Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As
Panegyres, P K; McGrath, F
Huntington disease (HD) in indigenous Australians is a poorly analysed and difficult problem. This study addresses the issue of HD in remote indigenous Australian populations in the north-west of Western Australia. Proband identification, clinical assessment, neurogenetic studies and pedigree analysis led to the discovery of HD in the 63-year-old male proband and his family. HD in remote indigenous Australian communities is a challenging diagnostic and management problem compounded by the complexity of distance. PMID:18290828
MacLean, Sarah; Harney, Angela; Arabena, Kerry
Crystal methamphetamine (commonly known as 'ice') use is currently a deeply concerning problem for some Australian Indigenous peoples and can cause serious harms to individual, families and communities. This paper is intended to support best practice responses by primary health-care staff working with Australian Indigenous people who use methamphetamine. It draws on a systematic search of relevant databases to identify literature from January 1999 to February 2014, providing an overview of prevalence, treatment, education and harm reduction, and community responses. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities, particularly in urban and regional settings. No evidence was identified that specifically related to effective treatment and treatment outcomes for Indigenous Australians experiencing methamphetamine dependence or problematic use. While studies involving methamphetamine users in the mainstream population suggest that psychological and residential treatments show short-term promise, longer-term outcomes are less clear. Community-driven interventions involving Indigenous populations in Australia and internationally appear to have a high level of community acceptability; however, outcomes in terms of methamphetamine use are rarely evaluated. Improved national data on prevalence of methamphetamine use among Indigenous people and levels of treatment access would support service planning. We argue for the importance of a strength-based approach to addressing methamphetamine use, to counteract the stigma and despair that frequently accompanies it. PMID:25704260
Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Simpson, Jane; Billington, Rosey
Indigenous children growing up in the remote regions of Australia live in multilingual communities which are often undergoing rapid language shift. In these communities, children are exposed to a range of language input, including the traditional language of the area, a local creole and Standard Australian English. The extent to which the…
Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John
Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.
Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people’s territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that
Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.
Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael
The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855
Jan Hammill argues that family dysfunction is widespread in contemporary western society but is even more so in impoverished Indigenous communities forcibly stripped of their cultural practices. Alcohol and illicit and prescription drugs have become coping elixirs for profound feelings of despair and hopelessness which is then manifested in high rates of child abuse and neglect, interpersonal violence, suicide and early death. Increasingly the impact is borne most heavily by those whose value...
Robertson Jan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia generally, smoking prevalence more than halved after 1980 and recently commenced to decline among Australia's disadvantaged Indigenous peoples. However, in some remote Indigenous Australian communities in the Northern Territory (NT, extremely high rates of up to 83% have not changed over the past 25 years. The World Health Organisation has called for public health and political leadership to address a global tobacco epidemic. For Indigenous Australians, unprecedented policies aim to overcome disadvantage and close the 'health gap' with reducing tobacco use the top priority. This study identifies challenges and opportunities to implementing these important new tobacco initiatives in remote Indigenous communities. Methods: With little empirical evidence available, we interviewed 82 key stakeholders across the NT representing operational- and management-level service providers, local Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants to identify challenges and opportunities for translating new policies into successful tobacco interventions. Data were analysed using qualitative approaches to identify emergent themes. Results The 20 emergent themes were classified using counts of occasions each theme occurred in the transcribed data as challenge or opportunity. The 'smoke-free policies' theme occurred most frequently as opportunity but infrequently as challenge while 'health workforce capacity' occurred most frequently as challenge but less frequently as opportunity, suggesting that policy implementation is constrained by lack of a skilled workforce. 'Smoking cessation support' occurred frequently as opportunity but also frequently as challenge suggesting that support for individuals requires additional input and attention. Conclusions These results from interviews with local and operational-level participants indicate that current tobacco policies in Australia targeting Indigenous smoking are sound and comprehensive
Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Simpson, Jane; Wigglesworth, Gillian
This article reports on the development and piloting of a vocabulary recognition test designed for Indigenous Australian children. The research is both application oriented and development oriented. The aims of the article are to determine how well the test is used as a test instrument and the extent to which children recognize vocabulary items in…
Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert
As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…
Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube
It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...
Ann E. Fleming
Full Text Available There is significant evidence that culture-aligned economies are more effective in engaging remote-living Indigenous Australians in work long-term. Despite this evidence, governments remain resistant to investing substantially in these economies, with the result that low employment rates persist. This article argues that governmental systems of organisation are not designed to support non-mainstream economies and this position is unlikely to change. Similarly, the commercial sector lacks confidence that investing in culture-aligned economies will generate financial returns. This article presents a localised, pragmatic approach to Indigenous business support that works within existing systems of government, business and culture. Most unsuccessful programs fail to recognise the full suite of critical factors for sustained market engagement by both business and Indigenous people. This article reports on work to bring all critical factors together into a business support framework to inform the design and implementation of an aquaculture development program in a remote Indigenous Australian community.
Emily G Hudson
Full Text Available Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community
Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P
Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the
This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.
This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998), by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my arg ument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I wil l argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural und erstanding and competence.
Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.
McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie
Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196
McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie
Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change.
Full Text Available Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal. Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability. Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA. Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change.
Melissa J. Stoneham
Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.
Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.
Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg
The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093
Kelaher Margaret; Ferdinand Angeline; Taylor Hugh
Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, ...
This article brings together and discusses three research projects that examined the vocational education and career-decision making of Indigenous Australians. These studies focused on the experiences of Indigenous people themselves, in order to provide an Indigenous perspective on vocational and career development. Four main barriers that limit…
Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny
This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember. PMID:24999815
Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny
This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember.
Gracey, Michael S
Awareness of a serious Indigenous health problem in Australia did not emerge until the 1960s and 1970s. Much attention was focused at the time on poor pregnancy outcomes, high infant and young child mortality rates, and childhood malnutrition and impaired growth, often associated with high infectious disease burdens. Although that situation has improved somewhat, Indigenous infant and child health is still poor compared with that of other Australian children. Over recent decades, there has been a rapid rise among Indigenous people of nutrition-related "lifestyle" disorders such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disease and their complications. This epidemic of disabling and often fatal chronic diseases in Indigenous Australians is also occurring in disadvantaged groups in many other countries. Control of this potentially disastrous epidemic must become a much higher priority in Indigenous health programs. Governments must commit to this task in cooperation and collaboration with Indigenous organisations and communities. PMID:17229025
Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex
This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348
Woods John A; Katzenellenbogen Judith M; Davidson Patricia M; Thompson Sandra C
Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google ...
Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R
Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians. PMID:20412810
This article reflects on pathways for Indigenous education in the developing agenda of the Australian Curriculum, the cross-curriculum priorities, the general capability area of intercultural understanding, and the positioning of Indigenous learners within the diversity of learners with English as an additional language or dialect (EALD).
Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…
Ricciardelli Lina A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in
Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.
Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.
Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda; Furlong, Michael; Caltabiano, Nerina
This descriptive pilot study examined the cultural differences in the dimensions of self-reported anger in Indigenous and non-Indigenous (Caucasian) students aged 10-13 years in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) (Boman, Curtis, Furlong, & Smith, 2006) was used to measure affective,…
Brad M. Farrant
Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.
Thurber, Katherine A.; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy
Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC c...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of ‘White’, Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Methods Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers’ past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Results Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role ‘Whiteness’ plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised
Condon John R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.
du Plessis, Santie
The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…
Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith
The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…
Full Text Available Social constructions of education historically have impacted adversely on marginalised Indigenous Australian students whose mobile lifestyles and cultural positioning challenge teachers’ social inclusion practices. This paper examines the preparation and capacity of pre-service teachers to engage with mobile Indigenous students and their communities. Evidence is drawn from practicing teachers who reflected on their experiences in working with Indigenous students and their communities since graduation and how their experiences, both pre- and post-graduation, impacted on their beliefs and practices. Individual interviews were conducted with four teachers who also participated in the first stage of the study as a group of 24 second year primary pre-service teachers at a regional Australian university. It was found that pre-service teachers representing a range of world views benefit from positive, scaffolded experiences that provide opportunities to develop practices that foster social justice and inclusion. The findings of this study have implications for providing pre-service teachers with opportunities to understand how historical factors impact on Indigenous student mobility in contemporary Australian educational settings and the development of socially inclusive pedagogical practices. Further longitudinal research to expand the evidence base around developing culturally-appropriate pedagogical practices in pre-service teachers is needed to support their transition into teaching.
Full Text Available This article considers how changing media practices of minority groups and political and media elites impact on democratic participation in national debates. Taking as its case study the state-sponsored campaign to formally recognise Indigenous people in the Australian constitution, the article examines the interrelationships between political media and Indigenous participatory media—both of which we argue are undergoing seismic transformation. Discussion of constitutional reform has tended to focus on debates occurring in forums of influence such as party politics and news media that privilege the voices of only a few high-profile Indigenous media ‘stars’. Debate has progressed on the assumption that constitutional change needs to be settled by political elites and then explained and ‘sold’ to Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Our research on the mediatisation of policymaking has found that in an increasingly media-saturated environment, political leaders and their policy bureaucrats attend to a narrow range of highly publicised voices. But the rapidly changing media environment has disrupted the media-driven Recognise campaign. Vigorous public discussion is increasingly taking place outside the mainstream institutions of media and politics, while social media campaigns emerge in rapid response to government decisions. Drawing on a long tradition in citizens’ media scholarship we argue that the vibrant, diverse and growing Indigenous media sphere in Australia has increased the accessibility of Indigenous voices challenging the scope and substance of the recognition debate. The article concludes on a cautionary note by considering some tensions in the promise of the changing media for Indigenous participation in the national policy conversation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %. The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA. Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help.
Full Text Available In the space of one year the Australian federal political leadership transformed its own account of its achievements in Indigenous affairs from that of a ‘quiet revolution’ to a state of ‘crisis’. This article takes this idea that there is a ‘crisis’ taking place across remote Aboriginal communities as its starting point. However, in contrast to most assessments of this ‘crisis’ I argue that claims about ‘crisis’ do not derive naturally from accounts of the critical circumstances of daily life in remote indigenous communities. Rather, the idea of crisis can be understood as a process of narration, one that the federal political leadership has brought into existence through narrative and discourse. As I show, this narrative of crisis has had a very particular strategic effect. It has enabled the federal government to transform its failure to change the fundamentals of indigenous welfare (its ‘quiet revolution’ into a widespread, general crisis. In this way, this narrative of crisis thus marks a turning point: one at which the discourse of government responsibility for citizens has been overtaken and replaced by that of citizen responsibility to government – namely that indigenous people and communities themselves must now be held responsible for (governmental failure in indigenous affairs. Seen in these terms, the critical circumstances of daily life in many remote Indigenous communities far from providing testimony of governmental failure provide something of an alibi, making the idea of crisis seems utterly feasible.
Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex
Despite a long history of gambling amongst many Indigenous peoples, knowledge about contemporary Indigenous gambling is sparse. In Australia, previous studies of Indigenous gambling have been severely limited in number, scope and rigour. The research reported in this paper is based on the first Indigenous-specific quantitative gambling research undertaken in Australia since 1996 and draws on the largest sample to date. This study examined numerous aspects of gambling among Indigenous Australians. After appropriate consultations and permission, the study collected surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults in 2011 at three Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. This paper draws on these data to identify problem gambling risk factors by comparing selected socio-demographic characteristics, early exposure to gambling, gambling motivations, gambling behaviour, gambling cognitions, and substance use while gambling, amongst non-problem, low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers. A logistic regression investigated the difference between problem gamblers and all other PGSI groups. Risk factors associated with being a problem gambler were: being older, commencing gambling when under 10 years old, always being exposed to adults gambling as a child, using alcohol and/or drugs while gambling, having family and friends who gamble, having an addiction to gambling and not gambling to socialise, having a high expenditure on commercial gambling, and living in a state or territory other than NSW or QLD. Public health measures to address these risk factors are identified. PMID:23378227
Gwynn Josephine D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.
Ramjan, Lucie; Hunt, Leanne; Salamonson, Yenna
Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia. The Bachelor of Nursing program at a large university in Western Sydney embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching program. This paper reviews the negative responses received towards course content on evaluation of the Indigenous health unit and explores the predictors for the negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Two surveys were used (baseline and follow-up) to: 1. Determine the main predictors for negative attitudes towards Indigenous people and; 2. Explore students' perceptions of the educational quality of the Indigenous health unit. The surveys allowed collection of socio-demographic, academic data and included the 18 item 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale and open-ended responses. Students who were: 1. Overseas born, 2. Enrolment category: International student and; 3. Whose primary source of information about Indigenous Australians were the media and school were significantly more likely to have higher negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Qualitative data revealed some unfavourable comments dismissing the value and educational quality of the content within the Indigenous health unit. Community engagement is paramount to enhancing the student experience. Movement away from media driven 'hype' to an educated perspective is necessary to create an accurate portrayal of the Indigenous community. PMID:26775166
West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee
An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…
Martin-Iverson, N; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M
The indigenous population of Australia constitutes approximately 2 per cent of the total population. This group has faced significant cultural, economic and health changes since European settlement some 200 years ago. In this brief review some of the health changes that have influenced the oral health status of this community have been examined. Of major importance is the dietary change that the once nomadic indigenous community has undergone. Today's Western diet, high in sugar, low in proteins and vitamins, has resulted in a significant increase in the risk (and prevalence) of caries and periodontal disease. In addition, the high prevalence of diabetes also exacerbates the periodontal problem. The remoteness of a significant proportion of Australian indigenous communities from modern health care services and limited access to fluoridation increases the incidence of oral disease. It is also noted that the incidence of rheumatic heart disease is one of the highest in the world, thereby increasing the risk of bacterial endocarditis. It is clear that indigenous communities have unique oral health needs but the extent of these needs is not well documented. It is important that more research be undertaken to assess these needs so that appropriate oral health programmes can be developed. PMID:10452162
McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie
There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…
Meer, Sarah; Smith, Stephen; Pang, Vincent
Propinquity between Australian Indigenous communities' social structures and ICT purposed for cultural preservation is a modern area of research; historically hindered by the "digital divide" thus limiting plentiful literature and existing information systems in this field in theoretical and practical applications. Henceforth, community consultation is mandatory in deriving and delivering empirically effective processes in a cultural and language preservation IS tool designed to teach future ...
Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.
Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to
Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley
The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.
Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin
How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is “at risk” is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086
Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin
How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is "at risk" is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086
This exploratory study conducted in heavily indigenous communities was undertaken to investigate entrepreneurial perceptions of community (sense of place, image, and positioning) and social capital (reciprocity, shared vision, and density of networks) resources present in rural communities, and the sponsorship involvement of the entrepreneurs in community activities. The uniqueness of the study was its focus on indigenous communities with a higher than state average Native-American population...
Full Text Available Over the last few years, I have attended several political meetings concerned with the refugee crisis, multiculturalism or Indigenous rights in Australia, meetings at which liberal democratic–minded ‘left-wing’ people came together to discuss, or agitate for change in, governmental policies. At these meetings, I always found it difficult to accept the slogans on their placards and in their speeches: ‘Shame Australia! Reconciliation for a united Australia’, ‘Wake up Australia! We welcome refugees!’ or ‘True Australians are tolerant! Let’s celebrate multicultural Australia!’ My uncomfortable feeling came not only from the fact that I was left out because of my Japanese nationality but also because I had never seen or heard words like ‘shame Japan’, ‘wake up Japan’ or ‘true Japanese are ...’ at Japanese ‘left-wing’ political gatherings. In Japan, these are words used only by right-wing nationalists. Indeed it is difficult to even imagine liberal-left intellectuals in postwar Japan calling for a ‘true Japanese’ political response (as if such a response was positive, such is the extent to which the idea of ‘good nationalism’ is now regarded as an oxymoron. This is my starting point for an essay in which I want to be attentive to the different roles played by national(ism in the Japanese and Australian political environments.
AIM To perform a systematic review of reportedneonatal and pregnancy outcomes of IndigenousAustralians with diabetes in pregnancy （DIP）.METHODS： Electronic searches of PubMed and Web ofScience were carried out. Articles were selected if theycontained original data on DIP outcomes in IndigenousAustralians. There were no specific exclusion criteria.RESULTS： A total of eight articles, predominantly fromQueensland and Western Australia were identifiedonce inclusion criteria were applied. Birth data frommidwifery registries or paper charts encompassingyears 1985-2008 were used. A total of 465591 pregnantwomen with and without DIP were included in the eightstudies, with 1363 being Indigenous women with DIP.Indigenous Australians experienced increased ratesof many known adverse outcomes of DIP including：macrosomia, caesarean section, congenital deformities,low birth weight, hypoglycaemia, and neonatal trauma.There were regional differences among IndigenousAustralians, particularly regional/remote vs metropolitanpopulations where the regional/remote data showedworse outcomes. Two of the articles did not note adifference between Aboriginals and Caucasians inthe rates of measured adverse outcome. Studiesvaried significantly in size, measured outcomes, andsubsequent analysis.CONCLUSION： The health disparities between IndigenousAustralians and non-Indigenous Australiansare further evidenced by poorer outcomes in DIP.This has broader implications for Indigenous health ingeneral.
Full Text Available International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australian Census, this paper provides an analysis across three dimensions of socioeconomic disparity: Indigeneity, gender, and geography. This paper also explores the development of a similar gender-related index as a tool to enable a relative ranking of the performance of Indigenous males and females at the regional level across a set of socioeconomic outcomes.The initial findings suggest that although there is a substantial development gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, the development loss from gender-related inequality for Indigenous Australians is relatively small. Higher life expectancy and education attainment for Indigenous females balances out their slightly lower earnings to a large extent. At the regional level, Indigenous females tend to fare better than Indigenous males for the set of indicators chosen; and, this is particularly true in capital cities.
Rosenstock, Amanda; Mukandi, Bryan; Anthony B Zwi; Hill, Peter S
Objective: Closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and other Australians within a generation is central to national Indigenous reform policy (Closing the Gap). Over time, various methods of estimating Indigenous life expectancy and with that, the life expectancy gap, have been adopted with differing, albeit non-comparable results. We present data on the extent of the gap and elucidate the pattern of use and interpretations of the different estimates of the gap, between 2007 and ...
McConney, Andrew; Oliver, Mary; Woods-McConney, Amanda; Schibeci, Renato
Previous research has shown that indigenous students in Australia do not enjoy equal educational outcomes with other Australians. This secondary analysis of PISA 2006 confirmed that this continues to be the case in science literacy for secondary students. However, the analysis also revealed that indigenous Australian students held interest in…
Roche, Ann M; Duraisingam, Vinita; Trifonoff, Allan; Tovell, Amanda
The increasing demand for alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services among the Australian Indigenous population, complex organisational challenges and limitations, and high unemployment rates are likely to negatively impact Indigenous AOD workers' health and well-being. Building the capacity of Indigenous AOD workers is vital, as they play a crucial role in the delivery of treatment services and offer essential support to their communities. A national online survey was conducted to examine organisational, workplace and individual factors that might contribute to levels of stress and well-being among workers who provide services to Indigenous clients. A total of 294 eligible surveys were completed; 184 (63%) from Indigenous and 108 (37%) from non-Indigenous AOD workers. Multiple regression models were conducted to assess the significant predictors of mental health and well-being, job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention. Indigenous AOD workers typically experienced above average levels of job satisfaction and relatively low levels of emotional exhaustion. However, 1 in 10 reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, a key predictor of turnover intention. Indigenous workers also experienced significantly lower levels of mental health and well-being and greater work/family imbalance, which was a significant contributor to emotional exhaustion. The findings highlight the importance of implementing workforce development strategies that focus on achieving culturally appropriate, equitable and supportive organisational conditions for Indigenous AOD workers. Preventing or managing levels of stress, ensuring adequate and equitable salaries and benefits, and providing more opportunities for career and personal growth may increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover intention among Indigenous workers in the drug and alcohol field. PMID:22425037
Full Text Available This paper has a purpose and that purpose is to tell a story. An important story. A story that will sadden you and perhaps give rise to dismay. But it’s not a story about a princess. This story takes place, not in the glitz and glamour of Europe with fast cars, great shopping and an avid and enthusiastic paparazzi, but rather in the desert of Central Australia where you need a good four-wheel drive to get home on the dusty roads, where shopping is limited to the basics at the local store, but where people are still avidly following the life and times of the ‘Princess of our hearts’. This paper will tell this story and for many reading this, the story will be enough, for much of what I will say is self-evident, so much so that it seems almost ludicrous to have to analyse the impact of the events I will describe. However, in the interests of academic analysis and to further understand and appreciate the impact of these events, I will firstly frame the context of emergent literacy, give the background to the story and detail the findings of some research which I undertook within this community. Finally, I present the broader implications of these findings and make some recommendations.
Gilroy, John; Emerson, Eric
Family and cultural inclusion are essential for the healthy development of young Australian Indigenous peoples with low cognitive ability. To date, this issue has received limited research attention. A secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 4 of Footprints in Time, Australia's Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children, was conducted to help address this research gap. The study results indicated that in some areas, Indigenous children with low cognitive ability are at a higher risk of social exclusion than their peers. We discuss the policy implications of these findings with regards to addressing Indigenous disadvantage. PMID:27286466
Perales, Francisco; Baffour, Bernard; Mitrou, Francis
Comparable survey data on Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are highly sought after by policymakers to inform policies aimed at closing ethnic socio-economic gaps. However, collection of such data is compromised by group differences in socio-economic status and cultural norms. We use data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and multiple-membership multilevel regression models that allow for individual and interviewer effects to examine differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in approximate measures of the quality of the interview process. We find that there are both direct and indirect ethnic effects on different dimensions of interview process quality, with Indigenous Australians faring worse than non-Indigenous Australians in all outcomes ceteris paribus. This indicates that nationwide surveys must feature interview protocols that are sensitive to the needs and culture of Indigenous respondents to improve the quality of the survey information gathered from this subpopulation. PMID:26091283
Full Text Available Comparable survey data on Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are highly sought after by policymakers to inform policies aimed at closing ethnic socio-economic gaps. However, collection of such data is compromised by group differences in socio-economic status and cultural norms. We use data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and multiple-membership multilevel regression models that allow for individual and interviewer effects to examine differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in approximate measures of the quality of the interview process. We find that there are both direct and indirect ethnic effects on different dimensions of interview process quality, with Indigenous Australians faring worse than non-Indigenous Australians in all outcomes ceteris paribus. This indicates that nationwide surveys must feature interview protocols that are sensitive to the needs and culture of Indigenous respondents to improve the quality of the survey information gathered from this subpopulation.
Stewart Allison; Dowden Michelle; Robinson Gary; Cunningham Joan; Bailie Ross; Si Damin; Connors Christine; Weeramanthri Tarun
Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territ...
Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to
Pearce, Wendy M; Williams, Cori
Speech-language pathologists experience uncertainty about how to interpret standardized assessment results for Indigenous Australian children. There are risks for inappropriate diagnosis: both over- and under-diagnosis of language impairment may occur due to a convergence of linguistic features which causes difficulty in distinguishing between impairment and difference. While the literature suggests that standardized assessments are inappropriate for Indigenous Australian children, there is an absence of empirical documentation to show how Indigenous children perform on standardized tests of language ability. This study examined the performance of 19 Indigenous Australian children, aged 8;01-13;08, from one school on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, Australian Standardized Edition. Standardized scores were compared with teacher ratings of children's oral language skills. Analysis showed poor alignment between teacher ratings and language assessment, and assessment scores were negatively influenced by features of Aboriginal English. Children rated with above average language skills presented with different linguistic profiles from the children rated with average and below average language abilities. The inappropriateness of current standardized language assessments for Indigenous children and the need for further research to guide appropriate assessment are discussed.
Rountree, Jennifer; Smith, Addie
Mainstream child and family well-being indicators frequently are based on measuring health, economic, and social deficits, and do not reflect Indigenous holistic and strength-based definitions of health and well-being. The present article is a review of literature that features Indigenous communities' self-identified strength-based indicators of child and family well-being. The literature search included Indigenous communities from across the world, incorporating findings from American Indians and Alaska Natives, First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, and Sámi communities. Sorting the identified indicators into the quadrants of the Relational Worldview, an Indigenous framework for well-being based on medicine wheel teachings that views health and well-being as a balance among physical, mental, contextual, and spiritual factors, the authors discuss the findings. PMID:27383093
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and cardiovascular disease (CVD among Indigenous Australians, or whether any such relationship is similar to that in non-Indigenous Australians. Methods Weighted data on self-reported CVD and several SES measures were analyzed for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results After adjusting for age and sex, self-reported CVD prevalence was generally higher among those of lower SES in both the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. The relative odds of self-reported CVD were generally similar in the two populations. For example, the relative odds of self-reported CVD for those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.8 among Indigenous people and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2-1.5 among non-Indigenous people. However, Indigenous people generally had higher self-reported CVD levels than non-Indigenous people of the same age and SES group. Although smoking history varied by SES, smoking did not explain the observed relationships between SES and self-reported CVD. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in self-reported CVD among Indigenous Australians appear similar in relative terms to those seen in non-Indigenous Australians, but absolute differences remain. As with other population groups, the socioeconomic heterogeneity of the Indigenous population must be considered in developing and implementing programs to promote health and prevent illness. In addition, factors that operate across the SES spectrum, such as racism, stress, dispossession, and grief, must also be addressed to reduce the burden of CVD.
This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…
Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia
This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…
Timms, Lydia; Williams, Cori; Stokes, Stephanie F; Kane, Robert
This study examined the relationship between reading, spelling, and the presence of otitis media (OM) and co-occurring hearing loss (HL) in metropolitan Indigenous Australian children, and compared their reading and spelling outcomes with those of their non-Indigenous peers. OM and HL may hinder language development and phonological awareness skills, but there is little empirical evidence to link OM/HL and literacy in this population. Eighty-six Indigenous and non-Indigenous children attending pre-primary, year one and year two at primary schools in the Perth metropolitan area participated in the study. The ear health of the participants was screened by Telethon Speech and Hearing Centre EarBus in 2011/2012. Participants' reading and spelling skills were tested with culturally modified sub-tests of the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy. Of the 46 Indigenous children, 18 presented with at least one episode of OM and one episode of HL. Results indicated that Indigenous participants had significantly poorer non-word and real word reading and spelling skills than their non-Indigenous peers. There was no significant difference between the groups of Indigenous participants with OM and HL and those with normal ear health on either measure. This research provides evidence to suggest that Indigenous children have ongoing literacy development difficulties and discusses the possibility of OM as one of many impacting factors.
