indigenous people in pre-colonial times. This narrative is better placed in the realm of myth; I contest claims that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians was only forty years in pre-colonial times, by providing suggestive evidence that there is a strong probability that longevity favoured Indigenous Australians in comparison to many poorer sectors of the European population living in slum habitats. As well, I will challenge notions that Indigenous Australians were more violent than supposedly 'civilised' nations. Finally I express the hope that future researchers will revisit archival sources to develop a more nuanced perspective on the past.

  5. Improving Business Investment Confidence in Culture-Aligned Indigenous Economies in Remote Australian Communities: A Business Support Framework to Better Inform Government Programs

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    Ann E. Fleming

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that culture-aligned economies are more effective in engaging remote-living Indigenous Australians in work long-term. Despite this evidence, governments remain resistant to investing substantially in these economies, with the result that low employment rates persist. This article argues that governmental systems of organisation are not designed to support non-mainstream economies and this position is unlikely to change. Similarly, the commercial sector lacks confidence that investing in culture-aligned economies will generate financial returns. This article presents a localised, pragmatic approach to Indigenous business support that works within existing systems of government, business and culture. Most unsuccessful programs fail to recognise the full suite of critical factors for sustained market engagement by both business and Indigenous people. This article reports on work to bring all critical factors together into a business support framework to inform the design and implementation of an aquaculture development program in a remote Indigenous Australian community.

  6. Perceived barriers and enablers to participation in a community-tailored physical activity program with Indigenous Australians in a regional and rural setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Engelberg, Terry; Gebel, Klaus

    2017-09-18

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of chronic disease and a lower life expectancy than non-Indigenous Australians. In non-urban areas these health disparities are even larger. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore perceived barriers and enablers to attending an eight-week physical activity program in a rural and regional setting which aimed to improve health outcomes, but had a low attendance rate. Thirty-four Indigenous Australians participated in the intervention from the rural (n = 12) and the regional (n = 22) community. Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at the follow-up health assessments with 12 participants. A thematic network analysis was undertaken to examine the barriers and enablers to participation in the program. Overall, there were positive attitudes to, and high levels of motivation towards, the physical activity program. Enablers to participation were the inclusion of family members, no financial cost and a good relationship with the principal investigator, which was strengthened by the community-based participatory approach to the program design. Barriers to program attendance were mostly beyond the control of the individuals, such as 'sorry business', needing to travel away from the community and lack of community infrastructure. More consideration is needed prior to implementation of programs to understand how community-specific barriers and enablers will affect attendance to the program. ACTRN12616000497404 . Registered 18 April 2016.

  7. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  8. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community

  9. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  10. Feasibility of a novel participatory multi-sector continuous improvement approach to enhance food security in remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, J; Bailie, R; van den Boogaard, C; Wood, B; Liberato, S C; Ferguson, M; Coveney, J; Jaenke, R; Ritchie, J

    2017-12-01

    Food insecurity underlies and compounds many of the development issues faced by remote Indigenous communities in Australia. Multi-sector approaches offer promise to improve food security. We assessed the feasibility of a novel multi-sector approach to enhance community food security in remote Indigenous Australia. A longitudinal comparative multi-site case study, the Good Food Systems Good Food for All Project, was conducted (2009-2013) with four Aboriginal communities. Continuous improvement meetings were held in each community. Data from project documents and store sales were used to assess feasibility according to engagement, uptake and sustainability of action, and impact on community diet, as well as identifying conditions facilitating or hindering these. Engagement was established where: the community perceived a need for the approach; where trust was developed between the community and facilitators; where there was community stability; and where flexibility was applied in the timing of meetings. The approach enabled stakeholders in each community to collectively appraise the community food system and plan action. Actions that could be directly implemented within available resources resulted from developing collaborative capacity. Actions requiring advocacy, multi-sectoral involvement, commitment or further resources were less frequently used. Positive shifts in community diet were associated with key areas where actions were implemented. A multi-sector participatory approach seeking continuous improvement engaged committed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders and was shown to have potential to shift community diet. Provision of clear mechanisms to link this approach with higher level policy and decision-making structures, clarity of roles and responsibilities, and processes to prioritise and communicate actions across sectors should further strengthen capacity for food security improvement. Integrating this approach enabling local decision-making into

  11. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  12. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

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    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  13. The association between C-reactive protein levels and the risk for chronic kidney disease hospitalizations in adults of a remote Indigenous Australian community - A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Luke W; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-01

    Indigenous Australians are significantly burdened by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with diabetes and cardiovascular incidence in previous studies. Elevated CRP has been associated with albuminuria and reduced eGFR in cross-sectional studies. This study investigated the long-term predictive association between CRP measured at a baseline exam and the incidence of a CKD-related hospitalization. Health screening examinations were conducted in individuals of a remote indigenous Australian community between 1992 and 1998. The risk of subsequent CKD hospitalisations, documented through Northern Territory hospital records up to 2010, was estimated with Cox proportional hazard models in people aged over 18 years at the baseline screen and who had albumin-creatinine ratios (ACRs) less than 34g/mol. 546 participants were eligible for our study. Individuals in the highest CRP tertile at baseline had increased levels of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. They also had almost 4 times the risk of a CKD-related hospitalisation compared with participants in the lowest CRP tertile (HR=3.91, 95%CI 1.01-15.20, P=0.049) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Participants with CRP concentrations greater than 3mg/L had almost 3 times the risk of CKD hospitalisations than those ≤3mg/L (HR=2.84, 95%CI 1.00-8.00, P=0.049). Furthermore, risk of CKD hospitalisations increased 34% per doubling of baseline CRP (HR=1.34, 95%CI 1.04-1.74, P=0.024). In individuals in this remote indigenous community without overt albuminuria at baseline the risk for incident CKD related hospitalisations was predicted by elevated C-reactive protein levels almost a decade earlier. Further research is needed to understand the roles that CRP and systemic inflammation play in CKD risk. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. Reconceptualising water quality governance to incorporate knowledge and values: Case studies from Australian and Brazilian Indigenous communities

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    Kate A. Berry

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the significance of knowledge and values for water quality and its governance. Modernist approaches to the governance of water quality in rivers and lakes need to be reconceptualised and overhauled. The problems include: perceiving water only as a physical and chemical liquid, defining quality in narrow terms, rendering water knowledge as invisible, boiling down water values to uses of presumed economic importance and limiting how and by whom objectives are set or actions taken. In addressing the need to reframe water quality governance, and as a counter to the objectification of water quality, we propose a framework that explicitly recognises the significance of knowledge and values relating to water. While our framework could apply to other contexts under the influence of modernist water-management regimes, here we pay particular attention to the relevance of the water knowledge, values and governance of water quality by Indigenous people. In the second half of the paper we address issues related to Indigenous water-quality governance in two countries, Brazil and Australia, showing some of the ways in which, despite enormous obstacles, Indigenous communities re-work governance structures through their engagements with water quality and pay attention to water knowledge and values.

  15. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

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    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  16. What Indigenous Australian clients value about primary health care: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Judith Streak; Gibson, Odette; Dwyer, Judith; O'Donnell, Kim; Stephenson, Matthew; Carter, Drew; Canuto, Kootsy; Munn, Zachary; Aromataris, Edoardo; Brown, Alex

    2017-08-01

    To synthesise client perceptions of the unique characteristics and value of care provided in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) compared to mainstream/general practitioner services, and implications for improving access to quality, appropriate primary health care for Indigenous Australians. Standardised systematic review methods with modification informed by ethical and methodological considerations in research involving Indigenous Australians. Perceived unique valued characteristics of ACCHOs were: 1) accessibility, facilitated by ACCHOs welcoming social spaces and additional services; 2) culturally safe care; and 3) appropriate care, responsive to holistic needs. Provider-client relationships characterised by shared understanding of clients' needs, Indigenous staff, and relationships between clients who share the same culture, are central to ACCHO clients' perceptions of ACCHOs' unique value. The client perceptions provide insights about how ACCHOs address socio-economic factors that contribute to high levels of chronic disease in Indigenous communities, why mainstream PHC provider care cannot substitute for ACCHO care, and how to improve accessibility and quality of care in mainstream providers. Implications for public health: To increase utilisation of PHC services in Indigenous Australian communities, and help close the gaps between the health status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, Indigenous community leaders and Australian governments should prioritise implementing effective initiatives to support quality health care provision by ACCHOs. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

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    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  18. Difficult conversations: Australian Indigenous patients' views on kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Jeannie; Anderson, Kate; Cunningham, Joan; Preece, Cilla; Snelling, Paul; Cass, Alan

    2017-10-11

    Indigenous Australians suffer a disproportionate burden of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) but are significantly less likely to receive a transplant. This study explores Indigenous ESKD patients' views on transplantation as a treatment option. The Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT) research program investigated barriers to kidney transplantation for Indigenous Australians. An interview study, conducted in 2005-2006, elicited illness experience narratives from 146 Indigenous patients, including views on transplant. Interviews were conducted at 26 sites that collectively treat the majority of Indigenous ESKD patients. Key themes were identified via team consensus meetings, providing a flexible framework and focus for continued coding. Four inter-related themes were identified in patient commentary: a very high level (90% of respondents) of positive interest in transplantation; patients experienced a range of communication difficulties and felt uninformed about transplant; family involvement in decision-making was constrained by inadequate information; and patients needed to negotiate cultural and social sensitivities around transplantation. Indigenous ESKD patients demonstrated an intense interest in transplantation preferring deceased over living kidney donation. Patients believe transplant is the path most likely to support the re-establishment of their 'normal' family life. Patients described themselves as poorly informed; most had only a rudimentary knowledge of the notion of transplant but no understanding of eligibility criteria, the transplant procedure and associated risks. Patients experienced multiple communication barriers that - taken together - undermine their engagement in treatment decision-making. Families and communities are disempowered because they also lack information to reach a shared understanding of transplantation. Cultural sensitivities associated with transplantation were described but these did not appear to constrain patients

  19. Legacies of Resistance: Australian Indigenous Resistance Leaders in Indigenous Film, Theatre and Literature

    OpenAIRE

    MATTEO DUTTO

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous resistance to colonisation is a key theme in Australian Indigenous frontier histories, although most knowledge on these events is drawn from non-indigenous sources of information and framed within Western historiographies that can mask continuities between past and present. This thesis develops a decolonising framework to look at how Indigenous cultural producers are redressing this rift through retellings of their stories of Indigenous resistance leaders like Pemulwuy (Bidjigal), ...

  20. Chiropractors` experience and readiness to work in Indigenous Australian Communities: a preliminary cross-sectional survey to explore preparedness, perceived barriers and facilitators for chiropractors practising cross-culturally

    OpenAIRE

    Vindigni, Dein; Polus, Barbara I.; Cleary, Sonja; Doyle, Aunty Kerrie

    2017-01-01

    Background Indigenous people make up approximately 3% of the total Australian population and score poorer on all health indices, including back pain. Chiropractors are well placed to alleviate back pain, yet there is no research that considers chiropractors? readiness to treat Indigenous patients. This study explores chiropractors` experience working with Indigenous Australians, describes perceived barriers and facilitators to chiropractors? participation in Indigenous Healthcare and their wi...

  1. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

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    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  2. Microbiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis-Bardy, J; Carney, A S; Duguid, R; Leach, A J

    2017-07-01

    To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. Literature review. Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx. Culture-based middle-ear discharge studies have found that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae predominate, with Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in a lower proportion of samples. Alloiococcus otitidis was detected in a number of studies; however, its role in otitis media pathogenesis remains controversial. Nasopharyngeal colonisation is a risk factor for otitis media in Indigenous infants, and bacterial load of otopathogens in the nasopharynx can predict the ear state of Indigenous children. Most studies have used culture-based methods and specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx. Findings from these studies are consistent with international literature, but reliance on culture may incorrectly characterise the microbiology of this condition. Advances in genomic technologies are now providing microbiologists with the ability to analyse the entire mixed bacterial communities ('microbiomes') of samples obtained from Indigenous children with otitis media.

  3. Spirometry reference values in Indigenous Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tamara L; Chang, Anne B; Petsky, Helen L; Rodwell, Leanne T; Brown, Michael G; Hill, Debra C; Thompson, Bruce; McElrea, Margaret S

    2016-07-04

    To evaluate published spirometry data for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples to determine (i) whether their ethnicity influenced spirometry results; and (ii) if any reliable spirometry reference values exist for Indigenous Australians. Systematic review of published and grey literature. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, references of included articles and appropriate grey literature. Last searches were conducted in April 2016. We included any study that performed spirometry on healthy Indigenous Australians and compared their results with those from people of European ancestry. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts and then reviewed potentially relevant full-text articles for possible inclusion. We used PRISMA systematic review reporting methods to collate data. Of a possible 125 studies, 18 full-text articles were reviewed, but only nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria. None specified Torres Strait Islander inclusion. All studies reported lower spirometry values (as much as 30% lower) for Aboriginal people compared with non-Indigenous people. Five studies developed spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians; however, none adhered to all participant inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. Hence, reported results and subsequent reference values may not be a true representation of spirometry values in healthy Indigenous people. The lower spirometry values reported for Indigenous Australians may be due to study limitations. Furthermore, there are currently no reliable spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians that adhere to current guidelines. Developing a set of Indigenous Australian reference values will improve the accuracy of test interpretation and aid in the diagnosis of respiratory disease in this population.

  4. Personalised Medicine: A New Approach to Improving Health in Indigenous Australian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Kym M; Grimson, Steve; Pringle, Kirsty G

    2017-01-01

    Personalised medicine is a newly emerging field with much to offer to all populations in improved clinical treatment options. Since the 1970s, clinicians and researchers have all been working towards improving the health of Indigenous Australians. However, there has been little research on the impact of genetics on Indigenous health, how genetic and environmental factors interact to contribute to poor health in Indigenous people, and how genetic factors specific to Indigenous people affect their responses to particular treatments. This short review highlights the urgent need for more genetic studies specific to Indigenous people in order to provide more appropriate care and to improve health outcomes. This paper explores why genetic work with Indigenous communities has been limited, how personalised medicine could benefit Indigenous communities, and highlights a number of specific instances in which personalised medicine has been critical for improving morbidity and mortality in other high-risk groups. In order to take the next step in advancing the health of Indigenous peoples, targeted research into the genetic factors behind chronic diseases is critically needed. This research may allow clinicians a better understanding of how genetic factors interact with environmental factors to influence an Indigenous Australian's individual risk of disease, prognosis, and response to therapies. It is hoped that this knowledge will produce clinical interventions that will help deliver clearly targeted, more appropriate care to this at-risk population. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

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    Thomas Merlin C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  6. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

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    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in

  7. Dangerous Dancing: A Commentary on Australian Indigenous Communication Futures

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    Michael Hugo Meadows

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities in Australia have fought for access to the airwaves, despite resistance from the dominant European population. The uncertainty of the government policymaking process has created challenges for Indigenous media producers in appropriating a range of media technologies to serve Indigenous interests. Indigenous-produced media provides a first level of service to communities across the continent but the struggle to maintain this complex communication system continues.

  8. Alcohol management plans in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian communities in Queensland: community residents have experienced favourable impacts but also suffered unfavourable ones

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    Alan R. Clough

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, ‘Alcohol Management Plans’ (AMPs provide the policy infrastructure for State and Commonwealth Governments to address problematic alcohol use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We report community residents’ experiences of AMPs in 10 of Queensland’s 15 remote Indigenous communities. Methods This cross-sectional study used a two-stage sampling strategy: N = 1211; 588 (48% males, 623 (52% females aged ≥18 years in 10 communities. Seven propositions about ‘favourable’ impacts and seven about ‘unfavourable’ impacts were developed from semi-structured interviews. For each proposition, one-sample tests of proportions examined participant agreement and multivariable binary logistic regressions assessed influences of gender, age (18–24, 25–44, 45–64, ≥65 years, residence (≥6 years, current drinking and Indigenous status. Confirmatory factor analyses estimated scale reliability (ρ, item loadings and covariances. Results Slim majorities agreed that: AMPs reduced violence (53%, p = 0.024; community a better place to live (54%, 0.012; and children were safer (56%, p < 0.001. More agreed that: school attendance improved (66%, p < 0.001; and awareness of alcohol’s harms increased (71%, p < 0.001. Participants were equivocal about improved personal safety (53%, p = 0.097 and reduced violence against women (49%, p = 0.362. The seven ‘favourable’ items reliably summarized participants’ experiences of reduced violence and improved community amenity (ρ = 0.90. Stronger agreement was found for six ‘unfavourable’ items: alcohol availability not reduced (58%, p < 0.001; drinking not reduced (56%, p < 0.001; cannabis use increased (69%, p < 0.001; more binge drinking (73%, p < 0.001; discrimination experienced (77%, p < 0.001; increased fines, convictions and criminal records for breaching restrictions (90%, p < 0

  9. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

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    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  10. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  11. Healthcare expenditure on Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Blake; Laba, Tracey-Lea; Lung, Tom; Brown, Alex; Eades, Sandra; Usherwood, Tim; Peiris, David; Billot, Laurent; Hillis, Graham; Webster, Ruth; Tonkin, Andrew; Reid, Christopher; Molanus, Barbara; Rafter, Natasha; Cass, Alan; Patel, Anushka; Jan, Stephen

    2017-06-23

    In spite of bearing a heavier burden of death, disease and disability, there is mixed evidence as to whether Indigenous Australians utilise more or less healthcare services than other Australians given their elevated risk level. This study analyses the Medicare expenditure and its predictors in a cohort of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The healthcare expenditure of participants of the Kanyini Guidelines Adherence with the Polypill (GAP) pragmatic randomised controlled trial was modelled using linear regression methods. 535 adult (48% Indigenous) participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were recruited through 33 primary healthcare services (including 12 Aboriginal Medical Services) across Australia. There was no significant difference in the expenditure of Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants in non-remote areas following adjustment for individual characteristics. Indigenous individuals living in remote areas had lower MBS expenditure ($932 per year P Indigenous determine the level of Medicare expenditure for each person. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 126080005833347.

  12. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

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    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  13. Sleep, performance and behaviour in Australian indigenous and non-indigenous children: an exploratory comparison.

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    Blunden, Sarah; Chervin, Ronald D

    2010-01-01

    Sleep problems in Australian children are common and consequential but have not been investigated in Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (indigenous) children. This study compares sleep in indigenous and non-indigenous children and investigates potential effects on school performance and daytime behaviour. Subjects included 25 indigenous and 25 non-indigenous children (mean standard deviation (SD) age = 8.8 (1.4 years), range 7-11.11 years), in six Northern Territory primary schools. Parents completed the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children which produces a T-score (mean = 50 (SD = 10)) for behavioural sleep disorders, sleep disordered breathing, parasomnias, excessive daytime sleepiness and night sweating. Behaviour and school grades were assessed with the parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist. Behavioural sleep problems of initiating and maintaining sleep, or parasomnias were commonly reported by both groups (24-40%), with indigenous children under 9 years reporting the most problems. No between-group differences were found in school performance. Significant relationships between sleep quality and behaviours were found, particularly for indigenous children. These data suggest that substantial numbers of Australian children - more than one third in this pilot sample - may suffer from significant sleep problems. To the extent that sleep problems may impair prefrontal cortical function, emotional regulation, and control of behaviour, confirmation of current findings could have particular import for indigenous children.

  14. Engaging Indigenous Students in the Australian SKA Project

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    Hollow, Robert; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Brooks, Kate; Boddington, Leonie

    2015-08-01

    The Murchison region of Western Australia is the site of the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) that includes the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) and soon the SKA. This is also traditional land of the Wajarri Yamatji people. As part of its development in the region CSIRO has extensive engagement with the Wajarri Yamatji people. This includes educational, cultural, training and commercial opportunities. We outline the Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) between the Wajarri Yamatji and CSIRO, focusing on the educational and training aspects. Starting with "Wildflowers in the Sky" program in 2006 we have made extensive tours to all schools in the region providing teacher training and student engagement. More recently we have implemented a program where CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science staff visit the Pia Wadjarri Remote Community School, the closest school to the MRO, to mentor students. Students and staff from the school visit the MRO annually to explore the ASKAP telescope and see what is involved in its operation. An educational resource about ASKAP and astronomy that also incorporates traditional sky stories and local ecology is being trialled and developed. A cadetship and trainee program supporting Indigenous students has been implemented with the goal of providing employment opportunities and work skills in a diverse range of areas.

  15. Systematic review to inform prevention and management of chronic disease for Indigenous Australians: overview and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Judith Streak; Canuto, Karla; Aromataris, Edoardo; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Brown, Alex

    2016-02-01

    To describe the main characteristics of systematic reviews addressing questions of chronic disease and related risk factors for Indigenous Australians. We searched databases for systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. Two reviewers assessed quality and extracted characteristics using pre-defined tools. We identified 14 systematic reviews. Seven synthesised evidence about health intervention effectiveness; four addressed chronic disease or risk factor prevalence; and six conducted critical appraisal as per current best practice. Only three reported steps to align the review with standards for ethical research with Indigenous Australians and/or capture Indigenous-specific knowledge. Most called for more high-quality research. Systematic review is an under-utilised method for gathering evidence to inform chronic disease prevention and management for Indigenous Australians. Relevance of future systematic reviews could be improved by: 1) aligning questions with community priorities as well as decision maker needs; 2) involvement of, and leadership by, Indigenous researchers with relevant cultural and contextual knowledge; iii) use of critical appraisal tools that include traditional risk of bias assessment criteria and criteria that reflect Indigenous standards of appropriate research. Systematic review method guidance, tools and reporting standards are required to ensure alignment with ethical obligations and promote rigor and relevance. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program

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    Condon John R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.

  17. Reducing the health disparities of Indigenous Australians: time to change focus.

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    Durey, Angela; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-06-10

    Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of 'White', Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers' past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role 'Whiteness' plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised racism was manifest when Indigenous patients incorporated racist

  18. Otitis media in Indigenous Australian children: review of epidemiology and risk factors.

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    Jervis-Bardy, Jake; Sanchez, L; Carney, A S

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media represents a major health concern in Australian Indigenous children ('Indigenous children'), which has persisted, despite public health measures, for over 30 years. Global searches were performed to retrieve peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature investigating the epidemiology of and risk factors for otitis media in Indigenous children, published between 1985 and 2012. In Indigenous children, the prevalence of otitis media subtypes is 7.1-12.8 per cent for acute otitis media, 10.5-30.3 per cent for active chronic otitis media and 31-50 per cent for tympanic membrane perforation. The initial onset of otitis media in Indigenous children occurs earlier and persists for longer after the first year of life, compared with non-Indigenous children. Indigenous children are colonised by otopathogens more frequently, at younger ages and with a higher bacterial load. Poor community and domestic infrastructure, overcrowding and exposure to tobacco smoke increase the risk of otitis media in Indigenous children; however, the availability of swimming pools plays no role in the prevention or management of otitis media. Despite awareness of the epidemiological burden of otitis media and its risk factors in Indigenous children, studies undertaken since 1985 demonstrate that otitis media remains a significant public health concern in this population.

  19. Exploring Positive Survivorship Experiences of Indigenous Australian Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst Indigenous Australians, “cancer” has negative connotations that detrimentally impact upon access to cancer care services. Barriers to accessing cancer services amongst Indigenous Australians are widely reported. In contrast, factors that facilitate this cohort to successfully navigate cancer care services (“enablers” are scarcely reported in the literature. Through qualitative interviews, this article examines factors that assist Indigenous Australians to have positive cancer experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve adult Indigenous oncology patients recruited from a tertiary hospital in Queensland, Australia during 2012–2014. Data generated from the interviews were independently reviewed by two researchers via inductive thematic analytical processes. Discussions followed by consensus on the major categories allowed conclusions to be drawn on potential enablers. Two major categories of enablers were identified by the researchers: resilience and communication. Individual’s intrinsic strength, their coping strategies, and receipt of support improved participant’s resilience and consequently supported a positive experience. Communication methods and an effective patient-provider relationship facilitated positive experiences for participants. Despite potential barriers to access of care for Indigenous cancer patients, participants in the study demonstrated that it was still possible to focus on the positive aspects of their cancer experiences. Many participants explained how cancer changed their outlook on life, often for the better, with many feeling empowered as they progressed through their cancer diagnosis and treatment processes.

  20. The contribution of geography to disparities in preventable hospitalisations between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Timothy C; Randall, Deborah A; Falster, Michael O; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.

  1. Need for an Australian Indigenous disability workforce strategy: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, John; Dew, Angela; Lincoln, Michelle; Hines, Monique

    2017-08-01

    To identify approaches for developing workforce capacity to deliver the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) to Indigenous people with disability in Australian rural and remote communities. A narrative review of peer-reviewed and gray literature was undertaken. Searches of electronic databases and websites of key government and non-government organizations were used to supplement the authors' knowledge of literature that (a) focused on Indigenous peoples in Australia or other countries; (b) referred to people with disability; (c) considered rural/remote settings; (d) recommended workforce strategies; and (e) was published in English between 2004 and 2014. Recommended workforce strategies in each publication were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Six peer-reviewed articles and 12 gray publications met inclusion criteria. Three broad categories of workforce strategies were identified: (a) community-based rehabilitation (CBR) and community-centered approaches; (b) cultural training for all workers; and (c) development of an Indigenous disability workforce. An Indigenous disability workforce strategy based on community-centered principles and incorporating cultural training and Indigenous disability workforce development may help to ensure that Indigenous people with a disability in rural and remote communities benefit from current disability sector reforms. Indigenous workforce development requires strategies to attract and retain Aboriginal workers. Implications for Rehabilitation Indigenous people with disability living in rural and remote areas experience significant access and equity barriers to culturally appropriate supports and services that enable them to live independent, socially inclusive lives. A workforce strategy based on community-centered principles has potential for ensuring that the disability services sector meets the rehabilitation needs of Aboriginal people with disability living in rural and remote areas. Cultural training and

  2. Cultural challenges when developing anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Stevenson, Leah C; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2018-04-01

    Recently, many programs have been funded to tackle Indigenous Australian smoking. This study assessed what challenges and unexpected responses could occur when developing anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous communities. A cross-sectional telephone survey of organizations involved in making anti-tobacco messages for the target population was conducted in 2012-2013. Open-ended questions explored cultural challenges to message development and unexpected outcomes. Responses were noted and these qualitative data were independently coded by two researchers using an inductive analysis. Non-parametric tests explored associations between organization orientation, whether target group feedback about messages was sought (pre-tests) and the presence of the above factors. The 47 organizations represented included: 22 Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS), 13 government organizations (GO), eight non-government organizations (NGO) and four universities. The response rate was 83%. Cultural challenges were reported equally by organizations oriented towards Aboriginal communities and those oriented towards the general population. Organizations conducting target group pre-tests of the messages were more likely to report cultural challenges (p = 0.002). Four main themes were revealed: the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures; the selection of role models; conflicts and delays; and unexpected outcomes. Nearly 60% of organizations reported better-than-expected outcomes e.g. community appreciation and pride. A further 40% reported negative responses, e.g. messages being misunderstood or confronting. Cultural challenges and unexpected outcomes are reported by Australian organizations when developing anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous Australians warranting attention to improve the salience of anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous peoples.NB. In this paper, Indigenous Australians is a term used to refer to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the first

  3. Physical activity among indigenous Australian children and youth in remote and non-remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John Robert; Wilson, Rachel; Coleman, Clare; Man, Wing Young Nicola; Olds, Tim

    2018-04-17

    Sport and physical activity (PA) hold particular significance in Australian Indigenous communities, and have the potential to address many of the health and education challenges faced by Indigenous communities. Optimal levels of PA are an important foundation in efforts to build healthy communities and reduce social disadvantage experienced to date. Yet little evidence relating to the current levels of PA within these communities, or the relationship between PA and outcomes, has been available. Drawing on national survey data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, we examine levels of PA in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13. These data describe PA levels among Indigenous Australians, aged 5-17 years, in remote and non-remote communities. We also examine the relationship between PA and participation in education and self-reported health among 15-17 year olds. Overall, participation rates appear to be high, with 64-84% of youth reporting at least 60 min of PA on the previous day. A gender gap was also evident, with lower levels of activity among girls. PA decreased with age, particularly at or around the age of puberty. There were no significant associations between PA and either self-reported health or engagement in study. There was a relationship between high PA and low area-level socio-economic status in remote areas, but no association in non-remote areas. The differences between remote and non-remote areas highlight the importance of disaggregated analysis of Indigenous populations and are consistent with qualitative studies identifying locally contextualised factors influential in promoting PA. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social and emotional wellbeing assessment instruments for use with Indigenous Australians: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grande, M; Ski, C F; Thompson, D R; Scuffham, P; Kularatna, S; Jackson, A C; Brown, A

    2017-08-01

    There is growing recognition that in addition to universally recognised domains and indicators of wellbeing (such as population health and life expectancy), additional frameworks are required to fully explain and measure Indigenous wellbeing. In particular, Indigenous Australian wellbeing is largely determined by colonisation, historical trauma, grief, loss, and ongoing social marginalisation. Dominant mainstream indicators of wellbeing based on the biomedical model may therefore be inadequate and not entirely relevant in the Indigenous context. It is possible that "standard" wellbeing instruments fail to adequately assess indicators of health and wellbeing within societies that have a more holistic view of health. The aim of this critical review was to identify, document, and evaluate the use of social and emotional wellbeing measures within the Australian Indigenous community. The instruments were systematically described regarding their intrinsic properties (e.g., generic v. disease-specific, domains assessed, extent of cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric characteristics) and their purpose of utilisation in studies (e.g., study setting, intervention, clinical purpose or survey). We included 33 studies, in which 22 distinct instruments were used. Three major categories of social and emotional wellbeing instruments were identified: unmodified standard instruments (10), cross-culturally adapted standard instruments (6), and Indigenous developed measures (6). Recommendations are made for researchers and practitioners who assess social and emotional wellbeing in Indigenous Australians, which may also be applicable to other minority groups where a more holistic framework of wellbeing is applied. It is advised that standard instruments only be used if they have been subject to a formal cross-cultural adaptation process, and Indigenous developed measures continue to be developed, refined, and validated within a diverse range of research and clinical settings

  5. Comparison of outcomes in Australian indigenous and non-indigenous children and adolescents undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Edward R; Reeves, Benjamin M; Ware, Robert S; Johnson, Janelle C; Karl, Tom R; Alphonso, Nelson D; Justo, Robert N

    2017-11-01

    Population-based registries report 95% 5-year survival for children undergoing surgery for CHD. This study investigated paediatric cardiac surgical outcomes in the Australian indigenous population. All children who underwent cardiac surgery between May, 2008 and August, 2014 were studied. Demographic information including socio-economic status, diagnoses and co-morbidities, and treatment and outcome data were collected at time of surgery and at last follow-up. A total of 1528 children with a mean age 3.4±4.6 years were studied. Among them, 123 (8.1%) children were identified as indigenous, and 52.7% (62) of indigenous patients were in the lowest third of the socio-economic index compared with 28.2% (456) of non-indigenous patients (p⩽0.001). The indigenous sample had a significantly higher Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score (indigenous 9.4±4.2 versus non-indigenous 8.7±3.9, p=0.04). The probability of having long-term follow-up did not differ between groups (indigenous 93.8% versus non-indigenous 95.6%, p=0.17). No difference was noted in 30-day mortality (indigenous 3.2% versus non-indigenous 1.4%, p=0.13). The 6-year survival for the entire cohort was 95.9%. The Cox survival analysis demonstrated higher 6-year mortality in the indigenous group - indigenous 8.1% versus non-indigenous 5.0%; hazard ratio (HR)=2.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.1, 4.2; p=0.03. Freedom from surgical re-intervention was 79%, and was not significantly associated with the indigenous status (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; p=0.11). When long-term survival was adjusted for the Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score, no difference in outcomes between the populations was demonstrated (HR=1.6; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.2; p=0.19). The indigenous population experienced higher late mortality. This apparent relationship is explained by increased patient complexity, which may reflect negative social and environmental factors.

  6. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2017-04-05

    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Predictors of negative attitudes toward Indigenous Australians and a unit of study among undergraduate nursing students: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie; Hunt, Leanne; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-03-01

    Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia. The Bachelor of Nursing program at a large university in Western Sydney embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching program. This paper reviews the negative responses received towards course content on evaluation of the Indigenous health unit and explores the predictors for the negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Two surveys were used (baseline and follow-up) to: 1. Determine the main predictors for negative attitudes towards Indigenous people and; 2. Explore students' perceptions of the educational quality of the Indigenous health unit. The surveys allowed collection of socio-demographic, academic data and included the 18 item 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale and open-ended responses. Students who were: 1. Overseas born, 2. Enrolment category: International student and; 3. Whose primary source of information about Indigenous Australians were the media and school were significantly more likely to have higher negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Qualitative data revealed some unfavourable comments dismissing the value and educational quality of the content within the Indigenous health unit. Community engagement is paramount to enhancing the student experience. Movement away from media driven 'hype' to an educated perspective is necessary to create an accurate portrayal of the Indigenous community. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

  9. Indigenous Australian food culture on cattle stations prior to the 1960s and food intake of older Aborigines in a community studied in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris-Blazos, A; Wahlqvist, M L

    2000-09-01

    Between 1988 and 1993 the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Committee 'Nutrition and Ageing' established the international 'Food Habits in Later Life' (FHILL) Program.1,2 The FHILL program documented current and distant past food habits of more than 2000 Caucasian and Asian elderly people, which also included 54 older Aboriginal Australians in a community called Junjuwa in the Fitzroy Valley, Kimberley region, Western Australia. The program primarily used a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to collect food intake data. However, in some communities this was neither practical nor feasible due to differences in cultural interpretation of questions relating to 'time', 'frequency' and 'quantity'. To overcome this hurdle, FHILL was coupled to a qualitative socioanthropological methodolgy known as RAP 'Rapid Assessment Procedures'. This paper reviews published qualitative data using RAP to describe distant past food intake on cattle stations prior to the 1960s 1 and food intake of Aborigines aged 50 years and over in 1988 in Junjuwa.4 Aboriginal food habits on cattle stations prior to the 1960s appeared to be more nutrient dense, due to greater food variety and higher intakes of lean fresh and salted buffalo meat (probably high in omega-3 fatty acids), offal, vegetables and bush foods; buffalo fat was rationed and used in meat stews. High intakes of tea and sugar appears to have remained unchanged. Food intake was more or less constant from day to day in contrast to the 'feast' and 'famine' days observed in the community studied in 1988, which was related to the pension cycle. In contrast to the more varied cattle station diet, the community-dwelling older Aborigines in 1988 consumed more than 50% of their total energy intake from three foods: sugar, fatty beef/lamb and white flour (damper). Exploring distant past food intake on cattle stations has helped explain desirable and undesirable food preferences of the older Aborigines in 1988. For example, the

  10. Correlates of preclinical cardiovascular disease in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians: a case control study

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    Shaw A Andrew

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high frequency of premature death from cardiovascular disease in indigenous Australians is often attributed to the high prevalence of risk factors, especially type II diabetes mellitus (DM. We evaluated the relationship of ethnicity to atherosclerotic burden, as evidenced by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, independent of risk factor status. Methods We studied 227 subjects (147 men; 50 ± 13 y: 119 indigenous subjects with (IDM, n = 54, and without DM (InDM, n = 65, 108 Caucasian subjects with (CDM, n = 52, and without DM (CnDM, n = 56. IMT was measured according to standard methods and compared with clinical data and cardiovascular risk factors. Results In subjects both with and without DM, IMT was significantly greater in indigenous subjects. There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP between any of the groups, and subjects with DM showed no difference in plasma HbA1c. Cardiovascular risk factors were significantly more prevalent in indigenous subjects. Nonetheless, ethnicity (β = -0.34; p Conclusion Ethnicity appears to be an independent correlate of preclinical cardiovascular disease, even after correction for the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in indigenous Australians. Standard approaches to control currently known risk factors are vital to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, but in themselves may be insufficient to fully address the high prevalence in this population.

  11. Prevalence and associations of refractive error in indigenous Australians within central Australia: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie

    2010-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and associations of refractive error within the indigenous Australian population living in central Australia. 1884 individuals aged 20 years or older, living in one of 30 remote communities within the statistical local area of 'central Australia' were recruited for this study. This equated to 36% of those aged 20 years or older and 67% of those aged 40 years or older within this district. Participants were recruited as they presented to the eye clinic at each remote community. Participants underwent subjective refraction to determine spherical equivalent and then had a slit-lamp anterior segment examination. Participants were only included if they were phakic and only the right eye was considered. The prevalence of hypermetropia worse than +1.0 dioptres (D), myopia worse than -0.5 D and astigmatism worse than 1.0 D is presented. From those recruited, 15.2% were hypermetropic; 11.1% were myopic; and 6.2% had astigmatism. Participants became progressively more hypermetropic with increasing age until the age of 70 years, after which time they become more myopic. Furthermore, there was an increasing likelihood of myopia and a decreasing likelihood of hypermetropia with increasing nuclear opalescent cataract. Our study has shown that indigenous Australians are less likely to be ametropic compared with non-indigenous groups. Variations with age and nuclear opalescent cataract seen in other previous work have also been observed in our sample.

  12. Perinatal outcomes among young Indigenous Australian mothers: A cross-sectional study and comparison with adult Indigenous mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Malinda; Boyle, Jacqueline; Kildea, Sue; Moore, Vivienne; Davies, Michael; Rumbold, Alice

    2017-09-01

    The teenage pregnancy rate is high among Indigenous Australian women, yet little is known about their pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, against a background of extreme social disadvantage, the relative importance of age as a risk factor for adverse outcomes among Indigenous pregnancies is unclear. We compared perinatal outcomes for Indigenous teenagers (Indigenous women (20-34 years), and described outcomes in subgroups of teenagers. Data were analyzed for 2421 singleton births to Indigenous women aged Indigenous women. Rather, they are having babies in disadvantaged circumstances within a system challenged to support them socially and clinically. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle impacts diet quality of remote Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Pekarsky, Brita Ak; Ferguson, Megan M; O'Dea, Kerin; Brimblecombe, Julie K

    2017-06-01

    To consider the plausible nutritional impacts of fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle for remote Indigenous Australians. Community-level dietary intake (energy, micro/macronutrients) and expenditure on foods and beverages (F&B) were estimated over one year for three remote Indigenous Australian communities (Northern Territory, Australia) using monthly F&B transaction data. F&B that were likely to be consumed during a period within an income cycle when money was relatively limited (low money period (LMP) foods) were identified by panel consensus and scenario modelling was conducted to simulate the nutritional outcomes of a range of F&B selection responses to having an LMP. All scenarios resulted in reduced diet quality during the LMP relative to overall average diet values. Protein and fat energy percentages were reduced and carbohydrate energy percentage increased. Despite reduced expenditure, declines in energy intake were typically buffered due to the reduced energy cost ($AU/MJ) of the LMP diet. The micronutrient profile of the LMP diet was substantially poorer, such that additional key micronutrients dropped below population-weighted Estimated Average Requirements/Adequate Intakes. The modelling undertaken herein suggests that even a short period of low money within an income cycle may noticeably contribute to the reduced diet quality of remote Indigenous Australians and exacerbate lifestyle disease risk. Dietary strategies that are designed to respond to diets and expenditure during different income cycle periods, rather than the overall average diet and expenditure, should be considered for improving diet quality and reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in remote Indigenous Australians.

  14. Health literacy and Australian Indigenous peoples: an analysis of the role of language and worldview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Alyssa; Mitchell, Alice; Dhurrkay, Yurranydjil

    2011-04-01

    This article delineates specific issues relating to health literacy for Indigenous Australians. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors' work with Yolnu people (of north-east Arnhem Land) and using one model for health literacy described in the international literature, various components of health literacy are explored, including fundamental literacy, scientific literacy, community literacy and cultural literacy. By matching these components to the characteristics of Yolnu people, the authors argue that language and worldview form an integral part of health education methodology when working with Indigenous people whose first language is not English and who do not have a biomedical worldview in their history. Only through acknowledging and actively engaging with these characteristics of Indigenous people can all aspects of health literacy be addressed and health empowerment be attained.