Olawsky, Knut J.
The size of Australian Indigenous language centres varies from small programs with a single employment position up to large organisations which may involve several linguists, a manager and a range of support staff. This article is based on the linguist's work at an organisation at the smaller end of the scale--"Mirima Dawang…
With the introduction of the Australian National Curriculum containing the "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures" Cross-Curriculum Priority (CCP) and "Intercultural Understanding" General Capability, there has been a renewed push to embed Indigenous content into secondary school subjects. This paper…
McInerney, Dennis M.
This paper reports on a continuing study of Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian children. The study investigates the relevance and applicability of goal theory to explaining indigenous minority motivation in school settings. Task, ego social solidarity, and extrinsic goal structures were examined as a means of explaining and predicting…
This article explores student and teacher engagement with Australian Indigenous Studies. In this article I identify key themes in the film "September" (2007) that demonstrate how the film can be used as a catalyst for student learning and discussion. Critical whiteness theory provides a framework to explore three themes, the invisibility of…
In a previous article discussing the politics of language in Australian Indigenous Studies teaching and learning contexts, the author and her colleague stated their objective in writing that article was to ''instill'' a sense of the importance of the political nature of language to their student body (McGloin and Carlson 2013).…
Auld, Glenn; Snyder, Ilana; Henderson, Michael
Despite massive funding from the Australian government, the literacy achievement of Australian Indigenous children remains significantly lower than for non-Indigenous. With the aim of identifying innovative ways to improve Indigenous children's literacy achievement, this study explored the social practices surrounding everyday mobile phone use by…
Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart
Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers. PMID:27066470
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset and high prevalence of chronic disease among Indigenous Australians call for action on prevention. However, there is deficiency of information on the extent to which preventive services are delivered in Indigenous communities. This study examined the variation in quality of preventive care for well adults attending Indigenous community health centres in Australia. Methods During 2005-2009, clinical audits were conducted on a random sample (stratified by age and sex of records of adults with no known chronic disease in 62 Indigenous community health centres in four Australian States/Territories (sample size 1839. Main outcome measures: i adherence to delivery of guideline-scheduled services within the previous 24 months, including basic measurements, laboratory investigations, oral health checks, and brief intervention on lifestyle modification; and ii follow-up of abnormal findings. Results Overall delivery of guideline-scheduled preventive services varied widely between health centres (range 5-74%. Documentation of abnormal blood pressure reading ([greater than or equal to]140/90 mmHg, proteinuria and abnormal blood glucose ([greater than or equal to]5.5 mmol/L was found to range between 0 and > 90% at the health centre level. A similarly wide range was found between health centres for documented follow up check/test or management plan for people documented to have an abnormal clinical finding. Health centre level characteristics explained 13-47% of variation in documented preventive care, and the remaining variation was explained by client level characteristics. Conclusions There is substantial room to improve preventive care for well adults in Indigenous primary care settings. Understanding of health centre and client level factors affecting variation in the care should assist clinicians, managers and policy makers to develop strategies to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous communities.
Pollitt, P A
The concept of dementia in old age in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is intrinsically paradoxical. Firstly, few indigenous people reach old age. Secondly, from some indigenous points of view, dementia is either not recognized as a condition or as a problem, or, in the case of the more disruptive manifestations of cognitive impairment, is perceived as 'madness'. Moreover, in the wider context of profound political, social and economic inequality experienced by most indigenous people, the western medical category of dementia may appear to be of relatively minor importance. However, government initiatives in aged care generally and dementia care in particular which are designed to address the ageing of the Australian population as a whole also include the nation's older indigenous people. This article-based on a review of published work, supplemented by discussions with indigenous and non-indigenous individuals involved in indigenous aged care and mental health-examines some of the issues surrounding cognitive decline in old age for Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. More specifically, it looks at the problems involved in assessing and diagnosing cognitive decline and dementia, especially among people who follow more traditional ways of life, and in providing services to sufferers and their carers. In doing so, it considers some of the relative meanings of "old age', "abnormal old age', "mental disorder', "sickness' and "dementia'. PMID:9097208
McConney, Andrew; Oliver, Mary; Woods-McConney, Amanda; Schibeci, Renato
Previous research has shown that indigenous students in Australia do not enjoy equal educational outcomes with other Australians. This secondary analysis of PISA 2006 confirmed that this continues to be the case in science literacy for secondary students. However, the analysis also revealed that indigenous Australian students held interest in science equal to that of their non-indigenous peers, and that observed variations in science literacy performance were most strongly explained by variations in reading literacy. These findings hold important implications for teachers, teacher educators, policy-makers, and researchers. Firstly, acknowledging and publicly valuing indigenous Australian science knowledge through rethinking school science curriculum seems an important approach to engaging indigenous students and improving their literacy in science. Secondly, appropriate professional learning for practising teachers and the incorporation of indigenous knowing in science methods training in teacher preparation seems warranted. Additionally, we offer a number of questions for further reflection and research that would benefit our understanding of ways forward in closing the science literacy gap for indigenous students. Whilst this research remains firmly situated within the Australian educational context, we at the same time believe that the findings and implications offered here hold value for science education practitioners and researchers in other countries with similar populations striving to achieve science literacy for all.
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Carlson, Bronwyn
It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The transfer and implementation of acceptable and effective health services, programs and innovations across settings provides an important and potentially cost-effective strategy for reducing Indigenous Australians' high burden of disease. This study reports a systematic review of Indigenous health services, programs and innovations to examine the extent to which studies considered processes of transfer and implementation within and across Indigenous communities and healthcare settings. Methods Medline, Informit, Infotrac, Blackwells Publishing, Proquest, Taylor and Francis, JStor, and the Indigenous HealthInfoNet were searched using terms: Aborigin* OR Indigen* OR Torres AND health AND service OR program* OR intervention AND Australia to locate publications from 1992–2011. The reference lists of 19 reviews were also checked. Data from peer reviewed journals, reports, and websites were included. The 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for proportions that referred to and focussed on transfer were calculated as exact binomial confidence intervals. Test comparisons between proportions were calculated using Fisher's exact test with an alpha level of 5%. Results Of 1311 publications identified, 119 (9.1%; 95% CI: 7.6% - 10.8% referred to the transfer and implementation of Indigenous Australian health services or programs, but only 21 studies (1.6%; 95% CI: 1.0% - 2.4% actually focused on transfer and implementation. Of the 119 transfer studies, 37 (31.1%; 95% CI: 22.9 - 40.2% evaluated the impact of a service or program, 28 (23.5%; 95% CI: 16.2% - 32.2% reported only process measures and 54 were descriptive. Of the 37 impact evaluation studies, 28 (75.7%; 95% CI: 58.8% - 88.2% appeared in peer reviewed journals but none included experimental designs. Conclusion While services and programs are being transferred and implemented, few studies focus on the process by which this occurred or the effectiveness of the service or program
Ross Stewart Bailie
Full Text Available BackgroundPotentially preventable chronic diseases are the greatest contributor to the health gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Preventive care is important for earlier detection and control of chronic disease, and a number of recent policy initiatives have aimed to enhance delivery of preventive care. We examined documented delivery of recommended preventive services for Indigenous peoples across Australia, and investigated the influence of health center and client level factors on adherence to best practice guidelines. MethodsClinical audit data from 2012-2014 for 3623 well adult clients (aged 15-54 of 101 health centers from four Australian states and territories were analyzed to determine adherence to delivery of 26 recommended preventive services classified into five different modes of care on the basis of the way in which they are delivered (eg. basic measurement; laboratory tests and imaging; assessment and brief interventions, eye, ear and oral checks; follow-up of abnormal findings. Summary statistics were used to describe the delivery of each service item across jurisdictions. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the variation in service delivery attributable to health center and client level factors and to identify factors associated with higher quality care.ResultsDelivery of recommended preventive care varied widely between service items, with good delivery of most basic measurements but poor follow-up of abnormal findings. Health center characteristics were associated with most variation. Higher quality care was associated with Northern Territory location, urban services and smaller service population size. Client factors associated with higher quality care included age between 25-34 years, female sex and more regular attendance. ConclusionsWide variation in documented preventive care delivery, poor follow-up of abnormal findings, and system factors that
Cochran, Patricia A L; Marshall, Catherine A; Garcia-Downing, Carmen; Kendall, Elizabeth; Cook, Doris; McCubbin, Laurie; Gover, Reva Mariah S
Researchers have a responsibility to cause no harm, but research has been a source of distress for indigenous people because of inappropriate methods and practices. The way researchers acquire knowledge in indigenous communities may be as critical for eliminating health disparities as the actual knowledge that is gained about a particular health problem. Researchers working with indigenous communities must continue to resolve conflict between the values of the academic setting and those of the community. It is important to consider the ways of knowing that exist in indigenous communities when developing research methods. Challenges to research partnerships include how to distribute the benefits of the research findings when academic or external needs contrast with the need to protect indigenous knowledge. PMID:18048800
Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew
The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993-2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.
Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie
This paper explores the outcomes of the first year of the implementation of a mathematics program ( Representations, oral language and engagement in Mathematics: RoleM) which is framed upon research relating to effectively supporting young Indigenous students' learning. The sample comprised 230 Indigenous students (average age 5.76 years) from 15 schools located across Queensland. The pre-test and post-test results from purposely developed language and mathematics tests indicate that young Indigenous Australian students are very capable learners of mathematics. The results of a multiple regression analysis denoted that their ability to ascertain the structure of patterns and to understand mathematical language were both strong predictors of their success in mathematics, with the latter making the larger contribution.
Fitts, Michelle S; Palk, Gavan R
Issue addressed Alcohol-related road crashes are a leading cause of the injury burden experienced by Indigenous Australians. Existing drink driving programs are primarily designed for the mainstream population. The 'Hero to Healing' program was specifically developed with Indigenous communities and is underpinned by the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the program from delivery in two Far North Queensland communities. Methods Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted with drink driver participants (n=17) and other Elders and community members (n=8) after each program. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise the transcripts. Results The CRA appealed to participants because of its flexible nature and encouragement of rearranging lifestyle factors, without specific focus on alcohol use. Participants readily identified with the social and peer-related risk and protective factors discussed. Cofacilitation of the program with Elders was identified as a key aspect of the program. More in-depth discussion about cannabis and driving, anger management skills and relationship issues are recommended. Conclusions Participants' recognition of content reinforced earlier project results, particularly the use of kinship pressure to motivate younger family members to drink drive. Study findings suggest that the principles of the CRA are useful; however, some amendments to the CRA components and program content were necessary. So what? Treating drink driving in regional and remote Indigenous Australian communities as a community and social issue, rather than an individual phenomenon, is likely to lead to a reduction in the number of road-related injuries Indigenous people experience. PMID:26857181
Diehl, Eliana Elisabeth; Langdon, Esther Jean; Dias-Scopel, Raquel Paiva
Indigenous community health workers are part of a strategy developed by Brazil in the last two decades to promote a special healthcare model for indigenous peoples. Their role is designed to deal with various aspects of the special health policy, including the link between the heath team and the community and mediation between scientific and indigenous medical knowledge. Despite a significant increase in the number of indigenous community health workers in recent years, an evaluation of their responsibilities and contributions to the success of special care had not been conducted previously. This article, based on a literature review and original research by the authors, analyzes the role of the indigenous community health workers vis-à-vis their training and participation in health teams in different contexts in Brazil. Considering the importance assigned to the role of indigenous community health workers, this analysis reveals various ambiguities and contradictions that hinder both their performance and their potential contribution to the special health services. PMID:22641506
Croda, Mariana Garcia; Trajber, Zelik; Lima, Rosangela da Costa; Croda, Julio
In Latin America, indigenous populations have high rates of non-completion of TB treatment and case fatality and have been defined as a priority group for investments. To evaluate TB control, a retrospective cohort study was performed to identify factors predictive of non-completion of treatment and mortality in an indigenous and non-indigenous population between 2002 and 2008 in Dourados, Brazil. A 90% reduction in non-completion of TB treatment was observed in the indigenous population after DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) implementation (20% vs 2%). In the non-indigenous population, the number of patients not completing TB treatment continued to increase. Non-indigenous TB patients had 4.5 times higher mortality than indigenous TB patients (9% vs 2%). In multivariate analysis, non-indigenous race [odds ratio (OR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.32-4.10] was associated with non-completion of TB treatment, and HIV-positive status (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.38-13.07) was associated with mortality. Implementation of DOTS in the indigenous populations in Dourados showed a significant reduction in non-completion of TB treatment. Nevertheless, a high rate of TB in children and young adults indicates the continuous transmission and maintenance of the epidemic in this community. Among the non-indigenous population, the TB case fatality rate is closely linked to the HIV prevalence. PMID:22365154
Full Text Available Indigenous Australian studies necessarily addresses emotionally-difficult topics related to race, history, colonialism and our identities as Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. As educators in this discipline, it is important for us to find teaching and learning approaches which make space for these topics to be accessed, understood, discussed and engaged with in meaningful ways. Problem-Based Learning (PBL, because of its emphasis on dialogic learning, is a pedagogical tool used in many Indigenous Australian studies classrooms in preference to other methods. In this presentation we want to explore the potential of PBL to allow personal and emotional responses to become accessible, dialogic and discursive, so that the resulting new awareness translates into practical action and change. We will focus on a practice-based initiative which involves the implementation of PBL in a first year introductory course at The University of Queensland and provide practical guidance on the incorporation of PBL in curriculum development.
Pert, Petina L; Ens, Emilie J; Locke, John; Clarke, Philip A; Packer, Joanne M; Turpin, Gerry
With growing international calls for the enhanced involvement of Indigenous peoples and their biocultural knowledge in managing conservation and the sustainable use of physical environment, it is timely to review the available literature and develop cross-cultural approaches to the management of biocultural resources. Online spatial databases are becoming common tools for educating land managers about Indigenous Biocultural Knowledge (IBK), specifically to raise a broad awareness of issues, identify knowledge gaps and opportunities, and to promote collaboration. Here we describe a novel approach to the application of internet and spatial analysis tools that provide an overview of publically available documented Australian IBK (AIBK) and outline the processes used to develop the online resource. By funding an AIBK working group, the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS) provided a unique opportunity to bring together cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary and trans-organizational contributors who developed these resources. Without such an intentionally collaborative process, this unique tool would not have been developed. The tool developed through this process is derived from a spatial and temporal literature review, case studies and a compilation of methods, as well as other relevant AIBK papers. The online resource illustrates the depth and breadth of documented IBK and identifies opportunities for further work, partnerships and investment for the benefit of not only Indigenous Australians, but all Australians. The database currently includes links to over 1500 publically available IBK documents, of which 568 are geo-referenced and were mapped. It is anticipated that as awareness of the online resource grows, more documents will be provided through the website to build the database. It is envisaged that this will become a well-used tool, integral to future natural and cultural resource management and maintenance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Caring for Country' is defined as Indigenous participation in interrelated activities with the objective of promoting ecological and human health. Ecological services on Indigenous-owned lands are belatedly attracting some institutional investment. However, the health outcomes associated with Indigenous participation in 'caring for country' activities have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to pilot and validate a questionnaire measuring caring for country as an Indigenous health determinant and to relate it to an external reference, obesity. Methods Purposively sampled participants were 301 Indigenous adults aged 15 to 54 years, recruited during a cross-sectional program of preventive health checks in a remote Australian community. Questionnaire validation was undertaken with psychometric tests of internal consistency, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory one-factor congeneric modelling. Accurate item weightings were derived from the model and used to create a single weighted composite score for caring for country. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to test associations between the caring for country score and body mass index adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results The questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest validity and proxy-respondent validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the 'caring for country' items produced a single factor solution that was confirmed via one-factor congeneric modelling. A significant and substantial association between greater participation in caring for country activities and lower body mass index was demonstrated. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours, an inter-quartile range rise in caring for country scores was associated with 6.1 Kg and 5.3 Kg less body weight for non-pregnant women and men respectively. Conclusion This study indicates preliminary support for
Katherine A Thurber
Full Text Available Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to be obese and experience chronic disease in adulthood--conditions linked to being overweight in childhood. Birthweight and prenatal exposures are associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI in other populations, but the relationship is unclear for Indigenous children. The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children is an ongoing cohort study of up to 1,759 children across Australia. We used a multilevel model to examine the association between children's birthweight and BMI z-score in 2011, at age 3-9 years, adjusted for sociodemographic and maternal factors. Complete data were available for 682 of the 1,264 children participating in the 2011 survey; we repeated the analyses in the full sample with BMI recorded (n=1,152 after multilevel multiple imputation. One in ten children were born large for gestational age, and 17% were born small for gestational age. Increasing birthweight predicted increasing BMI; a 1-unit increase in birthweight z-score was associated with a 0.22-unit (95% CI:0.13, 0.31 increase in childhood BMI z-score. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant increase (0.25; 95% CI:0.05, 0.45 in BMI z-score. The multiple imputation analysis indicated that our findings were not distorted by biases in the missing data. High birthweight may be a risk indicator for overweight and obesity among Indigenous children. National targets to reduce the incidence of low birthweight which measure progress by an increase in the population's average birthweight may be ignoring a significant health risk; both ends of the spectrum must be considered. Interventions to improve maternal health during pregnancy are the first step to decreasing the prevalence of high BMI among the next generation of Indigenous children.
Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg;
In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within...... the digitalization process under the limitations and capabilities of the tools. We believe that a continuation of local appropriation and co-design of tools will lead to an integrated, intuitive and non-intrusive indigenous knowledge preservation process within the local communities....
Jay Maddock; Nicole K. Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous ...
Full Text Available This paper articulates the human rights violation of the minority group of Aborigines Community in Australia. Australia has ratified the International Committee for Elimination of Racial Discrimination (ICERD, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, and other human rights doctrines that protect the rights of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders; however the Government of Australia from its inception have done little to ensure that those political protections are effective in ensuring the genuine protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. Most frequently cited is the failure of international laws to ensure the land and self-determination rights of these peoples. However, domestic law could undoubtedly ensure that these rights are in place, if the desire to do so is present within the Australian government.
d'Abbs, Peter; Brady, Maggie
This paper examines the policy response of Australian governments to petrol sniffing in Indigenous communities from the 1980s until the present. During this period, despite the formation of numerous inquiries, working parties and intergovernmental committees, there has been little accumulation of knowledge about the nature and causes of sniffing, or about the effectiveness of interventions. Policies are fragmentary; programmes are rarely evaluated, and most rely on short-term funding. The paper sets out to explain why this should be so. It draws upon a conceptual framework known as 'analytics of government' to examine the ways in which petrol sniffing comes to the attention of government agencies and is perceived as an issue; the mechanisms deployed by governments to address petrol sniffing; ways in which knowledge about sniffing is generated; and the underlying assumptions about people that inform policy-making. Drawing upon case studies of policy responses, the paper argues that a number of structural factors combine to marginalize petrol sniffing as an issue, and to encourage reliance on short-term, one-off interventions in place of a sustained policy commitment. Four recommendations are advanced to help overcome these factors: (1) agreements should be reached within and between levels of government on steps to be taken to reduce risk factors before the eruption of petrol-sniffing crises; (2) the evidence base relevant to petrol sniffing (and other inhalants) should be improved by funding and directing one or more existing national drug research centres to collate data on inhalant-caused mortality and morbidity, and to conduct or commission research into prevalence patterns, effectiveness of interventions and other gaps in knowledge; (3) the current pattern of short-term, pilot and project funding should be replaced with longer-term, evidence-based interventions that address the multiple risk and protective factors present in communities; and (4) insistence by
Scoggins, Scott; Steinman, Erich
The presence of urban Indian communities and American Indian tribal nations in and near metropolitan areas creates tremendous potential for expanding campus-community collaborations regarding teaching, research, and service. However, many challenges must be addressed, including acknowledging the colonial context of relations between indigenous and…
Full Text Available In the Indigenous Australian oral culture, Tradition and Law are transmitted orally – through songs, tales, legends, etc. – and by visual expressions – engravings and drawings made on rocks, on the ground, on material objects, on bark and on the human body–. Drawings and engravings transform the surface on which they are made from profane to sacred, since they are the transmitters of cultural myths and beliefs, generation after generation. The body, one of the supports of visual expression, actively participates in the transmission of myths, relegating the design to a secondary place. The most important thing is the transmission of the myth and not the way it is transmitted, or the result. The mythological narrative or legend surpasses the aesthetic line of vision. This paper intends to expose the primacy of the use of the body -- human or not–, as a transmitter of the myths and history of the Indigenous Australian culture. In this way the body speaks a non-oral language full of symbolism and meaning.
This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.
Riley, Tasha; Webster, Amanda
In 2011 to 2012, 48 schools in the Northern Territory, South Australia and Queensland participated in the Principals as Literacy Leaders with Indigenous Communities (PALLIC) project. Central to this project was the establishment of positive working relationships between school principals and Indigenous community leaders in order to improve…
Catherine J. Robinson
Full Text Available Indigenous peoples now engage with many decentralized approaches to environmental management that offer opportunities for integration of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK and western science to promote cultural diversity in the management of social-ecological system sustainability. Nevertheless, processes of combining IEK with western science are diverse and affected by numerous factors, including the adaptive co-management context, the intrinsic characteristics of the natural resources, and the governance systems. We present a typology of Indigenous engagement in environmental management, derived through comparative analysis of 21 Australian case studies, and consider its implications for the integration of IEK with western science. Sociological and rational choice institutionalism underpin our analytical framework, which differentiates on three axes: (1 power sharing, incorporating decision making, rules definition, resource values and property rights; (2 participation, incorporating participatory processes, organizations engaged, and coordination approaches; (3 intercultural purpose, incorporating purposes of environmental management, Indigenous engagement, Indigenous development and capacity building. Our typology groups engagement into four types: Indigenous governed collaborations; Indigenous-driven co-governance; agency-driven co-governance; and agency governance. From our analysis of manifestations of knowledge integration across the types, we argue that Indigenous governance and Indigenous-driven co-governance provides better prospects for integration of IEK and western science for sustainability of social-ecological systems. Supporting Indigenous governance without, or with only a limited requirement for power sharing with other agencies sustains the distinct Indigenous cultural purposes underpinning IEK, and benefits knowledge integration. We conclude by advocating that the typology be applied to test its general effectiveness in
In view of the limitations of mainstream Western psychology, the necessity of indigenous psychology for the development of global community psychology is discussed in the context of multiculturalism. In addition to this general introduction, four articles underlying a common theme were designed to discuss (a) various types of value conflicts…
Hamacher, Duane W
Descriptions of natural events, such as fireballs and meteorite impacts, are found within Indigenous Australian oral traditions. Studies of oral traditions demonstrate that they extend beyond the realm of myth and legend; they contain structured knowledge about the natural world (science) as well as historic accounts of natural events and geo-hazards. These traditions could lead to the discovery of meteorites and impact sites previously unknown to Western science. In addition to benefiting the scientific study of meteoritics, this study can help social scientists better understand the nature and longevity of oral traditions and further support the growing body of evidence that oral traditions contain historical accounts of natural events. In a previous study led by the author in 2009, no meteorite-related oral traditions were identified that led to the discovery of meteorites and/or impact craters. This paper challenges those initial findings.
CHEBANNE, Andy Monthusi
The indigenous communities of Botswana discussed in this paper are generally referred to as the Khoisan (Khoesan). While there are debates on the common origins of Khoisan communities, the existence of at least fi ve language families suggests a separate evolution that resulted in major grammatical and lexical differences between them. Due to historical confl icts with neighboring groups, they have been pushed far into the most inhospitable areas of the regions where they presently live. The ...
Inequity in service provision for Indigenous Australians with communication disability is an issue requiring urgent attention. In the lead article, Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall (2013) note that, even in the relatively affluent Minority World, including Australia, equity in service provision for people with communication disability has not been achieved. In remote communities in the Northern Territory (NT) almost all residents speak a language other than English as their primary language. However, there are no speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the NT who speak an Indigenous language or who share their cultural background. Specific data on the prevalence of communication disability in this population are unavailable due to a range of factors. The disability data that are available, for example, demonstrating the high level of conductive hearing loss, indicates that the risk of communication disability in this population is particularly high. Change is urgently needed to address current inequities in both availability of, and access to, culturally responsive services for Indigenous people with communication disability. Such change must engage Indigenous people in a collaborative process that recognizes their expertise in identifying both their needs and the most effective form of response to these needs. PMID:23072499
Fauzi, M. F.; Idris, N. H.; Din, A. H. M.; Osman, M. J.; Idris, N. H.; Ishak, M. H. I.
The citizen science program to supplement authoritative data in tree inventory has been well implemented in various countries. However, there is a lack of study that assesses correctness and accuracy of tree data supplied by citizens. This paper addresses the issue of tree data quality supplied by semi-literate indigenous group. The aim of this paper is to assess the correctness of attributes (tree species name, height and diameter at breast height) and the accuracy of tree horizontal positioning data supplied by indigenous people. The accuracy of the tree horizontal position recorded by GNSS-enable smart phone was found to have a RMSE value of ± 8m which is not suitable to accurately locate individual tree position in tropical rainforest such as the Royal Belum State Park. Consequently, the tree species names contributed by indigenous people were only 20 to 30 percent correct as compared with the reference data. However, the combination of indigenous respondents comprising of different ages, experience and knowledge working in a group influence less attribute error in data entry and increase the use of free text rather than audio methods. The indigenous community has a big potential to engage with scientific study due to their local knowledge with the research area, however intensive training must be given to empower their skills and several challenges need to be addressed.
Roberts-Thomson Kaye F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings
Ashman, A M; Collins, C E; Weatherall, L; Brown, L J; Rollo, M E; Clausen, D; Blackwell, C C; Pringle, K G; Attia, J; Smith, R; Lumbers, E R; Rae, K M
Indigenous Australians have high rates of chronic diseases, the causes of which are complex and include social and environmental determinants. Early experiences in utero may also predispose to later-life disease development. The Gomeroi gaaynggal study was established to explore intrauterine origins of renal disease, diabetes and growth in order to inform the development of health programmes for Indigenous Australian women and children. Pregnant women are recruited from antenatal clinics in Tamworth, Newcastle and Walgett, New South Wales, Australia, by Indigenous research assistants. Measures are collected at three time points in pregnancy and from women and their children at up to eight time points in the child's first 5 years. Measures of fetal renal development and function include ultrasound and biochemical biomarkers. Dietary intake, infant feeding and anthropometric measurements are collected. Standardized procedures and validated tools are used where available. Since 2010 the study has recruited over 230 women, and retained 66 postpartum. Recruitment is ongoing, and Gomeroi gaaynggal is currently the largest Indigenous pregnancy-through-early-childhood cohort internationally. Baseline median gestational age was 39.1 weeks (31.5-43.2, n=110), median birth weight was 3180 g (910-5430 g, n=110). Over one third (39.3%) of infants were admitted to special care or neonatal nursery. Nearly half of mothers (47.5%) reported tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Results of the study will contribute to knowledge about origins of chronic disease in Indigenous Australians and nutrition and growth of women and their offspring during pregnancy and postpartum. Study strengths include employment and capacity-building of Indigenous staff and the complementary ArtsHealth programme. PMID:27080434
Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma
The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia. PMID:22881383
Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu
This dissertation reports findings from a study documenting the use of multimedia technology among Indigenous language communities to assist language learners, speakers, instructors, and institutions learn about multimedia technologies that have contributed to Indigenous language revitalization, education, documentation, preservation, and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that fibrinogen and CRP are associated with coronary heart disease risk. High CRP in Indigenous Australians has been reported in previous studies including our 'Diabetes and Related diseases in Urban Indigenous population in Darwin region' (DRUID Study. We studied levels of fibrinogen and its cross-sectional relationship with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort. Methods Fibrinogen data were available from 287 males and 628 females (aged ≥ 15 years from the DRUID study. Analysis was performed for associations with the following risk factors: diabetes, HbA1c, age, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, blood pressure, heart rate, urine ACR, smoking status, alcohol abstinence. Results Fibrinogen generally increased with age in both genders; levels by age group were higher than those previously reported in other populations, including Native Americans. Fibrinogen was higher in those with than without diabetes (4.24 vs 3.56 g/L, p Conclusions Fibrinogen is associated with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this urban Indigenous cohort and may be a useful biomarker of CVD in this high-risk population. The apparent different associations of fibrinogen with cardiovascular disease risk markers in men and women should be explored further.
Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex
Despite a long history of gambling amongst many Indigenous peoples, knowledge about contemporary Indigenous gambling is sparse. In Australia, previous studies of Indigenous gambling have been severely limited in number, scope and rigour. The research reported in this paper is based on the first Indigenous-specific quantitative gambling research undertaken in Australia since 1996 and draws on the largest sample to date. This study examined numerous aspects of gambling among Indigenous Australi...
The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.
Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.
Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. Largely unsuccessful projects of assimilation have been the predominant outcome of indigenous communities' encounters with state schools, as many indigenous students fail to conform to mainstream cultural norms. This…
If you can't comply with dialysis, how do you expect me to trust you with transplantation? Australian nephrologists' views on indigenous Australians' 'non-compliance' and their suitability for kidney transplantation
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Indigenous Australians suffer markedly higher rates of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD but are less likely than their non-Indigenous counterparts to receive a transplant. This difference is not fully explained by measurable clinical differences. Previous work suggests that Indigenous Australian patients may be regarded by treating specialists as 'non-compliers', which may negatively impact on referral for a transplant. However, this decision-making is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate: whether Indigenous patients are commonly characterised as 'non-compliers'; how estimations of patient compliance factor into Australian nephrologists' decision-making about transplant referral; and whether this may pose a particular barrier for Indigenous patients accessing transplants. Methods Nineteen nephrologists, from eight renal units treating the majority of Indigenous Australian renal patients, were interviewed in 2005-06 as part of a larger study. Thematic analysis was undertaken to investigate how compliance factors in specialists' decision-making, and its implications for Indigenous patients' likelihood of obtaining transplants. Results Specialists commonly identified Indigenous patients as both non-compliers and high-risk transplant candidates. Definition and assessment of 'compliance' was neither formal nor systematic. There was uncertainty about the value of compliance status in predicting post-transplant outcomes and the issue of organ scarcity permeated participants' responses. Overall, there was marked variation in how specialists weighed perceptions of compliance and risk in their decision-making. Conclusion Reliance on notions of patient 'compliance' in decision-making for transplant referral is likely to result in continuing disadvantage for Indigenous Australian ESKD patients. In the absence of robust evidence on predictors of post-transplant outcomes, referral decision-making processes
Indigenous community resilience is rooted in the seasoned lifeways, developed over generations, incorporated into systems of knowledge, and realized in artifacts of infrastructure through keen observations of the truth and consequences of their interactions with the environment found in place over time. Their value lies, not in their nature as artifacts, but in the underlying patterns and processes of culture: how previous adaptations were derived and evolved, and how the principles and processes of detailed observation may inform future adaptations. This presentation examines how such holistic community approaches, reflected in design and practice, can be applied to contemporary issues of energy and housing in a rapidly changing climate. The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Plains seek to utilize the latest scientific climate modeling to support the development of large, utility scale distributed renewable energy projects and to re-invigorate an indigenous housing concept of straw bale construction, originating in this region. In the energy context, we explore the potential for the development of an intertribal wind energy dynamo on the Great Plains, utilizing elements of existing federal policies for Indian energy development and existing federal infrastructure initially created to serve hydropower resources, which may be significantly altered under current and prospective drought scenarios. For housing, we consider the opportunity to address the built environment in Indian Country, where Tribes have greater control as it consists largely of residences needed for their growing populations. Straw bale construction allows for greater use of local natural and renewable materials in a strategy for preparedness for the weather extremes and insurance perils already common to the region, provides solutions to chronic unemployment and increasing energy costs, while offering greater affordable comfort in both low and high temperature extremes. The development of large
Rodríguez-Burgos, Lilian Patricia; Rodríguez-Castro, Jennifer; Bojacá-Rodríguez, Sandra Milena; Izquierdo-Martínez, Dwrya Elena; Amórtegui-Lozano, Allain Alexander; Prieto-Castellanos, Miguel Angel
The purpose of this article is to analyze the psycho-cultural processes involved in knitting “mochilas” (traditional bags), a common craft in the Arhuaco indigenous community located in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. The article is structured in three parts, as follows: first, issues related to child development are discussed; then, the analysis method used to study the processes involved in the practice of knitting is presented and, finally, we reflect on the importance of recovering the sense and meaning of this everyday practice as a way to study child development. PMID:27298634
Lilian Patricia Rodríguez-Burgos
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the psycho-cultural processes involved in knitting “mochilas” (traditional bags, a common craft in the Arhuaco indigenous community located in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. The article is structured in three parts, as follows: first, issues related to child development are discussed; then, the analysis method used to study the processes involved in the practice of knitting is presented and, finally, we reflect on the importance of recovering the sense and meaning of this everyday practice as a way to study child development.
Jamieson Lisa M
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189 were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP
Subject of this paper is muslim population in Croatia. Its unique position as community of muslim immigrants with indigenous European origin give us plenty of research opportunities. Long history of contacts between muslims and christians on Croatian-Bosnian border evolved in many ways and resulted with today's reality that muslims are part of Croatian society. In modern age, since austrian occupation of Bosnia in 1878. bosnian muslims came to Croatia as workers, refugees, members of state apparatus, students etc. Their descendants are now Croatian citizens in third and fourth generation. Muslims managed to establish formal islamic community. On the personal level, they mix their feeling of belonging with feeling of origin. They act as equal part of Croatian society on whole range of social levels.
This paper describes the intersection of the cooperative movement and Indigenous communities in Canada. The paper brings a lens of nation and race to an analysis of the cooperative movement in Canada, a perspective that has received limited attention in published literature. Cooperatives have had a dual role in Indigenous communities. The history of Indigenous cooperative development in Canada is inseparable from historical government colonization policies. In the current context, cooperative...
Urrieta, Luis, Jr.
This article explores how children and youth learned indigenous heritage "saberes" (knowings) through intent community participation in Nocutzepo, Mexico. The "familia" (family) and "comunidad" (community)-based saberes were valuable for skills acquisition, but most important for learning indigenous forms of…
Aguilera, Dorothy; LeCompte, Margaret D.
This article examines the experiences of three Indigenous communities with language immersion models in preschool through 12th grades to revitalize and preserve their native languages through ethnographic research design and methods. The history and implementation of language instruction in three Indigenous communities are summarized. The analysis…
MacGill, Bindi Mary; Blanch, Faye
Schools have historically been a location of oppression for Indigenous students in Australian schools. This paper explores the processes of democratising (Giroux, 1992, p. 24) the school space by Aboriginal Community Education Officers (henceforward ACEOs) through an Indigenous ethics of care framework. The enactment of Indigenous ethics of care…
One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…
Donatuto, Jamie; Grossman, Eric E.; Konovsky, John; Grossman, Sarah; Campbell, Larry W.
This article describes a pilot study evaluating the sensitivity of Indigenous community health to climate change impacts on Salish Sea shorelines (Washington State, United States and British Columbia, Canada). Current climate change assessments omit key community health concerns, which are vital to successful adaptation plans, particularly for Indigenous communities. Descriptive scaling techniques, employed in facilitated workshops with two Indigenous communities, tested the efficacy of ranking six key indicators of community health in relation to projected impacts to shellfish habitat and shoreline archaeological sites stemming from changes in the biophysical environment. Findings demonstrate that: when shellfish habitat and archaeological resources are impacted, so is Indigenous community health; not all community health indicators are equally impacted; and, the community health indicators of highest concern are not necessarily the same indicators most likely to be impacted. Based on the findings and feedback from community participants, exploratory trials were successful; Indigenous-specific health indicators may be useful to Indigenous communities who are assessing climate change sensitivities and creating adaptation plans.
Durey, A; Wynaden, D; O'Kane, M
This paper uses the 'intercultural space' as an educational strategy to prepare nurses to work respectfully with Indigenous patients in a forensic mental health context; offers an educational approach that introduces nurses to Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values, examines power relations in colonized countries between the dominant white cultural group and the Indigenous population and encourages nurses to critically reflect on their health care practice; and explores the intercultural space as a shared space between cultures fostering open and robust inquiry where neither culture dominates and new positions, representations and understandings can emerge. Given the disproportionately high number of Indigenous people imprisoned in colonized countries, this paper responds to research from Western Australia on the need to prepare forensic mental health nurses to deliver care to Indigenous patients with mental health disorders. The paper highlights the nexus between theory, research and education that can inform the design and implementation of programmes to help nurses navigate the complex, layered and contested 'intercultural space' and deliver culturally safe care to Indigenous patients. Nurses are encouraged to critically reflect on how beliefs and values underpinning their cultural positioning impact on health care to Indigenous patients. The paper draws on intercultural theory to offer a pedagogical framework that acknowledges the negative impacts of colonization on Indigenous health and well-being, repositions and revalues Indigenous cultures and knowledges and fosters open and robust inquiry. This approach is seen as a step towards working more effectively in the intercultural space where ultimately binary oppositions that privilege one culture over another and inhibit robust inquiry are avoided, paving the way for new, more inclusive positions, representations and understandings to emerge. While the intercultural space can be a place of struggle, tension
Lin, Man-Chiu Amay; Yudaw, Bowtung
This article suggests a theoretical framework for re-examining the complex relationship of language, literacy, and cultural practices, across multiple generations in the context of community-based Indigenous language revitalization. In the scholarship of Indigenous language revitalization and education, researchers have shifted from viewing…
Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kanowski, Leonard G; Kelly, Claire M; Langlands, Robyn L
Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations). The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful and appropriate by the
Kelly Claire M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations. The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience an overwhelming burden of chronic disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease (inflammation of the tissues surrounding teeth is also widespread, and may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases via pathogenic inflammatory pathways. This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease, and determine if intensive periodontal therapy improves these measures over a 12 month follow-up. The aims of the study are: (i to determine whether there is a dose response relationship between extent and severity of periodontal disease and measures of vascular health and inflammation among Indigenous Australian adults with moderate to severe periodontal disease; and (ii to determine the effects of periodontal treatment on changes in measures of vascular health and inflammation in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design This study will be a randomised, controlled trial, with predominantly blinded assessment of outcome measures and blinded statistical analysis. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits (with the intervention delayed 12 months in participants who are randomised to the control arm. Participants will be Indigenous adults aged ≥25 years from urban centres within the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants assessed to have moderate or severe periodontal disease will be randomised to the study's intervention or control arm. The intervention involves intensive removal of subgingival and supragingival calculus and plaque biofilm by scaling and root-planing. Study visits at baseline, 3 and 12 months, will incorporate questionnaires, non-fasting blood and urine samples, body measurements, blood pressure, periodontal assessment and non-invasive measures of vascular health (pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness. Primary outcome
Reid, Jo-Anne; Santoro, Ninetta
The identity work engaged in by Indigenous teachers in school settings is highlighted in a study of Australian Indigenous teachers. The construction of identity in home and community relationships intersects with and can counteract the take up of a preferred identity in the workplace. In this paper we analyse data from interviews with Indigenous…
Kim M Hare
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship
Full Text Available Abstract This article explores trends in social activism across Australian ethnic minority communities over a ten year period (1999-2009 and its relationship to indicators of social cohesion. It explores the impact of social modernisation in enabling the facilitation of effective grassroots campaigns on issues relevant the communities', and how they may influence public policy. Consideration is afforded to the impact on community participation with the rise of security policy on the national agenda, and significant events on domestic and global scales over a period which encompassed extraordinary acts of terrorism, irregular arrivals of asylum seekers, and unparalleled political and community confutation. It is asserted that participation in social activism is an important indicator of political empowerment within the dominant political structure, and could suitably enrich research into social cohesion in Australia. Keywords: political participation, public policy, social activism, social cohesion, social modernisation
Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled
"Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.
Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled
"Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people. PMID:26887312
This article analyses an online forum on Indigenous Community-Based Economic Development (CED), in which twenty-two participants from Canada and Latin America shared and reflected on experiences ranging from cultural tourism in Bolivia to a food processing co-op in Northern British Columbia. The forum demonstrated that at least some Indigenous peoples in Canada and Latin America share common values that guide the kind of development they want in their territories and communities; and that the...
Salem Hasn Abukres
Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.
Riggs, Eric M.
The purpose of this study is to propose a framework drawing on theoretical and empirical science education research that explains the common prominent field-based components of the handful of persistent and successful Earth science education programs designed for indigenous communities in North America. These programs are primarily designed for adult learners, either in a postsecondary or in a technical education setting and all include active collaboration between local indigenous communities and geoscientists from nearby universities. Successful Earth science curricula for indigenous learners share in common an explicit emphasis on outdoor education, a place and problem-based structure, and the explicit inclusion of traditional indigenous knowledge in the instruction. Programs sharing this basic design have proven successful and popular for a wide range of indigenous cultures across North America. We present an analysis of common field-based elements to yield insight into indigenous Earth science education. We provide an explanation for the success of this design based in research on field-based learning, Native American learning styles research, and theoretical and empirical research into the nature and structure of indigenous knowledge. We also provide future research directions that can test and further refine our understanding of best practices in indigenous Earth science education.
Marsh Robyn L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media is endemic in remote Indigenous communities of Australia’s Northern Territory. Alloiococcus otitidis is an outer ear commensal and putative middle ear pathogen that has not previously been described in acute otitis media (AOM in this population. The aims of this study were to determine the presence, antibiotic susceptibility and bacterial load of A. otitidis in nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs collected from Indigenous Australian children with AOM with perforation. Methods Paired nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs from 27 children with AOM with perforation were tested by A. otitidis quantitative PCR (qPCR. Positive swabs were cultured for 21 days. Total and respiratory pathogen bacterial loads in A. otitidis-positive swabs were determined by qPCR. Results A. otitidis was detected by qPCR in 11 ear discharge swabs from 10 of 27 (37% children, but was not detected in paired nasopharyngeal swabs. A. otitidis was cultured from 5 of 11 qPCR-positive swabs from four children. All A. otitidis isolates had minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with macrolide resistance. All A. otitidis qPCR-positive swabs were culture-positive for other bacteria. A. otitidis bacterial load ranged from 2.2 × 104-1.1 × 108 cells/swab (median 1.8 × 105 cells/swab. The relative abundance of A. otitidis ranged from 0.01% to 34% of the total bacterial load (median 0.7%. In 6 of 11 qPCR-positive swabs the A. otitidis relative abundance was A. otitidis bacterial load and relative abundance measures were comparable to that of Haemophilus influenzae. Conclusions A. otitidis can be a dominant species in the bacterial communities present in the ear discharge of Indigenous children with AOM with perforation. The absence of A. otitidis in nasopharyngeal swabs suggests the ear canal as the likely primary reservoir. The significance of A. otitidis at low relative abundance is unclear; however, at higher relative
Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne
Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…
Phil O′B. Lyver
Full Text Available Efforts to resolve indigenous peoples′ grievances about the negative impacts of protected areas established on their customary estates by governments are driving the development of shared governance and management. The Tϋhoe people have sought that the settlement of their grievances against the New Zealand government include unencumbered rights to manage Te Urewera, guided by scientific and traditional knowledge and practices, for conservation and social benefits for the Tϋhoe people and the broader public. We led a study tour to allow Tϋhoe and other Mβori representatives to gain first-hand experience of long-standing jointly managed protected areas in Australia that the New Zealand government had drawn on in proposing mechanisms to resolve the Tϋhoe claim. We found that these areas were a poor fit to the study tour participants′ aspirations that indigenous world views would underpin governance and that indigenous people would be empowered. Our findings highlight that settlement must be transformational in terms of attitudes and relationships. Collaborative problem-solving processes that build trust can contribute. In areas like Te Urewera, where tenure boundaries fragment a landscape that is a coherent whole in indigenous world views, settlement processes can offer the prospect of landscape-scale outcomes for social justice and conservation.
Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin
We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409
Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia
In this article, we propose to approach Indigenous education beyond the formal/non-formal dichotomy. We argue that there is a critical need to conscientiously include Indigenous knowledge in education processes from the school to the community; particularly, when formal systems exclude Indigenous cultures and languages. Based on ethnographic…
Butterworth, Brian; Reeve, Robert; Reynolds, Fiona; Lloyd, Delyth
Are thoughts impossible without the words to express them? It has been claimed that this is the case for thoughts about numbers: Children cannot have the concept of exact numbers until they know the words for them, and adults in cultures whose languages lack a counting vocabulary similarly cannot possess these concepts. Here, using classical methods of developmental psychology, we show that children who are monolingual speakers of two Australian languages with very restricted number vocabular...
García, Alfredo; Guzzo, Christina M
This study surveyed the dental health of three Costa Rican indigenous populations and two rural, non-indigenous communities. Sixty-six individuals, both children and adults, were interviewed regarding dental hygiene practices and the dentition of eighty-eight children from the ages of two to thirteen was examined. The indigenous populations, on average, showed a more important number of anterior dental pathologies as compared to a non-indigenous group (42% vs 20%). Collectively, both access to and utilization of dental healthcare were worse within the indigenous communities; however, there was still great variation amongst all five sites. PMID:18523604
Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.
This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Using the Chronic Care Model as a framework, we carried out a mail-out survey to collect information on material, financial and human resources relating to chronic illness care in participating health centres. Follow up face-to-face interviews with health centre staff were conducted to identify successes and difficulties in the systems in relation to providing chronic illness care to community members. Results Participating health centres had distinct areas of strength and weakness in each component of systems: 1 organisational influence – strengthened by inclusion of chronic illness goals in business plans, appointment of designated chronic disease coordinators and introduction of external clinical audits, but weakened by lack of training in disease prevention and health promotion and limited access to Medicare funding; 2 community linkages – facilitated by working together with community organisations (e.g. local stores and running community-based programs (e.g. "health week", but detracted by a shortage of staff especially of Aboriginal health workers working in the community; 3 self management – promoted through patient education and goal setting with clients, but impeded by limited focus on family and community-based activities due to understaffing; 4 decision support – facilitated by distribution of clinical guidelines and their integration with daily care, but limited by inadequate access to and support from specialists; 5 delivery system
O'Brien, Anthony Tony
Indigenous psychiatric morbidity, whilst culturally different in presentation to white communities has been suggested to run at a mean prevalence rate of 13.5% of the major disorders found in non-Indigenous communities. This paper discusses the socio-political and cross cultural issues to do with mental health for Australian Indigenous from a non-Indigenous perspective. The paper is particularly concerned with the effects of racism on Indigenous mental health and how racism effectively limits Indigenous people from full participation in the pluralist mainstream. Racism has been seen to be a major contributor to mental illness. The scope of this paper addresses the issue of transforming mainstream culture as well as highlighting the need for protection, participation and collaborative involvement in mental health service delivery. PMID:16594878
This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas (Mexico) and Lencan communities in Intibuca (Honduras). Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential…
Bwagalilo Fadhilia; Evarist Liwa; Riziki Shemdoe
Indigenous knowledge (IK) regarding forests has existed for a long time and has defined community’s forests interaction in various areas. This interaction has resulted in knowledge developed by indigenous communities that has been used to manage their interaction with the forests. However, IK is often regarded as invalid and unreliable to use in forest management and its value has been eroded and replaced with western scientific knowledge for both production and conservation f...
Sara D Leonhardt
Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spec., revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia. Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association.
Full Text Available Aborigines and other Australians have not met with amity. Memorials to the Aboriginal people of Australia are not common and some of the more prominent are regularly damaged. Eddies of past tempests slap disturbingly at modern day memorials thousands of kilometres and several generations removed from the eye of furious storms. This article traces a difficult story of what seems at first sight to be blind racism, at a second sight, a rampant colonialism, and at a more reflective third, perhaps, the economy of the pastoralist and the farmer in deadly disharmony to that of the hunter gatherer. Whatever the origins, the consequences of conflict endure for centuries.
I Ketut Sardiana
Full Text Available AbstractCommunity-based ecotourism involves conservation, business, and community development. It is a subset of nature-based tourism that are owned and managed by the community and used to improve the well-being of its community members. Research conducted in Indigenous Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Bali. This paper examines the linkage of community participation in ecotourism with the conservation practices and perspectives. This study revealed that there is a positive linkage between community participation to their practices and perspective of conservation. This includes conservation of biodiversity environment and cultural heritage of the local community.
Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea
Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.
Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea
Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216507
Yeo, Soo See; Meiser, Bettina; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Katherine; Eisenbruch, Maurice
Ethnography was employed to investigate the hypothesis that the cultural meaning of cancer is one of the possible barriers to access of cancer services. The objectives were to identify indigenous terminologies, taxonomies and illness explanatory models of cancer in a community-based sample of 15 Chinese-Australians and a sample of 16 informants who had been recruited through two Sydney familial cancer clinics. Many of the informants included in their narrative terms that seemed to match Western biomedical explanations for cancer. The majority of informants also maintained traditional Chinese beliefs, despite high acculturation and beliefs in biomedical explanations about cancer. Explanations of illness including cancer, referred to the following concepts: (i) karma (yeh), (ii) retribution (bao ying), (iii) fate (ming yun) or Heaven's or God's will, (iv) geomancy (feng-shui), (v) touched evil (zhong chia), (vi) misfortune or bad luck (shui wan, dong hark); (vii) offending the gods or deities requiring prayers or offerings for appeasement; and (viii) kong-tau (spells invoked through human intervention). Taking into consideration the heterogeneity of the Chinese population, the findings provide an insight into Chinese illness conceptualization that may assist health professionals to develop an understanding of how the cultural explanatory models affect access to screening services, communication of diagnosis of cancer and management of treatment regimen. PMID:15386778
Mohkamsing-den Boer, Elizabeth Pieternella
This thesis offers a fresh interpretation on the way dreams function among two small-scale societies with a living oral tradition, viz. the Aborigines of Australia and the Amerindian communities of Suriname. It is based on pertinent literature on both communities, but supplemented by fresh fieldwork among certain Arawak and Kari'na communities of Suriname. This approach offers a comparative flavour to the present work. The focus in this book is on the facilitating function dreams appear to ha...
Lois M. Meyer
Full Text Available In an era when U.S. and Mexican teachers are valued more for their academic achievements than their community-based knowledge and local/ethnic identity (e.g. Teach for America, or its off-shoot, Teach for Mexico, this study provides initial results of a one-year (2011-2012 intensive professional development experience (called a diplomado for 35 indigenous teachers of Initial Education who are “teaching their own babies” in marginalized communities of Oaxaca, Mexico, as documented in portfolios of written and photographic evidence produced by the teachers as their final diplomado product. The goal was to enrich these local teachers' background knowledge and equip them with research skills to investigate and honor the communal practices, governance, and perspectives (known as comunalidad of the rural indigenous communities where they teach, in order to generate an authentic, community-based approach to Initial Education for pregnant mothers, babies and toddlers up to 3 years old – a ground-breaking alternative to the Mexican government’s homogeneous Initial Education approach. Early findings indicate that these Oaxacan indigenous teachers faced a complex of internal and external challenges in this radical, regenerative work: they are young, female, mostly novice teachers, they lack professional preparation, and they have confronted racism throughout their own lives, especially and intensely in Mexican public schools. In the process of documenting communal life and early childhood socialization practices in rural communities where they teach, they confronted their own (often uneasy biculturalism and bilingualism. “Communalizing” early education in indigenous Oaxaca involves reconstructing and revitalizing the indigenous identities and language use of children and teachers alike. Preparing these local indigenous teachers to “teach their own babies” is a challenging but invaluable and achievable task.
Mohkamsing-den Boer, Elizabeth Pieternella
This thesis offers a fresh interpretation on the way dreams function among two small-scale societies with a living oral tradition, viz. the Aborigines of Australia and the Amerindian communities of Suriname. It is based on pertinent literature on both communities, but supplemented by fresh fieldwork
Gabbe, B; Finch, C F; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K
The progress of injury prevention research in Australian football to date has been slow despite its recognition as a public health goal. In particular, field-based studies to identify injury risk factors and evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention strategies need to be undertaken to ensure safety gains in this sport. For these types of studies to be successful and complied with, considerable support is required from clubs, coaches and players. To date, the actual level of support for injury prevention research at the community-level of football has not been established. A survey of 82 club administrators and coaches from the Victorian Amateur Football Association was undertaken to determine the level of support for injury prevention research, along with incentives for, and barriers towards, participation in such research. The highest priorities for injury prevention research were given as the prevention of knee, hamstring and concussion injuries and investigation into the content of training programs. The most common incentives reported as being necessary for participation in injury prevention research were financial assistance (59.5%), more club staff (57.0%) and further education (36.7%). The most commonly reported barriers to research were the expertise (50.0%) and number of (48.8%) of club medical staff members. Overall community-level football club administrators and coaches rank the importance of injury prevention research highly. The findings of this study are positive for injury prevention researchers and suggest that clubs are keen to participate in such research.