  15. Nursing students' perspectives of the health and healthcare issues of Australian Indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Leanne; Ramjan, Lucie; McDonald, Glenda; Koch, Jane; Baird, David; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-03-01

    Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia with living conditions comparable to developing countries. The Bachelor of Nursing programme at the University of Western Sydney has embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching programme, with an expectation that students develop an awareness of Indigenous health and healthcare issues. To gain insight into students' perceptions of Indigenous people and whether the course learning and teaching strategies implemented improved students' learning outcomes and attitude towards Indigenous people and Indigenous health in Australia. A mixed methods prospective survey design was chosen. Students enrolled in the Indigenous health subject in 2013 were invited to complete pre- and post-subject surveys that contained closed- and open-ended questions. Students' socio-demographic data was collected at baseline, but the 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale, and the 3-item Knowledge, Interest and Confidence to nursing Australian Indigenous peoples scale were administered at both pre- and post-subject surveys. 502 students completed the baseline survey and 249 students completed the follow-up survey. There was a statistically significant attitudinal change towards Indigenous Australians, measured by the ATIA scale, and participants' knowledge, intent to work with Indigenous Australians and confidence in caring for them increased significantly at follow-up. Based on the participants' responses to open-ended questions, four key themes emerged: a) understanding Indigenous history, culture and healthcare; b) development of cultural competence; c) enhanced respect for Indigenous Australians' culture and traditional practices; and d) enhanced awareness of the inherent disadvantages for Indigenous Australians in education and healthcare. There were no statistically significant socio-demographic group differences among those who commented on key themes. Addressing health inequalities for

  16. Interventions to encourage smoke-free homes in remote indigenous Australian communities: a study protocol to evaluate the effects of a community-inspired awareness-raising and motivational enhancement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Grant, Kristy; Robertson, Jan; Wrigley, Matthew; Nichols, Nina; Fitzgibbon, Tracey

    2018-03-02

    Rates of secondhand smoke exposure are currently significantly higher among remote indigenous communities in the top end of Australia. By implementing a 'smoke-free home' rule, secondhand smoke exposure can be reduced. Smoke-free homes encourage quit attempts and improve the health of children. The prevalence of indigenous smoking rates in remote, discrete communities in Australia is elevated compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. The primary aim of this project is to examine the feasibility of conducting a health-driven intervention to encourage community members to make their homes a smoke-free zone. This study uses mixed-methods exploratory evaluation design to obtain data from key informants and community householders to assess their willingness to implement a 'smoke-free' rule in their homes. Initial focus groups will provide guidance on intervention content and deliver evaluation procedures and community requirements. A rapid survey will be conducted to ascertain interest from community members in having the project team visit to discuss study objectives further and to have a particle meter (with consent) placed in the house. Focus groups recordings will be transcribed and analysed thematically. Rapid surveys will be analysed using frequency distributions and tabulations of responses. The National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines on ethical research approaches to indigenous studies will be adhered to. The James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee has provided ethics approval. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Sleep schedules and school performance in Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Sarah; Magee, Chris; Attard, Kelly; Clarkson, Larissa; Caputi, Peter; Skinner, Timothy

    2018-04-01

    Sleep duration and sleep schedule variability have been related to negative health and well-being outcomes in children, but little is known about Australian Indigenous children. Data for children aged 7-9 years came from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children and the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Latent class analysis determined sleep classes taking into account sleep duration, bedtimes, waketimes, and variability in bedtimes from weekdays to weekends. Regression models tested whether the sleep classes were cross-sectionally associated with grade 3 NAPLAN scores. Latent change score modeling then examined whether the sleep classes predicted changes in NAPLAN performance from grades 3 to 5. Five sleep schedule classes were identified: normative sleep, early risers, long sleep, variable sleep, and short sleep. Overall, long sleepers performed best, with those with reduced sleep (short sleepers and early risers) performing the worse on grammar, numeracy, and writing performance. Latent change score results also showed that long sleepers performed best in spelling and writing and short sleepers and typical sleepers performed the worst over time. In this sample of Australian Indigenous children, short sleep was associated with poorer school performance compared with long sleep, with this performance worsening over time for some performance indicators. Other sleep schedules (eg, early wake times and variable sleep) also had some relationships with school performance. As sleep scheduling is modifiable, this offers opportunity for improvement in sleep and thus performance outcomes for these and potentially all children. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to

  19. Priority setting in Indigenous health: assessing priority setting process and criteria that should guide the health system to improve Indigenous Australian health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The health of Indigenous Australians is worse than that of other Australians. Most of the determinants of health are preventable and the poor health outcomes are inequitable. The Australian Government recently pledged to close that health gap. One possible way is to improve the priority setting process to ensure transparency and the use of evidence such as epidemiology, equity and economic evaluation. The purpose of this research was to elicit the perceptions of Indigenous and non-Indigenous decision-makers on several issues related to priority setting in Indigenous-specific health care services. Specifically, we aimed to: 1. identify the criteria used to set priorities in Indigenous-specific health care services; 2. determine the level of uptake of economic evaluation evidence by decision-makers and how to improve its uptake; and 3. identify how the priority setting process can be improved from the perspective of decision-makers. Methods We used a paper survey instrument, adapted from Mitton and colleagues’ work, and a face-to-face interview approach to elicit decision-makers’ perceptions in Indigenous-specific health care in Victoria, Australia. We used mixed methods to analyse data from the survey. Responses were summarised using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Results were reported as numbers and percentages. Results The size of the health burden; sustainability and acceptability of interventions; historical trends/patterns; and efficiency are key criteria for making choices in Indigenous health in Victoria. There is a need for an explicit priority setting approach, which is systematic, and is able to use available data/evidence, such as economic evaluation evidence. The involvement of Indigenous Australians in the process would potentially make the process acceptable. Conclusions An economic approach to priority setting is a potentially acceptable and useful tool for Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS). It has

  20. Understanding barriers to fruit and vegetable intake in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine Ann; Banwell, Cathy; Neeman, Teresa; Dobbins, Timothy; Pescud, Melanie; Lovett, Raymond; Banks, Emily

    2017-04-01

    To identify barriers to fruit and vegetable intake for Indigenous Australian children and quantify factors related to these barriers, to help understand why children do not meet recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. We examined factors related to carer-reported barriers using multilevel Poisson models (robust variance); a key informant focus group guided our interpretation of findings. Eleven diverse sites across Australia. Australian Indigenous children and their carers (N 1230) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children. Almost half (45 %; n 555/1230) of carers reported barriers to their children's fruit and vegetable intake. Dislike of fruit and vegetables was the most common barrier, reported by 32·9 % of carers; however, we identified few factors associated with dislike. Carers were more than ten times less likely to report barriers to accessing fruit and vegetables if they lived large cities v. very remote areas. Within urban and inner regional areas, child and carer well-being, financial security, suitable housing and community cohesion promoted access to fruit and vegetables. In this national Indigenous Australian sample, almost half of carers faced barriers to providing their children with a healthy diet. Both remote/outer regional carers and disadvantaged urban/inner regional carers faced problems accessing fruit and vegetables for their children. Where vegetables were accessible, children's dislike was a substantial barrier. Nutrition promotion must address the broader family, community, environmental and cultural contexts that impact nutrition, and should draw on the strengths of Indigenous families and communities.

  1. Groin pain and hip range of motion is different in Indigenous compared to non-indigenous young Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carolyn J; Pizzari, Tania; Ames, Nick; Orchard, John W; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cook, Jill L

    2011-07-01

    Hip and groin pain are common problems in Australian football. Although indigenous (I) players are at greater risk of soft tissue injury than their non-indigenous (non-I) counterparts, Aboriginal descent has not previously been identified as a risk factor for hip and groin injury. The aim of this study was to investigate if hip and groin screening tests would demonstrate differences between indigenous and non-indigenous junior elite AF players. Cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy elite junior Australian football players were screened using five hip and groin musculoskeletal tests. Thirty-three players (12%) were indigenous. Differences were demonstrated between the two groups for right prone hip internal rotation (I X = 27.60 ± 9.16, non-I X = 33.39 ± 8.88, p 0.001). The indigenous players displayed less range of passive hip internal rotation with the hip in neutral, reduced adductor squeeze force and higher levels of groin pain with the squeeze test at 90°. The differences observed between indigenous and non-indigenous players suggest indigenous players are at greater risk of hip and groin injuries in Australian football. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  3. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  4. Indigenous Australian Women's Leadership: Stayin' Strong against the Post-Colonial Tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nereda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview…

  5. Association of Visual Impairment and All-Cause 10-Year Mortality Among Indigenous Australian Individuals Within Central Australia: The Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soo Khai; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas Howard; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie Evan; Landers, John

    2018-03-22

    It is well established from different population-based studies that visual impairment is associated with increased mortality rate. However, to our knowledge, the association of visual impairment with increased mortality rate has not been reported among indigenous Australian individuals. To assess the association between visual impairment and 10-year mortality risk among the remote indigenous Australian population. Prospective cohort study recruiting indigenous Australian individuals from 30 remote communities located within the central Australian statistical local area over a 36-month period between July 2005 and June 2008. The data were analyzed in January 2017. Visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination were performed on all patients at recruitment. Visual impairment was defined as a visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Mortality rate and mortality cause were obtained at 10 years, and statistical analyses were performed. Hazard ratios for 10-year mortality with 95% confidence intervals are presented. One thousand three hundred forty-seven patients were recruited from a total target population number of 2014. The mean (SD) age was 56 (11) years, and 62% were women. The total all-cause mortality was found to be 29.3% at 10 years. This varied from 21.1% among those without visual impairment to 48.5% among those with visual impairment. After adjustment for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension, those with visual impairment were 40% more likely to die (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70; P = .001) during the 10-year follow-up period compared with those with normal vision. Bilateral visual impairment among remote indigenous Australian individuals was associated with 40% higher 10-year mortality risk compared with those who were not visually impaired. Resource allocation toward improving visual acuity may therefore aid in closing the gap in mortality outcomes between indigenous and nonindigenous Australian

  6. Service and infrastructure needs to support recovery programmes for Indigenous community mental health consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jan M; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is a major concern in Indigenous communities, as Indigenous people experience poorer health outcomes generally, and poorer social and emotional well-being throughout their lives, compared to non-Indigenous populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers from a housing assistance programme for Indigenous clients with mental illness. Service and infrastructure needs identified to support clients were classified under the following overarching theme 'supports along the road to recovery'. Subthemes were: (i) It is OK to seek help; (ii) linking in to the local community; (iii) trusting the workers; and (iv) help with goal setting and having activities that support their achievement. This paper highlights the importance of targeted housing and accommodation support programmes for Indigenous people to prevent homelessness, and the essential services and infrastructure required to support Indigenous clients' mental health needs. These insights may inform service review, workforce development, and further research. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  8. An empowerment intervention for Indigenous communities: an outcome assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Jacups, Susan; Tsey, Komla; Lines, Katrina

    2015-08-21

    Empowerment programs have been shown to contribute to increased empowerment of individuals and build capacity within the community or workplace. To-date, the impact of empowerment programs has yet to be quantified in the published literature in this field. This study assessed the Indigenous-developed Family Wellbeing (FWB) program as an empowerment intervention for a child safety workforce in remote Indigenous communities by measuring effect sizes. The study also assessed the value of measurement tools for future impact evaluations. A three-day FWB workshop designed to promote empowerment and workplace engagement among child protection staff was held across five remote north Queensland Indigenous communities. The FWB assessment tool comprised a set of validated surveys including the Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), Australian Unity Wellbeing Index, Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and Workforce engagement survey. The assessment was conducted pre-intervention and three months post-intervention. The analysis of pre-and post-surveys revealed that the GEM appeared to be the most tangible measure for detecting positive changes in communication, conflict resolution, decision making and life skill development. The GEM indicated a 17 % positive change compared to 9 % for the Australian Unity Wellbeing Index, 5 % for the workforce engagement survey and less than 1 % for K10. This study extended qualitative research and identified the best measurement tool for detecting the outcomes of empowerment programs. The GEM was found the most sensitive and the most tangible measure that captures improvements in communication, conflict resolution, decision making and life skill development. The GEM and Australian Unity Wellbeing Index could be recommended as routine measures for empowerment programs assessment among similar remote area workforce.

  9. Stimulating Parenting Practices in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Mexican Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Knauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parenting may be influenced by ethnicity; marginalization; education; and poverty. A critical but unexamined question is how these factors may interact to compromise or support parenting practices in ethnic minority communities. This analysis examined associations between mothers’ stimulating parenting practices and a range of child-level (age; sex; and cognitive and socio-emotional development; household-level (indigenous ethnicity; poverty; and parental education; and community-level (economic marginalization and majority indigenous population variables among 1893 children ages 4–18 months in poor; rural communities in Mexico. We also explored modifiers of associations between living in an indigenous community and parenting. Key findings were that stimulating parenting was negatively associated with living in an indigenous community or family self-identification as indigenous (β = −4.25; SE (Standard Error = 0.98; β = −1.58; SE = 0.83 respectively. However; living in an indigenous community was associated with significantly more stimulating parenting among indigenous families than living in a non-indigenous community (β = 2.96; SE = 1.25. Maternal education was positively associated with stimulating parenting only in indigenous communities; and household crowding was negatively associated with stimulating parenting only in non-indigenous communities. Mothers’ parenting practices were not associated with child sex; father’s residential status; education; or community marginalization. Our findings demonstrate that despite greater community marginalization; living in an indigenous community is protective for stimulating parenting practices of indigenous mothers.

  10. Stimulating Parenting Practices in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Mexican Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, Heather A; Ozer, Emily J; Dow, William; Fernald, Lia C H

    2017-12-25

    Parenting may be influenced by ethnicity; marginalization; education; and poverty. A critical but unexamined question is how these factors may interact to compromise or support parenting practices in ethnic minority communities. This analysis examined associations between mothers' stimulating parenting practices and a range of child-level (age; sex; and cognitive and socio-emotional development); household-level (indigenous ethnicity; poverty; and parental education); and community-level (economic marginalization and majority indigenous population) variables among 1893 children ages 4-18 months in poor; rural communities in Mexico. We also explored modifiers of associations between living in an indigenous community and parenting. Key findings were that stimulating parenting was negatively associated with living in an indigenous community or family self-identification as indigenous (β = -4.25; SE (Standard Error) = 0.98; β = -1.58; SE = 0.83 respectively). However; living in an indigenous community was associated with significantly more stimulating parenting among indigenous families than living in a non-indigenous community (β = 2.96; SE = 1.25). Maternal education was positively associated with stimulating parenting only in indigenous communities; and household crowding was negatively associated with stimulating parenting only in non-indigenous communities. Mothers' parenting practices were not associated with child sex; father's residential status; education; or community marginalization. Our findings demonstrate that despite greater community marginalization; living in an indigenous community is protective for stimulating parenting practices of indigenous mothers.

  11. Inequalities in Tooth Decay in Australian Children by Neighbourhood Characteristics and Indigenous Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Ratilal; Jamieson, Lisa M; Ha, Diep; Luzzi, Liana

    2016-02-01

    Tooth decay is related to poverty, measured at individual and neighbourhood levels. It is however uncertain if living in an advantaged neighbourhood reduces tooth decay similarly in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. This study describes tooth decay by neighbourhood characteristics and Indigenous status, and examines inequalities by Indigenous status. In deciduous dentition the percentage of children with tooth decay and untreated decay decreased on average 26% and 20% respectively in the non-Indigenous sample from poor to affluent neighbourhoods. In Indigenous children tooth decay and untreated decay decreased on average 6% and 8%, respectively, from poor to affluent neighbourhoods. While all children from affluent areas had less tooth decay, the gap between non-Indigenous and Indigenous children remained significant across neighbourhood characteristics. This suggests that both universal and targeted prevention programs should be considered for all Indigenous children irrespective of where they live.

  12. Implementing health promotion tools in Australian Indigenous primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Nikki A; McCalman, Janya; Armit, Christine; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Rowley, Kevin; Doyle, Joyce; Tsey, Komla

    2018-02-01

    In Australia, significant resources have been invested in producing health promotion best practice guidelines, frameworks and tools (herein referred to as health promotion tools) as a strategy to improve Indigenous health promotion programmes. Yet, there has been very little rigorous implementation research about whether or how health promotion tools are implemented. This paper theorizes the complex processes of health promotion tool implementation in Indigenous comprehensive primary healthcare services. Data were derived from published and grey literature about the development and the implementation of four Indigenous health promotion tools. Tools were theoretically sampled to account for the key implementation types described in the literature. Data were analysed using the grounded-theory methods of coding and constant comparison with construct a theoretical implementation model. An Indigenous Health Promotion Tool Implementation Model was developed. Implementation is a social process, whereby researchers, practitioners and community members collectively interacted in creating culturally responsive health promotion to the common purpose of facilitating empowerment. The implementation of health promotion tools was influenced by the presence of change agents; a commitment to reciprocity and organizational governance and resourcing. The Indigenous Health Promotion Tool Implementation Model assists in explaining how health promotion tools are implemented and the conditions that influence these actions. Rather than simply developing more health promotion tools, our study suggests that continuous investment in developing conditions that support empowering implementation processes are required to maximize the beneficial impacts and effectiveness of health promotion tools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Thirty-day Outcomes in Indigenous Australians Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jessica; Saxena, Akshat; Reid, Christopher M; Tran, Lavinia; Baker, Robert; Newcomb, Andrew; Smith, Julian; Huq, Molla M; Duffy, Stephen J

    2018-03-07

    Indigenous Australians have higher rates of cardiovascular disease and co-morbidities compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. We sought to evaluate whether Indigenous status per se portends a worse prognosis following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The outcomes of 778 Indigenous Australians (55±10 years; 32% female) enrolled in the Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons registry were compared to 36,124 non-Indigenous Australians (66±10 years; 21% female) following isolated CABG. In a secondary analysis, patients were propensity-matched by age, gender, renal function, diabetes, and ejection fraction (778 individuals in each group). Indigenous Australians were younger and more likely to be female, current smokers, to have diabetes, hypertension, renal impairment, heart failure, and previous CABG (all pIndigenous patients had fewer bypasses with arterial conduits (including less internal mammary artery use), and a higher number of distal vein anastomoses (pindigenous patients (p=0.001). However, in-hospital and 30-day all-cause mortality, and rates of 30-day readmission were similar between both groups, though cardiac mortality was higher in the Indigenous cohort (1.5% vs. 0.8%, p=0.02). With propensity-matching, rates of post-operative complications were similar amongst the two groups, with the exception of bleeding, which remained higher in Indigenous Australians (p=0.03). Despite procedural differences and higher rates of baseline co-morbidities, Indigenous Australians do not have worse short-term outcomes following isolated CABG. Given the higher rates of baseline co-morbidities and lower rates of arterial conduit use, it will be essential to determine long-term outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Our games our health: a cultural asset for promoting health in indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth; Meiklejohn, Beryl; Patterson, Carla; Edwards, Ken; Preece, Cilia; Shuter, Patricia; Gould, Trish

    2006-08-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher morbidity and mortality rates than non-Indigenous Australians. Until recently, few health promotion interventions have had more than limited success in Indigenous populations. This community-based health promotion initiative introduced traditional Indigenous games into schools and community groups in Cherbourg and Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). A joint community forum managed the project, and the Indigenous community-based project officers co-ordinated training in traditional games and undertook community asset audits and evaluations. The games have been included in the activities of a range of community organisations in Cherbourg and Stradbroke Island. Several other organisations and communities in Australia have included them in their projects. A games video and manual were produced to facilitate the initiative's transferability and sustainability. Conventional approaches to health promotion generally focus on individual risk factors and often ignore a more holistic perspective. This project adopted a culturally appropriate, holistic approach, embracing a paradigm that concentrated on the communities' cultural assets and contributed to sustainable and transferable outcomes. There is a need for appropriate evaluation tools for time-limited community engagement projects.

  15. Indigenous community insurance as an alternative financing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed

    Indigenous Community Insurance (Iddirs) as an Alternative Health Care Financing Shimeles O. et al. 53 ... 1.57 million urban and 9.50 million rural households of. Ethiopia. .... vs. 35.7%). The reasons for such preference were courteous service (16.1%) and physical accessibility. (16.1%) of the health facilities among others.

  16. Developing a tablet computer-based application ('App') to measure self-reported alcohol consumption in Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K S Kylie; Wilson, Scott; Perry, Jimmy; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah; Assan, Robert; Hayman, Noel; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Gray, Dennis; Wilkes, Edward; GradDipIndigH, Peter Jack; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2018-01-15

    The challenges of assessing alcohol consumption can be greater in Indigenous communities where there may be culturally distinct approaches to communication, sharing of drinking containers and episodic patterns of drinking. This paper discusses the processes used to develop a tablet computer-based application ('App') to collect a detailed assessment of drinking patterns in Indigenous Australians. The key features of the resulting App are described. An iterative consultation process was used (instead of one-off focus groups), with Indigenous cultural experts and clinical experts. Regular (weekly or more) advice was sought over a 12-month period from Indigenous community leaders and from a range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous health professionals and researchers. The underpinning principles, selected survey items, and key technical features of the App are described. Features include culturally appropriate questioning style and gender-specific voice and images; community-recognised events used as reference points to 'anchor' time periods; 'translation' to colloquial English and (for audio) to traditional language; interactive visual approaches to estimate quantity of drinking; images of specific brands of alcohol, rather than abstract description of alcohol type (e.g. 'spirits'); images of make-shift drinking containers; option to estimate consumption based on the individual's share of what the group drank. With any survey platform, helping participants to accurately reflect on and report their drinking presents a challenge. The availability of interactive, tablet-based technologies enables potential bridging of differences in culture and lifestyle and enhanced reporting.

  17. When a Dream Becomes a Nightmare: Why Do Indigenous Australian Medical Students Withdraw from Their Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellender, Isabel; Drysdale, Marlene; Chesters, Janice; Faulkner, Susan; Kelly, Heather; Turnbull, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates reasons Indigenous Australian medical students gave for leaving their courses prior to graduation. Indigenous students who had withdrawn or deferred from their medical courses were asked about the barriers and disincentives that had dissuaded them from graduating. Although the response rate to the questionnaire was very…

  18. Haemophilus influenzae serotype a septic arthritis in an immunized central Australian indigenous child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nicholas J

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a notable case of Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) septic arthritis in an immunized central Australian indigenous child. Since the widespread immunization for H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) in many indigenous peoples worldwide, there has been an increase in reported cases of Hia, postulating that this serotype is taking over the niche that Hib once occupied in indigenous populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Indigenous Australians, Intellectual Disability and Incarceration: A Confluence of Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Brolan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reviews the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians with intellectual disability in the Australian prison system through a human rights lens. There is an information gap on this group of Australian prisoners in the health and disability literature and the multi-disciplinary criminal law and human rights law literature. This article will consider the context of Indigenous imprisonment in Australia and examine the status of prisoner health in that country, as well as the status of the health and wellbeing of prisoners with intellectual disability. It will then specifically explore the health, wellbeing and impact of imprisonment on Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability, and highlight how intersectional rights deficits (including health and human rights deficits causally impact the ability of Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability to access due process, equal recognition and justice in the criminal justice and prison system. A central barrier to improving intersectional and discriminatory landscapes relating to health, human rights and justice for Indigenous Australian inmates with intellectual disability, and prisoners with intellectual disability more broadly in the Australian context, is the lack of sufficient governance and accountability mechanisms (including Indigenous-led mechanisms to enforce the operationalisation of consistent, transparent, culturally responsive, rights-based remedies.

  20. “Looking back to my family”: Indigenous Australian patients’ experience of hemodialysis

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    Anderson Kate

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In common with Indigenous populations elsewhere, Indigenous Australians have higher incidence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD, but lower transplantation rates than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Understanding how the demands of dialysis impact on, and are impacted by, the lives of Indigenous patients may provide important insight into treatment pathways and decision-making. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in 2005–06 with 146 Indigenous and 95 non-Indigenous patients from nine hospital renal wards and 17 associated dialysis centres, which together treat the majority of Indigenous Australian ESKD patients. Results Factors influencing treatment experience included: the impacts of late diagnosis; family separations associated with relocating for treatment; the physical and psychosocial demands of hemodialysis; and ineffective communication between health care providers and patients. Although not unique to them, Indigenous patients were more likely to experience the combined effect of all factors. Conclusions Social/situational circumstances profoundly affect Indigenous Australian dialysis patients’ ability to fully engage with treatment. This may ultimately affect their likelihood of receiving optimal treatment, including transplantation. Areas for improvement include: earlier diagnosis; improved linkages between specialist renal services and primary care in regional settings; more effective communication and patient education; and more systematic, transparent approaches to patient “compliance” in transplant and home dialysis guidelines.

  1. The health and well-being of Indigenous drug and alcohol workers: results from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann M; Duraisingam, Vinita; Trifonoff, Allan; Tovell, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services among the Australian Indigenous population, complex organisational challenges and limitations, and high unemployment rates are likely to negatively impact Indigenous AOD workers' health and well-being. Building the capacity of Indigenous AOD workers is vital, as they play a crucial role in the delivery of treatment services and offer essential support to their communities. A national online survey was conducted to examine organisational, workplace and individual factors that might contribute to levels of stress and well-being among workers who provide services to Indigenous clients. A total of 294 eligible surveys were completed; 184 (63%) from Indigenous and 108 (37%) from non-Indigenous AOD workers. Multiple regression models were conducted to assess the significant predictors of mental health and well-being, job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention. Indigenous AOD workers typically experienced above average levels of job satisfaction and relatively low levels of emotional exhaustion. However, 1 in 10 reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, a key predictor of turnover intention. Indigenous workers also experienced significantly lower levels of mental health and well-being and greater work/family imbalance, which was a significant contributor to emotional exhaustion. The findings highlight the importance of implementing workforce development strategies that focus on achieving culturally appropriate, equitable and supportive organisational conditions for Indigenous AOD workers. Preventing or managing levels of stress, ensuring adequate and equitable salaries and benefits, and providing more opportunities for career and personal growth may increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover intention among Indigenous workers in the drug and alcohol field. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Yarning up with Koori kids' - hearing the voices of Australian urban Indigenous children about their health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Thompson, Laura; Mackean, Tamara; Baker, Alison; Waters, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Australian Indigenous children experience some of the most substantial health inequalities globally. In this context, research regarding their health and well-being has overemphasised physical illnesses with limited exploration of a diverse range of dimensions and determinants, particularly those based on Indigenous holistic understandings of health and well-being. This deficit-based approach has thus missed many strengths and assets of Indigenous children. This research aimed to gain insight into the perspectives of Indigenous children about their health and well-being in an urban setting in Australia. It joins a limited international literature examining views and experiences of non-majority children. Participatory and qualitative child-friendly research methods were utilised. The project was developed in partnership with Indigenous community organisations and members. Photo-elicitation activities and focus groups were conducted with 31 Indigenous children aged 8-12 years. Qualitative data were analysed thematically, combining focus group and interview data. It was evident an urban Indigenous child perspective of health and well-being includes rich understandings of the interconnectedness of physical, social-emotional and cultural dimensions of holism, as well as the integral importance of family and community relationships. The study also found that specific worries regarding loss of loved ones and racism were highly salient in Indigenous children's lives. The overwhelming conclusion to be drawn from this research is that Indigenous children in urban areas need ongoing recognition of both their agency and resilience in the face of adversity, within a wider context of historical and contemporary racialisation and racism.

  3. Designing an Australian Indigenous Studies Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Nakata's "Cultural Interface", Standpoints and Working beyond Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michelle; Prince, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the recent reworking of Murdoch University's Australian Indigenous Studies major. For the discipline to realise its charter of decolonising knowledges about Indigenous peoples, it is necessary to move Indigenous Studies beyond the standard reversalist and unsustainable tropes that valorise romanticised notions of Indigeneity and…

  4. The influence of indigenous status and community indigenous composition on obesity and diabetes among Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Pamela; Handley, Margaret A; Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Schillinger, Dean

    2011-12-01

    In many high-income countries, indigenous populations bear a higher burden of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous populations. Less is known about these patterns in lower- and middle-income countries. We assessed the hypothesis that obesity and diabetes were less prevalent among indigenous than non-indigenous adults in Mexico, home to the largest indigenous population in Latin America. We investigated socioeconomic explanations for differences. In a related line of inquiry, we examine whether adults in communities with higher versus lower percentages of indigenous residents were buffered against these conditions. We assessed whether differences were partially explained by lower development in higher-indigenous communities. Obesity was based on measured height and weight, and diabetes on a diagnosis from a healthcare professional. The analysis for obesity included 19 577 adults aged 20 and older from the Mexican Family Life Survey (2002), a nationally representative survey of Mexican households and communities; for diabetes, we restricted analysis to adults with health insurance. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity and diabetes by indigenous status and community percent indigenous. Results suggest that indigenous adults had significantly lower odds of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous adults. This advantage was not explained by the lower socioeconomic status of indigenous individuals. A higher percentage of indigenous individuals in communities provided protection against obesity, although not for diabetes. Differences for obesity were not accounted for by community development. Findings suggest that an opportunity may exist to prevent disparities in obesity and diabetes from developing by indigenous characteristics in Mexico. Identifying the sources of protective effects of individual and community indigenous characteristics relative to these health conditions should be a priority, given global implications for

  5. Body mass index trajectories of Indigenous Australian children and relation to screen time, diet, and demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Thurber, Katherine Ann; Dobbins, Timothy; Neeman, Teresa; Banwell, Cathy; Banks, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Objective Limited cross?sectional data indicate elevated overweight/obesity prevalence among Indigenous versus non?Indigenous Australian children. This study aims to quantify body mass index (BMI) trajectories among Indigenous Australian children aged 3?6 and 6?9 years and to identify factors associated with the development of overweight/obesity. Methods Three?year BMI change was examined in up to 1,157 children in the national Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children. BMI trajectories among...

  6. Do Indigenous Australians age prematurely? The implications of life expectancy and health conditions of older Indigenous people for health and aged care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Philippa R; Condon, John R; Barnes, Tony; Anderson, Ian P S; Smith, Leonard R; Cunningham, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    To assess whether Indigenous Australians age prematurely compared with other Australians, as implied by Australian Government aged care policy, which uses age 50 years and over for population-based planning for Indigenous people compared with 70 years for non-indigenous people. Cross-sectional analysis of aged care assessment, hospital and health survey data comparing Indigenous and non-indigenous age-specific prevalence of health conditions. Analysis of life tables for Indigenous and non-indigenous populations comparing life expectancy at different ages. At age 63 for women and age 65 for men, Indigenous people had the same life expectancy as non-indigenous people at age 70. There is no consistent pattern of a 20-year lead in age-specific prevalence of age-associated conditions for Indigenous compared with other Australians. There is high prevalence from middle-age onwards of some conditions, particularly diabetes (type unspecified), but there is little or no lead for others. The idea that Indigenous people age prematurely is not well supported by this study of a series of discrete conditions. The current focus and type of services provided by the aged care sector may not be the best way to respond to the excessive burden of chronic disease and disability of middle-aged Indigenous people.

  7. A systematic review of adherence in Indigenous Australians: an opportunity to improve chronic condition management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dassel, Jessica Langloh; Ralph, Anna P; Cass, Alan

    2017-12-27

    Indigenous Australians experience high rates of chronic conditions. It is often asserted Indigenous Australians have low adherence to medication; however there has not been a comprehensive examination of the evidence. This systematic literature review presents data from studies of Indigenous Australians on adherence rates and identifies supporting factors and impediments from the perspective of health professionals and patients. Search strategies were used to identify literature in electronic databases and websites. The following databases were searched: Scopus, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, Trove, Indigenous Health infonet and Grey Lit.org . Articles in English, reporting original data on adherence to long-term, self-administered medicines in Australia's Indigenous populations were included. Data were extracted into a standard template and a quality assessment was undertaken. Forty-seven articles met inclusion criteria. Varied study methodologies prevented the use of meta-analysis. health professionals believe adherence is a significant problem for Indigenous Australians; however, adherence rates are rarely measured. Health professionals and patients often reported the same barriers and facilitators, providing a framework for improvement. There is no evidence that medication adherence amongst Indigenous Australians is lower than for the general population. Nevertheless, the heavy burden of morbidity and mortality faced by Indigenous Australians with chronic conditions could be alleviated by enhancing medication adherence. Some evidence supports strategies to improve adherence, including the use of dose administration aids. This evidence should be used by clinicians when prescribing, and to implement and evaluate programs using standard measures to quantify adherence, to drive improvement in health outcomes.

  8. Indigenous Rights and the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process

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    Andrew Gunstone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.

  9. An exploratory study of cannabis withdrawal among Indigenous Australian prison inmates: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Bernadette; Copeland, Jan; Buttner, Petra; Bohanna, India; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Clough, Alan R

    2013-05-28

    Cannabis use and dependence is a serious health and criminal justice issue among incarcerated populations internationally. Upon abrupt, enforced cessation of cannabis, prisoners may suffer irritability and anger that can lead to threatening behaviour, intimidation, violence, sleep disturbances and self-harm. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome, proposed for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, has not been examined in Indigenous populations. Owing to the exceptionally high rates of cannabis use in the community, high proportions of Australian Indigenous prisoners may suffer from withdrawal upon entry to custody. 60 male and 60 female Indigenous prisoners (18-40 years) at a high risk of cannabis dependence will be recruited upon entry to custody. A pictorial representation of the standard Cannabis Withdrawal Scale will be tested for reliability and validity. Cortisol markers will be measured in saliva, as the indicators of onset and severity of cannabis withdrawal and psychological distress. The characteristics will be described as percentages and mean or median values with 95% CI. Receiver operator curve analysis will determine an ideal cut-off of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and generalised estimating equations modelling will test changes over time. The acceptability and efficacy of proposed resources will be assessed qualitatively using thematic analysis. A valid and reliable measure of cannabis withdrawal for use with Indigenous populations, the onset and time course of withdrawal symptoms in this population and the development of culturally acceptable resources and interventions to identify and manage cannabis withdrawal. The project has been approved by the James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number H4651).The results will be reported via peer reviewed publications, conference, seminar presentations and on-line media for national and international dissemination.

  10. Ethnic Differences in the Quality of the Interview Process and Implications for Survey Analysis: The Case of Indigenous Australians.

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    Francisco Perales

    Full Text Available Comparable survey data on Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are highly sought after by policymakers to inform policies aimed at closing ethnic socio-economic gaps. However, collection of such data is compromised by group differences in socio-economic status and cultural norms. We use data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and multiple-membership multilevel regression models that allow for individual and interviewer effects to examine differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in approximate measures of the quality of the interview process. We find that there are both direct and indirect ethnic effects on different dimensions of interview process quality, with Indigenous Australians faring worse than non-Indigenous Australians in all outcomes ceteris paribus. This indicates that nationwide surveys must feature interview protocols that are sensitive to the needs and culture of Indigenous respondents to improve the quality of the survey information gathered from this subpopulation.

  11. Colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intention among Indigenous Western Australians

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    Christou Aliki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are significantly less likely to participate in colorectal cancer (CRC screening compared to non-Indigenous people. This study aimed to identify important factors influencing the decision to undertake screening using Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT among Indigenous Australians. Very little evidence exists to guide interventions and programmatic approaches for facilitating screening uptake in this population in order to reduce the disparity in colorectal cancer outcomes. Methods Interviewer-administered surveys were carried out with a convenience sample (n = 93 of Indigenous Western Australians between November 2009-March 2010 to assess knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behavioural intent in regard to CRC and CRC screening. Results Awareness and knowledge of CRC and screening were low, although both were significantly associated with exposure to media advertising (p = 0.008; p  Conclusions Improving CRC related knowledge and confidence to carry out the FOBT self-screening test through education and greater promotion of screening has the potential to enhance Indigenous participation in CRC screening. These findings should guide the development of interventions to encourage screening uptake and reduce bowel cancer related deaths among Indigenous Australians.

  12. Associations between periodontal disease and cardiovascular surrogate measures among Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellas, Kostas; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; Bartold, P Mark; Wang, Hao; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Sullivan, David; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-05-01

    Inflammation is a key pathogenetic factor in atherogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory source which can have systemic impacts. Indigenous Australians have a higher prevalence of periodontal disease and experience cardiovascular disease earlier than non-Indigenous Australians. The aim was to describe the association between severity of periodontal inflammatory disease and measures of arterial structure and function. Periodontal disease in a convenience sample of Indigenous Australians was assessed clinically; for those with periodontal disease, the extent of periodontal pockets ≥ 4 mm was stratified into quartiles. Vascular health was measured non-invasively via carotid-dorsalis pedis pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and via B-mode ultrasound of the common carotid intima-media (IMT). Non-fasting blood samples were collected for lipid and inflammatory marker evaluation. Linear regression models were constructed to determine the associations between extent of periodontal pocketing and vascular health, adjusting for traditional cardiovascular common risk factors. 273 Indigenous Australian adults were recruited and complete data was available for 269 participants (154 males), median age 39 years. Arterial stiffness (PWV) significantly increased with increasing extent of periodontal pocketing (p trend=0.001). By contrast, carotid IMT did not differ across quartiles. Periodontal pocketing was associated with central arterial stiffness, a marker of presymptomatic arterial dysfunction, in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between short sleep duration and body mass index in Australian Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon-Crouch, Melissa; Skinner, Isabelle; Tucci, Joseph; Skinner, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Associations between short sleep duration and obesity and the relationship between obesity and chronic illness are well documented. Obese children are likely to become obese adults. To date, there is a paucity of information regarding sleep duration and quality for Indigenous Australian people. It may be that poor-quality, short sleep is contributing to the gap in health outcomes for Indigenous people compared with non-Indigenous adults and children. This study sought to investigate the possibility that poor sleep quality may be contributing to health outcomes for Indigenous children by exploring associations between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI). Participants included 1253 children aged 7-12 years in Wave 7 of the national Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children survey. Interviewers asked primary carers about children's sleep times. BMI was derived from measurements of children made by researchers. Regardless of age, relative socio-economic disadvantage and level of remoteness, unhealthy weight was associated with less sleep duration than healthy weight for Indigenous children. The relationship between short sleep duration and BMI in Indigenous children has important implications for their future health outcomes. Both overweight conditions and short sleep are established modifiable risk factors for metabolic dysfunction and other chronic illnesses prominent in the Indigenous population. It is important to consider strategies to optimise both for Indigenous children in an attempt to help 'close the gap' in health outcomes and life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Ibobbly mobile health intervention for suicide prevention in Australian Indigenous youth: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Joseph; Shand, Fiona; Ridani, Rebecca; Mackinnon, Andrew; De La Mata, Nicole; Christensen, Helen

    2017-01-27

    Rates of youth suicide in Australian Indigenous communities are 4 times the national youth average and demand innovative interventions. Historical and persistent disadvantage is coupled with multiple barriers to help seeking. Mobile phone applications offer the opportunity to deliver therapeutic interventions directly to individuals in remote communities. The pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-help mobile app (ibobbly) targeting suicidal ideation, depression, psychological distress and impulsivity among Indigenous youth in remote Australia. Remote and very remote communities in the Kimberley region of North Western Australia. Indigenous Australians aged 18-35 years. 61 participants were recruited and randomised to receive either an app (ibobbly) which delivered acceptance-based therapy over 6 weeks or were waitlisted for 6 weeks and then received the app for the following 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS) to identify the frequency and intensity of suicidal ideation in the previous weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Although preintervention and postintervention changes on the (DSI-SS) were significant in the ibobbly arm (t=2.40; df=58.1; p=0.0195), these differences were not significant compared with the waitlist arm (t=1.05; df=57.8; p=0.2962). However, participants in the ibobbly group showed substantial and statistically significant reductions in PHQ-9 and K10 scores compared with waitlist. No differences were observed in impulsivity. Waitlist participants improved after 6 weeks of app use. Apps for suicide prevention reduce distress and depression but do not show significant reductions on suicide ideation or impulsivity. A feasible and acceptable means of lowering symptoms for mental health disorders in remote communities is via

  15. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

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    Cunningham Joan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to

  16. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vino, Thiripura; Singh, Gurmeet R; Davison, Belinda; Campbell, Patricia T; Lydeamore, Michael J; Robinson, Andrew; McVernon, Jodie; Tong, Steven Y C; Geard, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  17. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiripura Vino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  18. Health needs of Australian Indigenous young people entering detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jackob M; Cherney, Adrian

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether there are different health needs associated with differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth in detention in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. All records of young people (aged 10 to 21 years) taken into detention in Brisbane Queensland over the period 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2009 were reviewed, and data were extracted documenting the mental health and related behaviours of those referred to the Mental Health, Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs Service. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - Tenth Revision (ICD-10) criteria were applied to a clinical interview. ICD-10 diagnostic outcomes and reason for referral are presented by Indigenous status and age. Young male (under 14 years of age) Indigenous respondents are substantially over-represented in youth in detention. Indigenous youth in detention are disproportionately referred and diagnosed with a substance use problem. Referral and diagnosis of substance use problems was not as commonly found for non-Indigenous youth. Young Indigenous persons are substantially over-represented in those taken into detention in Queensland. This study shows significant differences in relation to mental health and substance use assessment outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people in youth detention in Queensland. Further research focusing on service delivery for Indigenous young people should focus on their specific needs. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. Indigenous Australians with non-small cell lung cancer or cervical cancer receive suboptimal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Bernardes, Christina M; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Darshan, Deepak; Chetty, Naven; Moore, Suzanne P; Garvey, Gail; Walpole, Euan; Baade, Peter; Valery, Patricia C

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer and cervical cancer are higher in incidence for Indigenous Australians and survival is worse compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Here we aim to determine if being Indigenous and/or other factors are associated with patients receiving "suboptimal treatment" compared to "optimal treatment" according to clinical guidelines for two cancer types. Data were collected from hospital medical records for Indigenous adults diagnosed with cervical cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a frequency-matched comparison group of non-Indigenous patients in the Queensland Cancer Registry between January 1998 and December 2004. The two cancer types were analyzed separately. A total of 105 women with cervical cancer were included in the study, 56 of whom were Indigenous. Indigenous women had higher odds of not receiving optimal treatment according to clinical guidelines (unadjusted OR 7.1; 95% CI, 1.5-33.3), even after adjusting for stage (OR 5.7; 95% CI, 1.2-27.3). Of 225 patients with NSCLC, 198 patients (56% Indigenous) had sufficient information available to be analyzed. The odds of receiving suboptimal treatment were significantly higher for Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous NSCLC patients (unadjusted OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.6) and remained significant after adjusting for stage, comorbidity and age (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1). The monitoring of treatment patterns and appraisal against guidelines can provide valuable evidence of inequity in cancer treatment. We found that Indigenous people with lung cancer or cervical cancer received suboptimal treatment, reinforcing the need for urgent action to reduce the impact of these two cancer types on Indigenous people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Unequal treatment: the possibilities of and need for indigenous parrhesiastes in Australian medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Shaun C

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the unacceptably poor levels of Indigenous health in Australia, the very low levels of representation (As at 2009, approximately 140 Indigenous medical graduates Australia wide) of Indigenous people within the medical field, and the potential for parrhesia (translated as "fearless speech") to challenge the medical hegemony, and as a tool of self-care for Indigenous medical students. This paper outlines the elements that make up parrhesia, the current state of Australian Indigenous (ill) health and Indigenous participation in the Australian health workforce, with some international comparison. Using Huckaby's (Educ Phil Theor 40: 770-788, 2008) conceptualization of specific parrhesiastic scholars, the paper introduces the idea of an Indigenous parrhesiastes. The paper then discusses, and endeavors to briefly address three questions that Foucault articulated in his series of lectures on parrhesia in 1983: "How can we recognize someone as a parrhesiastes? What is the importance of having a parrhesiastes in the city? What is the training of a good parrhesiastes?" (Foucault, http://foucault.info/documents/parrhesia/, 1985). In conclusion, this paper shows that Indigenous parrhesiastes could make a strong and positive contribution to medicine and medical education.