Full Text Available Indigenous communities around the globe, totalling about 370 million people, are faced with the challenge of protecting their access and customary rights to ancestral lands and water resources. This challenge has several causes. Climate change, increased pollution, contamination and depletion of freshwater and groundwater resources worldwide can be identified as causes. In addition, the demand for water will become greater as consumption patterns lead to greater investment in the water-intensive industry and agriculture such as those resulting from the growing demand for biofuels, as well as demographic-related production and consumption patterns that lead to greater demand for fresh water. These developments create challenges for overall water consumption by the general population. With water already being scarce in some places and becoming scarcer in the future, protection of access to water for vulnerable groups such as indigenous peoples has been becoming more relevant. This study takes indigenous peoples as the subject for investigating the human right to water. It reaches several conclusions, including that the human right to water applies to indigenous peoples, but more as individuals than as a group, and that the human right to water is just one part of a larger bundle of water rights which differ in content, legal bindingness and complaint mechanisms. This makes it difficult for this minority and marginalized community to actually assert these rights and shows that for effective protection of the rights of indigenous peoples, it is necessary to create a comprehensive and consistent system of rights.
Nkem, J.N.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Idinoba, M.E.; Bele, Y.M.; Sonwa, D.J.
The livelihood strategies of indigenous communities in the Congo Basin are inseparable from the forests, following their use of forest ecosystem goods and services (FEGS). Climate change is expected to exert impacts on the forest and its ability to provide FEGS. Thus, human livelihoods that depend o
D. Misiedjan; J. Gupta
Indigenous communities around the globe, totalling about 370 million people, are faced with the challenge of protecting their access and customary rights to ancestral lands and water resources. This challenge has several causes. Climate change, increased pollution, contamination and depletion of fre
Leung, S. Alvin; Chen, Ping-Hwa
This article examines the need to develop an indigenous counseling psychology in Chinese communities in Asia. The cross-cultural limitations and applications of counseling psychology are discussed, using the literature on multicultural counseling and competence as illustrations. The authors elaborate on the scope and nature of indigenous…
Sheptak, Russell Nicholas
This study of an indigenous community combines the use of archival documents with evidence from archaeological excavations to offer an anthropological analysis, drawing on the concepts of dialogics, doxa, and practice to show how we can understand historically obscured people and histories. A netwo
Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...
Full Text Available This paper examines how one indigenous community in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG views the social responsibility initiatives of OK Tedi Mining Ltd (OTML. This mining operation has been controversial since its inception, and various operators of the mine have sought to engage the community and to undertake a number of CSR-related projects. Insights gained from four focus groups amongst the Ok Tedi River indigenous communities show that while some members of the community are satisfied with the company’s efforts at the macro level, many have reservations about the effectiveness of the programs at the micro level on the village and family unit. The implementation of CSR activities are slow and in many instances do not effectively address stakeholder concerns.
Goodley, Dan; Lawthom, Rebecca
In contributing to this special issue of IJIE on inclusive communities, this paper explores the subjective heart and psychical workings of communities, which are firmly embedded in family, community and society. As countries all around the world are gripped by the rolling out of a psychology of the Global North--"Empire"--questions are raised…
Since 2001 there has been an increase in migration patterns by Indigenous families from remote communities to urban and semi-rural locations. Indigenous student emigration from remote Indigenous schools to urban and semi-rural schools is an emerging crisis as there are routinely inadequate service providers for Indigenous emigres. Migration away…
Adrián González-Romo; Juan Maldonado-Montalvo
Indigenous peoples of Guerrero show different tradeoffs in their ways of dealing with such adverse reality that afflicts them , first struggling to maintain the traditions and customs , using their customary community practices to maintain unity and confront the inhumane living conditions through what has been called community organization , considered part of the concept of social capital and the other institutions that do their thing trying to find solutions to this problem , however the me...
With the advancing issues relating to climate change, Fiji amongst other islands are in need of development to address these issues quickly. However, development must also relate to the socio-cultural aspects and avoid pacifying communities in their development. This project address these issues for a rural village in Fiji, proposing a design relevant to the indigenous community as well as a work process for developers.
Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio
Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where
Full Text Available Indigenous peoples of Guerrero show different tradeoffs in their ways of dealing with such adverse reality that afflicts them , first struggling to maintain the traditions and customs , using their customary community practices to maintain unity and confront the inhumane living conditions through what has been called community organization , considered part of the concept of social capital and the other institutions that do their thing trying to find solutions to this problem , however the methods collide and sometimes opposed. The community Assembly, the safety, the slaughter, the tequio are part of some of these practices, which despite maintained indigenous families living conditions have not improved substantially and increasingly is more noticeable migration in search of employment, in different scenarios. The majority indigenous population inhabiting the Amuzgos of Guerrero State, Mixtecos, Tlapanecos and Nahuas, looking each one with its own peculiarities, survive. Poverty, marginalization and physical-geographical conditions determine the circle of the dire living conditions of these indigenous people. As happened in 2013 with the tropical storm "Manuel", where we witnessed the way how adverse natural phenomena stick stronger to weaker.
T. Kehinde Adekunle
Full Text Available Central to the issue of resolution of any disputes is the mechanism adopted in handling it. Customary arbitration is, thus, one of the recognised methods of resolving disputes among the indigenes of Nigeria. Unlike the Western adversarial method of settling disputes under which the winner-takes-all, customary arbitration aimed at reconciling the parties to disputes after effecting settlement. The question, however, is whether customary arbitration has any relevance among Nigerian indigenous communities and whether it has made any impact on the maintenance of societal equilibrium. This paper, therefore, examined the issues involved in customary arbitration such as the ingredients that make it work, conditions of its validity and its effect on the state of the society with a view to making it work more effectively among the indigenes.
McDermott Robyn; Thompson Sandra; Weeramanthri Tarun; Connors Christine; Anderson Ian; Nagel Tricia; Scrimgeour David J; Rowley Kevin; Semmens James; Shannon Cindy; Si Damin; Bailie Ross; Burke Hugh; Moore Elizabeth; Leon Dallas
Abstract Background Strengthening primary health care is critical to reducing health inequity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Audit and Best practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE) project has facilitated the implementation of modern Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) approaches in Indigenous community health care centres across Australia. The project demonstrated improvements in health centre systems, delivery of primary care services and in patient intermedia...
Lori E. A. Bradford
Full Text Available Background: Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective: The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design: A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar. Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results: Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000–2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada. Studies were quantitative (8, qualitative (5 or mixed (3 and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of “health” was given (14/16, and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16. Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions: Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a
Bradford, Lori E. A.; Bharadwaj, Lalita A.; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L.
Background Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000–2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative (8), qualitative (5) or mixed (3) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of “health” was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store
This article features the museums of Oaxaca, the place where the community museum movement in Mexico got started. Oaxaca has the largest Indigenous population in Mexico, with about 36.6% of the population over five years old, or about 1.027 million people, speaking an Indigenous language. Tourists spend large amounts on group or personalized tours…
Tim Michiel Oosterveer
Full Text Available Background: Despite many improvements, health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Canada's North persist. While a strong primary health care (PHC system improves the health of a population, the majority of indigenous communities are very remote, and their access to PHC services is likely reduced. Understanding the challenges in accessing PHC services in these communities is necessary to improve the health of the population. Objective: The objective of the study was to document and analyze the challenges in accessing PHC services by indigenous people in remote communities in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT from the perspectives of users and providers of PHC services. Methods: Using explorative, qualitative methods, our study involved 14 semi-structured interviews with PHC service providers (SPs and service users (SUs in 5 communities across the NWT which varied according to population, remoteness, ethnic composition and health care resources. The interview guide was developed after key informant consultations. Results: Both SPs and SUs understood the constraints in providing equitable access to PHC services in remote communities. The provision of emergency care was found to be particularly challenging, because of the lack of qualified staff in the community and the dependence on aeromedical evacuations. Wider dissemination of first aid skills among community members was seen to cover some gaps and also increase self-confidence. For non-emergency care, the need to travel outside the community was generally disliked. All recognized the need for more preventive services which were often postponed or delayed because of the overwhelming demand for acute care. As long as services were provided in a community, the satisfaction was high among SUs. SPs appreciated the orientation they received and the ability to build rapport with the community. Conclusions: Northern SUs and SPs generally acknowledge the health
Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao
Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance. PMID:27023388
In 2005 the Centre for Contemporary Photography in Melbourne presented the Indigenous photo-media exhibition Black on White. Promising to explore Indigenous perspectives on non-Aboriginality, its catalogue set forth two questions: how do Aboriginal artists see the people and culture that surrounds t
Pharo, Emma; Davison, Aidan; McGregor, Helen; Warr, Kristin; Brown, Paul
We report on the establishment of communities of practice at four Australian institutions and evaluate their effectiveness and durability as a means of building staff and institutional capacity for interdisciplinary teaching. A community of practice approach is a potentially valuable methodology for overcoming dynamics of fragmentation, isolation…
Cabada, Miguel M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lopez, Martha; Caravedo, María Alejandra; Arque, Eulogia; White, Arthur Clinton
Fasciola hepatica is a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution. Autochthonous cases have not been reported in the Amazon region of Peru. Operculated eggs resembling F. hepatica were identified in the stools of five out of 215 subjects in a remote indigenous community of the Peruvian jungle. Polymerase chain reaction targeting Fasciola hepatica cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and sequencing of the products confirmed Fasciola infection.
Carlos SABORÍO VÍQUEZ
Full Text Available The key areas that determine the food and nutrition security are: availability, access, consumption and biological utilization. For this reason it is necessary to promote the health of vulnerable groups, in this case, indigenous communities, protecting and establishing conditions to ensure the human right to food. The initial plan focuses ondeveloping facilities for small swine and poultry farms, familiar, non-commercial. The main objective of the pigs raised at the site will be the production of animal waste in order to implement digesters for the production of biogas as an alternative energy source, the production of meat stays in the background, thinking only about the community consumption and helping to ensure their food source, from this perspective, the technologies applied to rural and indigenous progress are environmentally friendly, socially just, economically viable and culturally acceptable. The theme of rural and indigenous Development is focused on their food security and the use of alternative energies, considering that energy is a key element in achieving sustainable development in all sectors, therefore sought from a broad perspective solidarity and actively promote greater and more rational use of energy and the environment in remote communities, through diversification of supply sources and efficient use, thereby contributing toenvironmental conservation and reduction of health problems through the use of appropriate technologies.
Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed.Keywords: Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community
Roder, Giulia; Ruljigaljig, Tjuku; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tarolli, Paolo
The purpose of this work is to investigate the natural hazard knowledge and risk perception of Wujie indigenous community, located in Fazhi Village in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. Taiwan has encountered many different types of natural hazards (e.g. landslides and debris flows) that have increased sharply in the last century. Because of that, they are one of the most critical issues for the government and for the people living in mountainous areas. These areas are mainly populated by indigenous people that have experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonizing periods causing a progressive loss of their original cultural identity. The motivation of selecting the case study of Wujie community is because (i) it has suffered, more than others, generations of devastating colonial oppression by foreign governments; (ii) the consequences of hydroelectric projects that moved a lot of water and sediment to the valley and modified the path of the river through the years; (iii) the documented landslides and debris flows occurred in the region during the last decades. Two questions appear spontaneously: How indigenous people are nowadays living with natural hazards? Have land use change or any other human footprint affected their knowledge and perception on natural hazards? This research, the first carried out in Taiwan involving an indigenous community, can offer a unique opportunity to answer these questions. The investigation utilized a variety of participatory methods conducted at the household and community level by the use of 65 face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that residents felt a higher worry about landslide and flood risks, and a slight preparedness to face them. This discrepancy may derive from an unsatisfactory level of communication and information, and the most considerable differences were found between the evaluations of individual subjects as opposed to overall communities. Results revealed also the complexity
Lois M. Meyer
In an era when U.S. and Mexican teachers are valued more for their academic achievements than their community-based knowledge and local/ethnic identity (e.g. Teach for America, or its off-shoot, Teach for Mexico), this study provides initial results of a one-year (2011-2012) intensive professional development experience (called a diplomado) for 35 indigenous teachers of Initial Education who are “teaching their own babies” in marginalized communities of Oaxaca, Mexico, as documented in portfo...
Hugo Florencio Centurión Mereles
Full Text Available The Word offers us a critical glance about the economic and socio-cultural impacts of the transgenic crops in peasant and indigenous communities of the eastern region of Paraguay, it is given special attention to the use of Roundup, with the undoubted environment cost and the uncertain risks to human and animal health. The impacts and interactions that the techno-commoditization of the organisms genetically modified OGM have on the affected populations and the environment-species, soil, water, woods, flora, fauna is discussed in the Word.The extent of use of glyphosate on transgenic crops would involve not only the environment of the crop, but go to generate profound cultural changes, technological, of management, environmental, economical, social and legal, whose effects we already see them come with the decline of peasant and indigenous communities, that at not finding adequate strategies to face them, collapse as collectivity. The Word contains important elements to renew the debate and the critical thought in relation to the problematic of transgenic crop and its impact in indigenous and peasant populations.
Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn
Background Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Healt...
In general terms, Amazonian soils are infertile and have several constraints for agricultural production. However, use by ancient human societies since pre-columbian times has driven landscape transformation of massive areas and development of anthropogenic soils called Terra Preta do Indio (TP) or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE). ADE characterization, in terms of fertility and composition, has allowed the development of intensive agricultural activities over time. The current use of ADE for the Brazilian amazon peasants (Caboclos) is different from the indigenous communities in Colombia. The indigenous people in Colombia (Tikunas) no use this type of soils on behalf of cultural restrictions that avoid the use of ancient places. We are comparing the institutional conditions, migrations, social characterization and cultural factors that determine the use/no-use of these soils by the Amazonian societies.
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the attitudes of the Australian community to IVF by a reliable community poll. Cross-sectional surveys, conducted by telephone of a random sample of 650 Australians were undertaken. The sample was drawn from the residential phone numbers in the Australian electronic “White Pages” and stratified by geographical area with quotas controlled by gender and age to be representative of the Australian population. The participants were asked to answer to three questions about gender selection, and their response was measured as “yes-allowed,” “no-not allowed,” or “undecided” for each of the questions. Whilst 91% of respondents supported the use of IVF to help infertile couples, only 20% supported gender selection within IVF or for family balancing. When it came to the use of IVF only for gender selection, only 17% were in favour. This survey shows that Australian community overwhelmingly opposes gender selection for social reasons.
Enrique de la Montaña
Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.
On entering school, rural Australian children from Indigenous backgrounds are thrown into an unfamiliar environment, linguistically and culturally, which sets them up for failure. The author, working closely with elders and community in Alice Springs, has drawn on her considerable experience in both Indigenous education and TESOL to address this…
Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Mana...
Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.
The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…
Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.
This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE ben
Kim, Seong-Hye; Han, Hyo-Yeol; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Chul Woong; Yang, Ji-Won
Electrokinetic remediation has been successfully used to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals within soil. The electrokinetic process changes basic soil properties, but little is known about the impact of this remediation technology on indigenous soil microbial activities. This study reports on the effects of electrokinetic remediation on indigenous microbial activity and community within diesel contaminated soil. The main removal mechanism of diesel was electroosmosis and most of the bacteria were transported by electroosmosis. After 25 days of electrokinetic remediation (0.63 mA cm(-2)), soil pH developed from pH 3.5 near the anode to pH 10.8 near the cathode. The soil pH change by electrokinetics reduced microbial cell number and microbial diversity. Especially the number of culturable bacteria decreased significantly and only Bacillus and strains in Bacillales were found as culturable bacteria. The use of EDTA as an electrolyte seemed to have detrimental effects on the soil microbial activity, particularly in the soil near the cathode. On the other hand, the soil dehydrogenase activity was enhanced close to the anode and the analysis of microbial community structure showed the increase of several microbial populations after electrokinetics. It is thought that the main causes of changes in microbial activities were soil pH and direct electric current. The results described here suggest that the application of electrokinetics can be a promising soil remediation technology if soil parameters, electric current, and electrolyte are suitably controlled based on the understanding of interaction between electrokinetics, contaminants, and indigenous microbial community. PMID:20452646
Torri, Maria Costanza
Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings. PMID:21837643
Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E
Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On
Pandya, R. E.
The atmospheric and related sciences have one of the lowest rates of participation by American Indians of any physical science. This not only disadvantages the atmospheric sciences by isolating them from a rich and relevant intellectual heritage, it disadvantages tribal communities who seek to apply the insights from atmospheric sciences to planning their own future. In a time of rapid environmental change and its impact on tribal lands and all lands, the need for connection between these two communities is especially urgent. In 2007, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research launched a new Community Building Program, in order to catalyze and coordinate activities that contribute to UCAR's strategic goal of developing a diverse atmospheric science workforce. A key goal of this program has been to look for partnerships with the American Indian community around climate change issues. The goal of these partnerships is to support North American tribal efforts to enhance their own scientific and adaptive capacity around climate change. In the early stages of this partnership, we have listened to some important messages from Indigenous communities: •Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to identity and sovereignty • Scientific expertise is one among many skills indigenous people employ in their relation with their homelands • Climate change research and education are embedded in decision-making about economic development, energy, public health as well as cultural preservation, language, and tribal sovereignty This presentation will be an opportunity to check and extend these insights discuss and use them as a basis for a long-term partnership between UCAR and tribal communities.
Fortunato, María Susana; Fuentes Abril, Nancy Piedad; Martinefski, Manuela; Trípodi, Valeria; Papalia, Mariana; Rádice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith
Water from six points from the Riachuelo-Matanza basin was analyzed in order to assess ibuprofen biodegradability. In four of them biodegradation of ibuprofen was proved and degrading bacterial communities were isolated. Biodegradation in each point could not be correlated with sewage pollution. The indigenous bacterial community isolated from the point localized in the La Noria Bridge showed the highest degradative capacity and was selected to perform batch and continuous degradation assays. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the community consisted of Comamonas aquatica and Bacillus sp. In batch assays the community was capable of degrading 100 mg L(-1) of ibuprofen in 33 h, with a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.21 h(-1). The removal of the compound, as determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exceeded 99% of the initial concentration, with a 92.3% removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In a down-flow fixed-bed continuous reactor, the community shows a removal efficiency of 95.9% of ibuprofen and 92.3% of COD for an average inlet concentration of 110.4 mg. The reactor was kept in operation for 70 days. The maximal removal rate for the compound was 17.4 g m(-3) d(-1). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe biofilm development in the reactor. The ability of the isolated indigenous community can be exploited to improve the treatment of wastewaters containing ibuprofen. PMID:26905769
Narit Thaochan; Richard A.I. Drew; Anuchit Chinajariyawong; Anurag Sunpapao; Chaninun Pornsuriya
The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria w...
Wilson, Annabelle M.; Mehta, Kaye; Miller, Jacqueline; Yaxley, Alison; Thomas, Jolene; Jackson, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda; Miller, Michelle D.
This article describes a review undertaken in 2012-2013 by Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, to assess the Indigenous health curriculum of the Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (BND) and Masters of Nutrition and Dietetics (MND). An action research framework was used to guide and inform inquiry. This involved four stages, each of…
O'Toole, Kevin; Burdess, Neil
State and federal governments in Australia have developed a range of policy instruments for rural areas in Australia that are infused with a new sense of "community," employing leading concepts like social capital, social enterprise, community development, partnerships and community building. This has encouraged local people and organisations to…
Robert E. Rhoades; Virginia Nazarea
This paper discusses participatory research in the Andes and presents a case study in Cotacachi, Ecuador, where sustainability scientists and indigenous people seek common ground in their respective but drastically different research and social agendas. Participatory research based on Andean experiences pre-dated and inspired much of the later international movement in agriculture, health, and conservation. Andean communities have a long history in demanding that outsiders address the needs of the community as a condition for carrying out scientific or applied activities. What an Andean community, however, sees as relevant may or may not practiced throughout much of the world. In fact,overzealous participatory researchers are just as bothersome as their predecessors bearing long questionnaires. More important to Andean people is an equitable relationship with researchers and developers in which exchanges of value are made. A research is drawn. In the case of the SANREM project in Cotacachi, Ecuador, scientists carried out enriching research activities of interest to local people as a way to generate social capital for conducting basic research which does not have an obvious, immediate local benefit. The requested research did not have a conventional participatory methodology but provided valuable products (educational opportunity,germplasm, community visualization tools, and information) to the indigenous community in exchange for time and resources to conduct research on more basic natural resource questions. We argue that in the Andean context the key to reconciling the needs of scientists and of local needs is seeking new forms of equitable collaboration which reach beyond the present and now somewhat tired discourse of ‘participation'.
Full Text Available We investigated the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in an indigenous Kariña population in eastern Venezuela. A total of 175 serum samples were collected in the community of Piñantal during February 2009. Interviews targeting socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with the T. cruzi transmission were also conducted. Samples were evaluated using trypomastigote excreted/secreted antigens (TESAs in an ELISA format. TESA-ELISA positive samples were confirmed by indirect haemagglutination (HAI (Wiener. A nonsystematic collection of vectors was also undertaken. T. cruzi seroprevalence was 7.43% according to both assays, and the mean age of infected patients was 48.61±10.40 years (range 34 to 73 years. The vector infection rate was 20.00% (2/10. T. cruzi seropositivity was associated with a history of triatomine bites, the ability to recognize the vector and poor knowledge about Chagas disease, but no associations were found with gender, house type, knowledge of how the disease is transmitted, or the presence of vectors or animals inside dwellings. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. cruzi in an indigenous population in eastern Venezuela. All of the epidemiological variables required for the establishment of active vectorial transmission of T. cruzi were present in this community.
Marcela Georgina Gómez Zermeño
Full Text Available This article shows the results of an exploratory-descriptive study on intercultural competencies in community instructors of the National Council for Educational Development (CONAFE providing service in the Modality of Educational Attention to the Indigenous Population (MAEPI in the region of San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas. It describes the historical background of Indian education in Mexico, and the contributions to community education, and develops concepts regarding intercultural education and intercultural competencies. The research methodology adopted a mixed method based on a non-experimental, trans-sectional and naturalistic ethnographic design of convergent triangulation. The conclusions outline the need to strengthen teacher training so as to build an educational model that would fully incorporate the intercultural approach.
Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities.
Full Text Available This article analyses an online forum on Indigenous Community-Based Economic Development (CED, in which twenty-two participants from Canada and Latin America shared and reflected on experiences ranging from cultural tourism in Bolivia to a food processing co-op in Northern British Columbia. The forum demonstrated that at least some Indigenous peoples in Canada and Latin America share common values that guide the kind of development they want in their territories and communities; and that their orientation toward collective and participatory approaches to development can be grouped together under the concept of CED. The article has two main conclusions. First, that CED can be understood as a potential path to Indigenous-defined development and complement to self-determination movements. Second, that online media is a viable option for creating spaces for learning and exchange between Indigenous peoples across national and language borders, with the potential to contribute to the creation of translocal networks.RÉSUMÉCet article analyse un forum en ligne sur les questions autochtones de développement économique communautaire (DEC, où vingt-deux participants du Canada et de l'Amérique latine partagé et réfléchi sur les expériences allant du tourisme culturel en Bolivie à un traitement coopérative alimentaire dans le Nord de la Colombie-Britannique. Le forum a démontré qu'au moins certains des peuples autochtones du Canada et de l'Amérique latine part des valeurs communs qui guident le type de développement qu'ils veulent dans leurs territoires et les communautés, et que leur orientation vers des approches collectives et participatives de développement peuvent être regroupés sous le concept de DEC. L'article a deux principales conclusions. Tout d'abord, que DEC peut être comprise comme une voie potentielle pour les communautés autochtones défini le développement et un complément de mouvements d'autodétermination. Deuxi
David Barton Bray; Elvira Duran; Oscar Molina
Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs) in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the im...
Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki
The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention
Roulis, Eileen; Bachmann, Nathan; Humphrys, Michael; Myers, Garry; Huston, Wilhelmina; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter
Background The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen, which has been found in a range of hosts including humans, marsupials and amphibians. Whole genome comparisons of human C. pneumoniae have previously highlighted a highly conserved nucleotide sequence, with minor but key polymorphisms and additional coding capacity when human and animal strains are compared. Results In this study, we sequenced three Australian human C. pneumoniae strains, tw...
Full Text Available While the notion that communities require resources in the form of financial capital for their development and wellbeing has long been recognised, it has become increasingly apparent that economic resources alone do not lead to community sustainability and wellbeing. The building and supporting of strong, safe, socially cohesive communities that embrace social connections and commitment, has become an important goal of policy and initiatives at all levels of government. The aims of this study were to identify a common understanding of the concept of ‘community cohesion’, and to develop a set of indicators based on both the experiences of residents in a rural community and the relevant contemporary academic literature. Because community cohesion is an intangible concept subject to multiple meanings, qualitative research methods were used. We identified four main themes which could be translated into the key indicators. The most significant finding is that neighbourliness was identified by participants as the key aspect of community cohesion. Yet, whilst it is central, this does not mean excessive familiarity or the taking of liberties. Indeed, part of neighbourliness involves respecting each other’s boundaries and respect for diversity.
Full Text Available In June 2007, the Australian federal government sent military and policy into Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory on the premise that sexual abuse of children was rampant and a national crisis. This article draws on Foucault’s work on sovereignty and rights to argue that patriarchal white sovereignty as a regime of power deploys a discourse of pathology in the exercising of sovereign right to subjugate and discipline Indigenous people as good citizens.
This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.
This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults. PMID:26881483
Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de
This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.
Lionel Frost; Margaret Lightbody; Abdel Halabi
Australian Football clubs have traditionally been seen as contributing social benefits to the rural communities in which they are embedded. Declining numbers of participants, both players and volunteers, suggest that this role may not be as strong today. Critical explorations of the extent to which football has driven social inclusion and exclusion in such environments emphasise a historic â€˜masculineâ€™ culture of drinking and violence that segregates and marginalises women and children. Le...
Powell, S M; Tamplin, M L
The role of specific spoilage organisms (SSO) in products such as Atlantic salmon has been well documented. However, little is known about what other micro-organisms are present and these organisms may indirectly influence spoilage by their interactions with the SS0. We used a combination of culture-based and DNA-based methods to explore the microbial communities found on Atlantic salmon fillets packed in a modified atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. After 15 days the communities were dominated by Shewanella spp. or Carnobacterium spp. and a variety of other genera were present in smaller numbers. Variability in the microbial community composition in packages processed on the same day was also observed. This was mostly due to differences in the presence of minor members of the community including species from genera such as Iodobacter, Serratia, Morganella and Yersinia. The combination of culture-based and culture-independent methods provided greater insight into the development of microbial communities on Atlantic salmon than would have been possible using only one method. This work highlights the potential importance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fresh Atlantic salmon stored under modified atmosphere conditions.
Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail; Magsumbol, Melina S
Traditional knowledge and nutritional value of indigenous foods of the Oraon tribal community in Jharkhand, India was explored. Focus group discussions were conducted with adult members to identify commonly consumed indigenous foods. Taxonomic classification and quantitative estimation of nutritive value were conducted in laboratories or utilized data from Indian food composition database. More than 130 varieties of indigenous foods were identified, many of which were rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A, and folic acid. Some were reported having medicinal properties. Utilization and ease of assimilation of indigenous foods into routine diets can be leveraged to address malnutrition in tribal communities.
This report presents an analysis of the nature of both indigenous and professionally sponsored community forest management systems in two districts in Tanzania. It describes various types of internally generated forest and tree management systems. It demonstrates that a gap exists between indige
MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel
The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes. PMID:24601916
Cinelli, Renata Leah; O'Dea, Jennifer A.
This study examines the relationship between body image and obesity, among 4367 indigenous and Anglo-European adolescents in Australia in 2006. It shows that indigenous adolescents, male and female, were more likely than their non-indigenous counterparts to desire and pursue weight gain. Indigenous males showed the greatest tendencies to gain…
Whatman, Susan L.; Singh, Parlo
Background: Over the last 20 years, curriculum development in Health and Physical Education (HPE) (or Physical Education, Physical Education and Health, Sport Education as it is variously called) has repeatedly attempted to address issues of equity and social inclusion. Why then does systemic educational disadvantage persist, and why do the…
Miller, Brant G.; Roehrig, Gillian
Opportunities for American Indian youth to meaningfully engage in school-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences have historically been inadequate. As a consequence, American Indian students perform lower on standardized assessments of science education than their peers. In this article we describe the emergence of meaning for students—as well as their community—resulting from Indigenous culturally-based STEM curriculum that used an American Indian tradition as a focal context. Specifically, the game of snow snakes (Gooneginebig in Ojibwe) afforded an opportunity for STEM and culturally-based resources to work in unison. A case study research design was used with the bounded case represented by the community associated with the snow snake project. The research question guiding this study was: What forms of culturally relevant meaning do students and the community form as a result of the snow snake game? Results indicate evidence of increased student and community engagement through culturally-based STEM experiences in the form of active participation and the rejuvenation of a traditional game. Implications are discussed for using culturally-based contexts for STEM learning.
Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Amir, Noor Farah Hani; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Mahmud, Rohela
This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75-4.04, P water supplies (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01-2.40, P = 0.050), and close proximity with cats (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10-1.76, P = 0.010) were factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among these communities who live in poor socioeconomic conditions, a comprehensive health surveillance program and screening should be initiated among women of childbearing age and pregnant women during the antenatal period for early diagnosis and treatment. The role of domestic cats and environmental contamination with oocyst in soil and water has to be highlighted and addressed in future prevention strategies for these communities. PMID:21976569
Stafford, Ciara A; Alarcon-Valenzuela, Javiera; Patiño, Javier; Preziosi, Richard F; Sellers, William I
Increasing pressure on tropical forests is continually highlighting the need to find new solutions that mitigate the impact of human populations on biodiversity. However, developing solutions that can tackle the drivers of anthropogenic pressure, or at least take them into account, hinges upon building a good understanding of the culture and perceptions of local people. This study aims to provide an overview of the ethnoprimatology of an indigenous Kichwa community in the Ecuadorian Amazon that maintains a traditional lifestyle but also has good access to markets. We examine whether primates are seen as a distinctive group and their relative importance as sources of bushmeat and as household pets. Pile-sorting exercises revealed that although locals generally group members of the order Primates together, tree-dwelling non-primates including sloths, coatis, kinkajous and tamanduas are also frequently classified as 'monkeys'. The perceived importance of primates to the forest and the community lay more in their potential as bushmeat, and only 1 respondent identified an ecological role for the group in terms of seed dispersal. Gaining a better understanding of local perceptions will allow for better-informed conservation decisions that are more aware of potential impacts and are more likely to gain community support. PMID:27093638
Stafford, Ciara A; Alarcon-Valenzuela, Javiera; Patiño, Javier; Preziosi, Richard F; Sellers, William I
Increasing pressure on tropical forests is continually highlighting the need to find new solutions that mitigate the impact of human populations on biodiversity. However, developing solutions that can tackle the drivers of anthropogenic pressure, or at least take them into account, hinges upon building a good understanding of the culture and perceptions of local people. This study aims to provide an overview of the ethnoprimatology of an indigenous Kichwa community in the Ecuadorian Amazon that maintains a traditional lifestyle but also has good access to markets. We examine whether primates are seen as a distinctive group and their relative importance as sources of bushmeat and as household pets. Pile-sorting exercises revealed that although locals generally group members of the order Primates together, tree-dwelling non-primates including sloths, coatis, kinkajous and tamanduas are also frequently classified as 'monkeys'. The perceived importance of primates to the forest and the community lay more in their potential as bushmeat, and only 1 respondent identified an ecological role for the group in terms of seed dispersal. Gaining a better understanding of local perceptions will allow for better-informed conservation decisions that are more aware of potential impacts and are more likely to gain community support.
Hamacher, Duane W
Parts of Australia have been privileged to see dazzling lights in the night sky as the Aurora Australis (known as the southern lights) puts on a show this year. Aurorae are significant in Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions. Aboriginal people associate aurorae with fire, death, blood, and omens, sharing many similarities with Native American communities.
The study made An Investigation Into The Attitudes Of The !Xun And Khwe Communities In Northern Cape, South Africa. Towards Protection Of Indigenous Knowledge Systems And Their Implications For Policy And Research. Taking into consideration the complexity of investigating the attitudes of these indigenous communities, the research followed a participatory and triangulation approach. In order to explore the personal experiences of the respondent community members, the researc...
Afonso, G. B.
We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.
Ehsani Jonathon P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Methods Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. Results The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US11,800 per unit. Conclusion Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should
Highlights: • Marine debris and marine wildlife entanglement remains a significant global issue. • We examined awareness of this issue in an Australian community sample. • Findings reveal gaps exist in terms of what entanglement is and the risks posed. • Enhancing community understanding may facilitate greater conservation action. • The ‘Seal the Loop’ initiative provides one potential mechanism for such education. - Abstract: Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative ‘Seal the Loop’ [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours)
Full Text Available National development based on indigenous knowledge of Thai society that conforms to utilizing local natural resources is a beneficial alternative that Thai government agencies have given priority and promotion with optimism towards the stability and security of Thai society. Obstacles for Krajood (Sedge handicrafts in Southern Thailand come from internal and external factors. Internal factors include shortage of local raw materials, limited processing tools that are inefficient and expensive to purchase and repair. External factors include the cheap price of low value massed produced products. Creative economics development through Krajood handicrafts in communities in Southern Thailand must include 1 Consolidation of knowledge, network marketing and diffusion of knowledge, 2 Practical government economic development policy for local communities, 3 Systematic Administration of handicraft manufacturing groups to increase efficiency, 4 design products that meet consumer requirements, 5 Products must be properly, 6 Direct and indirect support from manufacturers, entrepreneurs, government and private organizations in national and international market development and 7 Marketing support from all parties involved in advertisement and public broadcasts.
Full Text Available This paper aims to draw attention to the role that indigenous communities have historically fulfilled by practicing the values proposed in the Earth Charter upon its ancestral construction. The intention is to reflect on the fact that the principles stated in the Earth Charter have been intrinsically performed by these groups on a daily basis. That is, these groups become a role model because they respect life in all its diverse forms, promoting a democratic, participative, sustainable, and peaceful existence, which ensures, the balance of Earth to present and future generations. On the other hand, this paper analyzes the damage caused by human beings, through their unfriendly practices, to Latin American natural resources and therefore to the planet. Moreover, the human species is the only one able to reverse the damage caused. Based on this context, the hope is to place the human being as the center of the planetary system. This requires an education that raises awareness and contributes to the overall view of the problems and takes into account their short, medium, and long term consequences, not only for a community but also for the entire humankind.
Sayers Susan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study has been underway in Australia's Northern Territory since 1987. Inclusion of oral epidemiological information in a follow-up study required flexible and novel approaches with unconventional techniques. Documenting these procedures may be of value to researchers interested in including oral health components in remotely-located studies. The objectives are to compare and describe dental data collection methods in wave III of the ABC study with a more conventional oral health investigation. Methods The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH was considered the 'conventional' study. Differences between this investigation and the dental component of the ABC study were assessed in terms of ethics, location, recruitment, consent, privacy, equipment, examination, clinical data collection and replication. In the ABC study, recording of clinical data by different voice recording techniques were described and assessed for ease-of-use portability, reliability, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results Conventional investigation recruitment was by post and telephone. Participants self presented. Examinations took place in dental clinics, using customised dental chairs with standard dental lights attached. For all examinations, a dental assistant recorded dental data directly onto a laptop computer. By contrast, follow-up of ABC study participants involved a multi-phase protocol with reliance on locally-employed Indigenous advocates bringing participants to the examination point. Dental examinations occurred in settings ranging from health centre clinic rooms to improvised spaces outdoors. The dental chair was a lightweight, portable reclining camp chair and the dental light a fire-fighter's head torch with rechargeable batteries. The digital voice recorder was considered the most suitable instrument for clinical dental data collection in the ABC study in comparison with
Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Matkin, Elli; Laituri, Melinda J.; Toohey, Ryan C; Massey, Maggie; Kelly Elder,; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.
Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation research; however, the cultural dimensions of climate change are equally important because cultural dimensions inform perceptions of risk. Furthermore, many Arctic and Subarctic IK climate change studies document observations of change and knowledge of the elders and older generations in a community, but few include the perspectives of the younger population. These observations by elders and older generations form a historical baseline record of weather and climate observations in these regions. However, many indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities are composed of primarily younger residents. We focused on the differences in the cultural dimensions of climate change found between young adults and elders. We outlined the findings from interviews conducted in four indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska. The findings revealed that (1) intergenerational observations of change were common among interview participants in all four communities, (2) older generations observed more overall change than younger generations interviewed by us, and (3) how change was perceived varied between generations. We defined “observations” as the specific examples of environmental and weather change that were described, whereas “perceptions” referred to the manner in which these observations of change were understood and contextualized by the interview participants. Understanding the differences in generational observations and perceptions of change are key issues in the development of climate change adaptation strategies.
Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester
Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.
Thompson Sandra C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing or incorrect Indigenous status in health records hinders monitoring of Indigenous health indicators. Linkage of administrative data has been used to improve the ascertainment of Indigenous status. Data linkage was pioneered in Western Australia (WA and is now being used in other Australian states. This systematic review appraises peer-reviewed Australian studies that used data linkage to elucidate the impact of under-ascertainment of Indigenous status on health indicators. Methods A PubMed search identified eligible studies that used Australian linked data to interrogate Indigenous identification using more than one identifier and interrogated the impact of the different identifiers on estimation of Indigenous health indicators. Results Eight papers were included, five from WA and three from New South Wales (NSW. The WA papers included a self-identified Indigenous community cohort and showed improved identification in hospital separation data after 2000. In CVD hospitalised patients (2000–05, under-identification was greater in urban residents, older people and socially more advantaged Indigenous people, with varying algorithms giving different estimates of under-count. Age-standardised myocardial infarction incidence rates (2000–2004 increased by about 10%-15% with improved identification. Under-ascertainment of Indigenous identification overestimated secular improvements in life expectancy and mortality whereas correcting infectious disease notifications resulted in lower Indigenous/ non-Indigenous rate ratios. NSW has a history of poor Indigenous identification in administrative data systems, but the NSW papers confirmed the usefulness of data linkage for improving Indigenous identification and the potential for very different estimates of Indigenous disease indicators depending upon the algorithm used for identification. Conclusions Under-identification of Indigenous status must be addressed in health analyses
De Korne, Haley
The vitality of most Indigenous languages in North America, like minority languages in many parts of the world, is at risk due to the pressures of majority languages and cultures. The transmission of Indigenous languages through school-based programs is a wide-spread approach to maintaining and revitalizing threatened languages in Canada and the…
Rincón García, John Jairo
The present essay aims at generating an approximation to some of the constitutive elements of the conflict for land and territory in El Cauca department, as well as to the latent and manifest tensions existing between peasant and indigenous communities in connection with the land, the territory, education and health services, exacerbated since the campaign “Liberación de la Madre Tierra” took place. The article intends to contribute to the understanding of the aforementioned phenomenon. This ...
Peña-Venegas, C. P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.; Echeverri, J. A.; Struik, P.C.
Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information on these perceptions is scarce. We therefore examined how four indigenous communities in the Middle Caquetá River region in the Colombian Amazon classify and use natural and anthropogenic soils. The st...
Daza Ramos, Leidy Viviana
This study explores the integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into adult education for indigenous people. It does so through the analysis of a case study that focuses on an adult education program implemented in Guainía, Colombia in 2013. The overarching purpose of this study is to provide a clear understanding of the participants perceptions regarding ICTs integration into both their education and their communities. This study uses a qualitative research approach ...
@@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.
Byard, Roger W; Chivell, Wayne C
The investigation of death in traditional indigenous communities often involves 'men of high degree' performing rituals and procedures to ascertain whether sorcery has been involved. If this is the case then the perpetrator must be identified and suitable retribution or compensation sought. In Central Australia investigations into such deaths occur in 'sorry camps' which consist of temporary meeting camps distant from facilities and amenities. Delays in the issuing of autopsy reports may unnecessarily prolong the time that tribal members have to spend in these camps, and wording of standard autopsy reports may not assist tribal concerns over matters such as sorcery. An initiative in South Australia, following discussions with Aboriginal elders in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara tribal lands, has been to issue a one page provisional report as soon as possible after completion of the autopsy, listing the likely cause of death. This is sent to Aboriginal authorities through local health clinics. In addition, a statement that 'no sticks, stones, bones or other foreign objects were found within the body that would implicate another person in the death' is also included to inform tribal members that no physical evidence of magical interference with the body has been detected. Relatively minor alterations in standard forensic/coronial reporting practices may significantly assist certain groups whose cultural requirements may be under-appreciated and incompletely understood by investigating authorities.
Clarke, Peter; Evans, Susan H; Hovy, Eduard H
This study tested whether message tailoring of recipes and food-use tips for low-income households is superior to providing a generic version of the material. The field experiment was conducted in the busy conditions found at community food pantries, and included 10 food distributions at each of six sites. We analyzed the consumption of fresh vegetables 6 days following distributions, and retention of print materials 6 weeks later. Self-determination and reactance theories guided the development of tailoring in an indigenous fashion, allowing each pantry client to choose recipes and food tips thought personally useful. This contrasted against paternalistic tailoring, common in health communication, where a motivational theory is used to regulate the health messages given to recipients. Results demonstrated benefits of tailoring over both generic and control conditions and uncovered the degree of tailoring that produced the largest effects. As suggested by construal level theory, the intervention addressed recipients' immediate and concrete decisions about healthy eating, instead of distant or abstract goals like prevention of illnesses. We documented per-client costs of tailored information. Results also suggested that benefits from social capital at sites offering a health outreach may exceed the impact of message tailoring on outcomes of interest.
Baba, Josifini T; Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S
Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders persistently experience a significantly lower standard of health in comparison to non-Indigenous Australians. The factors contributing to this disparity are complex and entrenched in a history of social inequality, disempowerment, poverty, dispossession and discrimination. Aboriginal medical services (AMS) provide a culturally appropriate alternative to mainstream medical services as a means to address this health disparity and also advocate f...
Rasmus, Stacy M
The process that community based participatory research (CBPR) implementation takes in indigenous community contexts has serious implications for health intervention outcomes and sustainability. An evaluation of the Elluam Tungiinun (Towards Wellness) Project aimed to explore the experience of a Yup'ik Alaska Native community engaged within a CBPR process and describe the effects of CBPR process implementation from an indigenous community member perspective. CBPR is acknowledged as an effective strategy for engaging American Indian and Alaska Native communities in research process, but we still know very little about the experience from a local, community member perspective. What are the perceived outcomes of participation in CBPR from a local, community member perspective? Qualitative methods were used to elicit community member perspectives of participation in a CBPR process engaged with one Yup'ik community in southwest Alaska. Results focus on community member perceptions of CBPR implementation, involvement in the process and partnership, ownership of the project with outcomes observed and perceived at the community, family and individual levels, and challenges. A discussion of findings demonstrates how ownership of the intervention arose from a translational and indigenizing process initiated by the community that was supported and enhanced through the implementation of CBPR. Community member perspectives of their participation in the research reveal important process points that stand to contribute meaningfully to implementation science for interventions developed by and for indigenous and other minority and culturally diverse peoples.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is
Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike
fairytales to outsiders with little relevance to the physical world, they are very functional and foundational for communities where storytelling is enacted. This paper debates concepts related to indigenous storytelling and its relevance to knowledge and learning for indigenous youths. In an attempt...... to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...
In Australia, renewable energy is under pressure in the context of a highly politicised debate about how to act on climate change. The recent repeal of an established carbon tax has seen the defunding of significant renewable energy initiatives and a controversial review of the national Renewable Energy Target is threatening key drivers for investment in renewable energy. The current regulatory focus on community ‘acceptance’ does not facilitate the active community support necessary to challenge this increasingly hostile policy context. This research considers current experiences of community engagement in wind farm governance in one Australian jurisdiction. Through documentary analysis and two qualitative case studies, it examines legal and non-legal requirements for community governance mechanisms and considers how these influence wind farm development in rural areas. Findings include a problematic reliance on procedural compliance in assessing wind farm consultation, domination by vested interests, and reduced expertise in community engagement at the time it is needed most. Recommendations include integration of best practice guidelines in current regulation; harmonisation of policy settings to ensure equity across energy sectors; and an evidence-based commitment to benefit sharing as a strategy for increasing community support of rural wind farm development. - Highlights: • Changes to renewable energy policy in Australia threaten wind farm development. • Active community support is required to ensure ongoing viability of the industry. • Benefit sharing models are shown to increase community support for wind farms. • Legal frameworks reinforce a minimum compliance paradigm and entrench vested interests. • Best practice guidelines improve implementation of community engagement procedures
Nakata, N. M.; Hamacher, D. W.; Warren, J.; Byrne, A; Pagnucco, M.; Harley, R.; Venugopal, S.; Thorpe, K.; Neville, R.; Bolt, R.
Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the general public for t...
Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied.
Stijn van Huis
Full Text Available Although the UN-proclaimed ‘Decade for Indigenous Peoples’ officially ended in 2004, the continuing array of activities in support of special ‘indigenous rights’ shows that this movement has lost little of its impetus. In spite of criticism of the underpinnings and of the consequences of attributing special rights to ‘indigenous communities’ (Kuper 2003, support for them has remained strong – among NGOs, international organizations, governments, and scholars who do not agree with the criticism. The most notable event in this context is that after having failed to do so in 2004 the United Nations finally adopted the ‘Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples’ on 13 September 2007, with an overwhelming 144 countries voting in favour. Thus, there is little reason to suppose that the movement will run out of steam in the near future.
Abstract Background This article describes the local concepts indigenous Nahua women hold regarding their reproduction. Specifically it provides a description of two indigenous illnesses—isihuayo and necaxantle, it discusses their etiology, symptoms, and treatments, and it analyzes them within the local ethnomedical framework and sociopolitical context. A perception of female vulnerability is shown to be an underlying shaper of women’s experiences of these illnesses. Methods This research too...
Henry Silka Innah; Didik Suharjito; Arya Hadi Dharmawan; Dudung Darusman
While there are issues in deforestation with interesting reports on reforestation in Indonesia's forest policy, the situation in Papua remains understudied. This paper builds on the themes of collective action and reforestation from indigenous people of Papua. Collective action can be understood from various perspectives and one of them can be studied within Gamson's socio-psychology framework from social movement theories. The results showed that: collective action in indigenous people of ...
Willows, Noreen; Dyck Fehderau, David; Raine, Kim D
Indigenous First Nations people in Canada have high chronic disease morbidity resulting in part from enduring social inequities and colonialism. Obesity prevention strategies developed by and for First Nations people are crucial to improving the health status of this group. The research objective was to develop community-relevant strategies to address childhood obesity in a First Nations community. Strategies were derived from an action-based workshop based on the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Thirteen community members with wide-ranging community representation took part in the workshop. They combined personal knowledge and experience with community-specific and national research to dissect the broad array of environmental factors that influenced childhood obesity in their community. They then developed community-specific action plans focusing on healthy eating and physical activity for children and their families. Actions included increasing awareness of children's health issues among the local population and community leadership, promoting nutrition and physical activity at school, and improving recreation opportunities. Strengthening children's connection to their culture was considered paramount to improving their well-being; thus, workshop participants developed programmes that included elders as teachers and reinforced families' acquaintance with First Nations foods and activities. The research demonstrated that the ANGELO framework is a participatory way to develop community-driven health programmes. It also demonstrated that First Nations people involved in the creation of solutions to health issues in their communities may focus on decolonising approaches such as strengthening their connection to indigenous culture and traditions. External funds were not available to implement programmes and there was no formal follow-up to determine if community members implemented programmes. Future research needs to examine the
Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.
Coca is a native bush from the Amazon rainforest from which cocaine is extracted. Growing coca is a profitable activity; however, not all farmers located in the coca-supply areas do so. Little is known about farmers' motivations for the decision to grow coca and if so, how much to grow. This article evaluates the influence of monetary and non-monetary factors on these decisions. The study is based on a survey of 496 households in an indigenous Aymara community in Peru. The results suggest, for example, that farmers are more likely to cultivate coca when their plots are characterized by flatter agricultural slopes and when in debt. In relation to the scale of coca cultivation, farmers can be classified into two groups. The larger group (73 percent) grows a high number of coca bushes when facing economic hardship; farmers in the second group (27 percent) seem to be more motivated by the potential profits from coca production relative to coffee, the alternative crop in the area. Therefore, the results support the common notion that farmers cultivate coca in accordance with economic need. Nonetheless, non-economic factors also influence the number of coca bushes cultivated and offer an additional opportunity to reduce coca cultivation if explicitly considered in drug-control policies. This research also discusses potential farmers' responses to different coca-growing reduction strategies. Common drug-control policies such as organic coffee certification, road construction, and education have mixed effects on coca cultivation, depending on the type of coca grower. As such, farmers' motivations are heterogeneous and the design of effective drug-control policies needs to reflect this. PMID:24958644
Gorman, Julian; Pearson, Diane; Whitehead, Peter
Information on distribution and relative abundance of species is integral to sustainable management, especially if they are to be harvested for subsistence or commerce. In northern Australia, natural landscapes are vast, centers of population few, access is difficult, and Aboriginal resource centers and communities have limited funds and infrastructure. Consequently defining distribution and relative abundance by comprehensive ground survey is difficult and expensive. This highlights the need for simple, cheap, automated methodologies to predict the distribution of species in use, or having potential for use, in commercial enterprise. The technique applied here uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to make predictions of probability of occurrence using an inductive modeling technique based on Bayes' theorem. The study area is in the Maningrida region, central Arnhem Land, in the Northern Territory, Australia. The species examined, Cycas arnhemica and Brachychiton diversifolius, are currently being 'wild harvested' in commercial trials, involving sale of decorative plants and use as carving wood, respectively. This study involved limited and relatively simple ground surveys requiring approximately 7 days of effort for each species. The overall model performance was evaluated using Cohen's kappa statistics. The predictive ability of the model for C. arnhemica was classified as moderate and for B. diversifolius as fair. The difference in model performance can be attributed to the pattern of distribution of these species. C. arnhemica tends to occur in a clumped distribution due to relatively short distance dispersal of its large seeds and vegetative growth from long-lived rhizomes, while B. diversifolius seeds are smaller and more widely dispersed across the landscape. The output from analysis predicts trends in species distribution that are consistent with independent on-site sampling for each species and therefore should prove useful in gauging the extent of
Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie
Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families. PMID:25053144
Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.