  1. Development of a Culturally Appropriate Bilingual Electronic App About Hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians: Towards Shared Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Caldwell, Luci; Johnston, Vanessa; Davis, Joshua Saul

    2015-06-10

    Hepatitis B is endemic in Indigenous communities in Northern Australia; however, there is a lack of culturally appropriate educational tools. Health care workers and educators in this setting have voiced a desire for visual, interactive tools in local languages. Mobile phones are increasingly used and available in remote Indigenous communities. In this context, we identified the need for a tablet-based health education app about hepatitis B, developed in partnership with an Australian remote Indigenous community. To develop a culturally appropriate bilingual app about hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land using a participatory action research (PAR) framework. This project was a partnership between the Menzies School of Health Research, Miwatj Aboriginal Health Corporation, Royal Darwin Hospital Liver Clinic, and Dreamedia Darwin. We have previously published a qualitative study that identified major knowledge gaps about hepatitis B in this community, and suggested that a tablet-based app would be an appropriate and popular tool to improve this knowledge. The process of developing the app was based on PAR principles, particularly ongoing consultation, evaluation, and discussion with the community throughout each iterative cycle. Stages included development of the storyboard, the translation process (forward translation and backtranslation), prelaunch community review, launch and initial community evaluation, and finally, wider launch and evaluation at a viral hepatitis conference. We produced an app called "Hep B Story" for use with iPad, iPhone, Android tablets, and mobile phones or personal computers. The app is culturally appropriate, audiovisual, interactive, and users can choose either English or Yolŋu Matha (the most common language in East Arnhem Land) as their preferred language. The initial evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in Hep B-related knowledge for 2 of 3 questions (P=.01 and .02, respectively) and

  2. Race Based Inequalities for Indigenous Australians' Participation and Engagement in VET: A Targeted Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn; Stuart, Lynne; Bell, Terry

    2017-01-01

    The poor outcomes in education, training and employment achieved by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia have been well documented. The transition from a traditional Indigenous society to the statuses of mainstream Australian society has been, and continues to be problematic for Indigenous Australians. The participation in…

  3. "Re-Casting Terra Nullius Design-Blindness": Better Teaching of Indigenous Knowledge and Protocols in Australian Architecture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Richard; Choy, Darryl Low; Heyes, Scott; Revell, Grant; Jones, David

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status and focus of Australian Architecture programs with respect to Indigenous Knowledge and the extent to which these tertiary programs currently address reconciliation and respect to Indigenous Australians in relation to their professional institutions and accreditation policies. The paper draws upon the findings…

  4. Improving the health of Indigenous Australians: reforms in nursing education. An opinion piece of international interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turale, S; Miller, M

    2006-09-01

    This paper overviews Indigenous disadvantage in relatively wealthy Australia. It describes efforts to increase the recruitment and retention of Indigenous people in nursing and to reform nursing education to be more inclusive of Indigenous culture, health and history. Indigenous people on average die 17 years younger than non-Indigenous people and have health problems similar to those of people in some underdeveloped countries. Moreover, social injustice and human rights issues affect their health and well-being and educational opportunities. They are under-represented in the health professions, including nursing, often through a lack of educational preparation and historical, socio-economic and cultural factors hindering them from entering and succeeding in university studies. In 2000, a project was funded by the Australian commonwealth government and led by the Indigenous Nursing Education Working Group. This Group worked for five years on a wide range of methods that included consultation within the profession, information dissemination and longitudinal surveying of university schools of nursing and Indigenous support units. Findings show that collaborative efforts between key stakeholders in nursing education appear to be succeeding to increase the numbers of Indigenous students of nursing. Around two-thirds of schools of nursing now include Indigenous content in their undergraduate curricula, but the majority is yet to provide Indigenous cultural awareness/cultural safety training for faculty.

  5. Socioeconomic disparities in self-reported cardiovascular disease for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults: analysis of national survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Joan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and cardiovascular disease (CVD among Indigenous Australians, or whether any such relationship is similar to that in non-Indigenous Australians. Methods Weighted data on self-reported CVD and several SES measures were analyzed for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results After adjusting for age and sex, self-reported CVD prevalence was generally higher among those of lower SES in both the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. The relative odds of self-reported CVD were generally similar in the two populations. For example, the relative odds of self-reported CVD for those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.8 among Indigenous people and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2-1.5 among non-Indigenous people. However, Indigenous people generally had higher self-reported CVD levels than non-Indigenous people of the same age and SES group. Although smoking history varied by SES, smoking did not explain the observed relationships between SES and self-reported CVD. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in self-reported CVD among Indigenous Australians appear similar in relative terms to those seen in non-Indigenous Australians, but absolute differences remain. As with other population groups, the socioeconomic heterogeneity of the Indigenous population must be considered in developing and implementing programs to promote health and prevent illness. In addition, factors that operate across the SES spectrum, such as racism, stress, dispossession, and grief, must also be addressed to reduce the burden of CVD.

  6. Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport: The Perils of the ‘Panacea’ Proposition

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, John Robert; Wilson, Rachel; Dalton, Bronwen; Georgakis, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The argument that participation in sport among disadvantaged populations can produce positive outcomes in wide range of areas has been a consistent theme in academic literature. It is argued that sport participation can promote women’s empowerment, sexuality, lifestyle, peacemaking, youth development, poverty reduction and conflict resolution. Similarly, in Australia, participation in sport among Indigenous Australians has been proffered as a ‘panacea’ for many Indigenous problems; from promo...

  7. The Impact of Professional Development and Indigenous Education Officers on Australian Teachers' Indigenous Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Han, Feifei

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching…

  8. Chronological narratives from smoking initiation through to pregnancy of Indigenous Australian women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-01

    One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

    2009-01-01

    This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

  10. Indigenous Employment and Enterprise Agreements in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cath

    2014-01-01

    Considering the benefits that enterprise agreements (EAs) can bring to Indigenous employees, this paper considers the question of whether respectful cultural policies that are aligned with reconciliation and included in EAs can be achieved to Close the Gap on reducing Indigenous disadvantage. A document analysis of EAs at eight Australian…

  11. New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…

  12. Independent Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems amongst Indigenous Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to…

  13. The "ripple effect": Health and community perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program on Thursday Island in the Torres Strait, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Plater, Suzanne; Canuto, Karla; Dickson, Michelle; Gwynn, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2018-02-19

    Physical inactivity is a key health risk among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. We examined perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program (IMP) in a remote Torres Strait island community. Semi-structured interviews with community and program stakeholders (n = 18; 14 Indigenous) examined barriers and enablers to running and the influence of the IMP on the community. A questionnaire asked 104 running event participants (n = 42 Indigenous) about their physical activity behaviours, running motivation and perceptions of program impact. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews revealed six main themes: community readiness, changing social norms to adopt healthy lifestyles, importance of social support, program appeal to hard-to-reach population groups, program sustainability and initiation of broader healthy lifestyle ripple effects beyond running. Barriers to running in the community were personal (cultural attitudes; shyness) and environmental (infrastructure; weather; dogs). Enablers reflected potential strategies to overcome described barriers. Indigenous questionnaire respondents were more likely to report being inspired to run by IMP runners than non-Indigenous respondents. Positive "ripple" effects of the IMP on running and broader health were described to have occurred through local role modelling of healthy lifestyles by IMP runners that reduced levels of "shame" and embarrassment, a common barrier to physical activity among Indigenous Australians. A high initial level of community readiness for behaviour change was also reported. SO WHAT?: Strategies to overcome this "shame" factor and community readiness measurement should be incorporated into the design of future Indigenous physical activity programs. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  14. Assessment of Fetal Kidney Growth and Birth Weight in an Indigenous Australian Cohort

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    Christopher J. Diehm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of renal disease and hypertension than non-Indigenous Australians. Low birth weight is recognized as a contributing factor in chronic disease and has been shown to increase the risk of renal failure in adulthood. A smaller kidney volume with fewer nephrons places an individual at risk of hypertension and renal failure. Indigenous Australians have fewer nephrons than non-Indigenous Australians. In this study, intrauterine fetal and kidney growth were evaluated in 174 Indigenous Australian babies throughout gestation in order to record and evaluate fetal growth and kidney size, within a population that is at high risk for chronic illness.Methods: Pregnant women that identified as Indigenous, or non-Indigenous women that were pregnant with a partner who identified as an Indigenous Australian were eligible to participate. Maternal history, smoking status, blood and urine samples and fetal ultrasounds were collected throughout pregnancy. Fetal kidney measurements were collected using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using the Stata 14.1 software package.Results: 15.2% of babies were born prematurely. 44% of the mothers reported smoking in pregnancy. The median birth weight of this cohort was 3,240 g. Male fetuses had higher kidney to body weight ratios than female fetuses (P = 0.02. The birth weights of term neonates whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were lower (327 g, P < 0.001 than the birth weights of term babies from non-smoking mothers. The kidney volumes of babies whose mothers smoked were also smaller (P = 0.02, but were in proportion to body weight.Conclusion: In this cohort of Indigenous women smoking was associated with both increased number of preterm births and with a reduction in birth weights, even of term infants. Since kidney volume is a surrogate measure of nephron number and nephrogenesis is complete at birth, babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy

  15. Gender issues in urban indigenous communities in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore attempts to examine gender issues in five indigenous communities in Port Harcourt. The communities are: Abuloma, Oroazi, Rumuadaolu, Elekahia and Ogbuna-abali. The key questions explored in the study are: how are urban indigenous women been marginalized in the process of urban growth and ...

  16. Offending, custody and opioid substitution therapy treatment utilisation among opioid-dependent people in contact with the criminal justice system: comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisev, Natasa; Gibson, Amy; Larney, Sarah; Kimber, Jo; Williams, Megan; Clifford, Anton; Doyle, Michael; Burns, Lucy; Butler, Tony; Weatherburn, Don J; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-09-06

    Although Indigenous Australians are over-represented among heroin users, there has been no study examining offending, time in custody, and opioid substitution therapy (OST) treatment utilisation among Indigenous opioid-dependent (including heroin) people at the population level, nor comparing these to non-Indigenous opioid-dependent people. The aims of this study were to compare the nature and types of charges, time in custody and OST treatment utilisation between opioid-dependent Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in contact with the criminal justice system. This was a population-based, retrospective data linkage study using records of OST entrants in New South Wales, Australia (1985-2010), court appearances (1993-2011) and custody episodes (2000-2012). Charge rates per 100 person-years were compared between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians by sex, age and calendar year. Statistical comparisons were made for variables describing the cumulative time and percentage of follow-up time spent in custody, as well as characteristics of OST initiation and overall OST treatment utilisation. Of the 34,962 people in the cohort, 6,830 (19.5%) were Indigenous and 28,132 (80.5%) non-Indigenous. Among the 6,830 Indigenous people, 4,615 (67.6%) were male and 2,215 (32.4%) female. The median number of charges per person against Indigenous people (25, IQR 31) was significantly greater than non-Indigenous people (9, IQR 16) (p Indigenous people were charged with 33.2% of the total number of charges against the cohort and 44.0% of all violent offences. The median percentage of follow-up time that Indigenous males and females spent in custody was twice that of non-Indigenous males (21.7% vs. 10.1%, p Indigenous people who first commenced OST in prison (30.2%) was three times that of non-Indigenous people (11.2%) (p Indigenous males spent less time in OST compared to non-Indigenous males (median percentage of follow-up time in treatment: 40.5% vs. 43.1%, p Indigenous

  17. Genome Sequence of Australian Indigenous Wine Yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii COFT1 Using Nanopore Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondini, Federico; Jiranek, Vladimir; Grbin, Paul R; Onetto, Cristobal A

    2018-04-26

    Here, we report the first sequenced genome of an indigenous Australian wine isolate of Torulaspora delbrueckii using the Oxford Nanopore MinION and Illumina HiSeq sequencing platforms. The genome size is 9.4 Mb and contains 4,831 genes. Copyright © 2018 Tondini et al.

  18. "Tone It down a Bit!": Euphemism as a Colonial Device in Australian Indigenous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    In a previous article discussing the politics of language in Australian Indigenous Studies teaching and learning contexts, the author and her colleague stated their objective in writing that article was to ''instill'' a sense of the importance of the political nature of language to their student body (McGloin and Carlson 2013). They wanted to…

  19. Academic "Place-Making": Fostering Attachment, Belonging and Identity for Indigenous Students in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David; Raciti, Maria; Gilbey, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Place is a concept used to explore how people ascribe meaning to their physical and social surrounds, and their emotional affects. Exploring the university as a place can highlight social relations affecting Australian Indigenous students' sense of belonging and identity. We asked what university factors contribute to the development of a positive…

  20. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Study protocol--Indigenous Australian social networks and the impact on smoking policy and programs in Australia: protocol for a mixed-method prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom; Lovett, Ray; van der Sterren, Anke

    2013-09-24

    Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Comprehensive tobacco control has reduced smoking rates in Australia from approximately 34 per cent in 1980 to 15 per cent in 2010. However, 46 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (Indigenous Australians) smoke on a daily basis, more than double the rate of non-Indigenous Australians. The evidence of effective tobacco control strategies for Indigenous Australians is relatively scarce. The aim of this study is to (i) explore the influences of smoking in Indigenous Australian people and to (ii) help inform and evaluate a multi-component tobacco control strategy. The study aims to answer the following questions:--do individuals' social networks influence smoking behaviours;--is there an association between various social and cultural factors and being a smoker or non-smoker; and--does a multi-component tobacco control program impact positively on tobacco behaviours, attitudes and beliefs in Indigenous Australians. Our prospective study will use a mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative), including a pre- and post-test evaluation of a tobacco control initiative. The study will explore the social and cultural context underlying Indigenous Australian tobacco use and associated factors which influence smoking behaviour. Primary data will be collected via a panel survey, interviews and focus groups. Secondary data will include de-identified PBS items related to smoking and also data collected from the Quitlines call service. Network analysis will be used to assess whether social networks influence smoking behaviours. For the survey, baseline differences will be tested using chi(2) statistics for the categorical and dichotomous variables and t-tests for the continuous variables, where appropriate. Grounded theory will be used to analyse the interviews and focus groups. Local Aboriginal community controlled organisations will partner in the study. Our study

  3. Improving health promotion using quality improvement techniques in Australian Indigenous primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki ePercival

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centres. Our study objectives were to: (a describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities; (b describe the status of health centre system support for health promotion activities; and (c introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centres systems over two years. Baseline assessments showed sub-optimal health centre systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health centre systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision making processes about the design/redesign of health centre systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff and members of the local community to address organisational and policy level barriers.

  4. Improving Health Promotion Using Quality Improvement Techniques in Australian Indigenous Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers.

  5. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

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    Katzenellenbogen Judith M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating

  6. The Legacy of Racism and Indigenous Australian Identity within Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Carlson, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism.…

  7. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and associated risk factors among Indigenous Australians who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael; Maher, Lisa; Graham, Simon; Wand, Handan; Iversen, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    To examine factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among a national sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs (PWID) in Australia. Respondents were recruited from Australia's Needle Syringe Program Survey; an annual bio-behavioural surveillance project that monitors HCV antibody prevalence among PWID. Data from 2006-2015 were de-duplicated to retain only one record where individuals participated in >1 survey round. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression examined demographic characteristics and injection-related behaviours associated with exposure to HCV. Among 17,413 respondents, 2,215 (13%) were Indigenous Australians. Compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts, Indigenous respondents were significantly more likely to be exposed to HCV infection (53% vs. 60% respectively, pIndigenous respondents, HCV antibody positivity was independently associated with a history of imprisonment (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR] 2.13, 95%CI 1.73-2.64), opioid injection (AOR 1.53, 95%CI 11.43-2.16), recruitment in a metropolitan location (AOR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02-1.59), engagement in opioid substitution therapy (AOR 2.83, 95%CI 2.23-3.59) and length of time since first injection (pIndigenous PWID are more likely to be exposed to HCV infection than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Implications for public health: Increased access to culturally sensitive harm reduction programs is required to prevent primary HCV infection and reinfection among Indigenous PWID. Given recent advances in HCV treatment, promotion of treatment uptake among Indigenous PWID may reduce future HCV-related morbidity and mortality. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity in indigenous Australian children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Suzanne Marie; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Smithers, Lisa Gaye; Davy, Carol; Coleman, Dylan T; Street, Jackie Mary

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-based profiling of obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australian children has been poor. This study systematically reviewed evidence of the prevalence and patterns of obesity/overweight, with respect to gender, age, remoteness, and birth weight, in Indigenous Australian children, 0-18 years (PROSPERO CRD42014007626). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty-five publications (21 studies) met inclusion criteria, with large variations in prevalence for obesity or overweight (11 to 54%) reported. A high degree of heterogeneity in study design was observed, few studies (6/21) were representative of the target population, and few appropriately recruited Indigenous children (8/21). Variability in study design, conduct, and small sample sizes mean that it is not possible to derive a single estimate for prevalence although two high-quality studies indicate at least one in four Indigenous Australian children are overweight or obese. Four of six studies reporting on gender, found overweight/obesity higher in girls and eight studies reporting on overweight/obesity by age suggest prevalence increases with age with one high quality large national study reporting total overweight/obesity as 22.4% of children aged 2-4 years, 27.5% of those aged 5-9, 38.5% aged 10-14, and 36.3% aged 15-17. Three of four studies, reporting obesity/overweight by region, found lower rates for children living in more remote areas than urban areas.

  9. Applying what works: a systematic search of the transfer and implementation of promising Indigenous Australian health services and programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCalman Janya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transfer and implementation of acceptable and effective health services, programs and innovations across settings provides an important and potentially cost-effective strategy for reducing Indigenous Australians' high burden of disease. This study reports a systematic review of Indigenous health services, programs and innovations to examine the extent to which studies considered processes of transfer and implementation within and across Indigenous communities and healthcare settings. Methods Medline, Informit, Infotrac, Blackwells Publishing, Proquest, Taylor and Francis, JStor, and the Indigenous HealthInfoNet were searched using terms: Aborigin* OR Indigen* OR Torres AND health AND service OR program* OR intervention AND Australia to locate publications from 1992–2011. The reference lists of 19 reviews were also checked. Data from peer reviewed journals, reports, and websites were included. The 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for proportions that referred to and focussed on transfer were calculated as exact binomial confidence intervals. Test comparisons between proportions were calculated using Fisher's exact test with an alpha level of 5%. Results Of 1311 publications identified, 119 (9.1%; 95% CI: 7.6% - 10.8% referred to the transfer and implementation of Indigenous Australian health services or programs, but only 21 studies (1.6%; 95% CI: 1.0% - 2.4% actually focused on transfer and implementation. Of the 119 transfer studies, 37 (31.1%; 95% CI: 22.9 - 40.2% evaluated the impact of a service or program, 28 (23.5%; 95% CI: 16.2% - 32.2% reported only process measures and 54 were descriptive. Of the 37 impact evaluation studies, 28 (75.7%; 95% CI: 58.8% - 88.2% appeared in peer reviewed journals but none included experimental designs. Conclusion While services and programs are being transferred and implemented, few studies focus on the process by which this occurred or the effectiveness of the service or program

  10. Applying what works: a systematic search of the transfer and implementation of promising Indigenous Australian health services and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Tsey, Komla; Clifford, Anton; Earles, Wendy; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Bainbridge, Roxanne

    2012-08-03

    The transfer and implementation of acceptable and effective health services, programs and innovations across settings provides an important and potentially cost-effective strategy for reducing Indigenous Australians' high burden of disease. This study reports a systematic review of Indigenous health services, programs and innovations to examine the extent to which studies considered processes of transfer and implementation within and across Indigenous communities and healthcare settings. Medline, Informit, Infotrac, Blackwells Publishing, Proquest, Taylor and Francis, JStor, and the Indigenous HealthInfoNet were searched using terms: Aborigin* OR Indigen* OR Torres AND health AND service OR program* OR intervention AND Australia to locate publications from 1992-2011. The reference lists of 19 reviews were also checked. Data from peer reviewed journals, reports, and websites were included. The 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for proportions that referred to and focussed on transfer were calculated as exact binomial confidence intervals. Test comparisons between proportions were calculated using Fisher's exact test with an alpha level of 5%. Of 1311 publications identified, 119 (9.1%; 95% CI: 7.6%-10.8%) referred to the transfer and implementation of Indigenous Australian health services or programs, but only 21 studies (1.6%; 95% CI: 1.0%-2.4%) actually focused on transfer and implementation. Of the 119 transfer studies, 37 (31.1%; 95% CI: 22.9-40.2%) evaluated the impact of a service or program, 28 (23.5%; 95% CI: 16.2%-32.2%) reported only process measures and 54 were descriptive. Of the 37 impact evaluation studies, 28 (75.7%; 95% CI: 58.8%-88.2%) appeared in peer reviewed journals but none included experimental designs. While services and programs are being transferred and implemented, few studies focus on the process by which this occurred or the effectiveness of the service or program in the new setting. Findings highlight a need for partnerships between

  11. High rates of albuminuria but not of low eGFR in Urban Indigenous Australians: the DRUID Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmet Paul Z

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have an incidence of end stage kidney disease 8-10 times higher than non-Indigenous Australians. The majority of research studies concerning Indigenous Australians have been performed in rural or remote regions, whilst the majority of Indigenous Australians actually live in urban settings. We studied prevalence and factors associated with markers of kidney disease in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort, and compared results with those for the general Australian population. Methods 860 Indigenous adult participants of the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID Study were assessed for albuminuria (urine albumin-creatinine ratio≥2.5 mg/mmol males, ≥3.5 mg/mmol females and low eGFR (estimated glomular filtration rate 2. Associations between risk factors and kidney disease markers were explored. Comparison was made with the AusDiab cohort (n = 8,936 aged 25-64 years, representative of the general Australian adult population. Results A high prevalence of albuminuria (14.8% was found in DRUID, whilst prevalence of low eGFR was 2.4%. Older age, higher HbA1c, hypertension, higher C-reactive protein and current smoking were independently associated with albuminuria on multiple regression. Low eGFR was independently associated with older age, hypertension, albuminuria and higher triglycerides. Compared to AusDiab participants, DRUID participants had a 3-fold higher adjusted risk of albuminuria but not of low eGFR. Conclusions Given the significant excess of ESKD observed in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous Australians, these findings could suggest either: albuminuria may be a better prognostic marker of kidney disease than low eGFR; that eGFR equations may be inaccurate in the Indigenous population; a less marked differential between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians for ESKD rates in urban compared to remote regions; or that differences in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease exist

  12. Mobile Technologies for Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within...

  13. Characterizing gestational weight gain in a cohort of Indigenous Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Sutherland, Kathryn; Collins, Clare E; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2018-01-31

    to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program. 110 pregnant women who either identified as being an Indigenous Australian or as carrying an Indigenous child. measurements included weight and height, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and smoking status, parity and health conditions that may contribute to gestational weight gain, such as hypertensive or diabetic disorders. Compared to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain and based on prepregnancy body mass index, the rate of adequate gestational weight gain in this cohort was very low (15%). 32% of women had inadequate weight gain and 54% had excessive weight gain. The highest rate of excessive gestational weight gain was found in overweight women (74%), with rates of 48% and 50% found in healthy and obese (all classes) categories, respectively. Parity (coefficient 4.5, p<0.01) and hypertension (coefficient 4.8, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with gestational weight gain in mixed model linear regression. few women gained adequate gestational weight gain in this study. Culturally acceptable ways of addressing this issue are needed for this group of women, as inadequate and excessive rates of gestational weight gain have health implications for women and their offspring. a systematic approach to addressing gestational weight gain within antenatal care is required, including asking about diet and exercise, for all women identifying as Indigenous Australian. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Media and Mobile Apps for Health Promotion in Australian Indigenous Populations: Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Carl; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health promotion interventions, with a particular focus on the Australian context and on health promotion targeted toward an Indigenous audience. Specifically, our research questions were: (1) What is the peer-reviewed evidence of benefit for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management, and health service delivery, with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media? and (2) What social media and mobile software have been used in Indigenous-focused health promotion interventions in Australia with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, or otitis media, and what is the evidence of their effectiveness and benefit? Methods We conducted a scoping study of peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of social media and mobile technologies in health promotion (globally) with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media. A scoping review was also conducted for Australian uses of social media to reach Indigenous Australians and mobile apps produced by Australian health bodies, again with respect to these three areas. Results The review identified 17 intervention studies and seven systematic reviews that met inclusion criteria, which showed limited evidence of benefit from these interventions. We also found five Australian projects with significant social media health components targeting the Indigenous Australian population for health promotion purposes, and four mobile software apps that met inclusion

  15. Determinants and gaps in preventive care for Indigenous Australians: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Stewart Bailie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPotentially preventable chronic diseases are the greatest contributor to the health gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Preventive care is important for earlier detection and control of chronic disease, and a number of recent policy initiatives have aimed to enhance delivery of preventive care. We examined documented delivery of recommended preventive services for Indigenous peoples across Australia, and investigated the influence of health center and client level factors on adherence to best practice guidelines. MethodsClinical audit data from 2012-2014 for 3623 well adult clients (aged 15-54 of 101 health centers from four Australian states and territories were analyzed to determine adherence to delivery of 26 recommended preventive services classified into five different modes of care on the basis of the way in which they are delivered (eg. basic measurement; laboratory tests and imaging; assessment and brief interventions, eye, ear and oral checks; follow-up of abnormal findings. Summary statistics were used to describe the delivery of each service item across jurisdictions. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the variation in service delivery attributable to health center and client level factors and to identify factors associated with higher quality care.ResultsDelivery of recommended preventive care varied widely between service items, with good delivery of most basic measurements but poor follow-up of abnormal findings. Health center characteristics were associated with most variation. Higher quality care was associated with Northern Territory location, urban services and smaller service population size. Client factors associated with higher quality care included age between 25-34 years, female sex and more regular attendance. ConclusionsWide variation in documented preventive care delivery, poor follow-up of abnormal findings, and system factors that

  16. Philip McLaren and the Indigenous-Australian Crime Novel

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    Cornelis Martin Renes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper locates the postcolonial crime novel as a space for disenfranchised groups to write back to the marginalisation inherent in the process of colonisation, and explores the example of Australia. From its inception in the mid-19th century, Australian crime fiction reflected upon the challenging harshness and otherness of the Australian experience for the free and convict settler, expelled from the metropole. It created a series of popular subgenres derived from the convict narrative proper, while more ‘standard’ modes of crime fiction, popularised in and through British and American crime fiction, were late to develop. Whereas Australian crime fiction has given expression to the white experience of the continent in manifold ways, up until recently it made no room for Indigenous voices – with the exception of the classic Inspector Napoleon Bonaparte series written by the prolific Arthur Upfield in the first half of the 20th century. For the longest time, this absence reflected the dispossession, dispersal and disenfranchisement of the colonised Indigenous peoples at large; there were neither Aboriginal voices nor Aboriginal authors, which made the textual space of the Australian crime novel a discursive terra nullius. This paper will look at the only Indigenous-Australian author to date with a substantial body of work in crime fiction, Philip McLaren, and elucidate how his four crime novels break new ground in Australian crime fiction by embedding themselves within a political framework of Aboriginal resilience and resistance to neo/colonialism. Written as of the 1990s, McLaren’s oeuvre is eclectic in that it does not respond to traditional formats of Australian crime fiction, shifts between generic subtypes and makes incursions into other genres. The paper concludes that McLaren’s oeuvre has not been conceived of as the work of a crime writer per se, but rather that its form and content are deeply informed by the racist violence

  17. Repeat pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Indigenous Australian adults is associated with decreased immune responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberley, Sarah; Licciardi, Paul V; Balloch, Anne; Andrews, Ross; Leach, Amanda J; Kirkwood, Marie; Binks, Paula; Mulholland, Kim; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tang, Mimi L K; Skull, Sue

    2017-05-19

    non-Indigenous counterparts, with lower IgG following a second 23vPPV dose. These findings highlight the critical need to evaluate the efficacy of future pneumococcal vaccine programs in the Australian Indigenous populations that recommend repeated doses of 23vPPV. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew West

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Results Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91% while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

  19. Visual outcomes following vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy amongst Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidonis, Georgia; Hassall, Mark M; Phillips, Russell; Raymond, Grant; Saha, Niladri; Wong, George Hc; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Liu, Ebony; Burdon, Kathryn P; Henderson, Tim; Newland, Henry; Lake, Stewart R; Craig, Jamie E

    2017-10-16

    Visual outcomes following diabetic vitrectomy have not previously been studied in an Australian population. This analysis aimed to determine the rate of, and factors associated with visual success following diabetic vitrectomy performed for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, and investigate factors predisposing to early progression to diabetic retinopathy (DR) requiring vitrectomy. Retrospective, population-based audit. All patients undergoing vitrectomy for the complications of DR in South Australia (SA) and the Northern Territory (NT) between 2007 and 2011. Medical records were audited and data collected, including demographics, diabetic history, past treatment for DR, indication for vitrectomy and visual acuity pre and postoperatively. Visual success (gain of ≥15 ETDRS letters) at 6 and 12 months, postoperatively. A total of 495 diabetic vitrectomies, for 404 eyes of 335 patients were performed in SA and NT between 2007 and 2011. 77 (23%) patients requiring diabetic vitrectomy were Indigenous Australians. 87% of patients undergoing diabetic vitrectomy had stable or improved vision at 1 year, postoperatively. There was no significant difference between indigenous and non-indigenous eyes achieving visual success (P = 0.929). Timely preoperative laser treatment (P = 0.03) and preoperative visual acuity (P = 0.01) were the predominant factors associated with visual success. Indigenous patients are just as likely to have improved vision following diabetic vitrectomy as non-Indigenous Australians. However, the small subset of indigenous patients with blind eyes prior to vitrectomy are significantly less likely to improve from surgery. The underlying factors associated with poor outcomes in this group requires further exploration. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. A Discussion with Sandy O'Sullivan about Key Issues for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the form of an interview with Sandy O'Sullivan, who is a partner on the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network, about key issues that have arisen through Network discussions. She is a Wiradjuri woman and a Senior Aboriginal researcher at the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education. O'Sullivan…

  1. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate mode...

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of human Chlamydia pneumoniae strains reveals a distinct Australian indigenous clade that predates European exploration of the continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulis, Eileen; Bachmann, Nathan; Humphrys, Michael; Myers, Garry; Huston, Wilhelmina; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2015-12-22

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen, which has been found in a range of hosts including humans, marsupials and amphibians. Whole genome comparisons of human C. pneumoniae have previously highlighted a highly conserved nucleotide sequence, with minor but key polymorphisms and additional coding capacity when human and animal strains are compared. In this study, we sequenced three Australian human C. pneumoniae strains, two of which were isolated from patients in remote indigenous communities, and compared them to all available C. pneumoniae genomes. Our study demonstrated a phylogenetically distinct human C. pneumoniae clade containing the two indigenous Australian strains, with estimates that the most recent common ancestor of these strains predates the arrival of European settlers to Australia. We describe several polymorphisms characteristic to these strains, some of which are similar in sequence to animal C. pneumoniae strains, as well as evidence to suggest that several recombination events have shaped these distinct strains. Our study reveals a greater sequence diversity amongst both human and animal C. pneumoniae strains, and suggests that a wider range of strains may be circulating in the human population than current sampling indicates.

  3. Indigenous Students' Voices: Monitoring Indigenous Student Satisfaction and Retention in a Large Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Widin, Jacquie

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous student satisfaction with the university learning and teaching experience matters. From a student perspective, retention matters as successful completion of tertiary education improves the life chances of students in relation to employment opportunities, being able to support themselves financially and contributing to the society in…

  4. Partnership for Improving Outcomes in Indigenous Education: Relationship or Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma Rhea, Zane

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Australian government's Indigenous policy by interrogating the concept of partnership between governments and Indigenous communities through three examples. Increasingly, the Australian federal government is focusing attention on the poor literacy and numeracy outcomes for Indigenous children in remote and very remote…

  5. Vestas and the Indigenous Communities in Oaxaca, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    and 40 indigenous Zapotec and Huave people held rallies in front of the Danish Embassy in Mexico City. With banners and placards, the protestors demanded Vestas’s exit from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The indigenous people suggested that although European companies had traditionally been present...... in Mexico and were among the most experienced wind developers in the world, 'their capitalist model' failed to take into account, 'the spiritual and social ties between the indigenous rural communities and the land'. According to local residents, the basic problem was a clash of cultures. This case can...... and stakeholder involvement between MNCs, governmental officials and local communities, when implementing large-scale investment projects. The case presents a conflict which involves four actors: 1) Indigenous communities in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region in Oaxaca, Mexico: Zapotecas, Huaves or Ikoot, 2...

  6. Colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intention among Indigenous Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Aliki; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-07-18

    Indigenous Australians are significantly less likely to participate in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening compared to non-Indigenous people. This study aimed to identify important factors influencing the decision to undertake screening using Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT) among Indigenous Australians. Very little evidence exists to guide interventions and programmatic approaches for facilitating screening uptake in this population in order to reduce the disparity in colorectal cancer outcomes. Interviewer-administered surveys were carried out with a convenience sample (n = 93) of Indigenous Western Australians between November 2009-March 2010 to assess knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behavioural intent in regard to CRC and CRC screening. Awareness and knowledge of CRC and screening were low, although both were significantly associated with exposure to media advertising (p = 0.008; p < 0.0001). Nearly two-thirds (63%; 58/92) of respondents reported intending to participate in screening, while a greater proportion (84%; 77/92) said they would participate on a doctor's recommendation. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression demonstrated that independent predictors of screening intention were, greater perceived self-efficacy (OR = 19.8, 95% CI = 5.5-71.8), a history of cancer screening participation (OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 2.0-23.3) and being aged 45 years or more (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.2-16.5). A higher CRC knowledge score (medium vs. low: OR = 9.9, 95% CI = 2.4-41.3; high vs. low: 13.6, 95% CI = 3.4-54.0) and being married or in a de-facto relationship (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 2.1-22.5) were also identified as predictors of intention to screen with FOBT. Improving CRC related knowledge and confidence to carry out the FOBT self-screening test through education and greater promotion of screening has the potential to enhance Indigenous participation in CRC screening. These findings should guide the development of interventions to encourage screening uptake and

  7. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young people with a particular emphasis on the social and cultural processes that underlie tobacco use patterns among this group. Methods This project was undertaken in northern Australia. We undertook group interviews with 65 participants and individual in-depth interviews with 11 youth aged 13–20 years led by trained youth ‘peer researchers.’ We also used visual methods (photo-elicitation with individual interviewees to investigate the social context in which young people do or do not smoke. Included in the sample were a smaller number of non-Indigenous youth to explore any significant differences between ethnic groups in determinants of early smoking experiences. The theory of triadic influence, an ecological model of health behaviour, was used as an organising theory for analysis. Results Family and peer influences play a central role in smoking uptake among Indigenous youth. Social influences to smoke are similar between Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth but are more pervasive (especially in the family domain among Indigenous youth. While Indigenous youth report high levels of exposure to smoking role models and smoking socialisation practices among their family and social networks, this study provides some indication of a progressive denormalisation of smoking among some Indigenous youth. Conclusions Future initiatives aimed at preventing smoking uptake in this population need to focus on changing social normative beliefs around smoking, both at a

  8. 'It's very difficult to get respite out here at the moment': Australian findings on end-of-life care for Indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Patton, Mary Anne; McGrath, Zoë; Olgivie, Katherine; Rayner, Robert; Holewa, Hamish

    2006-03-01

    Whilst access to respite care has been found to represent an important source of support for terminally ill patients and their families, the availability of these services to Indigenous Australians has to date remained undocumented. This potential need for respite in Indigenous communities was explored as part of a National Health and Medical Research Council (NH&MRC) funded study designed to develop an innovative model for Indigenous palliative care. The data needed for model development were collected through a series of open-ended, qualitative interviews conducted with a cross-section of consumers and health professionals within the Northern Territory, Australia. The findings reflected a serious need for Indigenous respite services, coupled with a severe deficiency in the present availability of these services, especially within rural and regional areas. This lack of local respite services was documented to be negatively impacting upon the ability of carers to fulfil their caring duties and was found placing undue physical, emotional and economic stress upon carers, patients and their families. Furthermore, the lack of access to local respite services documented was found to be forcing rural and regional patients to relocate to metropolitan areas away from the family, community and land to which strong ties are held. The lack of Indigenous respite services was also found to obstruct patients' and carers' wishes for death to occur in the local community, rather than in far away cities. Significant obstacles were found to be hindering the provision of respite care to Indigenous Australians, namely beliefs about families looking after their own, resource restrictions, limited staff availability in local areas, as well as problems associated with hostel use in metropolitan areas. The conclusions drawn from this study suggest the importance of tackling the obstacles preventing local respite services being established in areas close to where patients and carers live.

  9. Allostatic load mediates the impact of stress and trauma on physical and mental health in Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyai, Zoltán; Berger, Maximus; Jawan, Isabella

    2016-02-01

    A considerable gap exists in health and social emotional well-being between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous Australians. Recent research in stress neurobiology highlights biological pathways that link early adversity and traumas as well as life stresses to ill health. We argue that the neurobiological stress response and its maladaptive changes, termed allostatic load, provide a useful framework to understand how adversity leads to physical and mental illness in Indigenous people. In this paper we review the biology of allostatic load and make links between stress-induced systemic hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes and physical and mental illnesses. Exposure to chronic stress throughout life results in an increased allostatic load that may contribute to a number of metabolic, cardiovascular and mental disorders that shorten life expectancy in Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  10. Development and preliminary validation of the 'Caring for Country' questionnaire: measurement of an Indigenous Australian health determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Caring for Country' is defined as Indigenous participation in interrelated activities with the objective of promoting ecological and human health. Ecological services on Indigenous-owned lands are belatedly attracting some institutional investment. However, the health outcomes associated with Indigenous participation in 'caring for country' activities have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to pilot and validate a questionnaire measuring caring for country as an Indigenous health determinant and to relate it to an external reference, obesity. Methods Purposively sampled participants were 301 Indigenous adults aged 15 to 54 years, recruited during a cross-sectional program of preventive health checks in a remote Australian community. Questionnaire validation was undertaken with psychometric tests of internal consistency, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory one-factor congeneric modelling. Accurate item weightings were derived from the model and used to create a single weighted composite score for caring for country. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to test associations between the caring for country score and body mass index adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results The questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest validity and proxy-respondent validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the 'caring for country' items produced a single factor solution that was confirmed via one-factor congeneric modelling. A significant and substantial association between greater participation in caring for country activities and lower body mass index was demonstrated. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours, an inter-quartile range rise in caring for country scores was associated with 6.1 Kg and 5.3 Kg less body weight for non-pregnant women and men respectively. Conclusion This study indicates preliminary support for

  11. A narrative analysis of a speech pathologist's work with Indigenous Australians with acquired communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Deborah; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Bourke, Noni

    2015-01-01

    To explore in detail the narrative of a speech pathologist (SP) working with Indigenous Australian clients with acquired communication disorders following stroke or brain injury. There is some evidence that Indigenous clients do not find speech pathology rehabilitation to be culturally appropriate but, currently, there is very little published on the nature of this service or the experiences of SPs who provide this rehabilitation. This research uses both thematic and structural narrative analysis of data from a semi-structured, in-depth interview with a SP to examine the adaptations that she made to address the needs of her adult neurological caseload of (mainly) Indigenous Australians from both urban and remote regions. The thematic analysis resulted in a core theme of flexibility and four other sub-themes: awareness of cultural context, client focus/person-centredness, being practical and working ethically. The structural narrative analysis allowed insight into the nature of clinical reasoning in a context lacking predictability and where previous clinical certainties required adaptation. Individual, detailed narratives are useful in exposing the challenges and clinical reasoning behind culturally sensitive practice. Implications for Rehabilitation Speech pathologists (SPs) can learn from hearing the clinical stories of colleagues with experience of providing rehabilitation in culturally diverse contexts, as well as from ongoing training in culturally competent and safe practices. Such stories help bridge understanding from the general to the particular. SPs working with Indigenous Australians with acquired communication disorders post-stroke and brain injury may find it helpful to consider how the themes, drawn from an interview with the clinician in this study - flexibility, awareness of cultural context, person-centredness, being practical and working ethically - might apply to their practice. Narratives may be helpful in staff training and form an important

  12. Correlations suggest low magnesium may lead to higher rates of type 2 diabetes in Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreet, D A; Heath, D L; Panaretto, K S; Vink, R

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes accounts for a significant part of the morbidity and mortality experienced by Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Research over the past two decades has provided evidence of a clinical correlation between diabetes and low magnesium intake. Hypomagnesaemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in diabetic outpatients and may be linked to the development of both macrovascular and microvascular diabetic complications. A diabetes risk reduction of 33%-34% has been found among those with diets highest in magnesium. This study examines the case for magnesium as a potential contributor to diabetes in Australia, especially among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Specifically explored are associations between diabetes and the magnesium content of drinking water and diet, as well as climatic and socioeconomic factors that may impact on magnesium status including temperature, rainfall, education, employment and income. Queensland age-standardized death rates due to diabetes were correlated with the magnesium content of drinking water, maximum average temperature, rainfall, unemployment rate, proportion of population with post-school qualification, weekly income, and the percentage population identified as Indigenous. Multiple-pass 24-hour recalls from a convenience sample of 100 Indigenous patients at a regional centre were also analyzed to estimate dietary magnesium intake. The Indigenous nutrient intake was then compared with the Australian National Nutrition Survey estimates. Diabetes related mortality was significantly correlated to the percentage of the population identified as Indigenous (r = 0.675), to water magnesium levels (r = -.414), and to average maximum daily temperature (r = 0.579). The average daily magnesium intake in an Indigenous cohort from a regional centre was 248 mg (men: 267 mg +/- 17; women: 245 mg +/- 6 mg), significantly less than intakes observed in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (plow

  13. Indigenous Australians' Information Behaviour and Internet Use in Everyday Life: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia Tina; Haines, Jelina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the first stage of an ongoing information behaviour research project undertaken with a rural Indigenous community in South Australia. Method: Twenty-one Ngarrindjeri volunteers participated in the field study. Permission was granted and extensive community consultations were conducted. Analysis: Questionnaires and…

  14. INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES & PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilze Tavares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most part of indigenous adults in the Guarani communities of Mato Grosso do Sul is bilingual and has one of the indigenous languages, Guarani Kaiowá or Guarani Ñandeva, as their mother tongue and Portuguese as a second language; only a few elderly and young children still who do not go to school speak only the mother tongue. In this paper, we try to verify which impression the speakers have for each of these languages and the importance they attribute to each one of them. Data analysis showed that the mother tongue is closely related to the expression of their traditional culture; in general, the indigenous claim their languages are being transmitted to new generations, and therefore preserved in an appropriate manner in the two communities. The Portuguese is also considered very important by all informants and the main motivation for its teaching/learning is the need to contact with the non-indigenous population. These results may help us understand issues related to the future of these indigenous languages and Portuguese language in the investigated communities.

  15. Social media and health information sharing among Australian Indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefler, Marita; Kerrigan, Vicki; Henryks, Joanna; Freeman, Becky; Thomas, David P

    2018-04-17

    Despite the enormous potential of social media for health promotion, there is an inadequate evidence base for how they can be used effectively to influence behaviour. In Australia, research suggests social media use is higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than the general Australian population; however, health promoters need a better understanding of who uses technologies, how and why. This qualitative study investigates what types of health content are being shared among Aboriginal and Torres Strait people through social media networks, as well as how people engage with, and are influenced by, health-related information in their offline life. We present six social media user typologies together with an overview of health content that generated significant interaction. Content ranged from typical health-related issues such as mental health, diet, alcohol, smoking and exercise, through to a range of broader social determinants of health. Social media-based health promotion approaches that build on the social capital generated by supportive online environments may be more likely to generate greater traction than confronting and emotion-inducing approaches used in mass media campaigns for some health topics.

  16. Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Clausen, Don; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-14

    Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared.

  17. Changes in Area-level Socioeconomic Status and Oral Health of Indigenous Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Luzzi, Liana; Mejia, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Dental diseases have shown to be influenced by area-level socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the effects of change in area-level SES on the oral health of Australian Indigenous children. Data were collected from a national surveillance survey for children's dental health at two points of time (2000-2002/2007-2010). The study examines caries experienced by area-level SES and whether changes in area-level SES (stable-high, upwardly-mobile, downwardly-mobile and stable low) affects caries experience. Dental caries in both the deciduous and permanent dentition increased significantly among Indigenous children during the study period. In stable low-SES areas, the experience of decayed, missing and overall dmft/DMFT in both dentitions was highest compared with other groups at both Time 1(2.15 vs 1.61, 1.77, 1.87 and 0.86 vs 0.55, 0.67, 0.70 respectively) and Time 2 (3.23 vs 2.08, 2.17, 2.02 and 1.49 vs 1.18, 1.21 respectively). A change in area-level SES was associated with experience of dental disease among Indigenous Australian children.

  18. The benefits of a life-first employment program for Indigenous Australian families: Implications for ‘Closing the Gap’

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    Lynsey Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are significant and enduring inequities in education and employment outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. In taking a ‘life-first’ approach to service provision the Building Family Opportunities Program (BFO was able to successfully increase Indigenous Australians’ engagement with education and employment in South Australia. The evaluation of the BFO included quantitative administrative and survey data for 110 Indigenous families collected over a three year period, and qualitative data from interviews with 13 Indigenous jobseekers and focus groups with 24 case managers. Quantitative data revealed that similar proportions of Indigenous and non-Indigenous jobseekers achieved positive education/training and employment outcomes as a result of the program. Qualitative data were able to identify the strengths of this program as perceived by Indigenous families and case managers, including the practical and socio-emotional support offered to whole families, using a strengths-based, life-first approach. In the context of broader education and employment disadvantages experienced by Indigenous Australians, these results are significant and illustrate key lessons which can inform future policy and service delivery initiatives aiming to close the gap.

  19. Reflecting on Research Practices and Indigenous Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we set out by problematising poverty, pointing out that poverty has been elaborately defined by people who do not find themselves in poverty situations. Given the complex and varied nature of poverty and socio-economic living conditions of people defined as indigenous and poor, we advocate for approaches ...

  20. Dimensions of belonging as an aspect of racial-ethnic-cultural identity: an exploration of indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen A; Oyama, Kathleen E; Odunewu, Latifat O; Huggins, Jackie G

    2014-07-01

    Sense of belonging is a key aspect of racial and ethnic identity. Interestingly, there is little exploration of the multiple characteristics of belongingness within the racial and ethnic identity literature. Through individual interviews and a focus group, we explored the sense of racial-ethnic-cultural (REC) belonging among 19 self-identified Black Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders). Using dimensional analysis, we uncovered 5 core interrelated dimensions of REC belonging: History/Memory, Place, and Peoplehood; Sense of Community; Acceptance and Pride; Shared Language and Culture; and Interconnections. We also uncovered 3 main barriers undermining participants' sense of REC belonging: phenotype, social identity, and history of colonization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Relationships: the key to effective occupational therapy practice with urban Australian Indigenous children.

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    Nelson, Alison; Allison, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate what constitutes a socially and culturally appropriate occupational therapy service for urban Indigenous Australian families in Brisbane, Queensland. A qualitative methodology was used with data collected in two distinct parts. Part 1 comprised interviews and focus groups with 25 stakeholders in a newly established occupational therapy service for Indigenous children. Part 2 consisted of semi-structured questionnaires completed by 50 occupational therapists in Queensland. Results revealed guidelines for developing culturally relevant practice around 5 main themes. These were the need to: 1. develop effective relationships, 2. develop particular personal qualities, 3. understand the background of both the client and the therapist, 4. both gain and give knowledge, and 5. address logistical issues of service delivery. This study was limited to an evaluation of one service and included only teachers, parents and health service personnel. These practice guidelines could be applied to other settings with other Indigenous children, and their effectiveness evaluated from the perspectives of Indigenous children.

  2. Roles of Urban Indigenous Community Members in Collaborative Field-Based Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a community-university partnership for teacher preparation with an urban Indigenous community organization. The study examined the roles of Indigenous community partners as co-teacher educators working to better prepare teachers for the needs of urban Indigenous children and communities. The author collected…

  3. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

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    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  4. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

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    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden. PMID:26633456

  5. Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities

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    Natalie C. Ban

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Community and resource user support has often been declared as essential to achieving globally agreed targets for marine protection. Given that indigenous people in Canada have resource use rights, we engaged two indigenous communities in British Columbia for their views on marine planning and protected areas. We developed a three-phased approach for executing our research: building research partnerships, carrying out individual interviews, and holding community discussion sessions. Participants expressed a common goal of recovering depleted species and ensuring the sustainability of indigenous fishing. We found strong support for spatial protection measures, and significant overlaps amongst participants in the areas suggested for protection. The most common type of protection recommended by participants was the exclusion of commercial and recreational fisheries while allowing for indigenous fishing; this stands in contrast to the emphasis on strict no-take MPAs advocated in the literature. Similarities in the goal, and level and areas of protection point to a gap in conservation approaches: the conservation of important areas and resources to indigenous people, allowing the continued practice and adaptation of their culture.

  6. Principals as Literacy Leaders with Indigenous Communities (PALLIC) Building Relationships: One School's Quest to Raise Indigenous Learners' Literacy

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    Riley, Tasha; Webster, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 to 2012, 48 schools in the Northern Territory, South Australia and Queensland participated in the Principals as Literacy Leaders with Indigenous Communities (PALLIC) project. Central to this project was the establishment of positive working relationships between school principals and Indigenous community leaders in order to improve…

  7. The Impact Of Indigenous Community-Based Groups Towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    access funding from government and/or other donors. Working in groups is indigenous to. African communities and has far-reaching effects, which reverberate beyond the boundaries of these groups and has historically been an embodiment of the way of life, custodian of customs, traditions and cultures and provide venue ...

  8. Indigenous knowledge of rural communities for combating climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural communities have local knowledge in areas such as weather and seasonal forecasting (44%), drought forecasting (20.9%), crop pest & disease (47%), and weed (99.7%) control methods to adapt to some of the climate change impacts. Not all households have the same levels and types of indigenous knowledge.

  9. The Body as Language and Expression of the Indigenous Australian Cultural Identity

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    Dolors Soriano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Indigenous Australian oral culture, Tradition and Law are transmitted orally – through songs, tales, legends, etc. – and by visual expressions – engravings and drawings made on rocks, on the ground, on material objects, on bark and on the human body–. Drawings and engravings transform the surface on which they are made from profane to sacred, since they are the transmitters of cultural myths and beliefs, generation after generation. The body, one of the supports of visual expression, actively participates in the transmission of myths, relegating the design to a secondary place. The most important thing is the transmission of the myth and not the way it is transmitted, or the result. The mythological narrative or legend surpasses the aesthetic line of vision. This paper intends to expose the primacy of the use of the body -- human or not–, as a transmitter of the myths and history of the Indigenous Australian culture. In this way the body speaks a non-oral language full of symbolism and meaning.

  10. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

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    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  11. Bioscience-bioethics and life factors affecting reproduction with special reference to the Indigenous Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Irina

    2005-04-01

    The demand for equality of recognition or respect is the dominant passion of modernity. The 20th century experienced a giant leap in technological inventiveness and ruthless use of technological power. In the 21st century, human welfare and environmental wellbeing demand fundamental political appraisal. We have the means, if we choose, to eradicate poverty and to responsibly protect the global environment. However, economic, political and cultural systems act to differentially allocate the benefits and risks for growth between socioeconomic groups. For example, it is a matter of pride that the neonatal mortality rate in affluent societies has dropped substantially since the late 1970s. However, the level of infant mortality (three times the national average) and low birthweight (13%) among the Indigenous Australian population is the highest in the country. With hindsight we now know that is the inevitable legacy of Australia's colonial history. Chronic physical and psychological stress is recognized as an important etiological factor in many lifestyle diseases of the cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems. Diseases of adaptation are further advanced by non-adaptive lifestyle choices, depression, alcoholism and other drug dependencies. This review describes the principles of bioscience ethics and targets equity issues as they affect human reproduction across generations with particular reference to the Indigenous population of Australia. The review also considers ways we may advance global and cultural maturity from the Indigenous Australian perspective and proposes an ecologically based model of preventative care. If we are to embrace fundamental social change and protect future children without threatening parents' basic freedoms, then new beliefs and priorities--based on a compassionate understanding of biological systems--must evolve from the general public. Belief in human rights arising from a sense of human dignity is a collective outcome originating

  12. Prevalence of augmented renal clearance and performance of glomerular filtration estimates in Indigenous Australian patients requiring intensive care admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, D; Udy, A A; Stewart, P C; Gourley, S; Morick, N M; Lipman, J; Roberts, J A

    2018-01-01

    Augmented renal clearance (ARC) refers to the enhanced renal excretion of circulating solute commonly demonstrated in numerous critically ill subgroups. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of ARC in critically ill Indigenous Australian patients and explore the accuracy of commonly employed mathematical estimates of glomerular filtration. We completed a single-centre, prospective, observational study in the intensive care unit (ICU), Alice Springs Hospital, Central Australia. Participants were critically ill adult Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian patients with a urinary catheter in situ. Exclusion criteria were anuria, pregnancy or the requirement for renal replacement therapy. Daily eight-hour measured creatinine clearances (CrCLm) were collected throughout the ICU stay. ARC was defined by a CrCLm ≥130 ml/min/1.73 m2. The Cockcroft-Gault and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations were also used to calculate mathematical estimates for comparison. In total, 131 patients were recruited (97 Indigenous, 34 non-Indigenous) and 445 samples were collected. The median (range) CrCLm was 93.0 (5.14 to 205.2) and 90.4 (18.7 to 206.8) ml/min/1.73 m2 in Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients, respectively. Thirty-one of 97 (32%) Indigenous patients manifested ARC, compared to 7 of 34 (21%) non-Indigenous patients (P=0.21). Younger age, major surgery, higher baseline renal function and an absence of diabetes were all associated with ARC. Both mathematical estimates manifest limited accuracy. ARC was prevalent in critically ill Indigenous patients, which places them at significant risk of underdosing with renally excreted drugs. CrCLm should be obtained wherever possible to ensure accurate dosing.

  13. A Community Standard: Equivalency of Healthcare in Australian Immigration Detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    The Australian government has long maintained that the standard of healthcare provided in its immigration detention centres is broadly comparable with health services available within the Australian community. Drawing on the literature from prison healthcare, this article examines (1) whether the principle of equivalency is being applied in Australian immigration detention and (2) whether this standard of care is achievable given Australia's current policies. This article argues that the principle of equivalency is not being applied and that this standard of health and healthcare will remain unachievable in Australian immigration detention without significant reform. Alternate approaches to addressing the well documented issues related to health and healthcare in Australian immigration detention are discussed.

  14. Roaming of dogs in remote Indigenous communities in northern Australia and potential interaction between community and wild dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombara, C; Dürr, S; Gongora, J; Ward, M P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the roaming of Indigenous community dogs and potential interaction with wild dogs and dingoes. Cross-sectional survey and longitudinal follow-up study. Six remote Indigenous communities in Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land in northern Australia were selected. Hair samples were collected from community dogs and microsatellite DNA analyses were used to determine hybrid (>10% dingo DNA) status. Dogs were fitted with GPS collars and home range (ha) was estimated during monitoring periods of up to 3 days. In Cape York Peninsula, 6% of the 35 dogs sampled were dingo hybrids, whereas in Arnhem Land 41% of the 29 dogs sampled were hybrids. The median extended home range was estimated to be 4.54 ha (interquartile range, 3.40 - 7.71). Seven community dogs were identified with an estimated home range > 20 ha and home ranges included the bushland surrounding communities. No significant difference in home ranges was detected between hybrid and non-hybrid dogs. Study results provide some evidence (dingo hybridisation, bushland forays) of the potential interaction between domestic and wild dogs in northern Australia. The nature of this interaction needs further investigation to determine its role in disease transmission; for example, in the case of a rabies incursion in this region. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Towards an Indigenous Ecosystem Services Valuation Framework: A North Australian Example

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    Kamaljit Kaur Sangha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite calls by various international agencies, considerable work is still required to understand and incorporate the importance of earth's ecosystems for informing public policies. Savannas comprise nearly one third of global terrestrial ecosystems and support many local and Indigenous communities, but the value of their ecosystem services (ES is insufficiently understood. This study proposes an integrated ES valuation framework and applies it to assess ES for an Indigenous savanna estate in northern Australia, describing how capabilities along with biophysical and socio-cultural ES benefits play a vital role for peoples' wellbeing. We estimated the monetary value of ES by applying a conventional Basic Value Transfer (BVT method for biophysical benefits (USD 84 M y-1, and a wellbeing approach for valuing socio-cultural benefits and capabilities (USD 4 M y-1. The latter offers a relatively nominal estimate but underscores the importance of including peoples' capabilities in order to demonstrate wellbeing benefits for Indigenous people who regularly visit and utilize their lands. We explore two scenarios, Business as Usual (pastoral land use and ES-based economies (implying customary land use, particularly through fire management to project plausible broader benefits for the community over a longer term. This research describes how inclusion of Indigenous peoples' capabilities and socio-cultural values are critical for ES assessments, and indicates that an integrated approach is essential for appropriately informing local, regional and global development policies.

  16. A Typology of Indigenous Engagement in Australian Environmental Management: Implications for Knowledge Integration and Social-ecological System Sustainability

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    Rosemary Hill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples now engage with many decentralized approaches to environmental management that offer opportunities for integration of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK and western science to promote cultural diversity in the management of social-ecological system sustainability. Nevertheless, processes of combining IEK with western science are diverse and affected by numerous factors, including the adaptive co-management context, the intrinsic characteristics of the natural resources, and the governance systems. We present a typology of Indigenous engagement in environmental management, derived through comparative analysis of 21 Australian case studies, and consider its implications for the integration of IEK with western science. Sociological and rational choice institutionalism underpin our analytical framework, which differentiates on three axes: (1 power sharing, incorporating decision making, rules definition, resource values and property rights; (2 participation, incorporating participatory processes, organizations engaged, and coordination approaches; (3 intercultural purpose, incorporating purposes of environmental management, Indigenous engagement, Indigenous development and capacity building. Our typology groups engagement into four types: Indigenous governed collaborations; Indigenous-driven co-governance; agency-driven co-governance; and agency governance. From our analysis of manifestations of knowledge integration across the types, we argue that Indigenous governance and Indigenous-driven co-governance provides better prospects for integration of IEK and western science for sustainability of social-ecological systems. Supporting Indigenous governance without, or with only a limited requirement for power sharing with other agencies sustains the distinct Indigenous cultural purposes underpinning IEK, and benefits knowledge integration. We conclude by advocating that the typology be applied to test its general effectiveness in

  17. The impact of a community-based risky drinking intervention (Beat da Binge) on Indigenous young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainullabudeen, Thameemul Ansari; Lively, Ailsa; Singleton, Michele; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Tsey, Komla; McCalman, Janya; Doran, Christopher; Jacups, Susan

    2015-12-30

    Alcohol misuse imposes substantial harm on Indigenous Australians whose health status is poorer than non-Indigenous Australians. Although Indigenous youth are over represented in Indigenous alcohol harms, few interventions addressing alcohol-related harm among Indigenous youth have been evaluated. Given this paucity of evidence, a survey was designed to evaluate the effects of a whole-of-community, anti-binge drinking intervention for young people in an Indigenous community in far north Queensland, Australia. A cross sectional, baseline-post intervention study assessed the impact of a two year anti-binge drinking intervention targeting young people (18-24 years). A survey was developed and implemented at baseline and again two-years post-intervention, administered by young local people employed as research assistants. Survey respondents were recruited through snowballing techniques. Survey items asked about respondents' knowledge of binge drinking and standard drinks, involvement in alcohol-free social activities, frequency of short-term risky drinking (binge drinking), and mean alcohol expenditure during short-term risky drinking occasions. The intervention was called Beat da Binge. Two major events and multiple minor activities each year were implemented, focusing on drinking education, alcohol-free community-wide social events, and youth-specific sporting and social activities to facilitate self-empowerment. Beat da Binge was associated with a statistically significant 10% reduction in the proportion of survey respondents who reported that they had engaged in an episode of short-term risky drinking, in the frequency of short-term risky drinking for all beverage types except wine (ranging from 4% to 31% reductions), in mean expenditure on alcohol during short-term risky drinking sessions ($6.25) and in the proportion of activities with family/friends that usually include alcohol (7%). There were also statistically significant increases in awareness of binge

  18. Smoking behaviour and preferences for cessation support among clients of an Indigenous community-controlled health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Nicole; Gartner, Coral; Ford, Pauline J

    2018-03-02

    Reducing smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians is a vital part of closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Community-controlled health clinics are an important setting for delivering smoking cessation advice and assistance. This study measured tobacco and e-cigarette use, knowledge of smoking-related health effects, motivations to quit and interest in cessation aids. Clients of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Community Health Service dental clinics in Southeast Queensland (n = 421) completed a brief written questionnaire while in the waiting room. Nearly half (n = 184, 47%) of the participants currently smoked daily, of which 9% (n = 7) currently used e-cigarettes. Few smokers (8%, n = 13) had no intention to quit smoking. For current smokers, previously used quit methods were abrupt cessation (42%, n = 78), nicotine replacement therapies (NRT; 25%, n = 45), prescription medications (23%, n = 43), e-cigarettes (9%, n = 17) and other methods (3%, n = 6). Current smokers were most interested in cutting down (85%, n = 110), abrupt cessation (75%, n = 98) and free NRT (72%, n = 101). Fewer (34%, n = 36) were interested in purchasing NRT for smoking cessation. Our study found there was interest in accessing smoking cessation aids among the clients of this community-controlled health clinic, particularly if provided free of charge. Embedding smoking cessation advice and assistance into a range of community-controlled health clinics could provide opportunities for addressing the high smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. "If It Weren't for My Mum...": The Influence of Australian Indigenous Mothers on Their Children's Aspirations to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ninetta

    2010-01-01

    This article draws upon data from semi-structured interviews with Australian Indigenous teachers to explore the role their mothers played in shaping their decisions to become teachers. The findings suggest that their mothers' emotional involvement and investment in their sons' and daughters' education generated significant reserves of emotional…

  20. Evaluation of impact of 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine following 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Australian Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Chiu, Clayton; Menzies, Rob; Lehmann, Deborah; Cook, Heather; Giele, Carolien; Krause, Vicki; McIntyre, Peter

    2015-11-27

    High incidence and serotype diversity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Indigenous children in remote Australia led to rapid introduction of 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (7vPCV) at 2, 4 and 6 months in 2001, followed by 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV) in the second year of life. All other Australian children were offered 3 doses of 7vPCV without a booster from 2005. This study evaluated the impact of the unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule of 7vPCV followed by the 23vPPV booster among Indigenous Australian children. Changes in IPD incidence derived from population-based passive laboratory surveillance in Indigenous children vaccine introduction period (Indigenous 1994-2000; non-Indigenous 2002-2004) to the post-vaccine period (2008-2010 in both groups) using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) stratified by age into serotype groupings of vaccine (7v and 13vPCV and 23vPPV) and non-vaccine types. Vaccine coverage was assessed from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. At baseline, total IPD incidence per 100,000 was 216 (n=230) in Indigenous versus 55 (n=1993) in non-Indigenous children. In 2008-2010, IRRs for 7vPCV type IPD were 0.03 in both groups, but for 23v-non7v type IPD 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.8) in Indigenous versus 3.1 (95% CI 2.5-3.7) in non-Indigenous, difference driven primarily by serotype 19A IPD (IRR 0.6 in Indigenous versus 4.3 in non-Indigenous). For non-7vPCV type IPD overall, IRR was significantly higher in those age-eligible for 23vPPV booster compared to those younger, but in both age groups was lower than for non-Indigenous children. These ecologic data suggest a possible "serotype replacement sparing" effect of 23vPPV following 7vPCV priming, especially for serotype 19A with supportive evidence from other immunogenicity and carriage studies. Applicability post 10vPCV or 13v PCV priming in similar settings would depend on local serotype distribution of IPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Examining the potential contribution of social theory to developing and supporting Australian Indigenous-mainstream health service partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emma; Taylor, Kate P; Durey, Angela; Bessarab, Dawn; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-09-20

    The substantial gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians has been slow to improve, despite increased dedicated funding. Partnerships between Australian Indigenous and mainstream Western biomedical organisations are recognised as crucial to improved Indigenous health outcomes. However, these partnerships often experience challenges, particularly in the context of Australia's race and political relations. We examined the relevant literature in order to identify the potential role for social theory and theoretical models in developing and maintaining intercultural partnerships. Having identified relevant theoretical models, terms and possible key words, a range of databases were searched and relevant articles selected for inclusion. An integrative approach brought together theoretical models and practical considerations about working in partnership, to inform our analysis of the literature. Considering partnerships between Australian Indigenous and mainstream health organisations as 'bi-cultural' is simplistic: rather they are culturally diverse across social and professional levels. As such, partnerships between Australian Indigenous and mainstream health organisations may be better conceptualised as 'intercultural', operating across diverse and shifting cultural frames of reference. Theories identified by this review as useful to guide partnerships include power relations, reflexivity and dialogue, borders and strangeness and the intercultural or third space. This paper examines how these theoretical approaches can develop understanding and improve intercultural engagement between mainstream and Australian Indigenous partners in healthcare. Rather than viewing partnerships merely as arrangements between disembodied entities, sometimes contractual in nature, they are better seen as activities between people and organisations and essentially dependent on relationships, occurring in an intercultural space that is complex, dynamic and

  2. Multimedia Technology and Indigenous Language Revitalization: Practical Educational Tools and Applications Used within Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reports findings from a study documenting the use of multimedia technology among Indigenous language communities to assist language learners, speakers, instructors, and institutions learn about multimedia technologies that have contributed to Indigenous language revitalization, education, documentation, preservation, and…

  3. Total and unbound ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Danny; Stewart, Penelope; Goud, Rajendra; Gourley, Stephen; Hewagama, Saliya; Krishnaswamy, Sushena; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of specific data to guide optimal dosing, this study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in severely septic Australian Indigenous patients and to assess achievement of the pharmacodynamic target of the regimens prescribed. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in a remote hospital intensive care unit in patients receiving ceftriaxone dosing of 1 g every 12 h (q12h). Serial blood and urine samples were collected over one dosing interval on two consecutive days. Samples were assayed using a validated chromatography method for total and unbound concentrations. Concentration-time data collected were analysed with a non-compartmental approach. A total of 100 plasma samples were collected from five subjects. Ceftriaxone clearance, volume of distribution at steady-state, elimination half-life and elimination rate constant estimates were 0.9 (0.6-1.5) L/h, 11.2 (7.6-13.4) L, 9.5 (3.2-10.2) h and 0.07 (0.07-0.21) h -1 , respectively. The unbound fraction of ceftriaxone ranged between 14% and 43%, with a higher unbound fraction present at higher total concentrations. The unbound concentrations at 720 min from the initiation of infusion for the first and second dosing intervals were 7.2 (4.8-10.7) mg/L and 7.8 (4.7-12.1) mg/L respectively, which exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration of all typical target pathogens. In conclusion, the regimen of ceftriaxone 1 g q12h is adequate for critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis caused by non-resistant pathogens. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. "From your own thinking you can't help us": intercultural collaboration to address inequities in services for Indigenous Australians in response to the World Report on Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Anne

    2013-02-01

    Inequity in service provision for Indigenous Australians with communication disability is an issue requiring urgent attention. In the lead article, Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall (2013) note that, even in the relatively affluent Minority World, including Australia, equity in service provision for people with communication disability has not been achieved. In remote communities in the Northern Territory (NT) almost all residents speak a language other than English as their primary language. However, there are no speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the NT who speak an Indigenous language or who share their cultural background. Specific data on the prevalence of communication disability in this population are unavailable due to a range of factors. The disability data that are available, for example, demonstrating the high level of conductive hearing loss, indicates that the risk of communication disability in this population is particularly high. Change is urgently needed to address current inequities in both availability of, and access to, culturally responsive services for Indigenous people with communication disability. Such change must engage Indigenous people in a collaborative process that recognizes their expertise in identifying both their needs and the most effective form of response to these needs.

  5. The Impacts of English Colonial Terrorism and Genocide on Indigenous/Black Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asafa Jalata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article critically explores the essence of colonial terrorism and its consequences on the indigenous people of Australia during their colonization and incorporation into the European-dominated racialized capitalist world system in the late 18th century. It uses multidimensional, comparative methods, and critical approaches to explain the dynamic interplay among social structures, human agency, and terror to explain the connection between terrorism and the emergence of the capitalist world system or globalization. Raising complex moral, intellectual, philosophical, ethical, and political questions, this article explores the essence, roles, and impacts of colonial terrorism on the indigenous Australians. First, the article provides background historical and cultural information. Second, it conceptualizes and theorizes colonial terrorism as an integral part of the capitalist world system. Specifically, it links capitalist incorporation and colonialism and various forms of violence to terrorism. Third, the article examines the structural aspects of colonial terrorism by connecting it to some specific colonial policies and practices. Finally, it identifies and explains different kinds of ideological justifications that the English colonial settlers and their descendants used in committing crimes against humanity.

  6. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  7. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-02-12

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. A linked data set of women aged 20-69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999-2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997-2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995-2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20-69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. There were 28,872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76,831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1,372,823 women (PSR n=1,374,401; QCR n=1955), and 5,062,118 records. Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study highlights the need to include Indigenous status on Pap smear request and report forms in any

  8. Indicators of the Legal Security of Indigenous and Community Lands. Data file from LandMark: The Global Platform of Indigenous and Community Lands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tagliarino, Nicholas Korte

    2016-01-01

    L. Alden Wily, N. Tagliarino, Harvard Law and International Development Society (LIDS), A. Vidal, C. Salcedo-La Vina, S. Ibrahim, and B. Almeida. 2016. Indicators of the Legal Security of Indigenous and Community Lands. Data file from LandMark: The Global Platform of Indigenous and Community Lands.

  9. Global implications of the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Steven Y C; McDonald, Malcolm I; Holt, Deborah C; Currie, Bart J

    2008-06-15

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Australia may have been facilitated by conditions in socially disadvantaged populations--particularly, remote Australian Aboriginal communities. The appearance of community-associated MRSA was first noticed in Australia during the early 1980s; subsequently, several genetically diverse strains have independently emerged from geographically distinct regions. Molecular and epidemiological studies support the role of genetic transfer of resistance determinants (SCCmecIV) in this process. Conditions in Aboriginal communities--namely, domestic crowding, poor hygiene, and high rates of scabies, pyoderma, and antibiotic use--have facilitated both the clonal expansion and de novo emergence of strains of community-associated MRSA. Combating the worldwide emergence and spread of community-associated MRSA may require novel community-level control strategies targeted at specific groups, such as remote Indigenous populations.

  10. Water insecurity in Canadian Indigenous communities: some inconvenient truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Hanrahan, Maura; Hudson, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Canada has the second highest per capita water consumption in the world. However, little is known about complex socio-economic and cultural dynamics of water insecurities in Indigenous communities and the multiple health consequences. Most studies have concentrated on a simplified interpretation of accessibility, availability and quality issues, including some common water-borne infections as the only health outcomes. Thus, several government initiatives on potable water supply, particularly for remotely located communities, have failed to sustain and promote a healthy lifestyle. The objective was to explore the water insecurity, coping strategies and associated health risks in a small and isolated sub-Arctic Indigenous (Inuit) community in Canada. The study was based on a community-based survey (2013) in one of the most remote Inuit communities of Labrador. In-depth, open-ended key informant (KI) interviews (community leader (1), woman (1), nurse (1), teacher (1), and elder (1)) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with community leaders (5), community members (25), women (5), and high school students (8). Convenience sampling was followed in selection of the subjects for FGDs and approached some KIs. All the water sources (five in April and seven in October) were visited and tested for their physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The FGDs and KI interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. In the analysis, the data (qualitative and quantitative) were broadly categorized into (a) water sources, access and quality, (b) coping, (c) health risks and (d) challenges to run a public water system. The community did not have any piped water supply. Their regular sources of water consisted of several unmonitored local streams, brooks, and ponds. The public water system was not affordable to the majority of community members who solely depended on government aid. Animal fecal contamination (in natural sources such as streams, brooks, and ponds

  11. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  12. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  13. Beyond the Biomedical Paradigm: The Formation and Development of Indigenous Community-Controlled Health Organizations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and development of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services in Australia, with emphasis on the Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service in Sydney. These organizations were established in the 1970s by Indigenous Australians who were excluded from and denied access to mainstream health services. The aim of this research was to explore notions of Indigenous agency against a historical backdrop of dispossession, colonialism, and racism. Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services act as a primary source of healthcare for many Indigenous communities in rural and urban areas. This study examined their philosophy of healthcare, the range of services provided, their problems with state bureaucracies and government funding bodies, and the imposition of managerialist techniques and strategies on their governance. Essentially, these organizations transcend individualistic, biomedical, and bureaucratic paradigms of health services by conceptualizing and responding to Indigenous health needs at a grassroots level and in a broad social and political context. They are based on a social model of health. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  14. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  15. Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Allen; Corral, Leonardo; Lima, Eirivelthon Santos; Asner, Gregory P

    2017-04-18

    Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or spur forest damage. We analyze such a campaign in the Peruvian Amazon, where more than 1,200 indigenous communities comprising some 11 million ha have been titled since the mid-1970s. We use community-level longitudinal data derived from high-resolution satellite images to estimate the effect of titling between 2002 and 2005 on contemporaneous forest clearing and disturbance. Our results indicate that titling reduces clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation.

  16. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation of the price disclosure policy had a

  17. Psycho-social resilience, vulnerability and suicide prevention: impact evaluation of a mentoring approach to modify suicide risk for remote Indigenous Australian students at boarding school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Russo, Sandra; Rutherford, Katrina; Tsey, Komla; Wenitong, Mark; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Jacups, Susan

    2016-02-01

    The proposed study was developed in response to increased suicide risk identified in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students who are compelled to attend boarding schools across Queensland when there is no secondary schooling provision in their remote home communities. It will investigate the impact of a multicomponent mentoring intervention to increase levels of psychosocial resilience. We aim to test the null hypothesis that students' resilience is not positively influenced by the intervention. The 5-year project was funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council from December 2014. An integrated mixed methods approach will be adopted; each component iteratively informing the other. Using an interrupted time series design, the primary research methods are quantitative: 1) assessment of change in students' resilience, educational outcomes and suicide risk; and 2) calculation of costs of the intervention. Secondary methods are qualitative: 3) a grounded theoretical model of the process of enhancing students' psychosocial resilience to protect against suicide. Additionally, there is a tertiary focus on capacity development: more experienced researchers in the team will provide research mentorship to less experienced researchers through regular meetings; while Indigenous team members provide cultural mentorship in research practices to non-Indigenous members. Australia's suicide prevention policy is progressive but a strong service delivery model is lacking, particularly for Indigenous peoples. The proposed research will potentially improve students' levels of resilience to mitigate against suicide risk. Additionally, it could reduce the economic and social costs of Indigenous youth suicide by obtaining agreement on what is good suicide prevention practice for remote Indigenous students who transition to boarding schools for education, and identifying the benefits-costs of an evidence-based multi-component mentoring intervention to

  18. Knowledge of and preferred sources of assistance for physical activity in a sample of urban Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Julian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine urban Indigenous Australians' knowledge of the current Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG and identify their preferred sources of assistance or advice regarding physical activity. Method Self-completed questionnaire data were collected from 194 participants; the questionnaires sought information on standard demographics including an assessment of their perceived physical activity level relative to peers. Outcome measures were agreement with five statements from the current PAG and indicators of preferred sources of assistance or advice regarding physical activity. Results Most participants demonstrated excellent knowledge of the current PAG, with 92% to 88% of participants agreeing with the statements. Significantly more older participants (> 44 years identified that 'blocks of 10 minutes of activity are OK' compared to younger participants (aged 18–44 years: 60%; X2 = 6.23; p = .04. Significantly more higher educated participants agreed (96% that 'brisk walking for half an hour most days was good for health' compared to the less educated participants (85%; X2 = 8.08; p = .02. The most preferred source of physical activity advice identified by men was the GP/health professional (62% vs. 53%; men and women respectively, NS, while for women it was a group to be active with (60% vs. 42%; women and men respectively; X2 = 6.09; p = .01. Conclusion Urban Indigenous Australians have similar levels of knowledge regarding the PAG to non-Indigenous Australians. However, the option of accumulating 10-minute activity bouts needs to be better communicated to younger Indigenous people. Most participants expressed a preference for advice about physical activity to be delivered via health professionals, and groups to be active with. Indigenous and age-specific resources that promote the unique aspects of the current PAG (e.g., that vigorous exercise is not essential for health and blocks of 10 minutes of activity are OK should be

  19. Building Indigenous Community Resilience in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, B.

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous community resilience is rooted in the seasoned lifeways, developed over generations, incorporated into systems of knowledge, and realized in artifacts of infrastructure through keen observations of the truth and consequences of their interactions with the environment found in place over time. Their value lies, not in their nature as artifacts, but in the underlying patterns and processes of culture: how previous adaptations were derived and evolved, and how the principles and processes of detailed observation may inform future adaptations. This presentation examines how such holistic community approaches, reflected in design and practice, can be applied to contemporary issues of energy and housing in a rapidly changing climate. The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Plains seek to utilize the latest scientific climate modeling to support the development of large, utility scale distributed renewable energy projects and to re-invigorate an indigenous housing concept of straw bale construction, originating in this region. In the energy context, we explore the potential for the development of an intertribal wind energy dynamo on the Great Plains, utilizing elements of existing federal policies for Indian energy development and existing federal infrastructure initially created to serve hydropower resources, which may be significantly altered under current and prospective drought scenarios. For housing, we consider the opportunity to address the built environment in Indian Country, where Tribes have greater control as it consists largely of residences needed for their growing populations. Straw bale construction allows for greater use of local natural and renewable materials in a strategy for preparedness for the weather extremes and insurance perils already common to the region, provides solutions to chronic unemployment and increasing energy costs, while offering greater affordable comfort in both low and high temperature extremes. The development of large

  20. Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality amongst Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José; Kaidonis, Georgia; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life, but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians. To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality. A retrospective cohort analysis. A total of 1347 Indigenous Australians aged over 40 years. Participants visiting remote medical clinics underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, subjective refraction and slit-lamp examination of the anterior and posterior segments. The major ocular cause of visual impairment was determined. Patients were assessed periodically in these remote clinics for the succeeding 10 years after recruitment. Mortality rates were obtained from relevant departments. All-cause 10-year mortality and its association with disease-specific causes of visual impairment. The all-cause mortality rate for the entire cohort was 29.3% at the 10-year completion of follow-up. Of those with visual impairment, the overall mortality rate was 44.9%. The mortality rates differed for those with visual impairment due to cataract (59.8%), diabetic retinopathy (48.4%), trachoma (46.6%), 'other' (36.2%) and refractive error (33.4%) (P visual impairment from diabetic retinopathy were any more likely to die during the 10 years of follow-up when compared with those without visual impairment (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.00-2.87; P = 0.049). Visual impairment was associated with all-cause mortality in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. However, diabetic retinopathy was the only ocular disease that significantly increased the risk of mortality. Visual impairment secondary to diabetic retinopathy may be an important predictor of mortality. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Social inequality in dental caries and changes over time among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep Hong; Xiangqun, Ju; Cecilia, Mejia Gloria; Jason, Armfield; Do, Loc G; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes and compares magnitudes of socioeconomic (SES) inequalities in oral health among Indigenous and non-Indigenous children over a 10-year period. We analysed annual oral health survey data from NSW, NT and SA. Data were extracted for time period 1 (2000-2002, N=215,317) and time period 2 (2007-2010, N=34,495). Oral health outcomes were untreated decayed deciduous teeth (dt) and cumulative dental caries experience (dmft). Postcode-level Socioeconomic Index for Areas was used to assess SES. Age standardisation and complex survey weights were used. Indices of socioeconomic inequality in health (Slope Index of Inequality, Relative Index of Inequality, Absolute and Relative Concentration Index) were used to quantify inequality in dental caries and its changes over time. Oral health outcomes deteriorated in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations over time. Indigenous children experienced higher levels of disease at both times. Untreated dt increased in both populations. The cummulative disease (dmft) increased at higher rate among children in low-SES areas in both populations. Over time, there was an increase in socioecononomic inequalities in dmft in all children and in dt in non-Indigenous children. Area-level socioeconomic inequality in child oral health has widened due to deterioration in low-SES children. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Combustion properties of slow pyrolysis bio-oil produced from indigenous Australian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatov, V.; Honnery, D.; Soria, J. [Laboratory for Turbulence Research in Aerospace and Combustion (LTRAC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2006-10-15

    Bio-oil derived via slow pyrolysis process of two indigenous Australian tree species, red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) from the basin of Murray, Victoria, and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) wood from the region of Mount Gambier, South Australia was blended with ethanol and burned in a circular jet spray at atmospheric pressure. Bio-oil flames were shorter, wider and brighter than diesel fuel flames at the same conditions. Adding of flammable polar additives (e.g. ethanol) to bio-oil improved some of the undesired properties of the fuel such as poor atomisation, low calorific value, and high NO{sub x} emission from the flame. Nevertheless, adding of ethanol should be carried out with caution since it leads to a reduction of the heat flux from the flame. Changing the concentration of flammable polar additives in bio-oil can be an optimising factor in achieving the proper balance between the best spray formation and the maximal heat flux from the flame. (author)

  3. Culturally capable and culturally safe: Caseload care for Indigenous women by Indigenous midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R; Gamble, J; Kelly, J; Milne, T; Duffy, E; Sidebotham, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is emerging of the benefits to students of providing continuity of midwifery care as a learning strategy in midwifery education, however little is known about the value of this strategy for midwifery students. To explore Indigenous students' perceptions of providing continuity of midwifery care to Indigenous women whilst undertaking a Bachelor of Midwifery. Indigenous Bachelor of Midwifery students' experiences of providing continuity of midwifery care to Indigenous childbearing women were explored within an Indigenous research approach using a narrative inquiry framework. Participants were three Indigenous midwifery students who provided continuity of care to Indigenous women. Three interconnected themes; facilitating connection, being connected, and journeying with the woman. These themes contribute to the overarching finding that the experience of providing continuity of care for Indigenous women creates a sense of personal affirmation, purpose and a validation of cultural identity in Indigenous students. Midwifery philosophy aligns strongly with the Indigenous health philosophy and this provides a learning platform for Indigenous student midwives. Privileging Indigenous culture within midwifery education programs assists students develop a sense of purpose and affirms them in their emerging professional role and within their community. The findings from this study illustrate the demand for, and pertinence of, continuity of care midwifery experiences with Indigenous women as fundamental to increasing the Indigenous midwifery workforce in Australia. Australian universities should provide this experience for Indigenous student midwives. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic evaluation of 'Return to Country': A remote Australian initiative to address indigenous homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Jacups, Susan; Hunter, Gary; Rogerson, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous homeless persons in Cairns, Northern Australia, prompted the Queensland Police Service (QPS) to commence a pilot 'Return to Country' (R2C) program. The program was designed to assist homeless people who were voluntarily seeking to return to their home communities. This study assesses the costs of running the program and evaluates its net economic impact. Retrospective uncontrolled cost, cost-effectiveness and cost-offset analyses were undertaken from a societal perspective. All costs were expressed in 2014 AU$. The R2C program successfully assisted 140 participants to return home, reducing the prevalence of homelessness in the regional center by 9.6%. The total program cost was estimated as AU$ 135,831 or AU$ 970 per participant. The economic analysis indicated that R2C was value for money, potentially saving AU$ 2,714,460. Limitations of the study included retrospective data collection and no established alternative comparison group. R2C is a relatively simple, minimal cost program, which can be utilized by policy makers to offer one solution to homelessness. This economic evaluation informs the QPS of the effects of the R2C program in order to guide further program initiatives. The R2C model may be applied to assist temporarily stranded Indigenous people in other locations within Australia or internationally to return home. No funding was obtained for conducting this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Ontological Perspective on the Development of Home-School Partnership Relationships with Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Rawiri; Hynds, Anne; Averill, Robin; Meyer, Luanna; Faircloth, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of an ontological perspective to shift current thinking about the phenomenon of home/school partnerships, particularly through an examination of school leaders (leadership team)--community relationships that seek to better serve Indigenous students and their communities. We reanalysed focus group interviews of indigenous Maori…

  6. Familia and Comunidad-Based Saberes: Learning in an Indigenous Heritage Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how children and youth learned indigenous heritage "saberes" (knowings) through intent community participation in Nocutzepo, Mexico. The "familia" (family) and "comunidad" (community)-based saberes were valuable for skills acquisition, but most important for learning indigenous forms of…

  7. Resiliency in Native Languages: The Tale of Three Indigenous Communities' Experiences with Language Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Dorothy; LeCompte, Margaret D.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of three Indigenous communities with language immersion models in preschool through 12th grades to revitalize and preserve their native languages through ethnographic research design and methods. The history and implementation of language instruction in three Indigenous communities are summarized. The analysis…

  8. The relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia, C; Ju, X; Mejia, G; Jamieson, L

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to test the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Data were from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC); a population-based cohort study in Australia. Participants were 1,687 Indigenous Australian children aged 5 or less. Biological, social and behavioural variables were tested using log-linear modelling with binomial regression to determine the association with parental-reported experience of dental caries. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods were used for multiple imputation of missing data. Overall 25.8% of Indigenous Australian children had dental caries as reported by a carer. In the multivariable model, increased prevalence of parental-reported caries was significantly associated with low maternal education levels (RR=1.60, 95%CI 1.17,2.20) and high sugar consumption (RR= 1.60, 95%CI 1.26,2.02). In the group of children whose mothers smoked tobacco during pregnancy, the association with parent-reported dental caries approached the threshold of significance, but was not significantly associated with caries status in children (RR=1.19, 95%CI 0.99,1.43). After multiple imputation, the most significant association was evident in children of the least educated mothers (RR=1.57, 95%CI 1.25,1.95), breastfeeding more than 12 months (RR=1.26, 95%CI 1.01,1.56), sweet intake more than 30% (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.15,1.74) and 20-30% (RR=1.29 95%CI 1.04,1.59) and residing in outer regional (RR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19,2.05) or inner regional locations (RR=1.50, 95%CI 1.19,1.88). Mothers' tobacco smoking status showed a weak association with parent-reported dental decay (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.20,1.68). This study suggests there is a weak association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prevalence of parentally-reported dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  9. Diabetic retinopathy in a remote Indigenous primary healthcare population: a Central Australian diabetic retinopathy screening study in the Telehealth Eye and Associated Medical Services Network project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, L; Jenkins, A; Keech, A; Ryan, C; Brown, A; Boffa, J; Bursell, S

    2018-02-06

    To determine diabetic retinopathy prevalence and severity among remote Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional diabetic retinopathy screening study of Indigenous adults with Type 2 diabetes was conducted by locally trained non-ophthalmic retinal imagers in a remote Aboriginal community-controlled primary healthcare clinic in Central Australia and certified non-ophthalmic graders in a retinal grading centre in Melbourne, Australia. The main outcome measure was prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Among 301 participants (33% male), gradable image rates were 78.7% (n = 237) for diabetic retinopathy and 83.1% (n = 250) for diabetic macular oedema, and 77.7% (n = 234) were gradable for both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. For the gradable subset, the median (range) age was 48 (19-86) years and known diabetes duration 9.0 (0-24) years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 47% (n = 110) and for diabetic macular oedema it was 14.4% (n = 36). In the fully gradable imaging studies, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy prevalence was 16.2% (n = 38): 14.1% (n = 33) for clinically significant macular oedema, 1.3% (n = 3) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.9% (n = 2) for both. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy had been treated in 78% of detected cases. A novel telemedicine diabetic retinopathy screening service detected a higher prevalence of 'any' diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a remote primary care setting than reported in earlier surveys among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Whether the observed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was attributable to greater detection, increasing diabetic retinopathy prevalence, local factors, or a combination of these requires further investigation and, potentially, specific primary care guidelines for diabetic retinopathy management in remote Australia. Clinical Trials registration number: Australia and

  10. Mental health at the intersections: the impact of complex needs on police contact and custody for Indigenous Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovs, Julian; Dowse, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience significant social risk, vulnerability and disadvantage. Nowhere is this more starkly demonstrated than in the levels of contact that Indigenous Australians have with the criminal justice system, particularly the police. Utilizing a linked dataset of extant criminal justice, human and health service administrative data in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, this paper explores patterns of police contact and custody for a cohort of Indigenous males with complex needs. Four significant factors are identified that alone or in combination appear to impact on the frequency with which these men experience police contact and custody, including young age at first police contact, experiencing out of home care as a child, alcohol misuse, and limited locational mobility. Whilst it might be expected that the presence of mental ill-health and/or cognitive disability would be a key predictor of the frequency and intensity of police contact and custody, the findings suggest rather that the presence of multiple disadvantages beginning in the early years and compounding throughout individuals' lives, in which mental illness may or may not be a factor, is more significant than the presence of any one diagnosis in precipitating police contact and custody for this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Kimberley Assessment of Depression of Older Indigenous Australians: Prevalence of Depressive Disorders, Risk Factors and Validation of the KICA-dep Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Flicker, Leon; Fenner, Stephen; Smith, Kate; Hyde, Zoe; Atkinson, David; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; LoGiudice, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. Methods Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep) scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from ‘never’ to ‘all the time’ (range of scores: 0 to 33). The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. Results The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7), of whom 143 (57.2%) were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case) was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8). Conclusions The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities. PMID:24740098

  12. The Kimberley assessment of depression of older Indigenous Australians: prevalence of depressive disorders, risk factors and validation of the KICA-dep scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo P Almeida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 'never' to 'all the time' (range of scores: 0 to 33. The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. RESULTS: The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7, of whom 143 (57.2% were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8. CONCLUSIONS: The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities.