K. A. Stone
Full Text Available Chemistry climate models are important tools for addressing interactions of composition and climate in the Earth System. In particular, they are used for assessing the combined roles of greenhouse gases and ozone in Southern Hemisphere climate and weather. Here we present an evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model, focusing on the Southern Hemisphere and the Australian region. This model is used for the Australian contribution to the international Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which is soliciting hindcast, future projection and sensitivity simulations. The model simulates global total column ozone (TCO distributions accurately, with a slight delay in the onset and recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion, and consistently higher ozone values. However, October averaged Antarctic TCO from 1960 to 2010 show a similar amount of depletion compared to observations. A significant innovation is the evaluation of simulated vertical profiles of ozone and temperature with ozonesonde data from Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica from 38 to 90° S. Excess ozone concentrations (up to 26.4 % at Davis during winter and stratospheric cold biases (up to 10.1 K at the South Pole outside the period of perturbed springtime ozone depletion are seen during all seasons compared to ozonesondes. A disparity in the vertical location of ozone depletion is seen: centered around 100 hPa in ozonesonde data compared to above 50 hPa in the model. Analysis of vertical chlorine monoxide profiles indicates that colder Antarctic stratospheric temperatures (possibly due to reduced mid-latitude heat flux are artificially enhancing polar stratospheric cloud formation at high altitudes. The models inability to explicitly simulated supercooled ternary solution may also explain the lack of depletion at lower altitudes. The simulated Southern Annular Mode (SAM index compares well with ERA-Interim data. Accompanying
Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita
Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…
Full Text Available Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006, suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies
Ramirez-Gomez, Sara O I; Brown, Greg; Verweij, Pita A.; Boot, René
Large-scale development projects often overlap forest areas that support the livelihoods of indigenous peoples, threatening in situ conservation strategies for the protection of biological and cultural diversity. To address this problem, there is a need to integrate spatially-explicit information on
Native American and indigenous populations experience the greatest behavioural health disparities in the world. A constellation of factors impacting Native American Tribes contributes to high rates and co-morbidity of mental health disorders, substance use and sexually transmitted infection (STI), a
Koh, Karen J; Parker, Colin J; Ellis, David H; Pruim, Bert; Leysley, Loyla; Currie, Bart J
Tinea of the skin and nails is a common problem in remote Aboriginal communities of the Top End of Australia. A retrospective study was performed on data collected from 104 patients from several indigenous communities. Worksheets were filled in by district medical officers and rural general practitioners, detailing the extent of the tinea. Patients were prescribed between 4 and 12 weeks of 250 mg daily oral terbinafine. Fifty-two patients were followed up, with 45 having a good response to treatment (87%) and with 22 of these patients having full clearance of tinea (42%). A prospective study with 44 subjects was performed. The extent of the tinea was documented and fungal scrapings/clippings were taken. Forty subjects were recruited and given oral terbinafine (2-12 weeks depending on skin/nail involvement) or topical terbinafine if oral treatment was contraindicated. Twenty-five of the 40 (63%) subjects were reviewed. Twenty-three (92%) subjects that were followed up improved clinically, with 8/25 (32%) clearing completely. Twenty (80%) of followed-up patients complied fully with treatment. Terbinafine was found to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment of tinea of the skin and nails. PMID:14616489
Kendall, E; Muenchberger, H; Catalano, T; Amsters, D; Dorsett, P; Cox, R
This study aimed to determine the core competencies that underpin the practice of community rehabilitation (CR) practitioners working in a single state in Australia. Using a recursive and consultative methodology designed to build consensus, CR professionals, trainers, educators, and researchers developed a preliminary set of core interprofessional competencies that were considered essential to their practice. Data were collected in four main stages that engaged practitioners and experts in the CR field in the process of identifying, defining, validating, and endorsing a set of competencies. The first stage involved focus groups with 50 senior practitioners in metropolitan, rural/remote, regional, and indigenous communities. The second and third stages involved expert panels consisting of 20 trainers/educators, senior leaders, and scholars who refined, defined and validated the competency areas and developed statements that reflected the data.These statements formed the basis of a survey that was distributed to all current CR practitioners based in this state for endorsement, 40 of whom responded. Ten competencies emerged from this process. Although there are limitations to the application of competencies, they will have significant implications for the future training of CR practitioners who can transcend professional boundaries.
Menz Hylton B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small
Chilton, Angela; Woodhouse, Jason; Neilan, Brett
A key aspect for successful ecological rehabilitation is understanding the naturally occurring ecosystem and landscape function which is to be restored. This allows for recovery indicators to be identified and criteria to be developed to assess progress and outcomes. In arid rangelands, environmental stresses result in characteristically heterogeneous landscapes where biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover large expanses of inter-plant areas. Here, BSCs perform crucial roles in nutrient cycling and re-distribution, affect hydrological patterns and stabilise the soil surface. They also serve as a large reservoir of microbial and avascular plant biodiversity. The recognition of these important roles has resulted in increased global arid rehabilitation efforts employing BSCs. Within Australia, research has focused on the macro components of BSCs including lichens and mosses, however, there have been insufficient studies examining the BSC bacterial communities and their dynamics over different successional stages. This project surveyed the bacterial community of crust-free soil and three successional stages of undisturbed BSCs from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in order to provide reference standards of naturally occurring Australian BSCs. Visual assessments were conducted and BSCs were categorised as Early, Mid or Late stage depending on colour, thickness, topography and presence of lichens and mosses. The crust-free soil and different stages were sampled within three 50 m2 plots of the same edaphic conditions near the town of Cobar, NSW. High throughput sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was performed targeting the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Preliminary analysis has revealed a clear distinction between the crust-free and crusted soil while Canonical Analysis of Principal Co-ordinates (CAP) suggests the presence of two distinct BSC microbial communities despite three stages being sampled. Across all sample types, the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria
This comparative research analyzes the extent to which the governments of Canada, the United States and Russia affect the relationships between the petroleum extractive industries and Indigenous peoples of the Arctic in order to protect Indigenous peoples from the negative impacts of oil and gas extraction. The hypothesis of this study is that the government can protect Indigenous communities only by providing for their participation in decision-making processes about oil and gas development. The comparative analysis showed that in comparison with Canada and the United States, Russia has the worst legal protection of Indigenous peoples in petroleum-extractive regions. The recognition of Aboriginal title by Canada and the U.S. allowed Indigenous communities the best opportunities to be involved in oil and gas development, whereas Russia failed to grant this recognition. Therefore, the recognition of land claims by the government is the best way to protect traditional lands and lifestyles of Indigenous peoples from the negative externalities of petroleum extraction.
Saimon, Rosalia; Choo, Wan Yuen; Chang, Kam Hock; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Bulgiba, Awang
This study explores the rural environmental factors that influence adolescents' participation in physical activities (PA). Thirty-six indigenous adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years from rural communities of East Malaysia were involved in the photovoice procedures: photo-taking, selecting, contextualizing, and codifying themes. Despite being endowed with natural resources such as river, forest, hills, and so on, the adolescents and the community did not capitalize on these rich resources to promote and engage in PA. Poor maintenance of natural resources, the lack of pedestrian infrastructures and road safety, the lack of PA facilities, and negative perception of ancestors' agricultural activities were among factors that constrained adolescents' PA. Although basic amenities such as play spaces and pedestrian infrastructures are necessary to increase adolescents' PA, any intervention should make the most of the natural resources, which are cheaper, environment friendly, and sustainable.
Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery
Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie;
Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or with......Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses...... of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs....
Irvine, JD; Holve, S; Krol, D; Schroth, R
The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and the United States (American Indian and Alaska Native) is a major child health issue. This is exemplified by the high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) with resulting adverse health effects, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the local concepts indigenous Nahua women hold regarding their reproduction. Specifically it provides a description of two indigenous illnesses—isihuayo and necaxantle, it discusses their etiology, symptoms, and treatments, and it analyzes them within the local ethnomedical framework and sociopolitical context. A perception of female vulnerability is shown to be an underlying shaper of women’s experiences of these illnesses. Methods This research took place in a small Nahua village in Mexico. Qualitative data on local perceptions of these illnesses were collected by a combination of participant observation and interviews. Ethnobotanical data was obtained through interviews, and medicinal plants were collected in home gardens, fields, stream banks, and forested areas. The total study population consisted of traditional birth attendants (N = 5, clinicians (N = 8, and laywomen (N = 48. Results Results showed that 20% of the village women had suffered from one or both of these illnesses. The article includes a detailed description of the etiology, symptoms, and treatments of these illnesses. Data shows that they were caused by mechanical, physical, and social factors related to a woman’s weakness and/or lack of support. Traditional birth attendants often treated women’s illnesses. Five medicinal plants were salient in the treatment of these illnesses: Ocimum basilicum L., Mentzelia aspera L., Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L. Poit., and Piper umbellatum L. were used for isihuayo, while Solanum wendlandii Hook f. was used for necaxantle. Conclusions The research on these two ethnomedical conditions is a useful case study to understanding how indigenous women experience reproductive health. Reproductive health is not simply about clinically-based medicine but is also about how biomedicine intersects with the local bodily concepts. By describing and analyzing indigenous women’s ill health, one can focus
Hudson, Heather E.
Alaska is the largest state in the U.S., but with the nation's lowest population density of only 1.2 persons per square mile. About 15 percent of the population are Alaska Natives. Approximately two-thirds of this indigenous population live in more than 200 villages, most of which are remote settlements without road access. A current broadband infrastructure project in rural southwest Alaska provides an opportunity to gather reliable data on rural broadband adoption and use, and perceived bar...
Full Text Available Critics suggest that Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ may not generate improvements in well-being for participating stakeholders, and may in fact undermine indigenous rights. To ensure positive social benefits from REDD+ projects, the United Nations REDD Programme has proposed core safeguards, including local stakeholder participation; free, prior, and informed consent; and equitable distribution of benefits. However, there is little experience to date in implementing and evaluating these safeguards. We apply these core safeguards as a framework to study how people in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon perceive and benefit from Programa Socio Bosque, a conservation incentive program in Ecuador's national REDD+ Programme portfolio. We interviewed 101 individuals in five communities that had participated in the Programa Socio Bosque for at least 18 months. Close to 80% of respondents reported that the decision to join Socio Bosque was made democratically, that they were familiar with the conservation goals of Socio Bosque, and that they were aware which area their community had selected for conservation. However, only 17% were familiar with the overall terms of the conservation agreement, implying that they were either not fully informed of or did not fully understand what they were consenting to in joining the program. Although the terms of the program require a community investment plan to be democratically developed by community members, less than half of respondents were aware of the existence of the investment plan, and fewer than 20% had participated in its development. The majority of respondents (61% reported that they did not know the amount of incentives that their community currently receives, and only 44% stated that incentives were managed democratically in communal assemblies. Moreover, although a slight majority (53% said they had noticed benefits to the community from participating in
Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M
Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n = 88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n = 58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n = 40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR = 3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence.
Full Text Available Question: What are the experiences of Indigenous children with physical disability and their carers of their community-based physiotherapy service? What factors influence their experiences of the physiotherapy service and how could the service be improved? Design: A qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured open-ended interviews consistent with the researchers’ interpretivist perspectives and ethical principles of Indigenous health research. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and coded for themes with qualitative research software using inductive analysis. The interviews were then checked for transcription accuracy and the themes were confirmed with the participants. Participants: Nine parents and foster carers of children with physical disability aged 0 to 21 years, five children and youth with physical disability aged 8 to 21 years. Results: The data generated three themes, which informed practice recommendations: carers of children with physical disability experience increased demands and complexity in their lives; relationships involving caring, consistency and communication are important to consumers using the physiotherapy service; and being Indigenous influences consumers’ experiences in ways that may not be obvious to non-Indigenous service providers. The issue of communication underpinned the participants’ experiences throughout these themes. Conclusion: The research highlighted the importance of effective communication, developing relationships, viewing the child wholistically and recognising the influence of being Indigenous on clients’ healthcare needs and experiences. The results suggested that community-based physiotherapists adopt a family/person-centred, context-specific approach when working with Indigenous children with a physical disability and their carers. [Greenstein C, Lowell A, Thomas D (2016 Communication and context are important to Indigenous children with physical disability and their carers
McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola
Background The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods A survey questionnaire t...
Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret
Background Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Methods Data were collected from 1,139 Austra...
Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Coory, Michael; Smith, Gordon C S; Boyle, Frances M; Vlack, Susan; Middleton, Philippa; Roe, Yvette; Flenady, Vicki
Background In Australia, significant disparity persists in stillbirth rates between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian) and non-Indigenous women. Diabetes, hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and small-for-gestational age (SGA) have been identified as important contributors to higher rates among Indigenous women. The objective of this study was to examine gestational age specific risk of stillbirth associated with these conditions among Indigenous and non-Indigenous...
Hamacher, Duane W
Indigenous Australian practices, developed and honed over thousands of years, weave science with storytelling. In this Indigenous science series, we'll look at different aspects of First Australians' traditional life and uncover the knowledge behind them - starting today with astronomy.
This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…
Taking the Universities Australia report, "National best practice framework for Indigenous cultural competency in Australian universities" (2011) as the starting point for its discussion, this paper examines the applicability of cultural competence in the design and delivery of Australian Indigenous Studies. It argues that both the…
David Barton Bray
Full Text Available Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the importance of inter-community collective action as key link in multi-scale governance, that conflicts are often negotiated in multiple arenas, that rules emerge at multiple scales, and that management for conservation and environmental services implies no physical harvests. Realizing economic gains from ICCAs for strict conservation may require something very different than traditional natural resource management. It requires intense engagement with extensive networks of government and civil society actors and new forms of community and inter-community collection action, or multi-scale governance. Multi-scale governance is built on trust and social capital at multiple scales and also constitutes collective action at multiple scales. However, processes of multi-scale governance are also necessarily “turbulent” with actors frequently having conflicting values and goals to be negotiated. We present an analytic history of the process of emergence of community and inter-community collective action around strict conservation and examples of internal and external turbulence. We argue that this case study and other literature requires an extensions of the constitutive elements of common property theory.
Introduction Ninety percent of the aboriginal communities of Argentina are located in areas of endemic vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. Control activities in these communities have not been effective. The goal of this research was to explore the role played by beliefs, habits, and practices of Pilaga and Wichi indigenous communities in their interaction with the local health system in the province of Formosa. This article contributes to the understanding of the cultural barriers that affect the communication process between indigenous peoples and their health care providers. Methods Twenty-nine open ended interviews were carried out with members of four indigenous communities (Pilaga and Wichi) located in central Formosa. These interviews were used to describe and compare these communities’ approach to health and disease as they pertain to Chagas as well as their perceptions of Western medicine and its incarnation in local health practice. Results Five key findings are presented: 1) members of these communities tend to see disease as caused by other people or by the person’s violation of taboos instead of as a biological process; 2) while the Pilaga are more inclined to accept Western medicine, the Wichi often favour the indigenous approach to health care over the Western approach; 3) members of these communities do not associate the vector with the transmission of the disease and they have little awareness of the need for vector control activities; 4) indigenous individuals who undergo diagnostic tests and accept treatment often do so without full information and knowledge; 5) the clinical encounter is rife with conflict between the expectations of health care providers and those of members of these communities. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that there is a need to consider the role of the cultural patterning of health and disease when developing interventions to prevent and control Chagas disease among indigenous communities in Northern Argentina
Bernardes Christina M
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Indigenous Australians experience more aggressive cancers and higher cancer mortality rates than other Australians. Cancer patients undergoing treatment are likely to access health services (e.g. social worker, cancer helpline, pain management services. To date Indigenous cancer patients’ use of these services is limited. This paper describes the use of health services by Indigenous cancer patients. Methods Indigenous cancer patients receiving treatment were recruited at four major Queensland public hospitals (Royal Brisbane Women’s Hospital, Princess Alexandra, Cairns Base Hospital and Townsville Hospital. Participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview which sought information about their use of community and allied health services. Results Of the 157 patients interviewed most were women (54.1%, of Aboriginal descent (73.9%, lived outer regional areas (40.1% and had a mean age of 52.2 years. The most frequent cancer types were breast cancer (22.3%, blood related (14.0%, lung (12.1% and gastroenterological (10.8%. More than half of the participants reported using at least one of the ‘Indigenous Health Worker/Services’ (76.4%, ‘Allied Health Workers/Services’ (72.6% and ‘Information Sources’ (70.7%. Younger participants 19–39 years were more likely to use information sources (81.0% than older participants who more commonly used community services (48.8%. The cancer patients used a median of three health services groups while receiving cancer treatment. Conclusions Indigenous cancer patients used a range of health services whilst receiving treatment. Indigenous Health Workers/Services and Allied Health Workers/Services were the most commonly used services. However, there is a need for further systematic investigation into the health service utilization by Indigenous cancer patients.
Cornelis Martin Renes
Full Text Available It is nowadays evident that the West’s civilising, eugenic zeal have had a devastating impact on all aspects of the Indigenous-Australian community tissue, not least the lasting trauma of the Stolen Generations. The latter was the result of the institutionalisation, adoption, fostering, virtual slavery and sexual abuse of thousands of mixed-descent children, who were separated at great physical and emotional distances from their Indigenous kin, often never to see them again. The object of State and Federal policies of removal and mainstream absorption and assimilation between 1930 and 1970, these lost children only saw their plight officially recognised in 1997, when the Bringing Them Home report was published by the Federal government. The victims of forced separation and migration, they have suffered serious trans-generational problems of adaptation and alienation in Australian society, which have been not only documented from the outside in the aforementioned report but also given shape from the inside of and to Indigenous-Australian literature over the last three decades. The following addresses four Indigenous Western-Australian writers within the context of the Stolen Generations, and deals particularly with the semi-biographical fiction by the Nyoongar author Kim Scott, which shows how a very liminal hybrid identity can be firmly written in place yet. Un-writing past policies of physical and ‘epistemic’ violence on the Indigenous Australian population, his fiction addresses a way of approaching Australianness from an Indigenous perspective as inclusive, embracing transculturality within the nation-space.
Pinedo, Miguel; Sim, D Eastern Kang; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Luisa Zuñiga, Maria
The primary aim of this study was to explore the association between internal migration experience within Mexico and lifetime substance use among a sample of 442 indigenous persons from Yucatan, Mexico. Adjusting for potential confounding, correlates of lifetime substance use were assessed among participants with and without internal migration experience. Internal migration to a tourist destination was independently associated with higher odds (adjusted odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-3.4) of reporting lifetime substance use. Findings suggest that environmental contexts of internal migration may be of importance in shaping vulnerability to substance use. PMID:26605952
Indigenous Australians are significantly disadvantaged in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians on all socioeconomic indicators. Education and training are seen as a means of reducing inequality, and high levels of Indigenous participation in vocational education and training (VET) indicate that this sector has a central role in this process.…
Puri, Amrita; Dudley, Edward G
Compost made from livestock manure is commonly used as a crop fertilizer and serves as a possible vehicle for the transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to fresh produce. In this study, we hypothesized that the indigenous microbial communities present in composts adversely affects the survival of E. coli O157:H7. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was spiked into compost slurry and incubated at 25 °C. Escherichia coli O157:H7 exhibited a c. 4 log(10) reduction over 16 days. When compost was supplemented with the eukaryotic inhibitor cycloheximide, there was a minimal decrease in E. coli O157:H7 counts over the same time period. Analysis of microbial communities present in the compost with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) suggested minor differences in the fungal communities present in cycloheximide-treated compost, compared with untreated compost over a period of 12 days at 25 °C. However, the DGGE profiles of protists showed drastic differences in community complexity. Clone library sequence analysis of protist populations revealed significantly different species composition between treatment and control samples at different time points. This suggests that predation of E. coli O157:H7 by protists might be a potential mechanism for reducing E. coli O157:H7 in compost materials.
Henry Silka Innah
Full Text Available While there are issues in deforestation with interesting reports on reforestation in Indonesia's forest policy, the situation in Papua remains understudied. This paper builds on the themes of collective action and reforestation from indigenous people of Papua. Collective action can be understood from various perspectives and one of them can be studied within Gamson's socio-psychology framework from social movement theories. The results showed that: collective action in indigenous people of Biak-Papua was connected to their collective identity, solidarity, consciousness, and was facilitated by micromobilization. There were 4 typologies of collective action for reforestation in Biak: (1 collective action with initiative of collectivity in the group supported by external forces, (2 collective action driven by village leaders that have the authority from the government, (3 collective action driven by informal leaders (genealogical/kinship based traditional leaders, and (4 collective action driven by an outsider that has obtained legitimacy of customary, because of marriages. Taking into account its potentials and dynamics, mutually beneficial collective action is believed to be able to support the success of reforestation and forest management in Papua.Keywords: deforestation, identity, solidarity, consciousness
BONI ARISTIZÁBAL, Alejandra
Full Text Available The Almanario is a project management methodology created by Small Grants Programme in Guatemalawhich operates following United Nations Global Environment Fund premises. The main goal of ourresearch is to show the results of fourth compulsory gender measures included in the Almanario approachin ten indigenous communities in Western Guatemala. The research reveals women participation has beenincreased and had allowed them to manage project resources. Two measures (the Promotora role and mixedAdvisory Board are preliminary steps to visualize women leadership but more time is needed in orderto consolidate and increase women participation. Nursemaids are perceived by women as a good measureto increase participation and really appropriate in a patriarchal context. Gender and self-esteem trainingshave increased women self-esteem and awareness on women rights.
Freeman, Toby; Baum, Frances E; Jolley, Gwyneth M; Lawless, Angela; Edwards, Tahnia; Javanparast, Sara; Ziersch, Anna
Community participation is a key principle of comprehensive primary health care (PHC). There is little literature on how community participation is implemented at Australian PHC services. As part of a wider study conducted in partnership with five South Australian PHC services, and one Aboriginal community controlled health service in the Northern Territory, 68 staff, manager, regional health executives, and departmental funders were interviewed about community participation, perceived benefits, and factors that influenced implementation. Additional data were collected through analysis of policy documents, service reports on activity, and a web-based survey completed by 130 staff. A variety of community participation strategies was reported, ranging from consultation and participation as a means to improve service quality and acceptability, to substantive and structural participation strategies with an emphasis on empowerment. The Aboriginal community controlled health service in our study reported the most comprehensive community participation. Respondents from all services were positive about the benefits of participation but reported that efforts to involve service users had to compete with a centrally directed model of care emphasising individual treatment services, particularly at state-managed services. More empowering substantive and structural participation strategies were less common than consultation or participation used to achieve prescribed goals. The most commonly reported barriers to community participation were budget and lack of flexibility in service delivery. The current central control of the state-managed services needs to be replaced with more local management decision making if empowering community participation is to be strengthened and embedded more effectively in the culture of services. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24789355
Full Text Available Susan A NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: For over a decade, organizations have attempted to include the measurement and reporting of health outcome data in contractual agreements between funders and health service providers, but few have succeeded. This research explores the utility of collecting health outcomes data that could be included in funding contracts for an Australian Community Care Organisation (CCO. An action-research methodology was used to trial the implementation of outcome measurement in six diverse projects within the CCO using a taxonomy of interventions based on the International Classification of Function. The findings from the six projects are presented as vignettes to illustrate the issues around the routine collection of health outcomes in each case. Data collection and analyses were structured around Donabedian's structure–process–outcome triad. Health outcomes are commonly defined as a change in health status that is attributable to an intervention. This definition assumes that a change in health status can be defined and measured objectively; the intervention can be defined; the change in health status is attributable to the intervention; and that the health outcomes data are accessible. This study found flaws with all of these assumptions that seriously undermine the ability of community-based organizations to introduce routine health outcome measurement. Challenges were identified across all stages of the Donabedian triad, including poor adherence to minimum dataset requirements; difficulties standardizing processes or defining interventions; low rates of use of outcome tools; lack of value of the tools to the service provider; difficulties defining or identifying the end point of an intervention; technical and ethical barriers to accessing data; a lack of standardized processes; and time lags for the collection of data. In no case was
Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.
Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson
Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs. PMID:25894951
Motsumi, Sekgowa; Magole, Lapologang; Kgathi, Donald
Flood recession farming commonly known as molapo farming in the Okavango Delta is an important land use and livelihood activity for poor and vulnerable communities living on its fringes. Molapo farming is mainly practised by subsistence farmers. The study on the system was conducted in the villages of Shorobe and Tubu in the Okavango Delta in Ngamiland District, Botswana. The objective of the study was to find out if indigenous knowledge (IK) still has a role in molapo farming and if current land use policy supports or stifle the practice and the attendant IK. Indigenous knowledge systems (IKSs) within molapo farming were studied using focused group discussions, Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) and open ended interviews. Policy content and process analysis was done through document perusal and stakeholder analysis. The study found that in Tubu more than 50% of molapo farms are owned by women making molapo farming an important livelihood activity for marginalised groups. The Ngamiland land use plan acknowledges the importance of stakeholder participation and IK in land management. However the use of IK is not evident in the plan and subsequent recommendations. Molapo farming is considered a potential threat to the ecological functioning of the Delta, through use of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. Consequently farmers have been discouraged from practicing molapo farming on floodplains. However according to the farmers, ploughing in floodplains minimizes cutting of trees and renders use of fertilizer unnecessary due to annual deposition of nutrients through flood waters. We conclude that although IK still plays an important role in molapo farming there exists no policy environment to use the knowledge and support the practice. We recommend that sustainable molapo farming requires the use of IK within an Integrated Land Use Planning process.