  13. Indigenous knowledge in the management of a community-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study indicates that 81.3% of the interviewees supports the making of fire belts as one of their respected indigenous ways of managing the reserve and in that respect, 98.4% affirm that indigenous knowledge supports development. It is recommended that their indigenous knowledge on natural resources management ...

  14. Better Indigenous Risk stratification for Cardiac Health study (BIRCH) protocol: rationale and design of a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to identify novel cardiovascular risk indicators in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Marc G W; Stewart, Simon; Carrington, Melinda J; Marwick, Thomas H; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Meikle, Peter; O'Brien, Darren; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Maguire, Graeme P

    2017-08-23

    Of the estimated 10-11 year life expectancy gap between Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people) and non-Indigenous Australians, approximately one quarter is attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Risk prediction of CVD is imperfect, but particularly limited for Indigenous Australians. The BIRCH (Better Indigenous Risk stratification for Cardiac Health) project aims to identify and assess existing and novel markers of early disease and risk in Indigenous Australians to optimise health outcomes in this disadvantaged population. It further aims to determine whether these markers are relevant in non-Indigenous Australians. BIRCH is a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults (≥ 18 years) living in remote, regional and urban locations. Participants will be assessed for CVD risk factors, left ventricular mass and strain via echocardiography, sleep disordered breathing and quality via home-based polysomnography or actigraphy respectively, and plasma lipidomic profiles via mass spectrometry. Outcome data will comprise CVD events and death over a period of five years. Results of BIRCH may increase understanding regarding the factors underlying the increased burden of CVD in Indigenous Australians in this setting. Further, it may identify novel markers of early disease and risk to inform the development of more accurate prediction equations. Better identification of at-risk individuals will promote more effective primary and secondary preventive initiatives to reduce Indigenous Australian health disadvantage.

  15. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamieson Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.

  16. Psychological distress and self-rated oral health among a convenience sample of Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, Najith; Kapellas, Kostas; Brown, Alex; Skilton, Michael R; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Bartold, Mark P; O'Dea, Kerin; Celermajer, David; Slade, Gary Douglas; Jamieson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to: a) estimate the frequency of poor self-rated oral health as assessed by a summary measure; b) compare frequency according to sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological distress factors; and (3) determine if psychological distress was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding. Data were from a convenience sample of Indigenous Australian adults (n = 289) residing in Australia's Northern Territory. Poor self-rated oral health was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance or food avoidance in the last 12 months. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological distress associations with poor self-rated oral health (SROH). Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR). The frequency of poor SROH was 73.7 percent. High psychological distress, measured by a Kessler-6 score ≥8, was experienced by 33.9 percent of participants. Poor SROH was associated with high levels of psychological distress, being older, being female, and usually visiting a dentist because of a problem. In the multivariable model, factors that were significantly associated with poor SROH after adjustment for other covariates included having a high level of psychological distress (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.25-6.00), being female (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.03-4.78), and usually visiting a dentist because of a problem (OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.89-6.76). Poor self-rated oral health and high levels of psychological distress were both highly frequent among this vulnerable population. Psychological distress was significantly associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjustment for confounding. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson Lynne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189 were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP

  18. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people.

  19. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Garnett, Stephen T; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so.

  20. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Renwick

    Full Text Available Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so.

  1. Indigenous community health and climate change: integrating biophysical and social science indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatuto, Jamie; Grossman, Eric E.; Konovsky, John; Grossman, Sarah; Campbell, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study evaluating the sensitivity of Indigenous community health to climate change impacts on Salish Sea shorelines (Washington State, United States and British Columbia, Canada). Current climate change assessments omit key community health concerns, which are vital to successful adaptation plans, particularly for Indigenous communities. Descriptive scaling techniques, employed in facilitated workshops with two Indigenous communities, tested the efficacy of ranking six key indicators of community health in relation to projected impacts to shellfish habitat and shoreline archaeological sites stemming from changes in the biophysical environment. Findings demonstrate that: when shellfish habitat and archaeological resources are impacted, so is Indigenous community health; not all community health indicators are equally impacted; and, the community health indicators of highest concern are not necessarily the same indicators most likely to be impacted. Based on the findings and feedback from community participants, exploratory trials were successful; Indigenous-specific health indicators may be useful to Indigenous communities who are assessing climate change sensitivities and creating adaptation plans.

  2. A Global Assessment on Climate Research Engaging Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Recommendations for Quality Standards of Research Practice in Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davíd-Chavez, D. M.; Gavin, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Indigenous communities worldwide have maintained their own knowledge systems for millennia informed through careful observation of dynamics of environmental changes. Withstanding centuries of challenges to their rights to maintain and practice these knowledge systems, Indigenous peoples continually speak to a need for quality standards for research in their communities. Although, international and Indigenous peoples' working groups emphasize Indigenous knowledge systems and the communities who hold them as critical resources for understanding and adapting to climate change, there has yet to be a comprehensive, evidence based analysis into how diverse knowledge systems are integrated in scientific studies. Do current research practices challenge or support Indigenous communities in their efforts to maintain and appropriately apply their knowledge systems? This study addresses this question using a systematic literature review and meta-analysis assessing levels of Indigenous community participation and decision-making in all stages of the research process (initiation, design, implementation, analysis, dissemination). Assessment is based on reported quality indicators such as: outputs that serve the community, ethical guidelines in practice (free, prior, and informed consent and intellectual property rights), and community access to findings. These indicators serve to identify patterns between levels of community participation and quality standards in practice. Meta-analysis indicates most climate studies practice an extractive model in which Indigenous knowledge systems are co-opted with minimal participation or decision-making authority from communities who hold them. Few studies report outputs that directly serve Indigenous communities, ethical guidelines in practice, or community access to findings. Studies reporting the most quality indicators were initiated in mutual agreement between Indigenous communities and outside researchers or by communities themselves

  3. Implementation framework for chronic disease intervention effectiveness in Māori and other indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetzel, John; Scott, Nina; Hudson, Maui; Masters-Awatere, Bridgette; Rarere, Moana; Foote, Jeff; Beaton, Angela; Ehau, Terry

    2017-09-05

    About 40% of all health burden in New Zealand is due to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes/obesity. Outcomes for Māori (indigenous people) are significantly worse than non-Maori; these inequities mirror those found in indigenous communities elsewhere. Evidence-based interventions with established efficacy may not be effective in indigenous communities without addressing specific implementation challenges. We present an implementation framework for interventions to prevent and treat chronic conditions for Māori and other indigenous communities. The He Pikinga Waiora Implementation Framework has indigenous self-determination at its core and consists of four elements: cultural-centeredness, community engagement, systems thinking, and integrated knowledge translation. All elements have conceptual fit with Kaupapa Māori aspirations (i.e., indigenous knowledge creation, theorizing, and methodology) and all have demonstrated evidence of positive implementation outcomes. A coding scheme derived from the Framework was applied to 13 studies of diabetes prevention in indigenous communities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States from a systematic review. Cross-tabulations demonstrated that culture-centeredness (p = .008) and community engagement (p = .009) explained differences in diabetes outcomes and community engagement (p = .098) explained difference in blood pressure outcomes. The He Pikinga Waiora Implementation Framework appears to be well suited to advance implementation science for indigenous communities in general and Māori in particular. The framework has promise as a policy and planning tool to evaluate and design effective interventions for chronic disease prevention in indigenous communities.

  4. High chlamydia positivity rates in Indigenous people attending Australian sexual health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Catherine C; Ali, Hammad; Guy, Rebecca J; Templeton, David J; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; Dickson, Bridget M; Marshall, Lewis J; Grulich, Andrew E; Hellard, Margaret E; Kaldor, John M; Donovan, Basil; Ward, James S

    2014-06-02

    To assess the clinical epidemiology of chlamydia among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) people attending sexual health services around Australia. Retrospective analysis of routine demographic, behavioural and clinical data, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. 18 sexual health services in major cities and regional centres in five jurisdictions. Attendance, chlamydia testing and positivity rates in patients visiting for the first time, and factors associated with chlamydia positivity. Of 168 729 new patients, 7103 (4.2%) identified as Indigenous, of whom 74.3% were tested for chlamydia. Chlamydia positivity was 17.0% in Indigenous women (23.3% in 15-19-year-olds and 18.9% in 20-24-year-olds) and 17.3% in Indigenous men (20.2% in 15-19-year-olds and 24.2% in 20-24-year-olds). There was an increasing trend in chlamydia positivity in Indigenous women from 2006 to 2011 (P for trend = 0.001), but not in Indigenous men. In Indigenous women, factors independently associated with positivity were: younger age, being heterosexual, living in Queensland and attending the service in 2010. In Indigenous men, independent factors associated with chlamydia positivity were younger age, being heterosexual, having sex only in Australia and living in a regional area. The high and increasing chlamydia positivity rates highlight the need for enhanced prevention and screening programs for Indigenous people.

  5. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    .... Arguing that the interests of Indigenous peoples, settlers, and immigrants are fundamentally shared, it proposes adaptation on both sides, but particularly for the descendants of settlers and immigrants...

  6. Culture shock and healthcare workers in remote Indigenous communities of Australia: what do we know and how can we measure it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, A; Lenthall, S; Lindeman, M

    2011-01-01

    Culture shock or cultural adaptation is a significant issue confronting non-Indigenous health professionals working in remote Indigenous communities in Australia. This article is presented in two parts. The first part provides a thorough background in the theory of culture shock and cultural adaptation, and a comprehensive analysis of the consequences, causes, and current issues around the phenomenon in the remote Australian healthcare context. Second, the article presents the results of a comprehensive literature review undertaken to determine if existing studies provide tools which may measure the cultural adaptation of remote health professionals. A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilising the meta-databases CINAHL and Ovid Medline. While there is a plethora of descriptive literature about culture shock and cultural adaptation, empirical evidence is lacking. In particular, no empirical evidence was found relating to the cultural adaptation of non-Indigenous health professionals working in Indigenous communities in Australia. In all, 15 international articles were found that provided empirical evidence to support the concept of culture shock. Of these, only 2 articles contained tools that met the pre-determined selection criteria to measure the stages of culture shock. The 2 instruments identified were the Culture Shock Profile (CSP) by Zapf and the Culture Shock Adaptation Inventory (CSAI) by Juffer. There is sufficient evidence to determine that culture shock is a significant issue for non-Indigenous health professionals working in Indigenous communities in Australia. However, further research in this area is needed. The available empirical evidence indicates that a measurement tool is possible but needs further development to be suitable for use in remote Indigenous communities in Australia.

  7. Rethinking Community-Based Indigenous Language Revitalization Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Chiu Amay; Yudaw, Bowtung

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests a theoretical framework for re-examining the complex relationship of language, literacy, and cultural practices, across multiple generations in the context of community-based Indigenous language revitalization. In the scholarship of Indigenous language revitalization and education, researchers have shifted from viewing…

  8. Rickettsial seropositivity in the indigenous community and animal farm workers, and vector surveillance in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Hasan, Lailatul Insyirah Mohd; Wong, Li Ping; Kisomi, Masoumeh Ghane; Bulgiba, Awang; Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan; Tay, Sun Tee

    2017-04-12

    Rickettsioses are emerging zoonotic diseases that are often neglected in many countries in Southeast Asia. Rickettsial agents are transmitted to humans through exposure to infected arthropods. Limited data are available on the exposure of indigenous community and animal farm workers to the aetiological agents and arthropod vectors of rickettsioses in Peninsular Malaysia. Serological analysis of Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia felis was performed for 102 individuals from the indigenous community at six rural villages and 87 workers from eight animal farms in Peninsular Malaysia in a cross-sectional study. The indigenous community had significantly higher seropositivity rates for R. conorii (PMalaysia.

  9. Experiential learning to increase palliative care competence among the Indigenous workforce: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Ekberg, Stuart; Holloway, Michele; Jacka, Catherine; Yates, Patsy; Garvey, Gail; Thompson, Sandra C

    2018-01-20

    Improving Indigenous people's access to palliative care requires a health workforce with appropriate knowledge and skills to respond to end-of-life (EOL) issues. The Indigenous component of the Program of Experience in the Palliative Approach (PEPA) includes opportunities for Indigenous health practitioners to develop skills in the palliative approach by undertaking a supervised clinical placement of up to 5 days within specialist palliative care services. This paper presents the evaluative findings of the components of an experiential learning programme and considers the broader implications for delivery of successful palliative care education programme for Indigenous people. Semistructured interviews were conducted with PEPA staff and Indigenous PEPA participants. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and key themes identified. Participants reported that placements increased their confidence about engaging in conversations about EOL care and facilitated relationships and ongoing work collaboration with palliative care services. Management support was critical and placements undertaken in settings which had more experience caring for Indigenous people were preferred. Better engagement occurred where the programme included Indigenous staffing and leadership and where preplacement and postplacement preparation and mentoring were provided. Opportunities for programme improvement included building on existing postplacement and follow-up activities. A culturally respectful experiential learning education programme has the potential to upskill Indigenous health practitioners in EOL care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Exploring Anomalies in Indigenous Student Engagement: Findings from a National Australian Survey of Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Christine; Page, Susan; Radloff, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Increases in participation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education across Australia continue to be promising. However, it is also known that Indigenous students' attrition, retention and completion rates remain areas of concern. In this paper, we report our findings from an analysis of Indigenous student responses to…

  11. Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-Being: Australian Perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…

  12. Seeds of Myth: Exotic Disease Theory and Deconstructing the Australian Narrative of Indigenous Depopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The theory that the rapid depopulation of Indigenous people post-colonisation was largely caused by European introduced or exotic disease to which Indigenous people had no immunity resonates through most narratives of the early years of colonisation. The question of whether this narrative is based on sound medical evidence or is better placed in…

  13. Young Australian Indigenous Students' Effective Engagement in Mathematics: The Role of Language, Patterns, and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the outcomes of the first year of the implementation of a mathematics program ("Representations, oral language and engagement in Mathematics": RoleM) which is framed upon research relating to effectively supporting young Indigenous students' learning. The sample comprised 230 Indigenous students (average age 5.76…

  14. Review of Indigenous Teacher Training Using Community-Based Adult Education: Implications for Technology and Outsider Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide there are critical shortfalls of teachers, particularly in Indigenous communities. This article considers the use of nonformal education (NFE) in the form of community-based adult education (CBAE) for Indigenous teacher training to meet this need. Drawing on a literature search of Indigenous CBAE initiatives, some of the challenges and…

  15. "Role Models Can't Just Be on Posters": Re/membering Barriers to Indigenous Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Brooke; Higgins, Marc; Korteweg, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Current Canadian scholarly literature, education policy, and curricular documents encourage the participation of Indigenous community members as a key component of Indigenous Education reform. Guided by sharing circles conducted with Indigenous Elders, families, teachers, and support workers, we present community voices and experiences of…

  16. The recruitment and retention of indigenous criminal justice agency staff in an Australian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew; Giles, Glenn; Marshall, Brian; Sanderson, Von

    2004-06-01

    In Australia, as in other countries that have experienced colonisation, indigenous people are massively overrepresented in all stages of the criminal justice system. If criminal justice agencies are to provide culturally responsive and effective services to this group, it is important that they employ significant numbers of indigenous staff across all levels of their organisations. Despite the positive intentions of many justice agencies to increase the proportion of indigenous staff members they employ, the numbers remain low. In this article, we explore some of the possible reasons for this by reporting the results of focus groups conducted with existing indigenous justice agency employees. The employees raised a number of issues relevant to recruitment and retention. These are discussed in terms of their potential value in improving justice agency indigenous recruitment and retention strategies.

  17. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.

  18. Matching Linguistic Training with Individual Indigenous Community's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Australia is rapidly losing its Indigenous multicultural and multilingual identity. This vast continent has lost 90 per cent of its Indigenous languages and cultures, without adequate documentation, and risks losing the rest by 2050 if action is not taken. There are formal, accredited linguistics courses designed specifically for Indigenous…

  19. Climate Change and the Health of Indigenous Communities | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous people are among the most directly affected by climate change. Yet, there is limited understanding of the health dimensions of climate change and opportunities for adaptation among indigenous populations. Researchers have tended to focus on other vulnerable regions or on populations as a whole.

  20. Climate Change and the Health of Indigenous Communities | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous people are among the most directly affected by climate change. Yet, there is limited understanding of the health dimensions of climate change and opportunities for adaptation among indigenous populations. Researchers have tended to focus on other vulnerable regions or on populations as a whole.

  1. The economic feasibility of price discounts to improve diet in Australian Aboriginal remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Moodie, Marj L; Ferguson, Megan; Cobiac, Linda J; Liberato, Selma C; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fiscal measures applied in remote community food stores for Aboriginal Australians. Six price discount strategies on fruit, vegetables, diet drinks and water were modelled. Baseline diet was measured as 12 months' actual food sales data in three remote Aboriginal communities. Discount-induced changes in food purchases were based on published price elasticity data while the weight of the daily diet was assumed constant. Dietary change was converted to change in sodium and energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) over a 12-month period. Improved lifetime health outcomes, modelled for the remote population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, were converted to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) saved using a proportional multistate lifetable model populated with diet-related disease risks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rates of disease. While dietary change was small, five of the six price discount strategies were estimated as cost-effective, below a $50,000/DALY threshold. Stakeholders are committed to finding ways to reduce important inequalities in health status between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and non-Indigenous Australians. Price discounts offer potential to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Verification of these results by trial-based research coupled with consideration of factors important to all stakeholders is needed. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation shapes the indigenous fungal communities during agricultural waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yaoning; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Binbin; Sun, Weimin; Chen, Ming; Yu, Man; Huang, Hongli; Zhu, Yi

    2014-09-01

    Inoculation with exogenous white-rot fungi has been proven to be an efficient method to promote lignocellulose biodegradation during agricultural waste composting. Indigenous fungal communities, the most important organisms responsible for mineralization and decomposition of lignocellulosic materials in composts, can be affected by sample properties and other biotic factors. This research was conducted to determine the effects of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation on the indigenous fungal communities during agricultural waste composting. Fungal communities in samples with different inoculation regimes were investigated by sequencing and quantitative PCR. Results showed that P. chrysosporium inoculants produced significant negative effects on the indigenous fungal community abundance during the thermophilic stage. Samples inoculated during Phase II contained higher proportion of Acremonium chrysogenum and Galactomyces geotrichum, while those non-inoculated samples were dominated by Coprinopsis cinerea and Scytalidium thermophilum. Moreover, the indigenous fungal community abundance was significantly correlated with the C/N ratio, water soluble carbon and moisture content (P < 0.05). Redundancy analysis indicated that the most variation in distribution of indigenous fungal community structure was statistically explained by nitrate, C/N ratio, and moisture content, factors which solely explained 29.6 % (F = 30.316, P = 0.002), 25.6 % (F = 26.191, P = 0.002) and 10.0 % (F = 10.249, P = 0.002) of the variation in the indigenous fungal community structure, respectively.

  3. Analysis of the sustainability of tourism: a study in indigenous communities of Roraima state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane do Nascimento Brandao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This survey was conducted in three indigenous communities in the state of Roraima. They found in tourism a way of achieving local sustainable development. This activity can bring positive and negative consequences, so the aim of this study is to analyze the social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in indigenous communities. We used the quantitative method with questionnaires. The units of analysis were the indigenous inhabitants of the surveyed communities. The survey sample consisted of 210 valid responses. In the data analysis, we used descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The study found that tourism can bring economic, social, cultural and environmental benefits for communities. Must develop actions that aim to transform existing initiatives in destinations of excellence in Indigenous tourism.

  4. Improving forensic mental health care to Indigenous Australians: theorizing the intercultural space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, A; Wynaden, D; O'Kane, M

    2014-05-01

    This paper uses the 'intercultural space' as an educational strategy to prepare nurses to work respectfully with Indigenous patients in a forensic mental health context; offers an educational approach that introduces nurses to Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values, examines power relations in colonized countries between the dominant white cultural group and the Indigenous population and encourages nurses to critically reflect on their health care practice; and explores the intercultural space as a shared space between cultures fostering open and robust inquiry where neither culture dominates and new positions, representations and understandings can emerge. Given the disproportionately high number of Indigenous people imprisoned in colonized countries, this paper responds to research from Western Australia on the need to prepare forensic mental health nurses to deliver care to Indigenous patients with mental health disorders. The paper highlights the nexus between theory, research and education that can inform the design and implementation of programmes to help nurses navigate the complex, layered and contested 'intercultural space' and deliver culturally safe care to Indigenous patients. Nurses are encouraged to critically reflect on how beliefs and values underpinning their cultural positioning impact on health care to Indigenous patients. The paper draws on intercultural theory to offer a pedagogical framework that acknowledges the negative impacts of colonization on Indigenous health and well-being, repositions and revalues Indigenous cultures and knowledges and fosters open and robust inquiry. This approach is seen as a step towards working more effectively in the intercultural space where ultimately binary oppositions that privilege one culture over another and inhibit robust inquiry are avoided, paving the way for new, more inclusive positions, representations and understandings to emerge. While the intercultural space can be a place of struggle, tension

  5. Gambling, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in remote indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent government reports have identified gambling, along with alcohol abuse, drug abuse and pornography, as contributing to child neglect and abuse in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory (NT. These reports also identify gaps in empirical evidence upon which to base sound policy. To address this shortfall, data from ten remote Indigenous communities was analysed to determine the relationship between gambling problems, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in indigenous communities. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess associations between gambling problems, community contexts, housing conditions and child health. Separate multivariable models were developed for carer reported gambling problems in houses and six child health outcomes. Results Carer reported gambling problems in households across the ten communities ranged from 10% to 74%. Inland tropical communities had the highest level of reported gambling problems. Less access to a doctor in the community showed evidence of a multivariable adjusted association with gambling problems in houses. No housing variables showed evidence for a multivariable association with reported gambling problems. There was evidence for gambling problems having a multivariable adjusted association with carer report of scabies and ear infection in children. Conclusions The analyses provide evidence that gambling is a significant problem in Indigenous communities and that gambling problems in households is related to poor child health outcomes. A comprehensive (prevention, treatment, regulation and education public health approach to harm minimisation associated with gambling amongst the Indigenous population is required that builds on current normative community regulation of gambling.

  6. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    .... Advancing the body of knowledge in the field of the anthropology of policy and public administration, this empirical study is a must-read for policy-makers, academics, and indigenous peoples alike.

  7. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive and optimistic, this examination describes current Indigenous affairs policy in Australia, concentrating on the period following the end of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission in 2004...

  8. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides a unique overview of the trajectory of current policy, advancing a new consolidated approach to Indigenous policy that moves beyond the debate over self-determination and assimilation...

  9. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Anna R.; Robinson, Catherine J.; Garnett, Stephen T.; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P.; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have project...

  10. Screen Worlds, Sound Worlds and School: A Consideration of the Potential of the Ethnomusicology of Australian Indigenous Film for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fienberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article arises from the authors' belief that there is a need to develop motivating ways for students across Australia to meaningfully encounter Australian indigenous music, the breadth and richness of which is beginning to be conveyed via a diverse range of mainstream media texts. Engaging with theoretical insights from the ethnomusicology of…

  11. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claire M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations. The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful

  12. The effect of a periodontal intervention on cardiovascular risk markers in Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease: the PerioCardio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience an overwhelming burden of chronic disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease (inflammation of the tissues surrounding teeth is also widespread, and may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases via pathogenic inflammatory pathways. This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease, and determine if intensive periodontal therapy improves these measures over a 12 month follow-up. The aims of the study are: (i to determine whether there is a dose response relationship between extent and severity of periodontal disease and measures of vascular health and inflammation among Indigenous Australian adults with moderate to severe periodontal disease; and (ii to determine the effects of periodontal treatment on changes in measures of vascular health and inflammation in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design This study will be a randomised, controlled trial, with predominantly blinded assessment of outcome measures and blinded statistical analysis. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits (with the intervention delayed 12 months in participants who are randomised to the control arm. Participants will be Indigenous adults aged ≥25 years from urban centres within the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants assessed to have moderate or severe periodontal disease will be randomised to the study's intervention or control arm. The intervention involves intensive removal of subgingival and supragingival calculus and plaque biofilm by scaling and root-planing. Study visits at baseline, 3 and 12 months, will incorporate questionnaires, non-fasting blood and urine samples, body measurements, blood pressure, periodontal assessment and non-invasive measures of vascular health (pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness. Primary outcome

  13. Pattern and Outcome of Heart Failure-Related Hospitalization Over 5 Years in a Remote Australian Population: A Retrospective Administrative Data Cohort of 617 Indigenous and non-Indigenous Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Camilla; Reeves, Matthew; Zhong Hu, Ta-Chi; Keates, Ashley K; Brady, Stephen; Maguire, Graeme; Stewart, Simon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the pattern and outcomes for heart failure (HF)-related hospitalization among Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients living in Central Australia. A retrospective analysis of administrative data for patients presenting with a primary or secondary diagnosis of HF to Central Australia's Alice Springs Hospital during 2008-2012 was performed. The population rate of admission and subsequent outcomes (including mortality and readmission) during the 5-year study period were examined. A total of 617 patients, aged 55.8 ± 17.5 years and 302 (49%) female constituted the study cohort. The 446 Indigenous patients (72%) were significantly younger (50.8 ± 15.9 vs 68.7 ± 14.9; P Indigenous patients. Annual prevalence of any HF hospitalization was markedly higher in the Indigenous population (1.9%, 95% CI 1.7-2.1) compared with the non-Indigenous population (0.5%, 95% CI 0.4-0.6); the greatest difference being for women. Overall, non-Indigenous patients had poorer outcomes and were significantly more likely to die (P Indigenous patients were significantly more likely to have a higher number of hospitalizations, although indigeneity was not a predictor for 30- or 365-day rehospitalization from the index admission. The pattern of HF among Indigenous Australians in Central Australia is characterized by a younger population with more clinically complex cases and greater health care utilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in indigenous Australian and Alaska native children with bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Hare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship

  15. Trends in social activism across Australian minority communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores trends in social activism across Australian ethnic minority communities over a ten year period (1999-2009 and its relationship to indicators of social cohesion. It explores the impact of social modernisation in enabling the facilitation of effective grassroots campaigns on issues relevant the communities', and how they may influence public policy. Consideration is afforded to the impact on community participation with the rise of security policy on the national agenda, and significant events on domestic and global scales over a period which encompassed extraordinary acts of terrorism, irregular arrivals of asylum seekers, and unparalleled political and community confutation. It is asserted that participation in social activism is an important indicator of political empowerment within the dominant political structure, and could suitably enrich research into social cohesion in Australia. Keywords: political participation, public policy, social activism, social cohesion, social modernisation

  16. Globalized conflicts, globalized responses. Changing manners of contestation among indigenous communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyei, Petra; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2017-01-01

    In a globalized world, environmental conflicts affecting indigenous communities (including hunter-gatherer groups) have intensified and grown in their transnational character. These changes have affected the choice of manners of contestation of these groups, favouring in some cases the emergence...... activities and confront conflicts through a truly bottom-up approach. The chapter ends discussing how, despite the potential of such new manners of contestation, the power imbalances that currently underpin many indigenous conflicts are first to be addressed....

  17. Access, literacy and behavioural correlates of poor self-rated oral health amongst an indigenous south Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Parker, E J; Jamieson, L M

    2014-09-01

    To better understand the determinants of self-rated oral health within an Indigenous population by: 1, examining potential individual-level correlates of socio-demographic, health behaviours, dental care access and oral health literacy-related outcomes with self-rated oral health; and, 2, examining the relative contribution of these domains to self-rated oral health in multivariable modelling. We conducted nested logistic regression analyses on self-reported status of 'fair or poor' versus 'better' oral health using data from a convenience sample of rural dwelling Indigenous Australians (n = 468). Data were collected on background characteristics, health behaviours, access to dental care, oral health literacy-related outcome variables and REALD 30, an oral health literacy scale. Overall 37.0 % of the Indigenous adult population reported fair or poor oral health. In multivariable modelling, risk indicators for fair or poor self-rated oral health that persisted after adjusting for other covariates included being aged 38+ years (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.9,4.6), holding a Government Health Concession card (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1,4.5), avoiding the dentist due to financial constraints (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.4,3.6), not knowing how to make an emergency dental visit (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1,2.7) and poor understanding of the prevention of dental disease (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1,2.7). In this vulnerable population, risk indicators contributing to poor self-rated oral health included socio-demographic, dental care access and oral health literacy-related factors. Health behaviours were not significant.

  18. The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

  19. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  20. Young Australian Indigenous Students' Growing Pattern Generalisations: The Role of Gesture When Generalising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jodie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how young Indigenous students' (Year 2 and 3) generalise growing patterns. Piagetian clinical interviews were conducted to determine how students articulated growing pattern generalisations. Two case studies are presented displaying how students used gesture to support and articulate their generalisations of growing patterns.…

  1. Inclusive Indigenous Australian voices in the semiotic landscape of the National Museum of Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Anne Jodon; Brooks, Eva Irene

    2017-01-01

    Histories of Indigenous peoples did not begin when European colonized their native lands: In Australia it began with the Dreaming some 40 to 60,000 years ago. Museum studies specify the need for museums to be socially responsible in their representation of cultures. This article examines two...

  2. Quantitative PCR of ear discharge from Indigenous Australian children with acute otitis media with perforation supports a role for Alloiococcus otitidis as a secondary pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Robyn L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media is endemic in remote Indigenous communities of Australia’s Northern Territory. Alloiococcus otitidis is an outer ear commensal and putative middle ear pathogen that has not previously been described in acute otitis media (AOM in this population. The aims of this study were to determine the presence, antibiotic susceptibility and bacterial load of A. otitidis in nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs collected from Indigenous Australian children with AOM with perforation. Methods Paired nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs from 27 children with AOM with perforation were tested by A. otitidis quantitative PCR (qPCR. Positive swabs were cultured for 21 days. Total and respiratory pathogen bacterial loads in A. otitidis-positive swabs were determined by qPCR. Results A. otitidis was detected by qPCR in 11 ear discharge swabs from 10 of 27 (37% children, but was not detected in paired nasopharyngeal swabs. A. otitidis was cultured from 5 of 11 qPCR-positive swabs from four children. All A. otitidis isolates had minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with macrolide resistance. All A. otitidis qPCR-positive swabs were culture-positive for other bacteria. A. otitidis bacterial load ranged from 2.2 × 104-1.1 × 108 cells/swab (median 1.8 × 105 cells/swab. The relative abundance of A. otitidis ranged from 0.01% to 34% of the total bacterial load (median 0.7%. In 6 of 11 qPCR-positive swabs the A. otitidis relative abundance was A. otitidis bacterial load and relative abundance measures were comparable to that of Haemophilus influenzae. Conclusions A. otitidis can be a dominant species in the bacterial communities present in the ear discharge of Indigenous children with AOM with perforation. The absence of A. otitidis in nasopharyngeal swabs suggests the ear canal as the likely primary reservoir. The significance of A. otitidis at low relative abundance is unclear; however, at higher relative

  3. Rethinking Environmental Science Education from Indigenous Knowledge Perspectives: An Experience with a Dene First Nation Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ranjan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This auto-ethnographic article explores how land-based education might challenge Western environmental science education (ESE) in an Indigenous community. This learning experience was developed from two perspectives: first, land-based educational stories from Dene First Nation community Elders, knowledge holders, teachers, and students; and…

  4. Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Decision-Making by Communities in the Kumaon Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honwad, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    This study is designed to find out how people in rural communities residing in the middle Himalayas use indigenous knowledge to support environmental decisions while addressing water and land use related concerns. The study not only serves to enrich our understanding of community decision-making, especially as connected to land use and ecological…

  5. Indigenous Peoples Knowledge Community (IPKC): Self-Determination in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Harrison, Irvin D.

    2017-01-01

    Special interest groups (SIGs) offer spaces for interests that may not be supported or adequately addressed by the larger organization. NASPA: Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education (NASPA) calls its SIGs "knowledge communities." This article describes the ways the members of the Indigenous Peoples knowledge community (IPKC)…

  6. Cultural Capital and Innovative Pedagogy: A Case Study among Indigenous Communities in Mexico and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorcic, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas (Mexico) and Lencan communities in Intibuca (Honduras). Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential…

  7. The barriers and facilitators that indigenous health workers experience in their workplace and communities in providing self-management support: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Jessica; Tsourtos, George; Lawn, Sharon

    2017-05-03

    The inequality in health outcomes between Indigenous (Throughout the paper, the term Indigenous will be used to represent both Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islander Australians.) and non-Indigenous Australians continues to be a major public health issue. Chronic conditions are responsible for the majority of the gap in life expectancy for this population. Evidence suggests that chronic condition management models focusing on self-management have led to improved health outcomes in Indigenous populations. The Flinders Closing the Gap Program (FCTGP) is a chronic condition care planning tool which aims to engage Indigenous people in self-managing their chronic conditions. Indigenous health workers (IHWs) can provide culturally appropriate self-management support; however there is paucity in current literature describing specific barriers and facilitators that they may experience when attempting to deliver this support. This study aimed to explore IHWs' perceptions of the effectiveness and appropriateness of the FCTGP, as an evidence-based example of self-management support, and to explore the barriers and facilitators that IHWs experience in their workplace and communities in providing self-management support. In-depth interviews were undertaken with five IHWs, drawn from five different states in Australia. Their selection was aided by key informants from the FCTGP training unit. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and were analysed using thematic analysis. The following themes were identified. IHWs reported that the FCTGP was appropriate, flexible and acceptable in their communities. Facilitators included factors improving client and worker empowerment, and activities around sharing knowledge. Barriers included competing priorities that clients experience relating to social determinants of health, and negative experiences within mainstream health services. IHW burnout from time pressures, lack of support, and high staff turnover were also

  8. Towards an indigenous African epistemology of community in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is evidenced in present times by the call for an African Renaissance in education, as well as, a growing discourse that demands the acknowledgement and inclusion of indigenous knowledge systems in the South African education system. This article considers the epistemological question that centres around the ...

  9. Towards an indigenous African epistemology of community in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues of intellectual and cultural hegemony have long been critical foci in education debates in South Africa. This is evidenced in present times by the call for an African Renaissance in education, as well as, a growing discourse that demands the acknowledgement and inclusion of indigenous knowledge systems in the ...

  10. Communication and context are important to Indigenous children with physical disability and their carers at a community-based physiotherapy service: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Caroline; Lowell, Anne; Thomas, David

    2016-01-01

    What are the experiences of Indigenous children with physical disability and their carers of their community-based physiotherapy service? What factors influence their experiences of the physiotherapy service and how could the service be improved? A qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured open-ended interviews consistent with the researchers' interpretivist perspectives and ethical principles of Indigenous health research. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and coded for themes with qualitative research software using inductive analysis. The interviews were then checked for transcription accuracy and the themes were confirmed with the participants. Nine parents and foster carers of children with physical disability aged 0 to 21 years, five children and youth with physical disability aged 8 to 21 years. The data generated three themes, which informed practice recommendations: carers of children with physical disability experience increased demands and complexity in their lives; relationships involving caring, consistency and communication are important to consumers using the physiotherapy service; and being Indigenous influences consumers' experiences in ways that may not be obvious to non-Indigenous service providers. The issue of communication underpinned the participants' experiences throughout these themes. The research highlighted the importance of effective communication, developing relationships, viewing the child wholistically and recognising the influence of being Indigenous on clients' healthcare needs and experiences. The results suggested that community-based physiotherapists adopt a family/person-centred, context-specific approach when working with Indigenous children with a physical disability and their carers. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  12. Describing and analysing primary health care system support for chronic illness care in Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory – use of the Chronic Care Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Allison

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Using the Chronic Care Model as a framework, we carried out a mail-out survey to collect information on material, financial and human resources relating to chronic illness care in participating health centres. Follow up face-to-face interviews with health centre staff were conducted to identify successes and difficulties in the systems in relation to providing chronic illness care to community members. Results Participating health centres had distinct areas of strength and weakness in each component of systems: 1 organisational influence – strengthened by inclusion of chronic illness goals in business plans, appointment of designated chronic disease coordinators and introduction of external clinical audits, but weakened by lack of training in disease prevention and health promotion and limited access to Medicare funding; 2 community linkages – facilitated by working together with community organisations (e.g. local stores and running community-based programs (e.g. "health week", but detracted by a shortage of staff especially of Aboriginal health workers working in the community; 3 self management – promoted through patient education and goal setting with clients, but impeded by limited focus on family and community-based activities due to understaffing; 4 decision support – facilitated by distribution of clinical guidelines and their integration with daily care, but limited by inadequate access to and support from specialists; 5 delivery system

  13. Describing and analysing primary health care system support for chronic illness care in Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory – use of the Chronic Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Damin; Bailie, Ross; Cunningham, Joan; Robinson, Gary; Dowden, Michelle; Stewart, Allison; Connors, Christine; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2008-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Using the Chronic Care Model as a framework, we carried out a mail-out survey to collect information on material, financial and human resources relating to chronic illness care in participating health centres. Follow up face-to-face interviews with health centre staff were conducted to identify successes and difficulties in the systems in relation to providing chronic illness care to community members. Results Participating health centres had distinct areas of strength and weakness in each component of systems: 1) organisational influence – strengthened by inclusion of chronic illness goals in business plans, appointment of designated chronic disease coordinators and introduction of external clinical audits, but weakened by lack of training in disease prevention and health promotion and limited access to Medicare funding; 2) community linkages – facilitated by working together with community organisations (e.g. local stores) and running community-based programs (e.g. "health week"), but detracted by a shortage of staff especially of Aboriginal health workers working in the community; 3) self management – promoted through patient education and goal setting with clients, but impeded by limited focus on family and community-based activities due to understaffing; 4) decision support – facilitated by distribution of clinical guidelines and their integration with daily care, but limited by inadequate access to and support from specialists; 5) delivery system design

  14. Describing and analysing primary health care system support for chronic illness care in Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory - use of the Chronic Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Damin; Bailie, Ross; Cunningham, Joan; Robinson, Gary; Dowden, Michelle; Stewart, Allison; Connors, Christine; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2008-05-28

    Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Using the Chronic Care Model as a framework, we carried out a mail-out survey to collect information on material, financial and human resources relating to chronic illness care in participating health centres. Follow up face-to-face interviews with health centre staff were conducted to identify successes and difficulties in the systems in relation to providing chronic illness care to community members. Participating health centres had distinct areas of strength and weakness in each component of systems: 1) organisational influence - strengthened by inclusion of chronic illness goals in business plans, appointment of designated chronic disease coordinators and introduction of external clinical audits, but weakened by lack of training in disease prevention and health promotion and limited access to Medicare funding; 2) community linkages - facilitated by working together with community organisations (e.g. local stores) and running community-based programs (e.g. "health week"), but detracted by a shortage of staff especially of Aboriginal health workers working in the community; 3) self management - promoted through patient education and goal setting with clients, but impeded by limited focus on family and community-based activities due to understaffing; 4) decision support - facilitated by distribution of clinical guidelines and their integration with daily care, but limited by inadequate access to and support from specialists; 5) delivery system design - strengthened by provision of transport for

  15. Community-based Ecotourism in Tenganan Dauh Tukad: An Indigenous Conservation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sardiana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Community-based ecotourism involves conservation, business, and community development. It is a subset of nature-based tourism that are owned and managed by the community and used to improve the well-being of its community members. Research conducted in Indigenous Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Bali. This paper examines the linkage of community participation in ecotourism with the conservation practices and perspectives. This study revealed that there is a positive linkage between community participation to their practices and perspective of conservation. This includes conservation of biodiversity environment and cultural heritage of the local community.