Suk, Ann N
This case study of mainly Karen and Mon communities in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, offers insight into the challenges that these rural villages face with regard to food security and environmental health issues. As non-Thai communities, these villages receive little support from the Thai government, and are often vulnerable in terms of access to food markets, infrastructure, and education and livelihood opportunities. This discussion further considers the involvement of Pattanarak Foundation, a Thai NGO, in health promotion and economic development in these villages as an example of a community partnership at the grassroots level. Examining Pattanarak's efforts to build skills in household vegetable gardening and livestock-raising, raise awareness about child nutrition issues, and improve community sanitation illustrates the value of a participatory process, and also demonstrates some of the challenges associated with on-the-ground health promotion in disadvantaged rural communities. Applying a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to pursue partnerships between communities, NGOs, and researchers may offer an avenue for effective interventions to improve health in marginalized communities. PMID:26953703
de Guzman, Gerard Quinto; Dacanay, Aleth Therese Lora; Andaya, Benjel Andaya; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan Duran
Aim: Euphorbia hirta is the most widely used plant in the folkloric treatment of dengue in the Philippines. This study documents the anecdotal uses of E. hirta in the treatment of dengue in 3 indigenous communities in Pangasinan from April to June of 2015. Materials and Methods: The number of use reports pertaining to symptoms of dengue and other diseases were tallied from 82 informants living in Anda Island, Mt. Colisao and Mt. Balungao. The demographics of the informants as well as the corrected major use agreements (cMUAs) and fidelity levels (FLs) of each reported symptom of dengue were calculated. The major dosage forms used during treatment were also tallied. Results: Respondents, dominated by the age group 60-80 and mostly females with at least primary and secondary education, provided information on the use reports of E. hirta. High FL values and cMUA of at least 35% were obtained for cardinal symptoms of dengue-related to bleeding episodes while low cMUAs (i.e. 2-4%) were obtained for symptoms during the recovery phase. High FL values were obtained for symptoms observed during the febrile phase. The most widely used dosage forms are decoctions of the leaves and barks of E. hirta. Conclusion: This study was able to qualify the uses of E. hirta in the treatment of dengue in the 3 communities surveyed. PMID:27366349
Paul A Thuesen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics
McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier
A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context. PMID:21721304
Bradford, DanaKai; Hansen, David; Karunanithi, Mohan
Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem for all Australians and is the leading cause of death in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. In 2010, more then 50% of all heart attack deaths were due to repeated events. Cardiac rehabilitation programs have been proven to be effective in preventing the recurrence of cardiac events and readmission to hospitals. There are however, many barriers to the use of these programs. To address these barriers, CSIRO developed an IT enabled cardiac rehabilitation program delivered by mobile phone through a smartphone app and succesfully trialed it in an urban general population. If these results can be replicated in Indigenous populations, the program has the potential to significantly improve life expectancy and help close the gap in health outcomes. The challenge described in this paper is customizing the existing cardiac health program to make it culturally relevant and suitable for Indigenous Australians living in urban and remote communities. PMID:26262068
Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high rate of ear disease and hearing loss, yet they have a lower rate of service access and utilisation compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Screening, surveillance and timely access to specialist ear, nose and throat (ENT services are key components in detecting and preventing the recurrence of ear diseases. To address the low access and utilisation rate by Indigenous Australians, a collaborative, community-based mobile telemedicine-enabled screening and surveillance (MTESS service was trialled in Cherbourg, the third largest Indigenous community in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the MTESS service using a lifetime Markov model that compares two options: (i the Deadly Ears Program alone (current practice involving an outreach ENT surgical service and screening program, and (ii the Deadly Ears Program supplemented with the MTESS service. Data were obtained from the Deadly Ears Program, a feasibility study of the MTESS service and the literature. Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated from a societal perspective with both costs (in 2013-14 Australian dollars and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs discounted at 5% annually. The model showed that compared with the Deadly Ears Program, the probability of an acceptable cost-utility ratio at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY was 98% for the MTESS service. This cost effectiveness arises from preventing hearing loss in the Indigenous population and the subsequent reduction in associated costs. Deterministic and probability sensitivity analyses indicated that the model was robust to parameter changes. We concluded that the MTESS service is a cost-effective strategy. It presents an opportunity to resolve major issues confronting Australia's health system such as the inequitable provision and access to quality healthcare for rural and remotes communities, and for Indigenous Australians
Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Smith, Anthony C; Armfield, Nigel R; Bensink, Mark; Scuffham, Paul A
Indigenous Australians experience a high rate of ear disease and hearing loss, yet they have a lower rate of service access and utilisation compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Screening, surveillance and timely access to specialist ear, nose and throat (ENT) services are key components in detecting and preventing the recurrence of ear diseases. To address the low access and utilisation rate by Indigenous Australians, a collaborative, community-based mobile telemedicine-enabled screening and surveillance (MTESS) service was trialled in Cherbourg, the third largest Indigenous community in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the MTESS service using a lifetime Markov model that compares two options: (i) the Deadly Ears Program alone (current practice involving an outreach ENT surgical service and screening program), and (ii) the Deadly Ears Program supplemented with the MTESS service. Data were obtained from the Deadly Ears Program, a feasibility study of the MTESS service and the literature. Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated from a societal perspective with both costs (in 2013-14 Australian dollars) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) discounted at 5% annually. The model showed that compared with the Deadly Ears Program, the probability of an acceptable cost-utility ratio at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY was 98% for the MTESS service. This cost effectiveness arises from preventing hearing loss in the Indigenous population and the subsequent reduction in associated costs. Deterministic and probability sensitivity analyses indicated that the model was robust to parameter changes. We concluded that the MTESS service is a cost-effective strategy. It presents an opportunity to resolve major issues confronting Australia's health system such as the inequitable provision and access to quality healthcare for rural and remotes communities, and for Indigenous Australians. Additionally, it may
Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda
Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…
Joanna Hare; Wendy Abbott
Abstract Objective – This research project explored the models of Indigenous support programs in Australian academic libraries, and how they align with the needs of the students they support. The research objective was to gather feedback from Indigenous students and obtain evidence of good practice models from Australian academic libraries to inform the development and enhancement of Indigenous support programs. The research presents the viewpoints of both Indigenous students and librari...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion-biology is largely based on non-experimental observation of larger organisms. Here, we apply an experimental approach to the subject. By using microbial-based microcosm-experiments, invasion-biology can be placed on firmer experimental, and hence, less anecdotal ground. A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern invasion-success of bacteria in soil communities will provide knowledge on the factors that hinder successful establishment of bacteria artificially inoculated into soil, e.g. for remediation purposes. Further, it will yield valuable information on general principles of invasion biology in other domains of life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we studied invasion and establishment success of GFP-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090 in laboratory microcosms during a 42-day period. We used soil heating to create a disturbance gradient, and hypothesized that increased disturbance would facilitate invasion; our experiments confirmed this hypothesis. We suggest that the key factors associated with the heating disturbance that explain the enhanced invasion success are increased carbon substrate availability and reduced diversity, and thus, competition- and predation-release. In a second experiment we therefore separated the effects of increased carbon availability and decreased diversity. Here, we demonstrated that the effect of the indigenous soil community on bacterial invasion was stronger than that of resource availability. In particular, introduced bacteria established better in a long term perspective at lower diversity and predation pressure. CONCLUSION: We propose increased use of microbial systems, for experimental study of invasion scenarios. They offer a simple and cost-efficient way to study and understand biological invasion. Consequently such systems can help us to better predict the mechanisms controlling changes in stability of communities and ecosystems. This is becoming increasingly
This paper deals with a project establishing an Indigenous Australian artists-in-residence program at a regional Australian primary school to foreground its Black History. Primary school students worked with Indigenous Australian story tellers, artists, dancers and musicians to explore ways in which they could examine print and non-print texts for…
Patiño Suaza, Ana Eugenia; Sandín Vásquez, María
This paper presents the ideas on health and disease as well as proposals regarding the health care system voiced by indigenous communities belonging to the Tikunas, Cocama and Yagua ethnicities of the Puerto Nariño municipality in the department of Amazonas, Colombia. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2013. The tools used to obtain the data were participant observation, interviews and discussion groups. The study evidenced a profound lack of information and understanding on the part of state health agencies. As a principal demand, indigenous communities ask to be heard when decisions affecting their health or their way of understanding health are made. These results should be taken into account in the development of future health programs and provide a basis for the construction of an adequate intercultural health system for the town of Port Nariño. PMID:25522106
Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.
This volume offers a close look at four cases of indigenous language revitalization: Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Sami in Scandinavia, Hnahno in Mexico and Quechua and other indigenous languages in Latin America. Essays by experts from each case are in turn discussed in international perspective by four counterpart experts. This book is divided…
Auld, Glenn; Dyer, Julie; Charles, Claire
This paper seeks to explore the risks of providing preservice teachers with professional experiences in remote communities. In particular this paper focuses on the risks associated with this kind of professional experience. Twelve pre-service teachers were interviewed whilst on a three-week practicum around Katherine and in Maningrida in the…
Evans, FF; Rosado, AS; Sebastian, GV; Casella, R; Machado, PLOA; Holmstrom, C; Kjelleberg, S; van Elsas, JD; Seldin, L
The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of oil contamination and biostimulation (soil pH raise, and nitrogen, phosphate and sulphur addition) on the diversity of a bacterial community of an acidic Cambisol under Atlantic Forest. The experiment was based on the enumeration of bacterial popula
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to derive the socio-economic implications of climate change and other environmental issues pertaining to fishing communities residing in and around Mumbai, India. A substantial number of populations in Mumbai city are the fishing communities, popularly known as ‘Koli’. They are the earliest inhabitants of the city. Coastal cities are most productive as well as most vulnerable to environmental changes. They support a number of economic activities which include fishing, agriculture, urbanization, real estate, tourism, transport, oil exploration etc. As a result, the anthropogenic pressure on coastal cities is increasing. Koli communities in Mumbai encounter diverse socio-economic and climatic pressures including sea level rise, floods, storms, etc. The implications of climate change on Koli communities as well as other environmental issues pertaining to fishing villages in Mumbai are discussed in detail in this study. Five fishing villages from Mumbai are selected for a primary study based on a structured questionnaire. Nearly 200 households are surveyed in a period over six months in 2011-12, finally 182 households information is considered for further analysis. On the basis of the findings, this study suggests that issue of lack of asset formation and financial insecurity among young fishermen may be taken care by linking the fisheries societies in Mumbai and in other regions with the support from local governments. The benefits of subsidies, insurance may be distributed progressively based on their financial needs to all fishermen rather than benefiting the large scale fishermen alone.
Traditional farming in Talamanca comes from the continuous and balanced relationship between humans and their natural environment; however, there is evidence of deterioration in this relationship. As a result of this initiative, this proposal intends to be a model to be replicated in neighboring communities and so contribute to sustainable human development in the region of Talamanca.
The paper investigates the perspectives of Greek origin people as regards their intention to maintain their ancestral culture within the Australian context of social values. This qualitative research study, influenced by Humanistic Sociology, analyses data collected through questionnaires from first and second generation parents and teachers of…
Andrews, Dan; Green, Colin; Mangan, John
Data taken primarily from the Australian Youth Survey were used to model unemployment as a function of personal characteristics, family structure, and neighborhood composition using binomial probit estimation techniques. The cross-sectional model developed indicated that significant neighborhood effects on unemployment outcomes exist in high- and…
Horner, Jonathan; Cairns, Ann; Short, Wayne
In recent years, the striking gender imbalance in the physical sciences has been a topic for much debate. National bodies and professional societies in the astronomical and space sciences are now taking active steps to understand and address this imbalance. In order to begin this process in the Australian Space Research community, we must first understand the current state of play. In this work, we therefore present a short 'snapshot' of the current gender balance in our community, as observed at the 15th Australian Space Research Conference. We find that, at this year's conference, male attendees outnumbered female attendees by a ratio of 3:1 (24% female). This gender balance was repeated in the distribution of conference talks and plenary presentations (25 and 22% female, respectively). Of the thirteen posters presented at the conference, twelve were presented by men (92%), a pattern repeated in the awards for the best student presentations (seven male recipients vs one female). The program and organising c...
Herrmann, Thora Martina; Sandström, Per; Cuciurean, Rick
This paper explores the effects of human disturbances associated with mine development in the Arctic on habitat and populations of reindeer/caribou (both Rangifer tarandus), and implications for reindeer husbandry and caribou hunting of indigenous Sami people in Sweden and First Nations in Canada. Through three case studies, we illustrate how Cree and Naskapi communities develop commu- nity-based geospatial information tools to collect field data on caribou migration and habitat changes, and ...
Carroll, Clinton Roy
Tribal environmental governance in the Cherokee Nation today is characterized by a complex interplay among community, bureaucracy, and knowledge. The Cherokee Nation is one of the largest American Indian nations by population, and possesses a tripartite government that has operated free of federal oversight since 1971. Although the government has its roots in the historic 1827 Cherokee constitution that in many ways successfully melded "traditional" forms of governance with a state structure,...
Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…
Power, Tamara; Virdun, Claudia; Sherwood, Juanita; Parker, Nicola; Van Balen, Jane; Gray, Joanne; Jackson, Debra
The well-documented health disparities between the Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous population mandates a comprehensive response from health professionals. This article outlines the approach taken by one faculty of health in a large urban Australian university to enhance cultural competence in students from a variety of fields. Here we outline a collaborative and deeply respectful process of Indigenous and non-Indigenous university staff collectively developing a model that has framed the embedding of a common faculty Indigenous graduate attribute across the curriculum. Through collaborative committee processes, the development of the principles of "Respect; Engagement and sharing; Moving forward" (REM) has provided both a framework and way of "being and doing" our work. By drawing together the recurring principles and qualities that characterize Indigenous cultural competence the result will be students and staff learning and bringing into their lives and practice, important Indigenous cultural understanding. PMID:26069032
Gabbe, B J; Branson, R; Bennell, K L
Hamstring injuries are the most common injury sustained by Australian Football players. Eccentric training has been proposed as a potential preventative strategy. This pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effectiveness of a pre-season eccentric training program for preventing hamstring injuries at the community level of Australian Football. Seven amateur clubs (n=220 players) were recruited. Players were randomised within clubs to the intervention (eccentric exercise) or control (stretching) groups and randomisation was stratified according to previous history of hamstring injury. Five exercise sessions were completed over a 12-week period, three during the pre-season and two during the first 6 weeks of the season. Compliance was recorded and players were monitored for the season to collect injury and participation data. There was no difference between the control (n=106) or intervention (n=114) groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Only 46.8% of all players completed at least two program sessions. Compliance was poorest for the intervention group. Intention-to-treat analysis suggested that players in the intervention group were not at reduced risk of hamstring injury (RR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8). When only control and intervention group players who participated in at least the first two sessions were analysed, 4.0% of intervention and 13.2% of control group players sustained a hamstring injury (RR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4; p=0.098). The findings suggest that a simple program of eccentric exercise could reduce the incidence of hamstring injuries in Australian Football but widespread implementation of this program is not likely because of poor compliance.
Nancy Turner; Pamela R. Spalding
Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) systems are as important today for the survival and well-being of many indigenous peoples as they ever were. These ways of knowing have much to contribute at a time of marked climate change. As indigenous peoples have sustained exposure to natural resources and phenomena in particular places over time, they are privy to the cumulative knowledge on the location and timing of a host of significant environmental events and processes. Not only do their intim...
Vega Lizama, Elma Maria; Cucina, Andrea
The relationship between diet and oral health is widely known, yet data on dental caries prevalence is lacking for many indigenous groups with traditional or rapidly modernizing diets. This research documents caries prevalence in two Maya communities from northern Yucatán (Mexico) with significantly different levels of market integration, subsistence, and diet: Yalsihón, with a traditional, maize-based subsistence economy, and Dzilam, with access to globalized food markets. Each sample was subdivided by sex into 15-19, 20-24, and 25-30 years-of-age classes. Caries prevalence was considered separately both when the lesion affected the enamel superficially (grade 1+) and when it reached the dentin (grade 2+). In both villages, females of all age classes manifest more caries than males. Results show higher prevalence of caries at Dzilam than at Yalsihón, except for grade 1+ caries among 15-19-year-old males and grade 2+ caries among 15-19-year-old females. Though differences are not significant, earlier pregnancies among 15-19-year-old females at Yalsihón could be a causative factor. A survey indicated a more balanced diet at Yalsihón despite a heavier intake of maize than at Dzilam. Striking differences were documented in the ingestion of soda and globalized foods; sodas were virtually absent at Yalsihón, while at Dzilam they were ingested daily in great quantities. The decline in oral health at Dzilam is inferred to result from consumption of industrially processed foods and drinks, while a traditional diet leads to less caries despite daily heavy consumption of maize, which must be considered when interpreting caries rates in archaeological samples.
Stassen, Marinke J.M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Foundation ' Los Amigos del Pilcomayo' , P.O. Box 47, Avenida Ayacucho entre Cap. Manchego y Avaroa, Villamontes - Departemento Tarija (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Preeker, N. Louise, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Foundation ' Los Amigos del Pilcomayo' , P.O. Box 47, Avenida Ayacucho entre Cap. Manchego y Avaroa, Villamontes - Departemento Tarija (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and HTA, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ragas, Ad M.J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); School of Science, Open University, Heerlen (Netherlands); Ven, Max W.P.M. van de, E-mail: email@example.com [Foundation ' Los Amigos del Pilcomayo' , P.O. Box 47, Avenida Ayacucho entre Cap. Manchego y Avaroa, Villamontes - Departemento Tarija (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Smolders, Alfons J.P., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Foundation ' Los Amigos del Pilcomayo' , P.O. Box 47, Avenida Ayacucho entre Cap. Manchego y Avaroa, Villamontes - Departemento Tarija (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); and others
Background: The Pilcomayo River is polluted by tailings and effluents from upstream mining activities, which contain high levels of metals. The Weenhayek live along this river and are likely to have elevated exposure. Objectives: To assess whether the Weenhayek have increased risk of reproductive and developmental disorders related to elevated metal exposure in comparison with a reference population. Methods: We assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes, i.e. fertility, fetal loss, congenital anomalies, and walking onset by means of structured interviews. We sampled hair, water and fish to assess the relative exposure of the Weenhayek. Samples were analyzed for Pb and Cd with ICP-MS techniques. Results: The Weenhayek communities studied had a higher prevalence of small families (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-6.0) and delayed walking onset (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.1) than the reference population. Median Pb levels in Weenhayek hair were 2-5 times higher than in the reference population, while Cd levels were not elevated. In water and fish, both Pb and Cd levels were increased in the Weenhayek area. Conclusions: We found indications for increased risks of small families and delayed walking onset among the Weenhayek living along the Pilcomayo River. Lactants form a high risk group for lead exposure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed selected disorders and metal exposure in two comparable populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Risks of small families and delayed walking onset were increased in the population with elevated lead levels in hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population with increased risks lives along a river with increased lead and cadmium levels in water and fish.
Full Text Available La política de educación aborigen para un estado aus traliano (New South Wales Department of Education and Training, 2008 requiere un compromiso y asociación con la comunidad aborigen local. Se realizó un estudio de caso de esta política en acción en una pequeña ciudad rural en el estado. Este documento ofr ece un análisis de las estrategias de las escuelas que participan en tres programas dirigidos a mejorar la educación indígena. A través de tres proyectos ─Stronger Smarter Learning Communities, Make It Count, 8 - Ways─las escuelas ha n sido capaces de lograr cambios significativos. Significativamente, la educación pública en esta ciudad rural ha logrado resultados que reflejan las altas expectativas. Entrevistas con directores, maestros, estudiantes aborígenes y su comunidad destacan la creciente interacción e ntre los padres aborígenes, comunidad y las escuelas, y bienvenida entre ellos y el impacto que están teniendo estos enfoques sobre currículo, enseñanza y aprendizaje. Las estrategias, pequeños pasos, metas claras, respeto y flexibilidad dieron lugar a cam bios en el aprendizaje de las matemáticas. El análisis ilustra cómo los métodos de Stronger Smarter, Make It Count y 8 - Ways hacen que los maestros cambien de percepción, habilidad, práctica, y currículo , cambios que resultan en unas matemáticas locales y c ulturalmente responsables.
Background: The Pilcomayo River is polluted by tailings and effluents from upstream mining activities, which contain high levels of metals. The Weenhayek live along this river and are likely to have elevated exposure. Objectives: To assess whether the Weenhayek have increased risk of reproductive and developmental disorders related to elevated metal exposure in comparison with a reference population. Methods: We assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes, i.e. fertility, fetal loss, congenital anomalies, and walking onset by means of structured interviews. We sampled hair, water and fish to assess the relative exposure of the Weenhayek. Samples were analyzed for Pb and Cd with ICP-MS techniques. Results: The Weenhayek communities studied had a higher prevalence of small families (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–6.0) and delayed walking onset (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.1) than the reference population. Median Pb levels in Weenhayek hair were 2–5 times higher than in the reference population, while Cd levels were not elevated. In water and fish, both Pb and Cd levels were increased in the Weenhayek area. Conclusions: We found indications for increased risks of small families and delayed walking onset among the Weenhayek living along the Pilcomayo River. Lactants form a high risk group for lead exposure. - Highlights: ► We assessed selected disorders and metal exposure in two comparable populations. ► Risks of small families and delayed walking onset were increased in the population with elevated lead levels in hair. ► The population with increased risks lives along a river with increased lead and cadmium levels in water and fish.
Rattray, Alex; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Burq, Shoaib; Reston, Marcus
Information regarding the composition and extent of benthic habitats on the South East Australian continental shelf is limited. In this habitat mapping study, multibeam echosounder (MBES) data are integrated with precisely geo-referenced video ground-truth data to quantify benthic biotic communities at Cape Nelson, Victoria, Australia. Using an automated decision tree classification approach, 5 representative biotic groups defined from video analysis were related to hydro-acoustically derived variables in the Cape Nelson survey area. Using a combination of multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and derivative products produced highest overall accuracy (87%) and kappa statistic (0.83). This study demonstrates that decision tree classifiers are capable of integrating variable data types for mapping distributions of benthic biological assemblages, which are important in maintaining biodiversity and other system services in the marine environment.
Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Rozbroj, Tomas
HIV-positive gay men may experience multiple sources of adversity and stress, related both to their HIV diagnosis and sexual identity. Most of these men, however, do not experience mental health problems. Little is known about factors that help them achieve resilience in the face of life challenges. This study examined psychosocial factors associated with resilience in a national community-based sample of 357 Australian HIV-positive gay men. Resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Higher levels of resilience were linked with experiencing low or no internalized HIV-related stigma, having no previous history of mental health problems, and a number of socioeconomic indicators. In addition to providing a more complete picture of the mental health of HIV-positive gay men, findings from this study can be used to inform strength-based approaches to mental health prevention and support. PMID:26884311
Lavery, Shane; Cain, Glenda; Hampton, Patrick
This article examines a service-learning immersion undertaken by pre-service primary teachers in a remote indigenous community and school in Western Australia. The article initially presents the purpose and significance for the immersion in the light of the Australian National Professional Standards for Teachers. The article subsequently outlines…
Full Text Available BackgroundIntegrating theory when developing complex quality improvement interventions can help to explain clinical and organizational behavior, inform strategy selection and understand effects. This paper describes a theory-informed interactive dissemination strategy. Using aggregated quality improvement data, the strategy seeks to engage stakeholders in wide-scale data interpretation and knowledge sharing focused on achieving wide-scale improvement in primary health care quality. MethodsAn iterative process involving diverse stakeholders in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander healthcare delivery uses aggregated audit data collected across key areas of care. Phases of reporting and online feedback are used to identify: 1 priority areas for improvement; 2 health centre, system and staff attributes that may be important in addressing the identified priority evidence-practice gaps, and; 3 strategies that could be introduced or strengthened to enable improvement. A developmental evaluation is being used to refine engagement processes and reports as the project progresses. DiscussionThis innovative dissemination approach is being used to encourage wide-scale interpretation and use of service performance data by policy-makers, managers and other stakeholders, and to document knowledge about how to address barriers to achieving change. Through the developmental evaluation, the project provides opportunities to learn about stakeholders’ needs in relation to the way data and findings are described and distributed, and elements of the dissemination strategy and report design that impact on the useability and uptake of findings.ConclusionsThe project can contribute to knowledge about how to facilitate interactive wide-scale dissemination and about using data to co-produce knowledge to improve healthcare quality.
Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley
Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…
Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann
Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia.
This Master’s thesis aims to study the resistance process of the indigenous communities of the Colombian department of Chocó and the development of this process into potential grass-roots peace initiative via a particular form of identity reaffirmation through ancestral territories. Particularly, this studies focus on the conflict territorialization and the consequential inclusion of indigenous territories into the conflict logic, which has promoted the development of an indige...
Bohanna, India; Bird, Katrina; Copeland, Jan; Roberts, Nicholas; Clough, Alan
Introduction Regular cannabis use is associated with negative mental health impacts including psychosis, depression and anxiety. Rates of cannabis use have increased in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia within the last two decades, presenting a significant increased risk to young people's mental health in these regions. Improved screening, early detection and treatment for cannabis-related mental health issues are urgently required. This paper describes a...
Mindahi Crescencio Bastida Muñoz
Full Text Available The problems in indigenous communities Otomi and Mazahuas in Toluca, and Ixtlahuaca-Atlacomulco valleys are various. In this region there is mainly cultural, ethnic and economic violence. It is due to lack of access to infrastructure, access to education and access to justice. Education is one of the best ways to reduce these problems.The presence of the Intercultural University and the Bachelor of Sustainable Development in the Mazahua region has begun to impact positively in some communities and civil society organizations. This has been through intercultural education model and the principles of Sustainable Development. This paper describes some experiences of the Division of Sustainable Development in some communities. At the end we argue on how sustainability is a path to peace building.
Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie
Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. PMID:22159733
Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Hou, Du-Jie [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). The Key Lab. of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism; She, Yue-Hui [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology; Li, Hua-Min [Beijing Bioscience Research Center (China); Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Yu, Long-Jiang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology
Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. (orig.)
The anaerobic microcosms amended with 30 mM bicarbonate and without bicarbonate were established, respectively, and the reduction of U(VI) in the microcosms by functionalized indigenous microbial communities was investigated. Results of the chemical extraction and XANES analysis showed that the proportions of U(IV) in the microcosms amended with bicarbonate were 10 % lower than without bicarbonate at day 46. The amount of Cellulomonadaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Peptococcaceae and Veillonellaceae amended with bicarbonate was lower than without bicarbonate, so the reduction of U(VI) was less. The experimental results show that the high concentration bicarbonate has a significantly inhibitory effect on the reduction of U(VI). (author)
There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data…
S V Subramanian
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30. They are also more likely to smoke and (especially drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95 compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous
Full Text Available We implement a new stomatal conductance model, based on the optimality approach, within the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE land surface model. Coupled land-atmosphere simulations are then performed using CABLE within the Australian Community Climate and Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESS with prescribed sea surface temperatures. As in most land surface models, the default stomatal conductance scheme only accounts for differences in model parameters in relation to the photosynthetic pathway, but not in relation to plant functional types. The new scheme allows model parameters to vary by plant functional type, based on a global synthesis of observations of stomatal conductance under different climate regimes over a wide range of species. We show that the new scheme reduces the latent heat flux from the land surface over the boreal forests during the Northern Hemisphere summer by 0.5 to 1.0 mm day-1. This leads to warmer daily maximum and minimum temperatures by up to 1.0 °C and warmer extreme maximum temperatures by up to 1.5 °C. These changes generally improve the climate model's climatology and improve existing biases by 10–20 %. The change in the surface energy balance also affects net primary productivity and the terrestrial carbon balance. We conclude that the improvements in the global climate model which result from the new stomatal scheme, constrained by a global synthesis of experimental data, provide a valuable advance in the long-term development of the ACCESS modelling system.
Frize, M.; Kenny, D.; Lennings, C.