  16. An exploratory study of cannabis withdrawal among Indigenous Australian prison inmates: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerson, Bernadette; Copeland, Jan; Buttner, Petra; Bohanna, India; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Clough, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis use and dependence is a serious health and criminal justice issue among incarcerated populations internationally. Upon abrupt, enforced cessation of cannabis, prisoners may suffer irritability and anger that can lead to threatening behaviour, intimidation, violence, sleep disturbances and self-harm. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome, proposed for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, has not been examined in Indigenous populations. Ow...

  17. Resistance and Sovereignty in Some Recent Australian Indigenous Women’s Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Ferrier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p17 In Australia, powerful stories expressing resistance to a white, postcolonising hegemony continue to be articulated in Indigenous women’s fictional texts, including those from the 1990s onwards that are discussed in this paper. Their particular historically-distinctive mode of satire or irony challenges postcolonising regimes and institutions, the legacy of colonialism, and the persisting dominance of whiteness. These more recent texts continue a central preoccupation of the earlier fiction by Indigenous women with the achievement of agency in contexts of unequal social and economic  power; marginalised characters engage with current questions and conditions. The paper considers how these fictions represent some aspects of Aboriginal separation from land and place; separation from families; outsider and outcast identities, and how far these continue to mean disempowerment; Indigenous people’s epistemological relationships with their land and bodies of water, and the question of sovereignty in relation to Country and environment.

  18. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea

    2016-06-05

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Maree; Fernando, Jamie K; Gwynn, Josephine D; Glozier, Nick; Hackett, Maree L

    2017-10-11

    Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social-ecological perspective and incorporated 'two-way learning' principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed to identify perceptions or experiences. The

  20. Teaching Our Own Babies: Teachers' Life Journeys into Community - Based Initial Education in Indigenous Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois M. Meyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In an era when U.S. and Mexican teachers are valued more for their academic achievements than their community-based knowledge and local/ethnic identity (e.g. Teach for America, or its off-shoot, Teach for Mexico, this study provides initial results of a one-year (2011-2012 intensive professional development experience (called a diplomado for 35 indigenous teachers of Initial Education who are “teaching their own babies” in marginalized communities of Oaxaca, Mexico, as documented in portfolios of written and photographic evidence produced by the teachers as their final diplomado product. The goal was to enrich these local teachers' background knowledge and equip them with research skills to investigate and honor the communal practices, governance, and perspectives (known as comunalidad of the rural indigenous communities where they teach, in order to generate an authentic, community-based approach to Initial Education for pregnant mothers, babies and toddlers up to 3 years old – a ground-breaking alternative to the Mexican government’s homogeneous Initial Education approach. Early findings indicate that these Oaxacan indigenous teachers faced a complex of internal and external challenges in this radical, regenerative work: they are young, female, mostly novice teachers, they lack professional preparation, and they have confronted racism throughout their own lives, especially and intensely in Mexican public schools. In the process of documenting communal life and early childhood socialization practices in rural communities where they teach, they confronted their own (often uneasy biculturalism and bilingualism. “Communalizing” early education in indigenous Oaxaca involves reconstructing and revitalizing the indigenous identities and language use of children and teachers alike. Preparing these local indigenous teachers to “teach their own babies” is a challenging but invaluable and achievable task.

  1. Higher Education and Urban Migration for Community Resilience: Indigenous Amazonian Youth Promoting Place-Based Livelihoods and Identities in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Diana

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of indigenous Peruvian Amazonian youth pursuing higher education through urban migration to contribute to the resilience of their communities, place-based livelihoods, and indigenous Amazonian identities. Youth and their communities promoted education and migration as powerful tools in the context of…

  2. Aging in rural, indigenous communities: an intercultural and participatory healthcare approach in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Meneses-Navarro, Sergio; Ruelas-González, María Guadalupe; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra; Taboada, Arianna

    2017-12-01

    From an ethno-gerontological perspective, new models are needed to fulfill the health needs of the indigenous older adult population in Mexico. In this paper we developed a comprehensive healthcare model, interculturally appropriate, designed to meet the needs of Mexican indigenous older adults. The model was constructed using a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews of older adults, health providers, and available health resources in three Mexican indigenous regions. An ethnographical review was carried out to contextually characterize these communities. At the same time, a comprehensive bibliographic revision was made to identify socio-demographic markers. Results pointed out that Mexican indigenous older adults are not covered by any type of social health insurance program. Their health problems tend in large part to be chronic in nature due to the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. There is a need for trained human resources in the field of gerontology encompassing the sociocultural context of the indigenous groups. The geographical location of these communities limits the permanent presence of healthcare givers and thus limits access to continuous care. Traditional healthcare givers, able to speak the native language, are a great asset allowing the invaluable possibility of direct verbal communication. Based upon the data gathered from indigenous older adults and service providers, in tandem with evidence from the literature, we identified key elements for successful intervention and designed an intervention model. We concluded that indigenous older adults are a more vulnerable group, given that aside from being elderly in a country where the health needs of these populations exceed the capacity of existing healthcare services, their ethnicity serves as an added barrier preventing their access to the limited available healthcare resources. To achieve uniformity in providing health care, today's health systems need to address intercultural and

  3. Microbial Communities of Three Sympatric Australian Stingless Bee Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing – among other taxa – host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4–5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  4. Earning and learning among Australian community residents with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Geoff; Chant, David; Lloyd, Chris; Harris, Meredith

    2011-03-30

    At a population level the extent that psychiatric disorders and other health conditions disrupt participation in education and employment is rarely considered simultaneously and remains largely unknown. This is an important issue because policy makers are as concerned with educational attainment, school to work transitions, and workforce skills, as they are with overall labour force participation. We investigated earning or learning, and educational attainment, among Australian community residents by age group and by category of psychiatric disorder. Data files were provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from a population survey conducted in 2003 using a multi-stage probability sample (N=23,787). Adults with schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety disorders were compared to (1) working age adults with other non-psychiatric health conditions and disabilities; and (2) healthy adults of working age. Participation in formal education and employment was extensively disrupted by all health conditions and by psychiatric disorders in particular. The extent of career-related disruption provides benchmarks for policy makers and service providers attempting to increase participation in formal education and in the labour force. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Indigenous Community Leader's Self-Directed Life-Long Learning Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sebastian Koren; Suandi, Turiman; Uli, Jegak; Bin Abdullah, Muhammad Madi

    2008-01-01

    This paper, employing a qualitative approach, is based on an interview of an indigenous community leader's life-long learning encounter with a view to garner information that would shed more light to both practice and theory of adult learning. A variety of themes were drawn from the information derived and these were related to theories of…

  6. Start with the seed: Native crops, indigenous knowledge, and community seed systems prerequisites for food sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamic conservation and sustainable utilization of native crop genetic resources are crucial for food sovereignty of Native American communities. Indigenous knowledge of crop diversity when linked to food traditions, local practices and social norms provide the basis for building sovereign comm...

  7. Profiling climate change vulnerability of forest indigenous communities in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkem, J.N.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Idinoba, M.E.; Bele, Y.M.; Sonwa, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The livelihood strategies of indigenous communities in the Congo Basin are inseparable from the forests, following their use of forest ecosystem goods and services (FEGS). Climate change is expected to exert impacts on the forest and its ability to provide FEGS. Thus, human livelihoods that depend

  8. Colonial Masca in motion : tactics of persistence of a Honduran indigenous community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheptak, Russell Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study of an indigenous community combines the use of archival documents with evidence from archaeological excavations to offer an anthropological analysis, drawing on the concepts of dialogics, doxa, and practice to show how we can understand historically obscured people and histories. A

  9. Counseling Psychology in Chinese Communities in Asia: Indigenous, Multicultural, and Cross-Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S. Alvin; Chen, Ping-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the need to develop an indigenous counseling psychology in Chinese communities in Asia. The cross-cultural limitations and applications of counseling psychology are discussed, using the literature on multicultural counseling and competence as illustrations. The authors elaborate on the scope and nature of indigenous…

  10. Indigenous Languages across the Community. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11-14, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnaby, Barbara Jane, Ed.; Reyhner, Jon Allan, Ed.

    Conference papers examine efforts by Indigenous communities, particularly Native American communities, to maintain and revitalize their languages. The 27 papers are: "Ko te reo te mauri o te mana Maori: The Language Is the Life Essence of Maori Existence" (Te Tuhi Robust); "The Preservation and Use of Our Languages: Respecting the…

  11. Aboriginal Community Education Officers' Border Work: Culturally Safe Practices for Supporting Migrating Indigenous Students from Country into Urban and Semi-Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGill, Bindi

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 there has been an increase in migration patterns by Indigenous families from remote communities to urban and semi-rural locations. Indigenous student emigration from remote Indigenous schools to urban and semi-rural schools is an emerging crisis as there are routinely inadequate service providers for Indigenous emigres. Migration away…

  12. Australian Football League concussion guidelines: what do community players think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801

  13. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  14. Dreams and transitions : the royal road to Surinamese and Australian indigenous society

    OpenAIRE

    Mohkamsing-den Boer, Elizabeth Pieternella

    2005-01-01

    This thesis offers a fresh interpretation on the way dreams function among two small-scale societies with a living oral tradition, viz. the Aborigines of Australia and the Amerindian communities of Suriname. It is based on pertinent literature on both communities, but supplemented by fresh fieldwork among certain Arawak and Kari'na communities of Suriname. This approach offers a comparative flavour to the present work. The focus in this book is on the facilitating function dreams appear to ha...

  15. THE COMMUNITY SOCIAL CAPITAL, A STRATEGY AGAINST POVERTY IN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE STATE OF GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Romo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples of Guerrero show different tradeoffs in their ways of dealing with such adverse reality that afflicts them , first struggling to maintain the traditions and customs , using their customary community practices to maintain unity and confront the inhumane living conditions through what has been called community organization , considered part of the concept of social capital and the other institutions that do their thing trying to find solutions to this problem , however the methods collide and sometimes opposed. The community Assembly, the safety, the slaughter, the tequio are part of some of these practices, which despite maintained indigenous families living conditions have not improved substantially and increasingly is more noticeable migration in search of employment, in different scenarios. The majority indigenous population inhabiting the Amuzgos of Guerrero State, Mixtecos, Tlapanecos and Nahuas, looking each one with its own peculiarities, survive. Poverty, marginalization and physical-geographical conditions determine the circle of the dire living conditions of these indigenous people. As happened in 2013 with the tropical storm "Manuel", where we witnessed the way how adverse natural phenomena stick stronger to weaker.

  16. Dreams and transitions : the royal road to Surinamese and Australian indigenous society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohkamsing-den Boer, Elizabeth Pieternella

    2005-01-01

    This thesis offers a fresh interpretation on the way dreams function among two small-scale societies with a living oral tradition, viz. the Aborigines of Australia and the Amerindian communities of Suriname. It is based on pertinent literature on both communities, but supplemented by fresh fieldwork

  17. Dreams and transitions. The royal road to Surinam and Australian indigenous society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohkamsing-den Boer, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis offers a fresh interpretation on the way dreams function among two small-scale societies with a living oral tradition, viz. the Aborigines of Australia and the Amerindian communities of Suriname. It is based on pertinent literature on both communities, but supplemented by fresh fieldwork

  18. Serving an Indigenous community: Exploring the cultural competence of medical students in a rural setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Hoong Wong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, medical students from the International Medical University (IMU in Malaysia have been providing primary healthcare services, under the supervision of faculty members, to the indigenous people living in Kampung Sebir. The project has allowed the students to learn experientially within a rural setting. This study aims to examine the cultural competence of IMU medical students through an examination of their perspective of the indigenous people who they serve and the role of this community service in their personal and professional development. Students who participated in the project were required to complete a questionnaire after each community engagement activity to help them reflect on the above areas. We analysed the responses of students from January to December 2015 using a thematic analysis approach to identify overarching themes in the students’ responses. Students had differing perceptions of culture and worldviews when compared to the indigenous people. However, they lacked the self-reflection skills necessary to understand how such differences can affect their relationship with the indigenous people. Because of this, the basis of their engagement with the indigenous community (as demonstrated by their views of community service is focused on their agenda of promoting health from a student’s perspective rather than connecting and building relationships first. Students also lacked the appreciation that building cultural competency is a continuous process. The results show that the medical students have a developing cultural competence. The project in Kampung Sebir is an experiential learning platform of great value to provide insights into and develop the cultural competency of participating students. This study also reflects on the project itself, and how the relationship with stakeholders, the competence and diversity of academic staff, and the support of the university can contribute toward training in cultural

  19. Importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation – A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ham, C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...

  20. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. A. Bradford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective: The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design: A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar. Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results: Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000–2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada. Studies were quantitative (8, qualitative (5 or mixed (3 and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of “health” was given (14/16, and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16. Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions: Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a

  1. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Lori E A; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L; Bharadwaj, Lalita A

    2016-01-01

    Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000-2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative (8), qualitative (5) or mixed (3) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of "health" was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store and create access to research findings, increased

  2. Indigenous knowledge of Rural Communities for Combating Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    by the local community in adopting the changing environmental conditions was discussed. Rural communities have local knowledge in areas such as weather and seasonal forecasting (44%), drought forecasting (20.9%), crop pest & disease (47%), and weed (99.7%) control methods to adapt to some of the climate change ...

  3. Management of Indigenous Knowledge as a Catalyst towards Improved Information Accessibility to Local Communities: A Literature R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoro Abiodun Olaide

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the existing literature on how the management of indigenous knowledge could lead to its effective utilization. Indigenous knowledge is different from other types of knowledge. It could be an important tool to ensure the sustainability of societal development of local communities.

  4. Climate change through an intersectional lens: gendered vulnerability and resilience in indigenous communities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Vinyeta; Kyle Powys Whyte; Kathy Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The scientific and policy literature on climate change increasingly recognizes the vulnerabilities of indigenous communities and their capacities for resilience. The role of gender in defining how indigenous peoples experience climate change in the United States is a research area that deserves more attention. Advancing climate change threatens the continuance of many...

  5. "To Take Their Heritage in Their Hands": Indigenous Self-Representation and Decolonization in the Community Museums of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoobler, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This article features the museums of Oaxaca, the place where the community museum movement in Mexico got started. Oaxaca has the largest Indigenous population in Mexico, with about 36.6% of the population over five years old, or about 1.027 million people, speaking an Indigenous language. Tourists spend large amounts on group or personalized tours…

  6. Changing times, changing stories: Generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Herman-Mercer; Elli Matkin; Melinda J. Laituri; Ryan C. Toohey; Maggie Massey; Kelly Elder; Paul F. Schuster; Edda A. Mutter

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation...

  7. Analysis of stomach bacterial communities in Australian feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Benoit; de la Fuente, Gabriel; O'Neill, Sean; Wright, André-Denis G; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the community structure of bacteria that populate the stomach of the Brumby, a breed of feral horses from the Australian outback. Using a 16S rRNA gene clone library, we identified 155 clones that were assigned to 26 OTUs based on a 99.0 % sequence identity cutoff. Two OTUs represented 73.5 % of clones, while 18 OTUs were each assigned only a single clone. Four major bacterial types were identified in the Brumby stomach: Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae and Pasteurellaceae. The first three groups, which represented 98.1 % of the Brumby stomach library clones, belonged to the bacterial phylum Firmicutes. We found that 49.7 % of clones were related to bacterial species previously identified in the equine hindgut, and that 44.5 % of clones were related to symbiotic bacterial species identified in the mouth or throat of either horses or other mammals. Our results indicated that the composition of mutualistic bacterial communities of feral horses was consistent with other studies on domestic horses. In addition to bacterial sequences, we also identified four plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, which may help in further characterizing the type of vegetation consumed by Brumby horses in their natural environment.

  8. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  9. Arctic indigenous youth resilience and vulnerability: comparative analysis of adolescent experiences across five circumpolar communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulturgasheva, Olga; Rasmus, Stacy; Wexler, Lisa; Nystad, Kristine; Kral, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Arctic peoples today find themselves on the front line of rapid environmental change brought about by globalizing forces, shifting climates, and destabilizing physical conditions. The weather is not the only thing undergoing rapid change here. Social climates are intrinsically connected to physical climates, and changes within each have profound effects on the daily life, health, and well-being of circumpolar indigenous peoples. This paper describes a collaborative effort between university researchers and community members from five indigenous communities in the circumpolar north aimed at comparing the experiences of indigenous Arctic youth in order to come up with a shared model of indigenous youth resilience. The discussion introduces a sliding scale model that emerged from the comparative data analysis. It illustrates how a "sliding scale" of resilience captures the inherent dynamism of youth strategies for "doing well" and what forces represent positive and negative influences that slide towards either personal and communal resilience or vulnerability. The model of the sliding scale is designed to reflect the contingency and interdependence of resilience and vulnerability and their fluctuations between lowest and highest points based on timing, local situation, larger context, and meaning. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. An Exploration of the Role of Schema Theory and the (Non-Indigenous) Construction of Indigenous Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, D.; Boyd, W. E.

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement is increasingly important in environmental management. While such engagement has tended to comprise only one-way communication, genuine engagement often requires meaningful cross-cultural communication. This paper explores issues surrounding engagement with Australian indigenous communities, suggesting that the construction of…

  11. Prevalence of hypertension in indigenous inhabitants of traditional communities from the north of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Sandoval-Herrrera, F; Alvarado-Ruiz, R

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in adults indigenous to their traditional communities from the north of Mexico. The study was based on a cross- sectional survey of inhabitants from Mexicaneros, Huicholes and Tepehuanos communities, which have not been influenced by a western lifestyle. A home interview and clinical examination that included blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of 217 men and 598 non-pregnant women aged between 35 to 64 years was carried out. Eligible indigenous subjects must have had no migratory history to partially or totally urbanised areas. Target population represented approximately 100% of the indigenous people who have spent all their life time in the community of birthplace. Age and body mass index average was 48.9+/-12.9 years and 25.6+/-5.1 kg/m2. Hypertension was identified in 56 individuals, 45 women and 11 men (prevalence 6.87%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-8.6). Forty-one percent of the hypertensive subjects were aware of being hypertensive. Hypertensive subjects had a higher intake of saturated fats than non-hypertensives. Salt consumption was lower than 6 g per day in subjects with and without hypertension. High intake of saturated fats (odds ratio 6.4, 95% CI 2.1-12.3; P<0.01) was an independent predictor for hypertension. This study presents, for the first time, data concerning hypertension in adults who are indigenous to and living in traditional communities from Mexico. Prevalence of hypertension was lower than in the partly urbanised rural communities with a westernised lifestyle and the urban areas of Mexico.

  12. Community well-being and growth status of indigenous school children in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Chavez, Guillermo Bali; Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between community well-being based on an index of marginalization and growth status of indigenous rural school children in Oaxaca. Heights and weights of a cross-sectional sample of 11,454 children, 6-14 years, from schools for indigenous rural children (escuelas albergue) in 158 municipios in Oaxaca were measured in 2007. Tertiles of an index of marginalization were used to classify the 158 municipios into three categories of community well-being: lowest (highest marginalization), low, and moderate (lowest marginalization). Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for age, relative isolation and population size, was used to compare body size of children by category of community well-being. Contributions of marginalization, isolation and population size to variation in body size were estimated with sex-specific linear regression. Children from municipios lowest in well-being were shorter and lighter than children from municipios low and moderate in well-being. Marginalization and relative isolation accounted for 23% (boys) and 21% (girls) of the variance in height and for 21% of the variance in weight of girls. Marginalization was the predictor of weight in boys (23%). Community well-being was reflected in the growth status of rural indigenous school children. Compromised growth status was consistent with poor health and nutritional conditions that were and are characteristic of rural areas in the state of Oaxaca. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Research protocol for the Picture Talk Project: a qualitative study on research and consent with remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Emily F M; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Lawford, Tom; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; D'Antoine, Heather A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-12-28

    Research with Indigenous populations is not always designed with cultural sensitivity. Few publications evaluate or describe in detail seeking consent for research with Indigenous participants. When potential participants are not engaged in a culturally respectful manner, participation rates and research quality can be adversely affected. It is unethical to proceed with research without truly informed consent. We describe a culturally appropriate research protocol that is invited by Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley in Western Australia. The Picture Talk Project is a research partnership with local Aboriginal leaders who are also chief investigators. We will interview Aboriginal leaders about research, community engagement and the consent process and hold focus groups with Aboriginal community members about individual consent. Cultural protocols will be applied to recruit and conduct research with participants. Transcripts will be analysed using NVivo10 qualitative software and themes synthesised to highlight the key issues raised by the community about the research process. This protocol will guide future research with the Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley and may inform the approach to research with other Indigenous communities of Australia or the world. It must be noted that no community is the same and all research requires local consultation and input. To conduct culturally sensitive research, respected local people from the community who have knowledge of cultural protocol and language are engaged to guide each step of the research process from the project design to the delivery of results. Ethics approval was granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (No. 2012/348, reference:14760), the Western Australia Country Health Service Ethics Committee (No. 2012:15), the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and reviewed by the Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum Research Sub-Committee (No. 2012

  14. Sustainable antenatal care services in an urban Indigenous community: the Townsville experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretto, Kathryn S; Mitchell, Melvina R; Anderson, Lynette; Larkins, Sarah L; Manessis, Vivienne; Buettner, Petra G; Watson, David

    2007-07-02

    To evaluate the impact of a sustained, community-based collaborative approach to antenatal care services for Indigenous women. Prospective quality improvement intervention, the Mums and Babies program, in a cohort of women attending Townsville Aboriginal and Islanders Health Service, 1 January 2000 - 31 December 2005 (MB group), compared with a historical control group (PreMB group), 1 January 1998 - 30 June 1999. Proportion of women having inadequate antenatal care and screening; perinatal indicators. The number of antenatal visits per pregnancy increased from three (interquartile range [IQR], two to six) in the PreMB group to six (IQR, four to ten) in the MB group (P Sustained access to a community-based, integrated, shared antenatal service has improved perinatal outcomes among Indigenous women in Townsville.

  15. Ethics review of multisite studies: the difficult case of community-based indigenous health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Vu, Tamara M; Fox, Sarah S; Anderson, Ian P; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2010-03-01

    Researchers have longstanding concerns about the logistical and administrative burdens posed by ethics review of multisite studies involving human participants. Centralised ethics review, in which approval by one committee has authority across multiple sites, is widely touted as a strategy for streamlining the process. The Harmonisation of Multi-centre Ethical Review (HoMER) project is currently developing such a system for Australia. It is unclear how centralised review will work for multisite Indigenous health research, where the views of local stakeholders are important and community consultation is mandatory. Our recent experience in conducting the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey (NIEHS) shows how elaborate the current ethics approval and community consultation processes can be, and points to several lessons and ideas to guide pending reforms.

  16. Indigenous Description of Soils in Some Communities in Emuoha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local people and small holder farmers have knowledge of their land based on soil and land characteristics that remain largely unknown to the scientific community. It is therefore important for researchers to understand farmers' knowledge of soil classification and management. A study was carried out using a semi ...

  17. Indigenous plant-derived medicine used by ordinary community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on medical ethnobotany shows that ordinary community members in the rural areas have knowledge of self preventive care which is accomplished through administration of plant medicine to prevent the onset of disease and create a sense of well being. Several medicinal plants and traditional ...

  18. Implementing an Indigenous Community Education Program: A Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialek, Hilton; Nabokov, Peter

    Four rural communities in northern Maine were the setting for a pilot program in Indian adult education that featured a new kind of instructional model. Developed by the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO), it featured peer instruction, strict performance orientation, and insistance on mastery of certain skills. A HumRRO representative…

  19. Implementing an Indigenous Community Education Program: An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter

    Institutional success of an instructional model that featured peer instruction, a strict performance orientation, and an insistence on mastery of specific skills led developers to believe the same model could be used by communities to disseminate skills and information at low cost and with efficiency. The system was utilized in setting up an…

  20. Fasciola hepatica Infection in an Indigenous Community of the Peruvian Jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lopez, Martha; Caravedo, María Alejandra; Arque, Eulogia; White, Arthur Clinton

    2016-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution. Autochthonous cases have not been reported in the Amazon region of Peru. Operculated eggs resembling F. hepatica were identified in the stools of five out of 215 subjects in a remote indigenous community of the Peruvian jungle. Polymerase chain reaction targeting Fasciola hepatica cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and sequencing of the products confirmed Fasciola infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Fasciola hepatica Infection in an Indigenous Community of the Peruvian Jungle

    OpenAIRE

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lopez, Martha; Caravedo, Mar��a Alejandra; Arque, Eulogia; White, Arthur Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution. Autochthonous cases have not been reported in the Amazon region of Peru. Operculated eggs resembling F. hepatica were identified in the stools of five out of 215 subjects in a remote indigenous community of the Peruvian jungle. Polymerase chain reaction targeting Fasciola hepatica cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and sequencing of the products confirmed Fasciola infection.

  2. 'Repeat' prescriptions and antibiotic resistance: findings from Australian community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Ian; Hollingworth, Samantha; Pudmenzky, Alex; Rossato, Laurence; Kairuz, Therése

    2017-02-01

    Australians are among the highest users of antibiotics in the developed world. The primary aim was to determine the 'age' of antibiotic prescriptions at the time of dispensing as a possible contributor to antibiotic misuse and ultimately, resistance. The secondary aim was to test customised software to permit extraction and de-identification of dispensing records for analysis. Data were extracted and de-identified from computerised dispensing systems in three community pharmacies in Brisbane, Australia, according to a strict ethical protocol. All prescription records dispensed between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 were merged to form a complete dataset of 1 158 871 de-identified dispensing records which were analysed using Microsoft Excel ® . A retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on a subset of 100 573 antibiotic records. In a substudy conducted at a single pharmacy site, all antibiotic records dispensed over a 4-month (winter) period were examined to determine the age of prescriptions. Nearly one in ten antibiotics (9.0%) was dispensed from prescriptions that were more than a month old, and over one in five (22.1%) were dispensed from a repeat prescription. Health system factors may contribute to inappropriate antibiotic use in Australia, including availability and validity of repeat antibiotic prescriptions. Government health departments, prescribers, pharmacists, other health professionals and consumers have to share the responsibility of ensuring that antibiotics are used appropriately. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Intestinal parasitism prevalence amongst children from six indigenous communities residing in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Cifuentes, Mercedes; Florez, Ofelia; Bermúdez, Amparo; Hernández, Luzmila; Araujo, Cristina; Bolaños, María V

    2012-01-01

    Establishing the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children aged 5 to 14 years of age from six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali. A cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali; it consisted of making a direct serial and concentration coproparasitological examination of a randomly selected sample of fifty-seven 5 to 14 year-old children. Of the 57 samples obtained, 84 % of the children were infected with parasites; protozoa (98 %) predominated over helminths (16.7 %) and mixed parasitemia was found in 14.6 % of the samples. Monoparasitism appeared in children over 10 years of age and biparasitism (10.4 %) and polyparasitism (52.1 %) in children under 10 years of age. Regarding occult blood determination, 6 % were observed to be positive in all the samples analysed; 4 % of these results were associated with E. histolyticaldispar. The simple parasitism index (SPI) reflected a high degree of infestation amongst the children included in the study. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in indigenous infants was higher than that reported nationally in the overall adolescent and school-aged children population in the same age group. Mono- and polyparasitism prevailed in the positive samples. The infestation load was not randomly distributed amongst the communities.

  4. BIOGAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE TO PROMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos SABORÍO VÍQUEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The key areas that determine the food and nutrition security are: availability, access, consumption and biological utilization. For this reason it is necessary to promote the health of vulnerable groups, in this case, indigenous communities, protecting and establishing conditions to ensure the human right to food. The initial plan focuses ondeveloping facilities for small swine and poultry farms, familiar, non-commercial. The main objective of the pigs raised at the site will be the production of animal waste in order to implement digesters for the production of biogas as an alternative energy source, the production of meat stays in the background, thinking only about the community consumption and helping to ensure their food source, from this perspective, the technologies applied to rural and indigenous progress are environmentally friendly, socially just, economically viable and culturally acceptable. The theme of rural and indigenous Development is focused on their food security and the use of alternative energies, considering that energy is a key element in achieving sustainable development in all sectors, therefore sought from a broad perspective solidarity and actively promote greater and more rational use of energy and the environment in remote communities, through diversification of supply sources and efficient use, thereby contributing toenvironmental conservation and reduction of health problems through the use of appropriate technologies.

  5. Pregnancy and birth in an indigenous Huichol community: from structural violence to structural policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlin, Jennie B; Hawkes, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Mexico's indigenous regions are characterised by socio-economic marginalisation and poor health outcomes and the Maternal Mortality Rate in indigenous communities continues to be around six times higher than the national rate. Using as a case study the Huichol community of North-Western Mexico we will discuss how institutional health and welfare programmes which aim to address accepted risk factors for maternal health are undermined by a series of structural barriers which put indigenous women especially in harm's way. Semi-structured interviews and observational data were gathered between 2009 and 2011 in highland communities and on coastal tobacco plantations to where a large number of this ethnic group migrate. Many Huichol women birth alone, and to facilitate this process they maintain a low nutritional intake to reduce their infant's growth and seek spiritual guidance during pregnancy from a shaman. These practices are reinforced by feelings of shame and humiliation encountered when using institutional health provision. These are some of the structural barriers to care that need to be addressed. Effective interventions could include addressing the training of health professionals, focusing on educational inequalities and the structural determinants of poverty whilst designing locally specific programmes that encourage acceptance of available health care.

  6. Ground hardness and injury in community level Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Dara M; Finch, Caroline F; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C; Doyle, Tim L A

    2012-07-01

    To describe the risk and details of injuries associated with ground hardness in community level Australian football (AF). Prospective injury surveillance with periodic objective ground hardness measurement. 112 ground hardness assessments were undertaken using a Clegg hammer at nine locations across 20 grounds, over the 2007 and 2008 AF seasons. Details of 352 injuries sustained by community level players on those grounds were prospectively collected as part of a large randomised controlled trial. The ground location of the injury was matched to the nearest corresponding ground hardness Clegg hammer readings, in gravities (g), which were classified from unacceptably low (hardness (>120 g). Clegg hammer readings ranged from 25 to 301 g. Clegg hammer hardness categories from low/normal to high/normal were associated with the majority of injuries, with only 3.7% (13 injuries) on unacceptably high hardness and 0.3% (1 injury) on the unacceptably low hardness locations. Relative to the preferred range of hardness, the risk of sustaining an injury on low/normal hardness locations was 1.31 (95%CI: 1.06-1.62) times higher and 1.82 (95%CI: 1.17-2.85) times higher on locations with unacceptably high hardness. The more severe injuries occurred with low/normal ground hardness. Despite the low number of injuries, the risk of sustaining an injury on low/normal and unacceptably hard grounds was significantly greater than on the preferred range of hardness. Notably, the severity of the injuries sustained on unacceptably hard grounds was lower than for other categories of hardness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unintentional injury mortality among indigenous communities of Taiwan: trends from 2002 to 2013 and evaluation of a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Stephen W; Chong, Hiu Ha; Kao, Hui-Chuan

    2017-11-27

    Indigenous communities in Taiwan shoulder a disproportionate burden of unintentional injury fatalities. We compare unintentional injury mortality rate trends among Taiwan's indigenous communities and the general population from 2002 to 2013, and evaluate potential impact of a community-based injury prevention programme on indigenous unintentional injury death rates. Standardised and crude unintentional injury mortality rates were obtained from Taiwan government reports. Segmented linear regression was used to estimate and compare unintentional injury mortality rate trends before and after the intervention. Between 2002 and 2013, unintentional injury mortality rates among Taiwan's indigenous population significantly declined by about 4.5 deaths per 100 000 each year (pindigenous Taiwanese and the general population significantly decreased by approximately 1% each successive year (p=0.02). However, we were unable to detect evidence that the 'Healthy and Safe Tribe' programme was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the unintentional injury mortality rate trend among indigenous persons (p=0.81). Taiwanese indigenous communities remain at significantly higher risk of unintentional injury death, though the gap may be slowly narrowing. We found no evidence that the 'Healthy and Safe Tribe' indigenous injury-prevention programme significantly contributed to the nationwide decline in unintentional injury mortality among indigenous Taiwanese communities from 2009 to 2013. Future interventions to address the disproportionate burden of unintentional injury fatalities among indigenous Taiwanese should consider interventions with wider coverage of the indigenous population, and complementing grass roots led community-based interventions with structural policy interventions as well. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  8. Management of Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Community at Royal Belum State Park Using Geographical Information System: A Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zainon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed. Keywords: Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community

  9. Management of Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Community at Royal Belum State Park Using Geographical Information System: A Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zainon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed.Keywords:  Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community 

  10. The impact of racial discrimination on the health of Australian Indigenous children aged 5-10 years: analysis of national longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Carrington C J; Li, Jianghong; Cooper, Matthew N; Hopkins, Katrina D; Farrant, Brad M

    2017-07-03

    . Tackling and reducing racism should be an integral part of policy and intervention aimed at improving the health of Australian Indigenous children and thereby reducing health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  11. Better health outcomes at lower costs: the benefits of primary care utilisation for chronic disease management in remote Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuejen; Thomas, Susan L; Guthridge, Steven L; Wakerman, John

    2014-10-04

    Indigenous residents living in remote communities in Australia's Northern Territory experience higher rates of preventable chronic disease and have poorer access to appropriate health services compared to other Australians. This study compared health outcomes and costs at different levels of primary care utilisation to determine if primary care represents an efficient use of resources for Indigenous patients with common chronic diseases namely hypertension, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal disease. This was an historical cohort study involving a total of 14,184 Indigenous residents, aged 15 years and over, who lived in remote communities and used a remote clinic or public hospital from 2002 to 2011. Individual level demographic and clinical data were drawn from primary care and hospital care information systems using a unique patient identifier. A propensity score was used to improve comparability between high, medium and low primary care utilisation groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and acceptability curves were used to analyse four health outcome measures: total and, avoidable hospital admissions, deaths and years of life lost. Compared to the low utilisation group, medium and high levels of primary care utilisation were associated with decreases in total and avoidable hospitalisations, deaths and years of life lost. Higher levels of primary care utilisation for renal disease reduced avoidable hospitalisations by 82-85%, deaths 72-75%, and years of life lost 78-81%. For patients with ischaemic heart disease, the reduction in avoidable hospitalisations was 63-78%, deaths 63-66% and years of life lost 69-73%. In terms of cost-effectiveness, primary care for renal disease and diabetes ranked as more cost-effective, followed by hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Primary care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the least cost-effective of the five conditions. Primary care in remote

  12. Natural hazards knowledge and risk perception of Wujie indigenous community in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Ruljigaljig, Tjuku; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the natural hazard knowledge and risk perception of Wujie indigenous community, located in Fazhi Village in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. Taiwan has encountered many different types of natural hazards (e.g. landslides and debris flows) that have increased sharply in the last century. Because of that, they are one of the most critical issues for the government and for the people living in mountainous areas. These areas are mainly populated by indigenous people that have experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonizing periods causing a progressive loss of their original cultural identity. The motivation of selecting the case study of Wujie community is because (i) it has suffered, more than others, generations of devastating colonial oppression by foreign governments; (ii) the consequences of hydroelectric projects that moved a lot of water and sediment to the valley and modified the path of the river through the years; (iii) the documented landslides and debris flows occurred in the region during the last decades. Two questions appear spontaneously: How indigenous people are nowadays living with natural hazards? Have land use change or any other human footprint affected their knowledge and perception on natural hazards? This research, the first carried out in Taiwan involving an indigenous community, can offer a unique opportunity to answer these questions. The investigation utilized a variety of participatory methods conducted at the household and community level by the use of 65 face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that residents felt a higher worry about landslide and flood risks, and a slight preparedness to face them. This discrepancy may derive from an unsatisfactory level of communication and information, and the most considerable differences were found between the evaluations of individual subjects as opposed to overall communities. Results revealed also the complexity

  13. The primary determinants of Indigenous household information and communication technology adoption: remote, rural and urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoll, Peter

    2011-07-01

    This paper examines the factors affecting adoption of information and communication technologies (computers and the Internet) in Australian Indigenous households across three Indigenous communities, remote, rural and urban. Drawing on the sociological notion of structure and agency it is argued that being engaged in external fields influences Indigenous household ICT adoption. This paper develops a conceptual schema by drawing on Bourdieu's theory of habitus to explain the low uptake of ICTs in Indigenous households across Australia. Evidence suggests that there is more commonality across diverse communities than differences.

  14. CROP OF TRANSGENIC SOY-BEAN. PEASANT AND INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY EFFECTS OF EUSTERN PARAGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Florencio Centurión Mereles

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Word offers us a critical glance about the economic and socio-cultural impacts of the transgenic crops in peasant and indigenous communities of the eastern region of Paraguay, it is given special attention to the use of Roundup, with the undoubted environment cost and the uncertain risks to human and animal health. The impacts and interactions that the techno-commoditization of the organisms genetically modified OGM have on the affected populations and the environment-species, soil, water, woods, flora, fauna is discussed in the Word.The extent of use of glyphosate on transgenic crops would involve not only the environment of the crop, but go to generate profound cultural changes, technological, of management, environmental, economical, social and legal, whose effects we already see them come with the decline of peasant and indigenous communities, that at not finding adequate strategies to face them, collapse as collectivity. The Word contains important elements to renew the debate and the critical thought in relation to the problematic of transgenic crop and its impact in indigenous and peasant populations.

  15. Use of amazonian anthropogenic soils: Comparison between Caboclos communities and Tikunas indigenous group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Sanabria, Camilo; Cuartas Ricaurte, Jorge Armando

    2013-01-01

    In general terms, Amazonian soils are infertile and have several constraints for agricultural production. However, use by ancient human societies since pre-columbian times has driven landscape transformation of massive areas and development of anthropogenic soils called Terra Preta do Indio (TP) or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE). ADE characterization, in terms of fertility and composition, has allowed the development of intensive agricultural activities over time. The current use of ADE for the Brazilian amazon peasants (Caboclos) is different from the indigenous communities in Colombia. The indigenous people in Colombia (Tikunas) no use this type of soils on behalf of cultural restrictions that avoid the use of ancient places. We are comparing the institutional conditions, migrations, social characterization and cultural factors that determine the use/no-use of these soils by the Amazonian societies.

  16. Dentistry students' perceptions about an extramural experience with a Brazilian indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Alexandre Favero; Roperto, Renato Cassio; Mestriner, Soraya Fernandes; Mestriner, Wilson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate dentistry students' perceptions about an extramural activity designed to deliver dental care to an indigenous community. This was a qualitative investigation involving 4 students of dentistry who had just had the experience of delivering treatment to indigenous Brazilian people. These students answered questions about the relevance of the experience to their personal and professional lives. We performed Content Analysis to data treatment and it was analysed by Social Representation Theory. Two social representations were reached: a) Being capable to promote oral health; b) Facing human feeling and respect each other. We concluded that participation in an extramural project improves the students' understanding of primary health care in dentistry. Such experiences help students develop a sense of cultural respect, comprehensive care, and to understand patients in their totality as social beings with their own values, beliefs, and attitudes regarding oral health care.

  17. Biostimulation of Indigenous Microbial Community for Bioremediation of Petroleum Refinery Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Kazy, Sufia K.; Gupta, Abhishek; Dutta, Avishek; Mohapatra, Balaram; Roy, Ajoy; Bera, Paramita; Mitra, Adinpunya; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiency severely impairs the catabolic activity of indigenous microorganisms in hydrocarbon rich environments (HREs) and limits the rate of intrinsic bioremediation. The present study aimed to characterize the microbial community in refinery waste and evaluate the scope for biostimulation based in situ bioremediation. Samples recovered from the wastewater lagoon of Guwahati refinery revealed a hydrocarbon enriched [high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)], oxygen-, moisture-limited, reducing environment. Intrinsic biodegradation ability of the indigenous microorganisms was enhanced significantly (>80% reduction in TPH by 90 days) with nitrate amendment. Preferred utilization of both higher- (>C30) and middle- chain (C20-30) length hydrocarbons were evident from GC-MS analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and community level physiological profiling analyses indicated distinct shift in community’s composition and metabolic abilities following nitrogen (N) amendment. High throughput deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that the native community was mainly composed of hydrocarbon degrading, syntrophic, methanogenic, nitrate/iron/sulfur reducing facultative anaerobic bacteria and archaebacteria, affiliated to γ- and δ-Proteobacteria and Euryarchaeota respectively. Genes for aerobic and anaerobic alkane metabolism (alkB and bssA), methanogenesis (mcrA), denitrification (nirS and narG) and N2 fixation (nifH) were detected. Concomitant to hydrocarbon degradation, lowering of dissolve O2 and increase in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) marked with an enrichment of N2 fixing, nitrate reducing aerobic/facultative anaerobic members [e.g., Azovibrio, Pseudoxanthomonas and Comamonadaceae members] was evident in N amended microcosm. This study highlighted that indigenous community of refinery sludge was intrinsically diverse, yet appreciable rate of in situ bioremediation could be achieved by supplying adequate N sources. PMID:27708623

  18. Predicting hunter behavior of indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: insights from a household production model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Montaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.

  19. The rapid degradation of bisphenol A induced by the response of indigenous bacterial communities in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Cheng, Min; Deng, Linjing; Zhang, Chen; Wan, Jia; Liu, Linshan

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, sediment was spiked with bisphenol A (BPA) solution to explore the interaction between indigenous bacterial communities and BPA biodegradation in sediment. Results showed that BPA could be adsorbed to the sediment and then biodegraded rapidly. Biodegradation efficiency of BPA in treatments with 10 and 50 mg/L BPA reached 64.3 and 61.8% on the first day, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that BPA affected the densities, species, and diversities of bacteria significantly. The response of bacterial community to BPA favored BPA biodegradation by promoting the growth of BPA-reducing bacteria and inhibiting other competitors. According to the results of sequencing, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas played vital roles in the degradation of BPA. They presented over 73% of the original bacterial community, and both of them were promoted by BPA comparing with controls. Laccase and polyphenol oxidase contributed to the degradation of BPA and metabolic intermediates, respectively. This paper illustrates the rapid biodegradation of BPA induced by the response of indigenous bacterial communities to the BPA stress, which will improve the understandings of BPA degradation in sediment.

  20. The use of replacement cost method to assess and manage the impacts of water resource development on Australian indigenous customary economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Finn, Marcus; Scheepers, Kelly

    2014-03-15

    The value of functional and biologically diverse landscapes to indigenous societies is increasingly recognised in public debates about development pathways but rarely rigorously assessed in development decisions. Using the replacement cost method, we quantify the direct consumptive value of aquatic species and sites for indigenous subsistence in three Australian tropical river catchments where negligible data exists on indigenous water values and the extensive use of wild resources for food, art, craft and medicines. The results establish a baseline for assessing and monitoring the socio-economic impact of hydrological and ecological changes from water resource development. More than 90% of the gross replacement value in each catchment was accounted for by a small subset of high value species which could be used as integrated indicators of ecological and socio-economic change. The total value of species harvested was distributed across a large number of sites, justifying the need for a regional management approach to ensure the maintenance of diverse habitats for hunting and fishing. While 'value' is a cultural, context-dependent construct, studies like this one can lend legitimacy to a targeted approach to environmental and social impact assessment of water resource development proposals by calling for prioritisation of mitigation and management actions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A scoping review protocol on social participation of indigenous elders, intergenerational solidarity and their influence on individual and community wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, Chantal; Asselin, Hugo; Basile, Suzy; Couturier, Yves; Drolet, Marie-Josée; Gagnon, Dominique; Torrie, Jill; Levasseur, Mélanie

    2017-05-12

    Indigenous elders have traditionally played an important role in maintaining social cohesion within their communities. Today, part of this role has been taken over by government social and healthcare services, but they are having limited success in addressing social challenges. Increasing elders' social participation and intergenerational solidarity might foster community development and benefit young people, families, communities and the elders themselves. However, knowledge of the contribution of elders' social participation and intergenerational solidarity to wellness is scattered and needs to be synthesised. This protocol presents a scoping review on the social participation of indigenous elders, intergenerational solidarity and their influence on individual and community wellness. This scoping review protocol is based on an innovative methodological framework designed to gather information from the scientific and grey literature and from indigenous sources. It was developed by an interdisciplinary team including indigenous scholars/researchers, knowledge users and key informants. In addition to searching information databases in fields such as public health and indigenous studies, an advisory committee will ensure that information is gathered from grey literature and indigenous sources. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Review Board of the Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue and the First Nations of Quebec and Labrador Health and Social Services Commission. The comprehensive synthesis of the scientific and grey literature and indigenous sources proposed in this protocol will not only raise awareness within indigenous communities and among healthcare professionals and community organisations, but will also enable decision-makers to better meet the needs of indigenous people. The innovative methodological framework proposed in this scoping review protocol will yield richer information on the contribution of elders to community wellness. This

  2. Indigenous cancer patient and staff attitudes towards unmet needs screening using the SCNAT-IP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garvey, G.; Thewes, B.; He, V.F.; Davis, E.; Girgis, A.; Valery, P.C.; Giam, K.; Hocking, A.; Jackson, J.; Jones, V.; Yip, D.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Indigenous Australians have a higher cancer incidence, worse mortality and are less likely to receive optimal cancer treatment compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Culturally appropriate supportive care helps ensure that Indigenous patients engage in and receive optimal care.

  3. Association between Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites in an Añu indigenous community of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenmayor-Boscán, Alisbeth D; Hernández, Ileana M; Valero, Kutchynskaya J; Paz, América M; Sandrea, Lisette B; Rivero, Zulbey

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and enteroparasite infections are highly prevalent in populations with poor living conditions, like the Amerindian communities. Identifying associations between both types of infectious agents could help to detect shared risk factors or transmission routes in these minority ethnic groups. Therefore, the prevalence and association between Hp and enteroparasites were investigated in an indigenous community whose living conditions favor such infectious diseases. Seropositivity (anti-Hp-specific IgG) and active infection (stool antigen test), intestinal parasitosis (direct and concentrated coproparasitological test, methylene blue, and Kinyoun stains), and risk factors for fecal-oral transmission were determined in 167 children and 151 adults of the Añu indigenous community living at the Sinamaica Lagoon, in Venezuela. A high rate of Hp infection (seropositivity and active infection) and enteroparasitosis was evidenced, as expected. Some significant associations were detected: direct associations between Hp and polyparasitic infection, helminths, and protozoan (particularly in children); inverse association between Hp and Giardia lamblia. No shared epidemiological factors were identified for Hp and the detected intestinal parasites, probably due to overlapping factors. Direct associations detected support the participation of the fecal-oral route in the transmission of the involved infectious agents. Inverse relationship (Hp) and G. lamblia may suggest the existence of antagonistic interactions between them. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these associations.

  4. Inbreeding avoidance in an isolated indigenous Zapotec community in the valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed inbreeding using surname isonymy in an indigenous genetic isolate. The subjects were residents of a rural Zapotec-speaking community in the valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. The community can be classified as a genetic isolate with an average gene flow of indigenous Mexican populations. A total of 2,149 individuals had valid surname patronym-matronym pairings, including 484 deceased ancestors. Surname isonymy analysis methods were used to estimate total inbreeding and to segregate it into random and nonrandom components. The surname isonymy coefficient computed from 119 isonymous surname pairings (119/2,149) was 0.0554. The estimated inbreeding coefficient from surname isonymy was 0.0138 (0.0554/4). The random and nonrandom components of inbreeding were F(r) = 0.0221 and F(n) = -0.0091, respectively. The results suggest that consanguinity is culturally avoided. Nonrandom inbreeding decreased total inbreeding by about 41%. Total estimated inbreeding by surname isonymy was 0.0138, which is similar to inbreeding estimated from a sample of pedigrees, 0.01. Socially prescribed inbreeding avoidance substantially lowered total F through negative nonrandom inbreeding. Even in the situation of genetic isolation and small effective population size (N(e)), estimated inbreeding is lower than may have otherwise occurred if inbreeding were only random. However, among the poorest individuals, socially prescribed jural rules for inbreeding avoidance failed to operate. Thus the preponderance of inbreeding appears to occur among the poor, economically disadvantaged in the community.

  5. Traditional landscape knowledge. The case of a purépecha indigenous community, Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pulido Secundino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of indigenous groups everywhere in the world indicates a thorough knowledge in natural resources, including soils, plants, animals, and more widely in landscape and landscape management in space and time. During centuries indigenous communities have established a strong relationship with their natural environments, and have developed knowledge systems and classificatory frameworks for both biotic and non biotic landscape components. The vision is however integrated, holistic, and society is actually perceived as embedded in nature. Studying these knowledge systems is important because despite their contribution to landscape understanding especially in tropical regions, they run the risk of being lost together with the societies that create them. In addition, in spite of substantial research efforts, these systems have been poorly documented. The purpose of this article is to document and analyze the ethnogeographic, landscape knowledge in Comachuen, a purepecha community in the State of Michoacán, and to highlight its usefulness in natural resource management. To this end, we developed a co-investigation, participatory scheme, involving a group of community members, with whom we work during several months, in the field, between 2008 and 2010. Field work consisted on geographic transects along forests and cropland, coupled to in-depth interviews, to 24 local producers, all of them native speakers of the purepecha language.

  6. Bridging the Scientific and Indigenous Communities to Study Sea Ice Change in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Zappa, C. J.; Betcher, S. R.; Hauser, D.; Whiting, A.; Goodwin, J.; Harris, C.; Schaefer, B.; Schaefer, R.

    2017-12-01

    Ikaavik Sikukuun (Ice Bridges) is a newly-launched research partnership in Kotzebue, Alaska, that adopts an end-to-end community-based approach to study fundamental processes underlying the mechanisms and impacts of the changing sea ice in coastal Alaska. Under guidance from a local advisory council, we will use state-of-the-art observing techniques including long-range unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to study under-observed sea ice regions during critical periods of marine mammal migration, molting and reproduction. Here, we describe what, to the best of our knowledge, is a precedent-setting approach to co-creating research questions and hypotheses that integrate indigenous knowledge (IK) and interdisciplinary scientific methods. A key element of this approach is that we established an advisory committee of local IK holders before defining specific research questions. This has enabled us to iteratively develop hypotheses that incorporate IK and respond to the research needs of the local community while also addressing key geophysical and ecological questions related to changes in the seasonal ice zone. The advisory committee will be key participants in the project team, ensuring that IK is incorporated into the design of the observing plan and the synthesis and dissemination of findings. In addition to building bridges between the scientific community and indigenous residents of Kotzebue, the legacy of our project will include a video documentary that will allow us to share the story of this partnership and our findings with a broad audience.

  7. Multicultural social policy and community participation in health: new opportunities and challenges for indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-01-01

    Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On-going surveillance on dog bites, parasite levels and dog

  9. Building partnerships with Indigenous communities around climate change: A new UCAR initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    The atmospheric and related sciences have one of the lowest rates of participation by American Indians of any physical science. This not only disadvantages the atmospheric sciences by isolating them from a rich and relevant intellectual heritage, it disadvantages tribal communities who seek to apply the insights from atmospheric sciences to planning their own future. In a time of rapid environmental change and its impact on tribal lands and all lands, the need for connection between these two communities is especially urgent. In 2007, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research launched a new Community Building Program, in order to catalyze and coordinate activities that contribute to UCAR's strategic goal of developing a diverse atmospheric science workforce. A key goal of this program has been to look for partnerships with the American Indian community around climate change issues. The goal of these partnerships is to support North American tribal efforts to enhance their own scientific and adaptive capacity around climate change. In the early stages of this partnership, we have listened to some important messages from Indigenous communities: •Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to identity and sovereignty • Scientific expertise is one among many skills indigenous people employ in their relation with their homelands • Climate change research and education are embedded in decision-making about economic development, energy, public health as well as cultural preservation, language, and tribal sovereignty This presentation will be an opportunity to check and extend these insights discuss and use them as a basis for a long-term partnership between UCAR and tribal communities.

  10. Study Protocol – Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT: A detailed account of a qualitative study investigating barriers to transplant for Australian Indigenous people with end-stage kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kate

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are slightly more than 2% of the total Australian population however, in recent years they have comprised between 6 and 10% of new patients beginning treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD. Although transplant is considered the optimal form of treatment for many ESKD patients there is a pronounced disparity between the rates at which Indigenous ESKD patients receive transplants compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The IMPAKT (Improving Access to Kidney Transplants Interview study investigated reasons for this disparity through a large scale, in-depth interview study involving patients, nephrologists and key decision-making staff at selected Australian transplant and dialysis sites. Methods The design and conduct of the study reflected the multi-disciplinary membership of the core IMPAKT team. Promoting a participatory ethos, IMPAKT established partnerships with a network of hospital transplant units and hospital dialysis treatment centres that provide treatment to the vast majority of Indigenous patients across Australia. Under their auspices, the IMPAKT team conducted in-depth interviews in 26 treatment/service centres located in metropolitan, regional and remote Australia. Peer interviewing supported the engagement of Indigenous patients (146, and nephrologists (19. In total IMPAKT spoke with Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (241, key renal nursing and other (non-specialist staff (95 and a small number of relevant others (28. Data analysis was supported by QSR software. At each site, IMPAKT also documented educational programs and resources, mapped an hypothetical ‘patient journey’ to transplant through the local system and observed patient care and treatment routines. Discussion The national scope, inter-disciplinary approach and use of qualitative methods in an investigation of a significant health inequality affecting Indigenous people is, we believe, an Australian first

  11. Research Done in "A Good Way": The Importance of Indigenous Elder Involvement in HIV Community-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; O'Campo, Patricia; Monchalin, Renée; Thistle, Jesse; Worthington, Catherine; Masching, Renée; Guta, Adrian; Pooyak, Sherri; Whitebird, Wanda; Thomas, Cliff

    2015-06-01

    We examined the role that Indigenous Elders can play in ensuring that community-based research (CBR) is conducted ethically. We present data from a larger qualitative study exploring ethical issues that occur in HIV-related CBR through the experiences of researchers engaged in CBR. Between May 2010 and July 2011, we interviewed 51 academic and community research team leaders of federally funded HIV CBR studies. We used thematic analysis techniques to identify themes. Participating researchers engage Elders in research because Elders are keepers of Indigenous knowledge, dynamic ethical consultants, community protectors, and credible sources of information who are able to counsel and support, mediate conflict, provide local context and history, and conduct ceremonial roles. Potential challenges cited by participants to engaging Elders in research include finding the right "fit," approaching Elders in a culturally appropriate way, and bureaucratic environments that do not honor Indigenous processes. Culturally appropriate Elder engagement in HIV CBR with Indigenous communities is vital for promoting positive relationships and culturally safe research that respects ceremony and Indigenous ways of knowing.

  12. Protection and consolidation of stone heritage by self-inoculation with indigenous carbonatogenic bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Schiro, Mara; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; Elert, Kerstin; Martín-Sánchez, Inés; González-Muñoz, María Teresa; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2017-08-17

    Enhanced salt weathering resulting from global warming and increasing environmental pollution is endangering the survival of stone monuments and artworks. To mitigate the effects of these deleterious processes, numerous conservation treatments have been applied that, however, show limited efficacy. Here we present a novel, environmentally friendly, bacterial self-inoculation approach for the conservation of stone, based on the isolation of an indigenous community of carbonatogenic bacteria from salt damaged stone, followed by their culture and re-application back onto the same stone. This method results in an effective consolidation and protection due to the formation of an abundant and exceptionally strong hybrid cement consisting of nanostructured bacterial CaCO 3 and bacterially derived organics, and the passivating effect of bacterial exopolymeric substances (EPS) covering the substrate. The fact that the isolated and identified bacterial community is common to many stone artworks may enable worldwide application of this novel conservation methodology.Salt weathering enhanced by global warming and environmental pollution is increasingly threatening stone monuments and artworks. Here, the authors present a bacterial self-inoculation approach with indigenous carbonatogenic bacteria and find that this technique consolidates and protects salt damaged stone.

  13. The Honey Ant Readers: An Innovative and Bold Approach to Engaging Rural Indigenous Students in Print Literacy through Accessible, Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    On entering school, rural Australian children from Indigenous backgrounds are thrown into an unfamiliar environment, linguistically and culturally, which sets them up for failure. The author, working closely with elders and community in Alice Springs, has drawn on her considerable experience in both Indigenous education and TESOL to address this…

  14. Epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in Mixtec and Chontal indigenous communities in Mexico: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Santiago, Flor; García-García, Conrado; García-Olivera, Imelda; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders and rheumatic diseases in the Chontal and Mixtec indigenous communities in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, using the Community-Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. After cross-culturally validating the COPCORD questionnaire for these communities, we conducted a cross-sectional, analytical, community-based census study using a house-to-house method. Positive cases of MSK disorders were assessed by primary care physicians and rheumatologists. The study population included participants aged ≥18 years from the indigenous communities of San Antonio Huitepec and San Carlos Yautepec. A total of 1061 persons participated in the study. Mean age was 46.9 years (standard deviation 19.9; age range 18-97 years); 642 (60.5 %) were women; 483 participants (45.5; 42.4-48.5 %) had MSK pain in the previous 7 days. Diagnoses were back pain 170 (16.0 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 13.8-18.3); osteoarthritis 157 (14.7 %; 95 % CI 12.7-17.0); rheumatic regional pain syndrome 53 (4.9 %; 95 % CI 3.7-6.4); rheumatoid arthritis 4 (0.3 %; 95 % CI 0.1-0.9); dermatomyositis 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5); ankylosing spondylitis 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5); systemic lupus erythematosus 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.02-0.5); and gout 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5). 53.2 % had not received medical treatment for their disease. The prevalence of MSK disorders in indigenous communities in the Mixtec and Chontal regions is very high. The most common rheumatic diseases found were back pain and osteoarthritis. A high percentage of participants had not received medical care.

  15. Connecting Coastal Communities with Ocean Science: A Look at Ocean Sense and the Inclusion of Place-based Indigenous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, M. A.; Brown, J.; Hoeberechts, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. Technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories have been adapted for small coastal installations called "community observatories," which enable community members to directly monitor conditions in the local ocean environment. In 2014, ONC pioneered an innovative educational program, Ocean Sense: Local observations, global connections, which introduces students and teachers to the technologies installed on community observatories. The program introduces middle and high school students to research methods in biology, oceanography and ocean engineering through hands-on activities. Ocean Sense includes a variety of resources and opportunities to excite students and spark curiosity about the ocean environment. The program encourages students to connect their local observations to global ocean processes and the observations of students in other geographic regions. The connection to place and local relevance of the program is further enhanced through an emphasis on Indigenous and place-based knowledge. ONC is working with coastal Indigenous communities in a collaborative process to include local knowledge, culture, and language in Ocean Sense materials. For this process to meaningful and culturally appropriate, ONC is relying on the guidance and oversight of Indigenous community educators and knowledge holders. Ocean Sense also includes opportunities for Indigenous youth and teachers in remote communities to connect in person, including an annual Ocean Science Symposium and professional development events for teachers. Building a program which embraces multiple perspectives is effective both in making ocean science more relevant to Indigenous students and in linking Indigenous knowledge and place-based knowledge to ocean science.

  16. "We Like to Listen to Stories about Fish": Integrating Indigenous Ecological and Scientific Knowledge to Inform Environmental Flow Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue E. Jackson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that apply indigenous ecological knowledge to contemporary resource management problems are increasing globally; however, few of these studies have contributed to environmental water management. We interviewed three indigenous landowning groups in a tropical Australian catchment subject to increasing water resource development pressure and trialed tools to integrate indigenous and scientific knowledge of the biology and ecology of freshwater fish to assess their water requirements. The differences, similarities, and complementarities between the knowledge of fish held by indigenous people and scientists are discussed in the context of the changing socioeconomic circumstances experienced by indigenous communities of north Australia. In addition to eliciting indigenous knowledge that confirmed field fish survey results, the approach generated knowledge that was new to both science and indigenous participants, respectively. Indigenous knowledge influenced (1 the conceptual models developed by scientists to understand the flow ecology and (2 the structure of risk assessment tools designed to understand the vulnerability of particular fish to low-flow scenarios.

  17. Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Materials and methods. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Results. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few propitiate health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. Conclusions. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  18. Indigenous health in a global frame: from community development to human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores the shift from 'human rights' to community development' in the framing of Koori (or Indigenous) health policy research at the University of Melbourne in the 1990s. It provides an overview of the recent history of rights-based discourses in international health, contrasting cosmopolitan claims of rights with older civic reference points for health intervention: such as 'citizenship' and 'community development.' In particular it considers the relations of the conjunction 'health and human rights' to the global emergence during the past twenty years of nongovernmental organisations and their challenge to the power of the nation-state. This account draws heavily on the author's observation of the institutionalisation of rights discourses in health research programs at Melbourne and Harvard, vantage points that provide at best a partial perspective, but one that may nonetheless reveal some salient historical features.

  19. Indigenous Perspectives on Community Economic Development: A North-South Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Hernandez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses an online forum on Indigenous Community-Based Economic Development (CED, in which twenty-two participants from Canada and Latin America shared and reflected on experiences ranging from cultural tourism in Bolivia to a food processing co-op in Northern British Columbia. The forum demonstrated that at least some Indigenous peoples in Canada and Latin America share common values that guide the kind of development they want in their territories and communities; and that their orientation toward collective and participatory approaches to development can be grouped together under the concept of CED. The article has two main conclusions. First, that CED can be understood as a potential path to Indigenous-defined development and complement to self-determination movements. Second, that online media is a viable option for creating spaces for learning and exchange between Indigenous peoples across national and language borders, with the potential to contribute to the creation of translocal networks.RÉSUMÉCet article analyse un forum en ligne sur les questions autochtones de développement économique communautaire (DEC, où vingt-deux participants du Canada et de l'Amérique latine partagé et réfléchi sur les expériences allant du tourisme culturel en Bolivie à un traitement coopérative alimentaire dans le Nord de la Colombie-Britannique. Le forum a démontré qu'au moins certains des peuples autochtones du Canada et de l'Amérique latine part des valeurs communs qui guident le type de développement qu'ils veulent dans leurs territoires et les communautés, et que leur orientation vers des approches collectives et participatives de développement peuvent être regroupés sous le concept de DEC. L'article a deux principales conclusions. Tout d'abord, que DEC peut être comprise comme une voie potentielle pour les communautés autochtones défini le développement et un complément de mouvements d'autodétermination. Deuxi

  20. Low education levels are associated with early age of sexual debut, drug use and risky sexual behaviours among young Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Bryant, Joanne; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Kaldor, John M; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Ward, James

    2018-02-01

    Background Earlier age at sexual debut is associated with drug and alcohol use, risky sexual behaviours and sexually transmissible infections (STI). In the present study, 2320 young Indigenous Australians were surveyed. Most study participants had sex for the first time when they were 14 years or younger (79% and 67% for males and females respectively). More than 80% of participants were categorised as being in the high-risk category for the combined sexual risk factors (i.e. not using condoms, drunk or high at last sexual act, or three or more sexual partners in the past year). There was a linear decreasing trend between the proportion of males and females who had less than high school education and age at first sex (Ptrendsex education and STI prevention should start early when targeting Indigenous young people, with age-appropriate messages. Sex education should be comprehensive and address individual risk behaviours, sexual agency and societal vulnerability to not only delay sexual debut, but also to emphasise the importance of STI prevention through condom use, which clearly already works to a certain extent with this group.

  1. Impact of policy support on uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement activities and the quality of care for Indigenous Australians: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Ross; Matthews, Veronica; Larkins, Sarah; Thompson, Sandra; Burgess, Paul; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Bailie, Jodie; Cunningham, Frances; Kwedza, Ru; Clark, Louise

    2017-10-05

    To examine the impact of state/territory policy support on (1) uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities and (2) quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Mixed-method comparative case study methodology, drawing on quality-of-care audit data, documentary evidence of policies and strategies and the experience and insights of stakeholders involved in relevant CQI programmes. We use multilevel linear regression to analyse jurisdictional differences in quality of care. Indigenous primary healthcare services across five states/territories of Australia. 175 Indigenous primary healthcare services. A range of national and state/territory policy and infrastructure initiatives to support CQI, including support for applied research. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Trends in the consistent uptake of evidence-based CQI tools available through a research-based CQI initiative (the Audit and Best Practice in Chronic Disease programme) and (ii) quality of care (as reflected in adherence to best practice guidelines). Progressive uptake of evidence-based CQI activities and steady improvements or maintenance of high-quality care occurred where there was long-term policy and infrastructure support for CQI. Where support was provided but not sustained there was a rapid rise and subsequent fall in relevant CQI activities. Health authorities should ensure consistent and sustained policy and infrastructure support for CQI to enable wide-scale and ongoing improvement in quality of care and, subsequently, health outcomes. It is not sufficient for improvement initiatives to rely on local service managers and clinicians, as their efforts are strongly mediated by higher system-level influences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a single annual professional intervention for the prevention of childhood dental caries in a remote rural Indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Ratilal; Kroon, Jeroen; Tut, Ohnmar; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Jamieson, Lisa M; Wallace, Valda; Boase, Robyn; Fernando, Surani; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Scuffham, Paul A; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-08-29

    The aim of the study is to reduce the high prevalence of tooth decay in children in a remote, rural Indigenous community in Australia, by application of a single annual dental preventive intervention. The study seeks to (1) assess the effectiveness of an annual oral health preventive intervention in slowing the incidence of dental caries in children in this community, (2) identify the mediating role of known risk factors for dental caries and (3) assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the intervention. The intervention is novel in that most dental preventive interventions require regular re-application, which is not possible in resource constrained communities. While tooth decay is preventable, self-care and healthy habits are lacking in these communities, placing more emphasis on health services to deliver an effective dental preventive intervention. Importantly, the study will assess cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness for broader implementation across similar communities in Australia and internationally. There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of dental decay in these communities, by implementing effective, cost-effective, feasible and sustainable dental prevention programs. Expected outcomes of this study include improved oral and general health of children within the community; an understanding of the costs associated with the intervention provided, and its comparison with the costs of allowing new lesions to develop, with associated treatment costs. Findings should be generalisable to similar communities around the world. The research is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), registration number ACTRN12615000693527; date of registration: 3rd July 2015.

  3. Review of Indigenous Health Curriculum in Nutrition and Dietetics at One Australian University: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle M.; Mehta, Kaye; Miller, Jacqueline; Yaxley, Alison; Thomas, Jolene; Jackson, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda; Miller, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a review undertaken in 2012-2013 by Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, to assess the Indigenous health curriculum of the Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (BND) and Masters of Nutrition and Dietetics (MND). An action research framework was used to guide and inform inquiry. This involved four stages, each of…

  4. The Indigenous Observation Network: Collaborative, Community-Based Monitoring in the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Mutter, E. A.; Wilson, N. J.; Toohey, R.; Schuster, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Indigenous Observation Network (ION) is a collaborative Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) program with both permafrost and water-quality monitoring components operating in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) of Alaska and Canada. ION is jointly facilitated by the Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council (YRITWC), an indigenous non-profit organization, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), a federal agency. The YRB is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America encompassing 855,000 square kilometers in northwestern Canada and central Alaska and is essential to the ecosystems of the Bering and Chuckchi Seas. Water is also fundamental to the subsistence and culture of the 76 Tribes and First Nations that live in the YRB providing sustenance in the form of drinking water, fish, wildlife, and vegetation. Despite the ecological and cultural significance of the YRB, the remote geography of sub-Arctic and Arctic Alaska and Canada make it difficult to collect scientific data in these locations and led to a lack of baseline data characterizing this system until recently. In response to community concerns about the quality of the YR and a desire by USGS scientists to create a long term water-quality database, the USGS and YRITWC collaborated to create ION in 2005. Surface water samples are collected by trained community technicians from Tribal Environmental Programs or First Nation Lands and Resources staff from over 35 Alaska Native Tribes and First Nations that reside along the YR and/or one of the major tributaries. Samples are analyzed at USGS laboratories in Boulder, CO and results are disseminated to participating YRB communities and the general public. This presentation will focus on the factors that have enabled the longevity and success of this program over the last decade, as well as the strategies ION uses to ensure the credibility of the data collected by community members and best practices that have facilitated the collection of surface water data in remote

  5. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  6. An Open Letter to the Professional Communities of Australian Council for Computers in Education (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an open letter to the Professional Communities of Australian Council for Computers in Education (ACCE). In preparing for this article, the author looked back over the contributions of other fellows in publications and ACCE Minutes, and recognized that each had led the ACCE family in this endeavor. Creating direction was the…

  7. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  8. Australian community members' attitudes toward climate change impacts at the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena J. vanRiper; Gerard Kyle; Jee In Yoon; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This research identified homogenous groups of Australian community members that share similar attitudes toward climate change impacts within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of adult residents living near the GBRWHA (n = 1,623) in order to assess public awareness of climate change, concern about...

  9. Spaces of hope? Youth perspectives on health and wellness in indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lydia; Kamper, David; Swanson, Kate

    2018-03-01

    This article addresses an apparent paradox between academic and policy depictions of American Indian reservations as "broken" and "unhealthy" places, and Indigenous youth perceptions of reservations as spaces of "health" and "wellness." Public health literature often frames reservations as damaged, health-denying places, chronicling the extraordinarily high rates of suicide, substance abuse, as well as vast health disparities. Despite these dire statistics, our research with Native youth in San Diego County found that young people chose to primarily emphasize their positive experiences with, and attachments to, their reservations. In this article, we share strength- and desire-based narratives to explore how reservations can serve as spaces of wellness for Indigenous youth, despite ongoing settler colonial harm. We seek to expand the discussion on the unintended consequences of deficit-centered scholarship by arguing that health research should also engage with the narratives of hope and desire that are reflective of the way many Native youth feel about their communities. In this article, we urge scholars and practitioners to rethink how we conduct health research to include methodologies that listen to the narratives and experiences of those who, day in and day out, navigate settler colonial landscapes, while continuing to create spaces of hope and healing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioethics, culture and infanticide in Brazilian indigenous communities: the Zuruahá case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.

  11. Traditional Knowledge and Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods in the Oraon Tribal Community of Jharkhand: An Exploratory Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail; Magsumbol, Melina S

    2015-01-01

    Traditional knowledge and nutritional value of indigenous foods of the Oraon tribal community in Jharkhand, India was explored. Focus group discussions were conducted with adult members to identify commonly consumed indigenous foods. Taxonomic classification and quantitative estimation of nutritive value were conducted in laboratories or utilized data from Indian food composition database. More than 130 varieties of indigenous foods were identified, many of which were rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A, and folic acid. Some were reported having medicinal properties. Utilization and ease of assimilation of indigenous foods into routine diets can be leveraged to address malnutrition in tribal communities.

  12. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Kemp, Robert; Ward, James; Henderson, Suzanna; Williams, Sidney; Dev, Abhilash; Najman, Jake M

    2016-09-01

    Despite over-representation of Indigenous Australians in sentinel studies of injecting drug use, little is known about relevant patterns of drug use and dependence. This study compares drug dependence and possible contributing factors in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who inject drugs. Respondent-driven sampling was used in major cities and 'peer recruitment' in regional towns of Queensland to obtain a community sample of Indigenous (n = 282) and non-Indigenous (n = 267) injectors. Data are cross sectional. Multinomial models were developed for each group to examine types of dependence on injected drugs (no dependence, methamphetamine-dependent only, opioid-dependent only, dependent on methamphetamine and opioids). Around one-fifth of Indigenous and non-Indigenous injectors were dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids in the previous 12 months. Psychological distress was associated with dual dependence on these drugs for Indigenous [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 4.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08-11.34] and non-Indigenous (ARR 4.14, 95% CI 1.59-10.78) participants. Unemployment (ARR 8.98, 95% CI 2.25-35.82) and repeated (> once) incarceration as an adult (ARR 3.78, 95% CI 1.43-9.97) were associated with dual dependence for Indigenous participants only. Indigenous participants had high rates of alcohol dependence, except for those dependent on opioids only. The drug dependence patterns of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs were similar, including the proportions dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids. However, for Indigenous injectors, there was a stronger association between drug dependence and contextual factors such as unemployment and incarceration. Expansion of treatment options and community-level programs may be required. [Smirnov A, Kemp R, Ward J, Henderson S, Williams S, Dev A, Najman J M. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who

  13. Maternal morbidity and mortality among indigenous people in Bangladesh : a study of the Mru community

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Rakibul

    2010-01-01

    Maternal health of indigenous people is poorer than the non-indigenous people across the world which is also true in the Bangladesh context. However, little research has been done among indigenous people in Bangladesh. As a result, the present study was conducted among the Mru indigenous people to comprehend their maternal health status and the factors associated with it. The study was carried out in three upazilas (administrative sub-districts) namely Alikadam, Lama and Thanchi of the Bandar...

  14. Youth Science Ambassadors: Connecting Indigenous communities with Ocean Networks Canada tools to inspire future ocean scientists and marine resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Hale, C.; McLean, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation describes Ocean Networks Canada's (ONC) Youth Science Ambassador Program. The Youth Science Ambassadors are a growing network of youth in Canadian coastal communities whose role is to connect ocean science, ONC data, and Indigenous knowledge. By directly employing Indigenous youth in communities in which ONC operates monitoring equipment, ONC aims to encourage wider participation and interest in ocean science and exploration. Further, the Youth Science Ambassadors act as role models and mentors to other local youth by highlighting connections between Indigenous and local knowledge and current marine science efforts. Ocean Networks Canada, an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. These include technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories as well as community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia. These observatories, large and small, enable communities, users, scientists, teachers, and students to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment from anywhere on the globe. Youth Science Ambassadors are part of the Learning and Engagement team whose role includes engaging Indigenous communities and schools in ocean science through ONC's K-12 Ocean Sense education program. All of the data collected by ONC are freely available over the Internet for non-profit use, including disaster planning, community-based decision making, and education. The Youth Science Ambassadors support collaboration with Indigenous communities and schools by facilitating educational programming, encouraging participation in ocean data collection and analysis, and fostering interest in ocean science. In addition, the Youth Science Ambassadors support community collaboration in decision-making for instrument deployment locations and identify ways in which ONC can help to address any areas of concern raised by the community. This

  15. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Thaochan; Richard A.I. Drew; Anuchit Chinajariyawong; Anurag Sunpapao; Chaninun Pornsuriya

    2015-01-01

    The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria w...

  16. Extending Business Education beyond Traditional Boundaries: A Case Study in Negotiated Problem Resolution in a Remote Regional Indigenous Community in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Cecil A. L.; Chatterjee, Samir Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the concepts and practices of management can only be of benefit when they are anchored to the contextual architecture of people, processes, structures, and technologies. The challenge of establishing a bridging program for providing managerial competencies to Australian Indigenous people has become a serious one for…

  17. Invasion of Sargassum muticum in Limfjorden (Denmark) and its possible impact on the indigenous macroalgal community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Pedersen, Morten F.; Thomsen, Mads S.

    2000-01-01

    community structure that were closely related to the increased abundance of S. muticum. Not only did the dominance of S. muticum increase significantly from 1990 to 1997, but the cover of several indigenous species belonging to the genera Laminaria, Fucus, and Codium decreased during the same period...

  18. "It Felt Like Violence": Indigenous Knowledge Traditions and the Postcolonial Ethics of Academic Inquiry and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2017-12-01

    In a 2014 presentation at an academic conference featuring an American Indian community audience, I critically engaged the assumptions and commitments of Indigenous Research Methodologies. These methodologies have been described as approaches and procedures for conducting research that stem from long-subjugated Indigenous epistemologies (or "ways of knowing"). In my presentation, I described a Crow Indian religious tradition known as a skull medicine as an example of an indigenous way of knowing, referring to a historical photograph of a skull medicine bundle depicted on an accompanying slide. This occasioned consternation among many in attendance, some of whom later asserted that it was unethical for me to have presented this information because of Indigenous cultural proscriptions against publicizing sacred knowledge and photographing sacred objects. This ethical challenge depends on enduring religious sensibilities in Northern Plains Indian communities, as embedded within a postcolonial political critique concerning the accession of sacred objects by Euro-American collectors during the early 20th century. I complicate these ethical claims by considering competing goods that are valued by community psychologists, ultimately acknowledging that the associated ethical challenge resists resolution in terms that would be acceptable to diverse constituencies. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  19. Ethnobotany of Indigenous Saraguros: Medicinal Plants Used by Community Healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers.

  20. Ethnobotany of Indigenous Saraguros: Medicinal Plants Used by Community Healers "Hampiyachakkuna" in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, José M; Lucero Mosquera, Hernán; Armijos, Chabaco

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers "Hampiyachakkuna" in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers.

  1. Sharing Place, Learning Together: Perspectives and Reflections on an Educational Partnership Formation with a Remote Indigenous Community School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Sally Caroline; Woolley, Marilyn; Webb, Jessie; Winkel, Kenneth Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable partnership formation in a remote Indigenous community involves social, cultural and political considerations. This article reports on the project, "Sharing Place, Learning Together: Supporting Sustainable Educational Partnerships to Advance Social Equity," funded by the Melbourne Social Equity Institute (MSEI) at the…

  2. The prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in the Australian National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Foreman, Joshua; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) is a population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. An eye was considered to have vision loss due to trauma if the best-corrected visual acuity was worse than 6/12 and the main cause was attributed to ocular trauma. This determination was made by two independent ophthalmologists and any disagreements were adjudicated by a third senior ophthalmologist. The sampling weight adjusted prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and over was 0.24% (95%CI: 0.10, 0.52) and 0.79% (95%CI: 0.56, 1.13), respectively. Trauma was attributed as an underlying cause of bilateral vision loss in one Indigenous participant, with all other cases being monocular. Males displayed a higher prevalence of vision loss from ocular trauma than females in both the non-Indigenous (0.47% vs. 1.25%, p=0.03) and Indigenous populations (0.12% vs. 0.38%, p=0.02). After multivariate adjustments, residing in Very Remote geographical areas was associated with higher odds of vision loss from ocular trauma. We estimate that 2.4 per 1000 non-Indigenous and 7.9 per 1000 Indigenous Australian adults have monocular vision loss due to a previous severe ocular trauma. Our findings indicate that males, Indigenous Australians and those residing in Very Remote communities may benefit from targeted health promotion to improve awareness of trauma prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradation of bilge waste from Patagonia with an indigenous microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Olivera, N L; Esteves, J L; Bucalá, V

    2006-12-01

    Oily residues that are generated in normal ship operation are considered hazardous wastes. A biodegradation assay with autochthonous microbiota of Bilge Waste Oily Phase (BWOP) was performed in a bioreactor under controlled conditions. Petroleum, diesel oil, and PAH degraders were isolated from bilge wastes. These bacteria belong to the genus Pseudomonas and are closely related to Pseudomonas stutzeri as shown by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. The indigenous microbial community of the bilge waste was capable of biodegrading the BWOP (1% v/v) with biodegradation efficiencies of 70% for hexane extractable material (HEM), 68% for total hydrocarbons (TH) and 90% for total aromatics hydrocarbons (TA) in 14 days. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was successfully applied to evaluate hydrocarbon evaporation in a control experiment and demonstrated a mass balance closure of 88%. The SPME and biodegradation results give useful information to improve and scale up the process for BWOP treatment.

  4. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Krenak indigenous community, Resplendor, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, Eloiza Gonçalves; Malacco, Marcos Aurélio Fulgêncio; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Moreira, Eliana Furtado; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Pena, João Luiz; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins

    2011-03-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the local canine population in the Krenak indigenous community to detect parasites of the genus Leishmania and identify the circulating species and the proportion of asymptomatic dogs, while investigating associations between canine infection and the dogs' sex, age, and hair length. A seroepidemiological survey was performed, including 63 dogs. All the animals underwent clinical examination to verify the presence of characteristic signs, and serum samples were taken for serological tests (ELISA, IIF). Infected dogs culled by the health service were necropsied and the material was analyzed using molecular diagnostic techniques. The cross-sectional study detected a 46% prevalence rate, and the circulating species was Leishmania (L.) chagasi. The statistical analysis showed no association between infection and the independent variables. The study generated data on the epidemiological situation with canine infection in the area, which was previously unknown.

  5. The genus Eurotium - members of indigenous fungal community in hypersaline waters of salterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butinar, Lorena; Zalar, Polona; Frisvad, Jens C; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2005-01-01

    Six different species of the known teleomorphic food-borne xerophilic genus Eurotium were repeatedly isolated in a mycodiversity study of hypersaline waters. At salinities above 17% NaCl, E. amstelodami was detected most consistently, followed by E. repens and E. herbariorum, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and a potentially new species, "Eurotium halotolerans", were detected only occasionally at lower salinities. The qualitative secondary metabolite profiles produced by Eurotium spp. from salterns were not different from those of Eurotium spp. from foods and other habitats. Spatiotemporal frequency of occurrence and in vitro determined adaptive ability of propagules to survive prolonged exposure to hypersaline conditions indicate that E. amstelodami, E. herbariorum, and E. repens contribute to the indigenous fungal community in hypersaline water environments, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and "E. halotolerans" are only temporal inhabitants of brine at lower salinities.

  6. SOCIAL LEARNING IN POLITICAL CONSTRAST: GOVERNMENTAL RESISTANCE OR DEPENDENCY OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gallardo-Olimón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a broad conceptual discussion on processes of Social Learning (SL as the driving force of territorial management processes. Similarly, there has been a discussion on the role of the government and its implications on groups of territorial action. However, there are no studies that deal with SL in indigenous communities with the same ethnic roots but with a contrasting relation with the government and its institutionality. The present work takes on this comparison within the framework of cultural control in order to explain the course of their processes of development and territorial management. While one group shows goals towards education and spirituality, the other reveals technical and productive interests. Nevertheless, both processes exhibit a trajectory towards a culture of appropriation and self-management, against internal and external pressures. In this sense, we bring to light different local possibilities that replace the unfullfilness and backwardness of the centralized government.

  7. Stores Healthy Options Project in Remote Indigenous Communities (SHOP@RIC): a protocol of a randomised trial promoting healthy food and beverage purchases through price discounts and in-store nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Ferguson, Megan; Liberato, Selma C; Ball, Kylie; Moodie, Marjory L; Magnus, Anne; Miles, Edward; Leach, Amanda J; Chatfield, Mark D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; O'Dea, Kerin; Bailie, Ross S

    2013-08-12

    Indigenous Australians suffer a disproportionate burden of preventable chronic disease compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts--much of it diet-related. Increasing fruit and vegetable intakes and reducing sugar-sweetened soft-drink consumption can reduce the risk of preventable chronic disease. There is evidence from some general population studies that subsidising healthier foods can modify dietary behaviour. There is little such evidence relating specifically to socio-economically disadvantaged populations, even though dietary behaviour in such populations is arguably more likely to be susceptible to such interventions.This study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of a price discount intervention with or without an in-store nutrition education intervention on purchases of fruit, vegetables, water and diet soft-drinks among remote Indigenous communities. We will utilise a randomised multiple baseline (stepped wedge) design involving 20 communities in remote Indigenous Australia. The study will be conducted in partnership with two store associations and twenty Indigenous store boards. Communities will be randomised to either i) a 20% price discount on fruit, vegetables, water and diet soft-drinks; or ii) a combined price discount and in-store nutrition education strategy. These interventions will be initiated, at one of five possible time-points, spaced two-months apart. Weekly point-of-sale data will be collected from each community store before, during, and for six months after the six-month intervention period to measure impact on purchasing of discounted food and drinks. Data on physical, social and economic factors influencing weekly store sales will be collected in order to identify important covariates. Intervention fidelity and mediators of behaviour change will also be assessed. This study will provide original evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of price discounts with or without an in-store nutrition education

  8. HIV and syphilis in the context of community vulnerability among indigenous people in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Sabidó, Meritxell; Brito, Ivo; Bermúdez, Ximena Pamela Díaz; Benzaken, Nina Schwartz; Galbán, Enrique; Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David

    2017-06-05

    Contextual factors shape the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. We estimated the prevalence of both infections among indigenous people in nine indigenous health districts of the Brazilian Amazon and examined the context of community vulnerability to acquiring these infections. We trained 509 health care workers to screen sexually active populations in the community for syphilis and HIV using rapid testing (RT). We then assessed the prevalence of HIV and syphilis using RT. A multivariable analysis was used to identify factors associated with syphilis infection (sociodemographic, condom use, intrusion, population mobility, and violence). Of the 45,967 indigenous people tested, the mean age was 22.5 years (standard deviation: 9.2), and 56.5% were female. Overall, for HIV, the prevalence was 0.13% (57/43,221), and for syphilis, the prevalence was 1.82% (745/40,934). The prevalence in men, women, and pregnant women for HIV was 0.16%, 0.11%, and 0.07%, respectively, and for syphilis, it was 2.23%, 1.51%, and 1.52%, respectively. The district Vale do Javari had the highest prevalence of both infections (HIV: 3.38%, syphilis: 1.39%). This district also had the highest population mobility and intrusion and the lowest availability of prenatal services. Syphilis infection was independently associated with age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.05), male sex (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.14-1.52), and mobility (moderate: OR: 7.46, 95% CI: 2.69-20.67; high: OR 7.09, 95% CI: 3.79-13.26). The large-scale integration of RT in remote areas increased case detection among pregnant women, especially for syphilis, in districts with higher vulnerability. Mobility is an important risk factor, especially in districts with higher vulnerability. Contextually appropriate approaches that address this factor could contribute to the long-term success of HIV and syphilis control programs.

  9. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  10. Healthy Native Community Fellowship: An Indigenous Leadership Program to Enhance Community Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rae

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Native Communities Fellowship (HNCF is a grassroots evidence-based mentorship and leadership program that develops the skills and community-building capacities of leaders and community teams to improve health status through several intermediate social and cultural mechanisms: (a strengthening social participation (also known as social capital or cohesion; (b strengthening cultural connectedness and revitalization of cultural identity; and (c advocating for health-enhancing policies, practices, and programs that strengthen systems of prevention and care, as well as address the structural social determinants of health. This leadership program uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR approach and participatory evaluation to investigate how the work of local American Indian and Alaska Native leaders (fellows and their community coalitions contributes to individual, family, and community level health outcomes.

  11. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  12. Indigenous cultural contexts for STEM experiences: snow snakes' impact on students and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brant G.; Roehrig, Gillian

    2018-03-01

    Opportunities for American Indian youth to meaningfully engage in school-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences have historically been inadequate. As a consequence, American Indian students perform lower on standardized assessments of science education than their peers. In this article we describe the emergence of meaning for students—as well as their community—resulting from Indigenous culturally-based STEM curriculum that used an American Indian tradition as a focal context. Specifically, the game of snow snakes ( Gooneginebig in Ojibwe) afforded an opportunity for STEM and culturally-based resources to work in unison. A case study research design was used with the bounded case represented by the community associated with the snow snake project. The research question guiding this study was: What forms of culturally relevant meaning do students and the community form as a result of the snow snake game? Results indicate evidence of increased student and community engagement through culturally-based STEM experiences in the form of active participation and the rejuvenation of a traditional game. Implications are discussed for using culturally-based contexts for STEM learning.

  13. Epidemiologic transition in an isolated indigenous community in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Little, Bertis B

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze age-specific mortality in a rural indigenous community in the throes of a secular increase in size in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico, over 30 years, 1970-1999. Variation in mortality by age group was analyzed over time for evidence of an epidemiological transition. The seasonal rain pattern in the Valley of Oaxaca (83% from May through September) was evaluated for its relationship with mortality in wet and dry months. Mortality and causes of death changed markedly over the 30-year interval. Infant and preschool mortality, overall mortality, and causes of death changed from the 1970s through the 1990s. Prereproductive deaths (<15 years) predominated in the 1970s and were largely due to gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, with periodic outbreaks of measles. Deaths of adults 65+ years predominated in the 1990s and were largely due to degenerative diseases usually associated with aging. The marked changes in age and causes of death over the three decades (epidemiologic transition from Stage I to Stage II) occurred concurrently with significant secular increases in body size in children, adolescents, and young adults, highlighting improved health and nutritional conditions in the community which is in early Stage II of the demographic transition. The demographic transition to Stage II is a leading indicator (15-25 years lag) for the onset of the secular trend, while the epidemiologic transition to Stage II is a predictor that the secular increase is in process in the study community.

  14. Indigenous cultural contexts for STEM experiences: snow snakes' impact on students and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brant G.; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-09-01

    Opportunities for American Indian youth to meaningfully engage in school-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences have historically been inadequate. As a consequence, American Indian students perform lower on standardized assessments of science education than their peers. In this article we describe the emergence of meaning for students—as well as their community—resulting from Indigenous culturally-based STEM curriculum that used an American Indian tradition as a focal context. Specifically, the game of snow snakes (Gooneginebig in Ojibwe) afforded an opportunity for STEM and culturally-based resources to work in unison. A case study research design was used with the bounded case represented by the community associated with the snow snake project. The research question guiding this study was: What forms of culturally relevant meaning do students and the community form as a result of the snow snake game? Results indicate evidence of increased student and community engagement through culturally-based STEM experiences in the form of active participation and the rejuvenation of a traditional game. Implications are discussed for using culturally-based contexts for STEM learning.

  15. Seroprevalence and sources of toxoplasmosis among Orang Asli (indigenous) communities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Amir, Noor Farah Hani; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Mahmud, Rohela

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75-4.04, P < 0.001), using untreated river and mountain water supplies (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01-2.40, P = 0.050), and close proximity with cats (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10-1.76, P = 0.010) were factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among these communities who live in poor socioeconomic conditions, a comprehensive health surveillance program and screening should be initiated among women of childbearing age and pregnant women during the antenatal period for early diagnosis and treatment. The role of domestic cats and environmental contamination with oocyst in soil and water has to be highlighted and addressed in future prevention strategies for these communities.

  16. Imagining the Good Indigenous Citizen: Race War and the Pathology of Patriarchal White Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Moreton-Robinson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In June 2007, the Australian federal government sent military and policy into Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory on the premise that sexual abuse of children was rampant and a national crisis. This article draws on Foucault’s work on sovereignty and rights to argue that patriarchal white sovereignty as a regime of power deploys a discourse of pathology in the exercising of sovereign right to subjugate and discipline Indigenous people as good citizens.

  17. Mental health literacy among refugee communities: differences between the Australian lay public and the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.

  18. Rotavirus and the indigenous children of the Australian outback: monovalent vaccine effective in a high-burden setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Thomas L; Schultz, Rosalie; Graham, Julie; Roseby, Robert; Barnes, Graeme L; Andrews, Ross M; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2009-08-01

    Indigenous children living in arid Central Australia experience frequent outbreaks of rotavirus gastroenteritis. A widespread outbreak of G9 rotavirus infection occurred several months after introduction of the RIX4414 rotavirus vaccine. We performed a retrospective case-control study to determine vaccine efficacy during the outbreak. Two doses provided an estimated vaccine efficacy of 77.7% (95% confidence interval, 40.2%-91.7%) against hospitalization for gastroenteritis. Vaccine efficacy was 84.5% (95% confidence interval, 23.4%-96.9%) against confirmed cases of rotavirus infection. Vaccination was effective in this high-burden setting.

  19. Indigenous health organizations in Australia: connections and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Juan I; Lewis, Jenny M

    2010-01-01

    The health of Aboriginal people is significantly worse than that of the rest of the Australian population. Aboriginal community-controlled health organizations live with uncertainty in terms of funding, and the amount of money spent on indigenous people through mainstream health services is less than that spent on the non-indigenous population, especially when the different needs of these two groups are taken into account. The Aboriginal population is small and widely dispersed, causing problems for policy and funding. This article provides an analysis of the network of health organizations in Victoria, with a specific focus on indigenous health, and analyzes the connections between mainstream and indigenous-specific health services. The research approach involved semi-structured interviews with informants from a range of health organizations within the state. This research illustrates the importance of Aboriginal community-controlled health organizations to the indigenous community. There is evidence that connections between the indigenous and mainstream health systems need to be further developed and strengthened to provide the indigenous population with a high-quality, culturally sensitive, and comprehensive health service.

  20. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  1. Body Image and Obesity among Australian Adolescents from Indigenous and Anglo-European Backgrounds: Implications for Health Promotion and Obesity Prevention among Aboriginal Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Renata Leah; O'Dea, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between body image and obesity, among 4367 indigenous and Anglo-European adolescents in Australia in 2006. It shows that indigenous adolescents, male and female, were more likely than their non-indigenous counterparts to desire and pursue weight gain. Indigenous males showed the greatest tendencies to gain…

  2. The British Educational Policy for the Indigenous Community in Malaya 1870-1957: Dualistic Structure, Colonial Interests and Malay Radical Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the educational policy implemented by the British for the Malays, the indigenous community of Malaya. Underpinned by the policy of divide and rule, the British implemented a dualistic system of education for the indigenous Malays: one for the Malay peasantry and another for the Malay nobility. The two systems of education…

  3. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities. PMID:25366301

  4. The comparative cost of food and beverages at remote Indigenous communities, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; Chatfield, Mark; Moodie, Marjory; Altman, Jon; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To determine the average price difference between foods and beverages in remote Indigenous community stores and capital city supermarkets and explore differences across products. A cross-sectional survey compared prices derived from point-of-sale data in 20 remote Northern Territory stores with supermarkets in capital cities of the Northern Territory and South Australia for groceries commonly purchased in remote stores. Average price differences for products, supply categories and food groups were examined. The 443 products examined represented 63% of food and beverage expenditure in remote stores. Remote products were, on average, 60% and 68% more expensive than advertised prices for Darwin and Adelaide supermarkets, respectively. The average price difference for fresh products was half that of packaged groceries for Darwin supermarkets and more than 50% for food groups that contributed most to purchasing. Strategies employed by manufacturers and supermarkets, such as promotional pricing, and supermarkets' generic products lead to lower prices. These opportunities are not equally available to remote customers and are a major driver of price disparity. Food affordability for already disadvantaged residents of remote communities could be improved by policies targeted at manufacturers, wholesalers and/or major supermarket chains. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous communities in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari

    2014-11-04

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤ 12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities.

  6. How does the media portray drinking water security in Indigenous communities in Canada? An analysis of Canadian newspaper coverage from 2000-2015

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    Steven Lam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking water insecurity and related health outcomes often disproportionately impact Indigenous communities internationally. Understanding media coverage of these water-related issues can provide insight into the ways in which public perceptions are shaped, with potential implications for decision-making and action. This study aimed to examine the extent, range, and nature of newspaper coverage of drinking water security in Canadian Indigenous communities. Methods Using ProQuest database, we systematically searched for and screened newspaper articles published from 2000 to 2015 from Canadian newspapers: Windspeaker, Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post. We conducted descriptive quantitative analysis and thematic qualitative analysis on relevant articles to characterize framing and trends in coverage. Results A total of 1382 articles were returned in the search, of which 256 articles were identified as relevant. There was limited coverage of water challenges for Canadian Indigenous communities, especially for Métis (5% and Inuit (3% communities. Most stories focused on government responses to water-related issues, and less often covered preventative measures such as source water protection. Overall, Indigenous peoples were quoted the most often. Double-standards of water quality between Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, along with conflict and cooperation efforts between stakeholders were emphasized in many articles. Conclusion Limited media coverage could undermine public and stakeholder interest in addressing water-related issues faced by many Canadian Indigenous communities.

  7. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.

  8. Alcohol control policies in Indigenous communities: A qualitative study of the perceptions of their effectiveness among service providers, stakeholders and community leaders in Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Margolis, Stephen A; Miller, Adrian; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; McDermott, Robyn; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Towle, Simon; Martin, David; Ypinazar, Valmae; Robertson, Jan A; Fitts, Michelle S; Bird, Katrina; Honorato, Bronwyn; West, Caryn

    2016-10-01

    Favourable impacts are reported from complex alcohol control strategies, known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) implemented 14 years ago in 19 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Queensland (Australia). However, it is not clear that all communities benefited and that positive impacts were sustained. Service providers, key stakeholders and community leaders provided insights about issues and impacts. Participants (N=382) were recruited from knowledgeable and experienced persons using agency lists and by recommendation across sectors which have a mandate for managing alcohol-related issues and consequences of AMP policies in communities. In semi-structured interviews, participants (51% Indigenous, 55% male and comprised of at least one-third local community residents) were asked whether they believed alcohol controls had been effective and to describe any favourable and unfavourable outcomes experienced or perceived. Inductive techniques were used for thematic analysis of the content of transcribed recorded interviews. Comments reflecting themes were assessed across service sectors, by gender, Indigenous status and remoteness. Participants attributed reduced violence and improved community amenity to AMPs, particularly for 'very remote' communities. Participants' information suggests that these important achievements happened abruptly but may have become undermined over time by: the availability of illicit alcohol and an urgency to consume it; migration to larger centres to seek alcohol; criminalization; substitution of illicit drugs for alcohol; changed drinking behaviours and discrimination. Most issues were more frequently linked with 'very remote' communities. Alcohol restrictions in Queensland's Indigenous communities may have brought favourable changes, a significant achievement after a long period of poorly regulated alcohol availability from the 1980s up to 2002. Subsequently, over the past decade, an urgency to access and

  9. Injuries in community-level Australian football: Results from a club-based injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-11-01

    Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changing times, changing stories: Generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Matkin, Elli; Laituri, Melinda J.; Toohey, Ryan C; Massey, Maggie; Elder, Kelly; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation research; however, the cultural dimensions of climate change are equally important because cultural dimensions inform perceptions of risk. Furthermore, many Arctic and Subarctic IK climate change studies document observations of change and knowledge of the elders and older generations in a community, but few include the perspectives of the younger population. These observations by elders and older generations form a historical baseline record of weather and climate observations in these regions. However, many indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities are composed of primarily younger residents. We focused on the differences in the cultural dimensions of climate change found between young adults and elders. We outlined the findings from interviews conducted in four indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska. The findings revealed that (1) intergenerational observations of change were common among interview participants in all four communities, (2) older generations observed more overall change than younger generations interviewed by us, and (3) how change was perceived varied between generations. We defined “observations” as the specific examples of environmental and weather change that were described, whereas “perceptions” referred to the manner in which these observations of change were understood and contextualized by the interview participants. Understanding the differences in generational observations and perceptions of change are key issues in the development of climate change adaptation strategies.

  11. Shifts in indigenous microbial communities during the anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in upland and paddy soils from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yating; Tao, Liang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Yongkui

    2016-11-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common persistent pesticide in soil that has generated a significant environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, anaerobic degradation of PCP by the soil indigenous microbial community has gained increasing attention. However, little information is available concerning the functional microorganisms and the potential shifts in the microbial community associated with PCP degradation. In this study, we conducted a set of experiments to determine which components of the indigenous microbial community were capable of degrading PCP in soils of two land use types (upland and paddy soils) in southern China. Our results showed that the PCP degradation rate was significantly higher in paddy soils than that in upland soils. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) high-throughput sequencing revealed significant differences in microbial taxonomic composition between the soil with PCP and blank (soil without PCP) with Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Coprococcus, Oxobacter, and Sedimentibacter dominating the PCP-affected communities. Acinetobacter was also apparently enriched in the paddy soils with PCP (up to 52.2 %) indicated this genus is likely to play an important role in PCP degradation. Additionally, the Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Clostridium may also be involved in PCP degradation. Our data further revealed hitherto unknown metabolisms of potential PCP degradation by microorganisms including Coprococcus, Oxobacter, and Ruminiclostridium. Overall, these findings indicated that land use types may affect the PCP anaerobic degradation rate via the activities of indigenous bacterial populations and extend our knowledge of the bacterial populations responsible for PCP degradation.

  12. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Faruque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF, Use Value (UV, Frequency of Citation (FC, Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC and Relative Importance Index (RI. The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI. A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28% whereas pastes (63.03% were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species and the Lamiaceae (12 species. The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43, Zingiber officinale (0.41, Congea tomentosa (0.40, Matricaria chamomilla (0.33 and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28. The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25. The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83. Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  13. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Mohammad O.; Uddin, Shaikh B.; Barlow, James W.; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Importance Index (RI). The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI). A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28%) whereas pastes (63.03%) were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species) and the Lamiaceae (12 species). The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43), Zingiber officinale (0.41), Congea tomentosa (0.40), Matricaria chamomilla (0.33) and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28). The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25). The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83). Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  14. Implementation of oral health initiatives by Australian rural communities: Factors for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Judy; Carlisle, Karen; Farmer, Jane; Larkins, Sarah; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we consider factors significant in the success of community participation in the implementation of new oral health services. Our analysis draws on data from the Rural Engaging Communities in Oral Health (Rural ECOH) study (2014-2016). We aimed to assess the Australian relevance of a Scottish community participation framework for health service development; Remote Service Futures. Internationally, community participation in planning of health initiatives is common, but less common in new service implementation. Health managers query the legitimacy of "lay" community members, whether they will persist, and whether they can act as change agents. Our data provide evidence that helps answer these queries. Six communities, located within regions covered by two large rural primary healthcare organisations (Medicare Locals), were selected in two Australian states. Two university-based facilitators worked with a group of local residents (for each community) to monitor implementation of new oral health initiatives designed through participatory processes. Data about implementation were collected through interviews with 28 key stakeholders at the beginning of implementation and 12 months later. Data were coded, themed and analysed abductively. Five themes emerged; the inter-relationship between community motivation to participate with the fortunes of the oral health initiatives, having the "right" people involved, continuing involvement of sponsors and/or significant people, trusting working relationships between participants and perceiving benefits from participation. Findings provide evidence of a role for community participation in implementing new community services if solid partnerships with relevant providers can be negotiated and services are seen to be relevant and useful to the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Community-based preparedness programmes and the 2009 Australian bushfires: policy implications derived from applying theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  16. Elder women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health: a constructivist grounded-theory study with an Indigenous community in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sujane; Vanstone, Meredith; Oremus, Mark; Hill, Trista; Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Davis, A Darlene; Jacobs, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; Anand, Sonia Savitri

    2017-05-18

    Women play important roles in translating health knowledge, particularly around pregnancy and birth, in Indigenous societies. We investigated elder Indigenous women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health. Using a methodological framework that integrated a constructivist grounded-theory approach with an Indigenous epistemology, we conducted and analyzed in-depth interviews and focus groups with women from the Six Nations community in southern Ontario who self-identified as grandmothers. Our purposive sampling strategy was guided by a Six Nations advisory group and included researcher participation in a variety of local gatherings as well as personalized invitations to specific women, either face-to-face or via telephone. Three focus groups and 7 individual interviews were conducted with 18 grandmothers. The participants' experiences converged on 3 primary beliefs: pregnancy is a natural phase, pregnancy is a sacred period for the woman and the unborn child, and the requirements of immunity, security (trust), comfort, social development and parental responsibility are necessary for optimal postnatal health. Participants also identified 6 communal responsibilities necessary for families to raise healthy children: access to healthy and safe food, assurance of strong social support networks for mothers, access to resources for postnatal support, increased opportunities for children to participate in physical activity, more teachings around the impact of maternal behaviours during pregnancy and more teachings around spirituality/positive thinking. We also worked with the Six Nations community on several integrated knowledge-translation elements, including collaboration with an Indigenous artist to develop a digital story (short film). Elder women are a trusted and knowledgeable group who are able to understand and incorporate multiple sources of knowledge and deliver it in culturally meaningful ways. Thus, tailoring public health programming to include elder women

  17. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    , and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...... building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...

  18. Religious Relationships with the Environment in a Tibetan Rural Community: Interactions and Contrasts with Popular Notions of Indigenous Environmentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Emily; Mills, Martin A.; McGowan, Philip J. K.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Representations of Green Tibetans connected to Buddhism and indigenous wisdom have been deployed by a variety of actors and persist in popular consciousness. Through interviews, participatory mapping and observation, we explored how these ideas relate to people's notions about the natural environment in a rural community on the Eastern Tibetan plateau, in Sichuan Province, China. We found people to be orienting themselves towards the environment by means of three interlinked religious notions...

  19. Feasibility and costs of water fluoridation in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Jonathon P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Methods Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. Results The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US11,800 per unit. Conclusion Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should

  20. Feasibility and costs of water fluoridation in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Jonathon P; Bailie, Ross

    2007-06-08

    Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US 94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US 11,800 per unit. Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should be considered as a potential priority component of health related

  1. Traditional knowledge on herbal drinks among indigenous communities in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Neelam; Gbedomon, Rodrigue Castro; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Salako, Valère Kolawolé; Zafar, Muhammad; Malik, Khafsa

    2018-02-21

    species in the present work. The diversity of medicinal plant species used as HDs and the associated traditional knowledge are of considerable value to the indigenous communities of the Azad Kashmir region. Therefore, there is a need for conservation and preservation of medicinal HD species as well as the wealth of indigenous knowledge. The conservation effort should be high for species in the ailments categories glandular disorders and eye diseases. The therapeutic uses of HDs have provided basic data for further research focused on phytochemical and pharmacological studies and conservation of the most important species.

  2. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Community from Traditional Istrian Ewe's Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the diversity of indigenous cultivable community of the lactobacilli associated with the production of traditional Istrian cheese and to get a collection of well characterized strains. Raw milk and cheese samples were collected from three different farms in Istria during ripening. A total of 212 mesophilic and thermophilic Lactobacillus isolates as well as bulk colonies (consortia were investigated using culture-dependent approach combining phenotyping and genotyping. Biochemical fingerprinting with PhenePlate-LB system preliminary grouped 212 isolates in 16 distinct PhP types. Only one representative isolate from each PhP cluster was further analyzed by genotyping for a reliable identification at the genus and species level by employing PCR techniques and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed the presence of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Lactobacilli were screened for possible resistance against seven selected antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, rifampin, clindamycin, erythromycin and vancomycin. Although there was no clear pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility to most tested antibiotics, all representative isolates were resistant to vancomycin. The analysis of bulk colonies by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE identified Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis as predominant members of Lactobacillus population. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Streptococcus sp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were also detected as part of the analysed consortia. The prevalence of identified species and community members of lactobacilli agrees with other studies of raw milk cheese and represents a useful base for further selection.

  3. The Imperative for Research to Promote Health Equity in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Linda R; Swaim, Randall C; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Kelly, Kathleen J; Belcourt, Annie; Allen, James

    2017-11-06

    Health disparities exact a devastating toll upon Indigenous people in the USA. However, there has been scant research investment to develop strategies to address these inequities in Indigenous health. We present a case for increased health promotion, prevention, and treatment research with Indigenous populations, providing context to the recent NIH investment in the Intervention Research to Improve Native American Health (IRINAH) network. We discuss the disproportionate costs and consequences of disparities borne by Indigenous groups, the limited evidence base on effective intervention for this population, how population uniqueness often makes transfer of existing intervention models difficult, and additional challenges in creating interventions for Indigenous settings. Given the history of colonial disruption that has included genocide, forced removal from lands, damaging federal, state and local policies and practices, environmental contamination, and most recently, climate change, we conclude research that moves beyond minor transformations of existing majority population focused interventions, but instead truly respects Indigenous wisdom, knowledge, traditions, and aspirations is needed, and that investment in intervention science to address Indigenous health disparities represent a moral imperative.

  4. Promoting physical activity among children and youth in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative community sport opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard

    2016-02-29

    Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts. Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers. Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites. Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities. So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.

  5. The quality of Indigenous identification in administrative health data in Australia: insights from studies using data linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Missing or incorrect Indigenous status in health records hinders monitoring of Indigenous health indicators. Linkage of administrative data has been used to improve the ascertainment of Indigenous status. Data linkage was pioneered in Western Australia (WA) and is now being used in other Australian states. This systematic review appraises peer-reviewed Australian studies that used data linkage to elucidate the impact of under-ascertainment of Indigenous status on health indicators. Methods A PubMed search identified eligible studies that used Australian linked data to interrogate Indigenous identification using more than one identifier and interrogated the impact of the different identifiers on estimation of Indigenous health indicators. Results Eight papers were included, five from WA and three from New South Wales (NSW). The WA papers included a self-identified Indigenous community cohort and showed improved identification in hospital separation data after 2000. In CVD hospitalised patients (2000–05), under-identification was greater in urban residents, older people and socially more advantaged Indigenous people, with varying algorithms giving different estimates of under-count. Age-standardised myocardial infarction incidence rates (2000–2004) increased by about 10%-15% with improved identification. Under-ascertainment of Indigenous identification overestimated secular improvements in life expectancy and mortality whereas correcting infectious disease notifications resulted in lower Indigenous/ non-Indigenous rate ratios. NSW has a history of poor Indigenous identification in administrative data systems, but the NSW papers confirmed the usefulness of data linkage for improving Indigenous identification and the potential for very different estimates of Indigenous disease indicators depending upon the algorithm used for identification. Conclusions Under-identification of Indigenous status must be addressed in health analyses concerning Indigenous

  6. The quality of Indigenous identification in administrative health data in Australia: insights from studies using data linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sandra C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing or incorrect Indigenous status in health records hinders monitoring of Indigenous health indicators. Linkage of administrative data has been used to improve the ascertainment of Indigenous status. Data linkage was pioneered in Western Australia (WA and is now being used in other Australian states. This systematic review appraises peer-reviewed Australian studies that used data linkage to elucidate the impact of under-ascertainment of Indigenous status on health indicators. Methods A PubMed search identified eligible studies that used Australian linked data to interrogate Indigenous identification using more than one identifier and interrogated the impact of the different identifiers on estimation of Indigenous health indicators. Results Eight papers were included, five from WA and three from New South Wales (NSW. The WA papers included a self-identified Indigenous community cohort and showed improved identification in hospital separation data after 2000. In CVD hospitalised patients (2000–05, under-identification was greater in urban residents, older people and socially more advantaged Indigenous people, with varying algorithms giving different estimates of under-count. Age-standardised myocardial infarction incidence rates (2000–2004 increased by about 10%-15% with improved identification. Under-ascertainment of Indigenous identification overestimated secular improvements in life expectancy and mortality whereas correcting infectious disease notifications resulted in lower Indigenous/ non-Indigenous rate ratios. NSW has a history of poor Indigenous identification in administrative data systems, but the NSW papers confirmed the usefulness of data linkage for improving Indigenous identification and the potential for very different estimates of Indigenous disease indicators depending upon the algorithm used for identification. Conclusions Under-identification of Indigenous status must be addressed in health analyses

  7. Evaluation of home lead remediation in an Australian mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, F; Lesjak, M; Lyle, D

    2009-12-20

    In 1994 a comprehensive program was established to reduce children's blood lead levels in Broken Hill, NSW, Australia. Home remediation (abatement of lead hazards in a child's home) was included as part of a case management strategy for children with blood lead levels >or=15 microg/dL. Children with blood lead levels >or=30 microg/dL were offered immediate home remediation. Children with blood lead levels of 15-29 microg/dL were allocated to 'immediate' or 'delayed' home remediation; a subset of these participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of home remediation for reducing blood lead levels. One hundred and seventeen children received home remediation. One hundred and thirteen returned for follow-up blood tests, 88 of whom participated in the RCT. On average children's blood lead levels decreased by 1.7 microg/dL (10%) in the 6 months after remediation and by 2.2 microg/dL (13%) in the 6-12 months after remediation. However, remediation did not significantly change the rate of decline in blood lead levels (P=0.609). There was no evidence of association between change in children's blood lead levels and changes in lead loading in their homes. The results are consistent with the published literature, which suggests that home remediation does not reduce children's exposure to lead sufficiently to cause a moderate or greater decrease in their blood lead level. In communities where lead is widely dispersed, the study suggests that it is important to assess potential sources and pathways by which children are exposed to lead when developing an intervention plan, and the need for multiple interventions to effectively reduce blood lead levels. The findings reinforce the ongoing need for rigorous epidemiological evaluation of lead management programs to improve the evidence base, and for effective primary prevention to avoid children being exposed to lead in the first place.

  8. Biodegradation of dispersed Macondo crude oil by indigenous Gulf of Mexico microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Sandoval, Kathia; Ding, Yan [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Stoeckel, Donald; Minard-Smith, Angela [Battelle 505 King Ave, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Andersen, Gary; Dubinsky, Eric A. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Atlas, Ronald [Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Gardinali, Piero, E-mail: gardinal@fiu.edu [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Because of the extreme conditions of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) release (turbulent flow at 1500 m depth and 5 °C water temperature) and the sub-surface application of dispersant, small but neutrally buoyant oil droplets < 70 μm were formed, remained in the water column and were subjected to in-situ biodegradation processes. In order to investigate the biodegradation of Macondo oil components during the release, we designed and performed an experiment to evaluate the interactions of the indigenous microbial communities present in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) with oil droplets of two representative sizes (10 μm and 30 μm median volume diameter) created with Macondo source oil in the presence of Corexit 9500 using natural seawater collected at the depth of 1100–1300 m in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead. The evolution of the oil was followed in the dark and at 5 °C for 64 days by collecting sacrificial water samples at fixed intervals and analyzing them for a wide range of chemical and biological parameters including volatile components, saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, dispersant markers, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, microbial cell counts and microbial population dynamics. A one phase exponential decay from a plateau model was used to calculate degradation rates and lag times for more than 150 individual oil components. Calculations were normalized to a conserved petroleum biomarker (30αβ-hopane). Half-lives ranged from about 3 days for easily degradable compounds to about 60 days for higher molecular weight aromatics. Rapid degradation was observed for BTEX, 2–3 ring PAHs, and n-alkanes below n-C23. The results in this experimental study showed good agreement with the n-alkane (n-C13 to n-C26) half-lives (0.6–9.5 days) previously reported for the Deepwater Horizon plume samples and other laboratory studies with chemically dispersed Macondo oil conducted at low temperatures (< 8 °C). The responses of the microbial populations also

  9. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring Indigenous peoples' involvement in water planning processes across South Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz Quitian, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Gloria Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Indigenous peoples within the Murray-Darling Basin have traditionally struggled for the recognition of their cultural, social, environmental, spiritual, commercial and economic connection to the waters that they have traditionally used, as well as their right to engage in all stages of water planning processes. Despite Australian national and federal frameworks providing for the inclusion of Indigenous Australians' objectives in planning frameworks, water plans have rarely addressed these objectives in water, or the strategies to achieve them. Indeed, insufficient resources, a lack of institutional capacity in both Indigenous communities and agencies and an inadequate understanding of Indigenous people's objectives in water management have limited the extent to which Indigenous objectives are addressed in water plans within the Murray-Darling Basin. In this context, the adoption of specific guidelines to meet Indigenous requirements in relation to basin water resources is crucial to support Indigenous engagement in water planning processes. Using insights from participatory planning methods and human rights frameworks, this article outlines a set of alternative and collaborative guidelines to improve Indigenous involvement in water planning and to promote sustainable and just water allocations.

  10. Tensions in anti-colonial research: lessons learned by collaborating with a mining-affected indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caxaj, C Susana; Berman, Helene; Varcoe, Colleen; Ray, Susan L; Restoule, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Community-based nurse researchers strive to develop collaborative partnerships that are meaningful to the health priorities of participants and relevant to their sociopolitical realities. Within the context of global inequity, intersecting forces of privilege and oppression inevitably shape the research process, resulting in tensions, contradictions, and challenges that must be addressed. This article has 3 purposes: to examine the political context of mining corporations, to describe common health threats and challenges faced by mining-affected communities, and to reflect on research with a mining-affected Indigenous community in Guatemala whose health and capacity for self-advocacy are impacted by a legacy of colonialism. Using an anti-colonial lens, the authors discuss 3 central tensions: community agency and community victimhood, common ground and distinct identities, and commitment to outcomes and awareness of limitations. They conclude by offering methodological suggestions for nurse researchers whose work is grounded in anti-colonial perspectives.

  11. Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Marine debris and marine wildlife entanglement remains a significant global issue. • We examined awareness of this issue in an Australian community sample. • Findings reveal gaps exist in terms of what entanglement is and the risks posed. • Enhancing community understanding may facilitate greater conservation action. • The ‘Seal the Loop’ initiative provides one potential mechanism for such education. - Abstract: Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative ‘Seal the Loop’ [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours)

  12. Oral health investigations of indigenous participants in remote settings: a methods paper describing the dental component of wave III of an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayers Susan M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study has been underway in Australia's Northern Territory since 1987. Inclusion of oral epidemiological information in a follow-up study required flexible and novel approaches with unconventional techniques. Documenting these procedures may be of value to researchers interested in including oral health components in remotely-located studies. The objectives are to compare and describe dental data collection methods in wave III of the ABC study with a more conventional oral health investigation. Methods The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH was considered the 'conventional' study. Differences between this investigation and the dental component of the ABC study were assessed in terms of ethics, location, recruitment, consent, privacy, equipment, examination, clinical data collection and replication. In the ABC study, recording of clinical data by different voice recording techniques were described and assessed for ease-of-use portability, reliability, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results Conventional investigation recruitment was by post and telephone. Participants self presented. Examinations took place in dental clinics, using customised dental chairs with standard dental lights attached. For all examinations, a dental assistant recorded dental data directly onto a laptop computer. By contrast, follow-up of ABC study participants involved a multi-phase protocol with reliance on locally-employed Indigenous advocates bringing participants to the examination point. Dental examinations occurred in settings ranging from health centre clinic rooms to improvised spaces outdoors. The dental chair was a lightweight, portable reclining camp chair and the dental light a fire-fighter's head torch with rechargeable batteries. The digital voice recorder was considered the most suitable instrument for clinical dental data collection in the ABC study in comparison with

  13. Collective Action Typologies and Reforestation in Indigenous Community of Biak-Papua

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Silka Innah; Didik Suharjito; Arya Hadi Dharmawan; Dudung Darusman

    2013-01-01

    While there are issues in deforestation with interesting reports on reforestation in Indonesia's forest policy, the situation in Papua remains understudied.   This paper builds on the themes of collective action and reforestation from indigenous people of Papua. Collective action can be understood from various perspectives and one of them can be studied within Gamson's socio-psychology framework from social movement theories. The results showed that: collective action in indigenous people of ...

  14. Abundance and composition of indigenous bacterial communities in a multi-step biofiltration-based drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Karin; Hwang, Chiachi; Ling, Fangqiong; Liu, Wen-Tso; Boon, Nico; Köster, Oliver; Egli, Thomas; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous bacterial communities are essential for biofiltration processes in drinking water treatment systems. In this study, we examined the microbial community composition and abundance of three different biofilter types (rapid sand, granular activated carbon, and slow sand filters) and their respective effluents in a full-scale, multi-step treatment plant (Zürich, CH). Detailed analysis of organic carbon degradation underpinned biodegradation as the primary function of the biofilter biomass. The biomass was present in concentrations ranging between 2-5 × 10(15) cells/m(3) in all filters but was phylogenetically, enzymatically and metabolically diverse. Based on 16S rRNA gene-based 454 pyrosequencing analysis for microbial community composition, similar microbial taxa (predominantly Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Nitrospira and Chloroflexi) were present in all biofilters and in their respective effluents, but the ratio of microbial taxa was different in each filter type. This change was also reflected in the cluster analysis, which revealed a change of 50-60% in microbial community composition between the different filter types. This study documents the direct influence of the filter biomass on the microbial community composition of the final drinking water, particularly when the water is distributed without post-disinfection. The results provide new insights on the complexity of indigenous bacteria colonizing drinking water systems, especially in different biofilters of a multi-step treatment plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender roles, food system biodiversity, and food security in Indigenous Peoples' communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2017-11-01

    Traditional knowledge and practice of Indigenous Peoples related to their food use and well-being is a wealth of information for academic study and for public health nutrition. Despite unique long-evolved heritages of knowledge of ecosystem resources, Indigenous Peoples comprise 15% of the global poor, but only 5% of the world's population, and they experience poverty, discrimination, and poor nutritional health at far greater rates than mainstream populations in their nations of residence. These disparities are unacceptable in all human rights frameworks, and the call to alleviate them resonates through all human development programmes and the United Nations organizations. The scholars contributing to this special issue of Maternal and Child Nutrition describe how gender roles and the right to food for several cultures of Indigenous Peoples can be fostered to protect their unique foods and traditions, providing food sovereignty and food and nutrition security benefits, especially for women and children. Aspects of societal maternal or paternal lineality and locality, division of labour, spirituality and decision-making are described. These factors structure the impact of gender roles with Indigenous worldviews on the dynamics of family food access, its availability and use, and the use of local food biodiversity. Cultures of Indigenous Peoples in Ecuador, Nigeria, Thailand, India, Canada, Japan, and Morocco are discussed. This publication is a work of the Task Force on Traditional, Indigenous and Cultural Food and Nutrition of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Stochastic agent-based modeling of tuberculosis in Canadian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R. Tuite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, active tuberculosis (TB disease rates remain disproportionately higher among the Indigenous population, especially among the Inuit in the north. We used mathematical modeling to evaluate how interventions might enhance existing TB control efforts in a region of Nunavut. Methods We developed a stochastic, agent-based model of TB transmission that captured the unique household and community structure. Evaluated interventions included: (i rapid treatment of active cases; (ii rapid contact tracing; (iii expanded screening programs for latent TB infection (LTBI; and (iv reduced household density. The outcomes of interest were incident TB infections and total diagnosed active TB disease over a 10- year time period. Results Model-projected incidence in the absence of additional interventions was highly variable (range: 33–369 cases over 10 years. Compared to the ‘no additional intervention’ scenario, reducing the time between onset of active TB disease and initiation of treatment reduced both the number of new TB infections (47% reduction, relative risk of TB = 0.53 and diagnoses of active TB disease (19% reduction, relative risk of TB = 0.81. Expanding general population screening was also projected to reduce the burden of TB, although these findings were sensitive to assumptions around the relative amount of transmission occurring outside of households. Other potential interventions examined in the model (school-based screening, rapid contact tracing, and reduced household density were found to have limited effectiveness. Conclusions In a region of northern Canada experiencing a significant TB burden, more rapid treatment initiation in active TB cases was the most impactful intervention evaluated. Mathematical modeling can provide guidance for allocation of limited resources in a way that minimizes disease transmission and protects population health.

  17. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm.

  18. Insider-Outsider reflections from a Native Hawaiian researcher and the use of community-based participatory approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in conducting research within indigenous communities among indigenous and non-indigenous researchers alike. This paper offers the critical reflections of one Native Hawaiian researcher and the process of engaging in research as both an insider-outsider. Community-based, participatory research (CBPR) offers one model for outsiders to work effectively with indigenous communities, but CBPR also offers valuable principles for insiders who desire to work with their own communities. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Progressive increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Indigenous populations in northern Australia from 1993 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S Y C; Varrone, L; Chatfield, M D; Beaman, M; Giffard, P M

    2015-05-01

    Hospital-based studies have determined high rates of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Indigenous populations. However, there is a paucity of community-based data. We obtained 20 years (1993-2012) of data on S. aureus isolates (N = 20 210) collected from community clinics that provide services for Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia. Methicillin resistance increased from 7% to 24%, resistance to macrolides remained stable at ~25%, and there was a slight increase in resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The increase in methicillin resistance is concerning for the Indigenous communities represented by this data, but it is also of significance if virulent MRSA clones emerge and spread more widely from such settings.

  20. Evaluation of a 'healthiness' rating system for food outlet types in Australian residential communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamid; Kelly, Bridget; Feng, Xiaoqi; Flood, Victoria

    2017-02-01

    To obtain expert consensus to develop and evaluate a rating system on the relative healthiness of Australian suburbs' food outlet types. Twenty-four food outlet types and 10 local suburbs were identified from previous mapping studies and based on a scan of suburbs across one large Australian geographical region. Initial food outlet 'scores' for relative healthiness were proposed based on available literature, classified into five categories, from 'most' to 'least' healthy. In round 1 of a modified Delphi survey, participants, Australian public health and nutrition experts, were given each outlet type's definition and the proposed scores and invited to modify the scores based on their perceived 'healthiness'. In round 2, participants were able to revise or adjust their scores. Median scores for food outlet types from both rounds highly correlated with the originally proposed scores (two-tailed Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.97 and 0.96, respectively, P = 0.01), and scores from round 1 highly correlated with those from round 2 (Pearson's coefficient 0.998, P = 0.01). Round 2 scores were used to calculate suburbs' overall food environment score, healthiness score, unhealthiness score and a ratio of unhealthiness to healthiness scores. There was strong positive correlation between suburbs' ratio of unhealthiness to healthiness scores and a previously recognised scoring ratio, Retail Food Environment Index (Spearman's rho 0.847, P outlet types found in Australian neighbourhoods. Proposed scores can be used to assess and compare healthiness of community food environments and to explore their associations with area characteristics, population's diet and health outcomes. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  1. Exploring Farmers’ Indigenous Knowledge of Soil Quality and Fertility Management Practices in Selected Farming Communities of the Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Ansong Omari; Sonoko Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura; Elsie Sarkodee Addo; Yosei Oikawa; Yoshiharu Fujii

    2018-01-01

    Efforts to improve soil productive capacity aimed at boosting crop production in the Northern Ghana has primarily focused on field-based experiments with little documentation on farmer practice and local indigenous knowledge of soil management. A sample group of 114 farmers from five farming communities in the Guinea Savannah was interviewed to evaluate their indigenous knowledge of crop production practices in the context of soil health, fertilization management, and crop yield. Data were co...