Background: Intellectual disability (ID), age and aboriginal status have been independently implicated as risk factors for offending to varying degrees. This study examined the relationship between age, ID and the Indigenous status of juvenile offenders. It also examined the outcomes of the sample's offending in terms of court appearances and…
Bilingual and Indigenous language and culture programmes have run in remote Australian schools with significant and continuing local support. Developments such as the new national Indigenous languages curriculum offer a further opportunity to broaden and sustain Indigenous language teaching and learning activities in these schools. However, over…
As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…
Peláez-Ballestas, I; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Loyola-Sánchez, A; Escudero, M L
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco communities using Community-Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. The study population comprised subjects aged ≥18 years from 11 communities in the municipality of Chankom, Yucatan. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed, and a census was used. Subjects positive for musculoskeletal (MSK) pain were examined by trained physicians. A total of 1523 community members were interviewed. The mean age was 45.2 years (standard deviation (SD) 17.9), and 917 (60.2 %) were women. Overall, 592 individuals (38.8 %; 95 % CI 36.3-41.3 %) had experienced MSK pain in the last 7 days. The pain intensity was reported as "strong" to "severe" in 43.4 %. The diagnoses were rheumatic regional pain syndromes in 165 (10.8 %; 95 % CI 9.4-12.5), low back pain in 153 (10.0 %; 95 % CI 8.5-11.6), osteoarthritis in 144 (9.4 %; 95 % CI 8.0-11.0), fibromyalgia in 35 (2.2 %; 95 % CI 1.6-3.1), rheumatoid arthritis in 17 (1.1 %; 95 % CI 0.6-1.7), undifferentiated arthritis in 8 (0.5 %; 95 % CI 0.2-0.8), and gout in 1 (0.06 %; 95 % CI 0.001-0.3). Older age, being female, disability, and physically demanding work were associated with a greater likelihood of having a rheumatic disease. In conclusion, MSK pain and rheumatic diseases were highly prevalent. The high impact of rheumatic diseases on daily activities in this indigenous population suggests the need to organize culturally-sensitive community interventions for the prevention of disabilities caused by MSK disorders and diseases.
Jessica Maree Biles
Full Text Available The clinical placement environment can be challenging for many students, and for students enrolled in the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health (SNMIH subject NRS194, Indigenous Cultures, Health and Nursing, being placed in an Aboriginal facility can be daunting and increase anxiety within a cohort. A pilot project within the SNMIH for NRS194 sought to engage the local Aboriginal Health Service through Aboriginal staff and utilising the skills, knowledge and expertise of the Aboriginal Health workers as a conduit to the community. The cross cultural engagement within the SNMIH and the community has meant the cohorts of discipline-specific programs are being exposed to a breadth and depth of diversity within the Australian Health context, with a specific focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and their communities. This Practice Report discusses the core elements of this first year placement initiative and the outcomes from the academic lens.
Watson, C. J.
Vegetation phenology is relatively well-studied in northern hemisphere temperate biomes, but limited research has been conducted on phenological drivers and responses in Australian temperate ecosystems. Australian temperate grasslands represent a broad range of plant communities from exotic pastures to native grasslands, but all are important for food security (livestock grazing) and biodiversity retention. Climate predictions for temperate Australia include higher temperatures, altered rainfall frequency/seasonality, increased drought severity and more regular wildfires. The ecosystem response to these climatic factors is unknown, and the need to improve the monitoring of these highly dynamic grassland systems at a landscape scale is acute. The aim of this research is to use high-frequency phenological data to improve the identification of grassland functional types and ultimately use this to improve the inter-annual monitoring of dynamic grassland systems. We use hourly repeat photography and the Green Chromatic Coordinate vegetation index to characterize the vegetative phenology of several native and exotic grassland communities. Monthly vegetation surveys allow us to correlate plant functional groups with indicator features on the phenology profile. C4-dominated grasslands are characterized by a consistent low greenness during winter, the commencement of greening in late spring/early summer and the retention of green vegetation throughout the summer. Exotic C4 grasslands can be distinguished from native ecosystems by their early-spring flush of annual grasses and forbs prior to the primary greening in late spring/early summer. Native C3 grasslands are more variable in response to rainfall and exhibit multiple greening/browning cycles within the year. They tend to green up earlier in the spring and brown off rapidly in response to high temperatures and low rainfall. Exotic C3 grasslands also green up in early spring but exhibit a more traditional unimodal
Katz, Esther; Kleiche, Mina (coord.); Lazos Chavero, E. (collab.); Jankowski, Frédérique; Lopez, C
This report is describing and analyzing indigenous "knowledge(s)” as practices and discourses of traditional actors related to their cultural context ‐including the symbolic and material uses ascribed to natural resources‐ and changes in order to understand how they take part in the environmental governance alignment. Several complementary and comparative studies were carried out focused on the evolution in the use of plants in farming practices, cooking, craft and diet in M...
Cole, Anne Jodon; Brooks, Eva Irene
exhibits within the First Australians Galleries at the National Museum of Australia in Canberra through the concepts of; multi-voicedness, semiotic landscape, and agency. Qualitative methodology was used including semi-structured interviews with curators, image-based and document analysis. Findings showed...... that the semiotic landscape of the museum was framed by the voices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders’ narratives and represented a diversity of voices; personal and political. The curator’s understanding of the need to partner with the Indigenous community, suggests that curators are in position...
Amanda J Wade
Full Text Available Hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia is low. To increase access to hepatitis C virus treatment for people who inject drugs, we developed a community-based, nurse-led service that linked a viral hepatitis service in a tertiary hospital to primary care clinics, and resulted in hepatitis C treatment provision in the community.A retrospective cohort study of patients referred to the community hepatitis service was undertaken to determine the cascade of care. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of hepatitis C treatment uptake.Four hundred and sixty-two patients were referred to the community hepatitis service; 344 attended. Among the 279 attendees with confirmed chronic hepatitis C, 257 (99% reported ever injecting drugs, and 124 (48% injected in the last month. Of 201 (72% patients who had their fibrosis staged, 63 (31% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Fifty-five patients commenced hepatitis C treatment; 26 (47% were current injectors and 25 (45% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Nineteen of the 27 (70% genotype 1 patients and 14 of the 26 (54% genotype 3 patients eligible for assessment achieved a sustained virologic response. Advanced fibrosis was a significant predictor of treatment uptake in adjusted analysis (AOR 2.56, CI 1.30-5.00, p = 0.006.Our community hepatitis service produced relatively high rates of fibrosis assessment, hepatitis C treatment uptake and cure, among people who inject drugs. These findings highlight the potential benefits of providing community-based hepatitis C care to people who inject drugs in Australia-benefits that should be realised as direct-acting antiviral agents become available.
Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A
Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. PMID:24434081
Gordon, Melissa; Schirmer, Jacki; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas
Although community engagement (CE) is widely recognised as an essential element of sustainable management, few studies have evaluated CE at an industry-wide scale, i.e. in terms of the specific CE needs and best practice methods needed when addressing engagement issues that apply across more than on
There has been much recent interest and debate in Australia around the topics of university engagement, knowledge transfer, and engaged scholarship. Diverse responses relating to teaching and learning, research, and community service are evident in many institutions. However, there is a paucity of empirical research describing institutional…
Short, Alison; Phillips, Rebecca; Nugus, Peter; Dugdale, Paul; Greenfield, David
Networks in health care typically involve services delivered by a defined set of organizations. However, networked associations between the healthcare system and consumers or consumer organizations tend to be open, fragmented and are fraught with difficulties. Understanding the role and activities of consumers and consumer groups in a formally initiated inter-organizational health network, and the impacts of the network, is a timely endeavour. This study addresses this aim in three ways. First, the Unbounded Network Inter-organizational Collaborative Impact Model, a purpose-designed framework developed from existing literature, is used to investigate the process and products of inter-organizational network development. Second, the impact of a network artefact is explored. Third, the lessons learned in inter-organizational network development are considered. Data collection methods were: 16 h of ethnographic observation; 10 h of document analysis; six interviews with key informants and a survey (n = 60). Findings suggested that in developing the network, members used common aims, inter-professional collaboration, the power and trust engendered by their participation, and their leadership and management structures in a positive manner. These elements and activities underpinned the inter-organizational network to collaboratively produce the Health Expo network artefact. This event brought together healthcare providers, community groups and consumers to share information. The Health Expo demonstrated and reinforced inter-organizational working and community outreach, providing consumers with community-based information and linkages. Support and resources need to be offered for developing community inter-organizational networks, thereby building consumer capacity for self-management in the community.
Haby Michelle M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.
Senior, Kate; Chenhall, Richard
Recently, social determinants of health frameworks are receiving some criticism in that they do not engage with questions related to individual subjectivity and agency as they relate to health decision-making behavior. This article examines the different ways in which people living in a remote Arnhem Land community in the Northern Territory of Australia, take responsibility for their own health and the extent to which they are able to prevent illness. A number of related sub-questions are explored relating to how people perceive their health and their role in health care in their community, including their engagement with the health clinic, traditional medicines, and the influence of sorcery on ill health and sickness.
Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.
Willis Jon A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to
Al-Yaman, Fadwa; Higgins, Daryl
The Closing the Gap Clearinghouse was established by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) to bring together evidence-based research on overcoming disadvantage for Indigenous Australians. The Clearinghouse provides access to a collection of information on what works to improve Indigenous people's lives across the building blocks identified…
Paterson, James S.; Nayar, Sasi; Mitchell, James G.; Seuront, Laurent
Despite the increasing awareness of the role of viruses and heterotrophic bacteria in microbial dynamics and biogeochemical cycles, there is still a critical lack of information on their community composition and dynamics, especially in relation to upwellings. We investigated, within surface waters and the Deep Chlorophyll Max, the community composition and dynamics of flow cytometrically defined sub-populations of heterotrophic bacteria and virus-like particles in nearby water masses that were affected and unaffected by a localised wind-driven coastal upwelling. In contrast to previous studies we uniquely identified a 4-fold increase in total viral abundance and a decrease in bacterial abundance, from upwelled to offshore waters. Individual viral sub-populations were seen to correlate significantly to both bacterial populations and chlorophyll a, suggesting the possibility of individual viral populations infecting multiple host species rather than the often assumed single host species. The percentage of HDNA bacteria was high (84.3-93.4%) within upwelled waters, in accordance with the highest recorded values within an upwelling system, and decreased down to 35.5-42.6% away from the upwelling. Additionally, changes in the community composition of individual bacterial sub-populations suggest individual populations might be better adapted to distinct environments. We suggest that each flow cytometrically defined bacterial population may possess its own environmental niche where favourable conditions for that population result in an increase in abundance, cellular activity and productivity.
Wang, Jian; Li, Fengmei; Li, Xu; Wang, Xiujuan; Li, Xinyu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Huiwen; Guo, Shuhai
Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging physical remediation technology for the removal of heavy metals and organic chemicals from contaminated soil. We set up a soil chamber (24 × 12 × 8 cm) with two stainless steel electrodes (12 × 0.5 cm), and a constant voltage gradient of 1.0 v cm(-1) or 2.0 v cm(-1) was applied to study the effects of unidirectional and altered directional electric field operation modes on the moisture content and pH, the removal rate of PAHs, and the abundance and diversity of indigenous fungi in a PAH-contaminated soil at the Benxi Iron and Steel Group Corporation (N41°17'24.4″, E123°43'05.8″), Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Electrokinetic remediation increased the PAH removal rate, but had less effect on soil moisture content and pH, in comparison with the control. In the 1 v cm(-1) altered directional operation, in particular, the PAH removal rate by the end of the experiment (on day 23) had increased from 5.2% of the control to 13.84% and 13.69% at distances of 4 and 20 cm from the anode, respectively, and to 18.97% in the middle region of the soil chamber. On day 23, the indigenous fungal 18S rRNA gene copy numbers and community diversity were significantly higher in a voltage gradient of 1 v cm(-1) than in a voltage gradient 2 v cm(-1). An altered directional operation was more conducive to the fungal community's uniform distribution than was a unidirectional operation of the electric field. We found the major PAH-degrading fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizophlyctis rosea to be present under EK remediation. We suggest that a 1 v cm(-1) altered directional operation could be an appropriate electrokinetic operation mode for PAH removal, and the maintenance of abundance and diversity of the indigenous fungal community. PMID:23947706
Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy
Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.
Geertz, Armin W.
Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Methods: Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was ‘not feeling well’. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. Results: The simulated patient’s agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148 of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148 of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient’s symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148 and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148. A total of 33.8% (50/148 of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52 of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148 of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148 of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148 did not recommend non-prescription medicines. Conclusion: While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient’s symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies
Rodríguez, Alexander J; Scott, David; Khan, Belal; Khan, Nayab; Hodge, Allison; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Ebeling, Peter R
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle is associated with increased risk of functional limitation and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. In the elderly abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) can increase CV risk by altering aortic properties which may raise blood pressure and increase cardiac workload. This study investigated the association between low muscle mass and AAC in community-dwelling older Australians. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from a 2010 sub-study of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study in the setting of community-dwelling older adults. Three hundred and twenty-seven participants [mean age = 71 ± 6 years; mean BMI = 28 ± 5 kg/m(2); females n = 199 (62 %)] had body composition determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and AAC determined by radiography. Participants were stratified into tertiles of sex-specific BMI-normalised appendicular lean mass (ALM). Those in the lowest tertile were considered to have low relative muscle mass. Aortic calcification score (ACS) was determined visually as the extent of calcification on the aortic walls between L1 and L4 vertebrae (range: 0-24). Severe AAC was defined as ACS ≥ 6. Prevalence of any AAC was highest in participants with low relative muscle mass (74 %) compared to the middle (65 %) and upper (53 %) tertiles (p trend = 0.006). The lower ALM/BMI tertile had increased odds (Odds ratio = 2.3; 95 % confidence interval: 1.1-4.6; p = 0.021) of having any AAC; and having more severe AAC (2.2; 1.2-4.0; p = 0.009) independent of CV risk factors, serum calcium and physical activity. AAC is more prevalent and severe in community-dwelling older adults with low relative muscle mass. Maintaining muscle mass could form part of a broader primary prevention strategy in reducing AAC. PMID:27272030
del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino
Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses.
Full Text Available Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK systems are as important today for the survival and well-being of many indigenous peoples as they ever were. These ways of knowing have much to contribute at a time of marked climate change. As indigenous peoples have sustained exposure to natural resources and phenomena in particular places over time, they are privy to the cumulative knowledge on the location and timing of a host of significant environmental events and processes. Not only do their intimate experiences of seasonal weather conditions, tides and currents, species, and environmental indicators contribute to a better understanding of the nature, rate, and intensity of climate change, but TEK systems can potentially contribute to more effective planning and decision making regarding resilience and adaptation to climate change. Furthermore, the values of respect and recognition of kinship with other species that are often embodied in these systems can serve to remind all of us about the imperative to conserve and protect these other species if we are to survive as humans. We identify some of the more obvious areas where TEK systems can provide important insights for climate change planners in British Columbia, Canada as well as some of the potential challenges to attempting to integrate TEK into mainstream planning for climate change.
Wernberg, T.; Thomsen, M. S.; Stæhr, P. A.;
Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) has recently been introduced to Limfjorden (Denmark) where its closest relative is the indigenous Halidrys siliquosa. Previous studies have demonstrated large quantitative (canopy biomass) and qualitative (canopy persistence) differences in the habitat...... available to epibiota within the canopies of these two macroalgae. We therefore hypothesised that these algae would support different epibiota communities and tested this by sampling the epibiota of S. muticum and H. siliquosa on seven occasions throughout 1997 by enclosing entire thalli in mesh bags. We...... were consistent with the different life histories of the host species. There was a weakly negative correlation between thallus size and epibiota biomass for both host species. When taking species-specific seasonal variation in thallus size into consideration, S. muticum and H. siliquosa were found...
Lloyd, David; Norrie, Fiona
Despite increased engagement of Indigenous representatives as participants on consultative panels charged with processes of natural resource management, concerns have been raised by both Indigenous representatives and management agencies regarding the ability of Indigenous people to have quality input into the decisions these processes produce. In…
Full Text Available Abstract Background While the home is the most common setting for the provision of palliative care in Australia, a common problem encountered here is the inability of patient/carers to manage medications, which can lead to misadventure and hospitalisation. This can be averted through detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs by a pharmacist; however, they are rarely included as members of the palliative care team. The aim of this study was to pilot a model of care that supports the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care team. A component of the study was to develop a cost-effective model for continuing the inclusion of a pharmacist within a community palliative care service. Methods The study was undertaken (February March 2009-June 2010 in three phases. Development (Phase 1 involved a literature review; scoping the pharmacist's role; creating tools for recording DRPs and interventions, a communication and education strategy, a care pathway and evidence based patient information. These were then implemented in Phase 2. Evaluation (Phase 3 of the impact of the pharmacist's role from the perspectives of team members was undertaken using an online survey and focus group. Impact on clinical outcomes was determined by the number of patients screened to assess their risk of medication misadventure, as well as the number of medication reviews and interventions performed to resolve DRPs. Results The pharmacist screened most patients (88.4%, 373/422 referred to the palliative care service to assess their risk of medication misadventure, and undertook 52 home visits. Medication reviews were commonly conducted at the majority of home visits (88%, 46/52, and a variety of DRPs (113 were detected at this point, the most common being "patient requests drug information" (25%, 28/113 and "condition not adequately treated" (22%, 25/113. The pharmacist made 120 recommendations in relation to her interventions. Fifty percent of online
Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111 reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15 did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.
The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…
Handwashing, sanitation and family planning practices are the strongest underlying determinants of child stunting in rural indigenous communities of Jharkhand and Odisha, Eastern India: a cross-sectional study
Saxton, J; S. RATH; Nair, N.; Gope, R.; Mahapatra, R.; Tripathy, P.; Prost, A. G.
The World Health Organisation has called for global action to reduce child stunting by 40% by 2025. One third of the world's stunted children live in India, and children belonging to rural indigenous communities are the worst affected. We sought to identify the strongest determinants of stunting among indigenous children in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, India, to highlight key areas for intervention. We analysed data from 1227 children aged 6–23.99 months and their mothers, collected in 2010 fr...
Francis, Caitlin F; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Smith, Ben J
The evaluation of the Sharing Health Care Initiative addressed the translation of different models of chronic disease self-management into health and community service contexts in Australia. Across seven projects, four intervention models were adopted: (1) the Stanford Chronic Disease Self Management course; (2) generic disease management planning, training and support; (3) tailored disease management planning, training and support, and; (4) telephone coaching. Targeted recruitment through support groups and patient lists was most successful for reaching high-needs clients. Projects with well developed organisational structures and health system networks demonstrated more effective implementation. Engagement of GPs in recruitment and client support was limited. Future self-management programs will require flexible delivery methods in the primary health care setting, involving practice nurses or the equivalent. After 12 months there was little evidence of potential sustainability, although structures such as consumer resource centres and client support clubs were established in some locations. Only one project was able to use Medicare chronic disease-related items to integrate self-management support into routine general practice. Participants in all projects showed improvements in self-management practices, but those receiving Model 3, flexible and tailored support, and Model 4, telephone coaching, reported the greatest benefits. PMID:17973606
The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…
Kala, J.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Lorenz, R.; Medlyn, B. E.; Wang, Y.-P.; Lin, Y.-S.; Abramowitz, G.
We implement a new stomatal conductance scheme, based on the optimality approach, within the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv2.0.1) land surface model. Coupled land-atmosphere simulations are then performed using CABLEv2.0.1 within the Australian Community Climate and Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESSv1.3b) with prescribed sea surface temperatures. As in most land surface models, the default stomatal conductance scheme only accounts for differences in model parameters in relation to the photosynthetic pathway but not in relation to plant functional types. The new scheme allows model parameters to vary by plant functional type, based on a global synthesis of observations of stomatal conductance under different climate regimes over a wide range of species. We show that the new scheme reduces the latent heat flux from the land surface over the boreal forests during the Northern Hemisphere summer by 0.5-1.0 mm day-1. This leads to warmer daily maximum and minimum temperatures by up to 1.0 °C and warmer extreme maximum temperatures by up to 1.5 °C. These changes generally improve the climate model's climatology of warm extremes and improve existing biases by 10-20 %. The bias in minimum temperatures is however degraded but, overall, this is outweighed by the improvement in maximum temperatures as there is a net improvement in the diurnal temperature range in this region. In other regions such as parts of South and North America where ACCESSv1.3b has known large positive biases in both maximum and minimum temperatures (~ 5 to 10 °C), the new scheme degrades this bias by up to 1 °C. We conclude that, although several large biases remain in ACCESSv1.3b for temperature extremes, the improvements in the global climate model over large parts of the boreal forests during the Northern Hemisphere summer which result from the new stomatal scheme, constrained by a global synthesis of experimental data, provide a valuable advance in the long-term development
Dong, Y.; Cann, I.; Mackie, R.; Price, N.; Flynn, T. M.; Sanford, R.; Miller, P.; Chia, N.; Kumar, C. G.; Kim, P.; Sivaguru, M.; Fouke, B. W.
Knowledge of the composition, structure and activity of microbial communities that live in deeply buried sedimentary rocks is fundamental to the future of subsurface biosphere stewardship as it relates to hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, carbon sequestration, gas storage and groundwater management. However, the study of indigenous subsurface microorganisms has been limited by the technical challenges of collecting deep formation water samples that have not been heavily contaminated by the mud used to drill the wells. To address this issue, a “clean-sampling method” deploying the newly developed Schlumberger Quicksilver MDT probe was used to collect a subsurface sample at a depth of 1.79 km (5872 ft) from an exploratory well within Cambrian-age sandstones in the Illinois Basin. This yielded a formation water sample that was determined to have less than 4% drilling mud contamination based on tracking changes in the aqueous geochemistry of the formation water during ~3 hours of pumping at depth prior to sample collection. A suite of microscopy and culture-independent molecular analyses were completed using the DNA extracted from microbial cells in the formation water, which included 454 amplicon pyrosequencing that targeted the V1-V3 hypervariable region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Results demonstrated an extremely low diversity microbial community living in formation water at 1.79 km-depth. More than 95 % of the total V1-V3 pyrosequencing reads (n=11574) obtained from the formation water were affiliated with a halophilic γ-proteobacterium and most closely related to the genus Halomonas. In contrast, about 3 % of the V1-V3 sequences in the drilling mud library (n=13044) were classified as genus Halomonas but were distinctly different and distantly related to the formation water Halomonas detected at 1.79 km-depth. These results were consistent with those obtained using a suite of other molecular screens (e.g., Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length
Simmons Annie M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of
Gonzalez, Margaret Freedson; Perez, Elias Perez
Educational reforms in Mexico to preserve indigenous linguistic and cultural rights often originate in Mexico City and lack grassroots support. Although native language instruction improves literacy development and preserves culture, Native parents may reject it because Spanish is the language of status. However, some indigenous communities in…
Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener indicadores demográficos para comunidades indígenas colombianas, localizadas en tres grandes regiones del país: la del Caribe, la amazónica y la andina. Material y métodos. Se analizaron las variables demográficas de una encuesta sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, realizada entre 1993 y 1994, con una muestra de 11 522 indígenas. Resultados. El 45% de la población es menor de 15 años; la tasa global de fecundidad es de 6.5 hijos por mujer, y la tasa de mortalidad infantil para 1990, de 63.3 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. La esperanza de vida al nacer fue de 57.8 años para mujeres y de 55.4 años para hombres. Conclusiones. Los indicadores difieren sustancialmente del promedio nacional. Aunque pareciera que las poblaciones estudiadas están iniciando un proceso de transición demográfica, existen diferencias regionales marcadas, con niveles de fecundidad y mortalidad infantil en la región del Caribe muy superiores a las de las otras dos regiones.Objective. To obtain demographic indicators for some indigenous communities in Colombia situated in three different regions of the country: the Caribbean, the Amazonic basin and the Andes. Material and methods. Demographic variables gathered in a KAP (knowledge, attitude and practices survey among the indigenous population in 1993 and 1994 were analyzed. The survey included 11 522 Indians. Results. 45% of the population is under age 15; overall rate of fertility is 6.5 children per woman, and death rate in 1990 was 63.3 children per 1 000 live births. Life expectancy at birth was 57.8 years for women and 55.4 years for men. Conclusions. The indicators differ substantially from the national ciphers. Although the indigenous population seems to be undergoing a process of demographic transition, there are marked differences between regions, with significantly higher fertility and infant mortality rates for the Caribbean region.
Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.
Hogan, Lindsay; Bengoechea, Enrique García; Salsberg, Jon; Jacobs, Judi; King, Morrison; Macaulay, Ann C.
Background: This study is part of a larger community-based participatory research (CBPR) project to develop, implement, and evaluate the physical activity component of a school-based wellness policy. The policy intervention is being carried out by community stakeholders and academic researchers within the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention…
Maldonado, Julie; Bennett, Bull; Chief, Karletta; Cochran, Patricia; Cozetto, Karen; Gough, Bob; Hiza, Margaret M.; Lynn, Kathy; Maynard, Nancy; Voggesser, Garrit
The organizers of the 2014 US National Climate Assessment (NCA) made a concerted effort to reach out to and collaborate with Indigenous peoples, resulting in the most comprehensive information to date on climate change impacts to Indigenous peoples in a US national assessment. Yet, there is still much room for improvement in assessment processes to ensure adequate recognition of Indigenous perspectives and Indigenous knowledge systems. This article discusses the process used in creating the Indigenous Peoples, Land, and Resources NCA chapter by a team comprised of tribal members, agencies, academics, and non-governmental organizations, who worked together to solicit, collect, and synthesize traditional knowledges and data from a diverse array of Indigenous communities across the US. It also discusses the synergy and discord between traditional knowledge systems and science and the emergence of cross-cutting issues and vulnerabilities for Indigenous peoples. The challenges of coalescing information about climate change and its impacts on Indigenous communities are outlined along with recommendations on the types of information to include in future assessment outputs. We recommend that future assessments – not only NCA, but other relevant local, regional, national, and international efforts aimed at the translation of climate information and assessments into meaningful actions – should support integration of Indigenous perspectives in a sustained way that builds respectful relationships and effectively engages Indigenous communities. Given the large number of tribes in the US and the current challenges and unique vulnerabilities of Indigenous communities, a special report focusing solely on climate change and Indigenous peoples is warranted.
Merga, Nigatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse
As primary caregiver to under-five children in Ethiopia, mothers' knowledge, perception, and management skills are important to minimize the effects of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Abramo and Megele 37 kebeles (the last administration division) in Assosa district of western Ethiopia in July 2010. Quantitative data were obtained by a structured questionnaire from 232 randomly-selected mothers having children aged less than five years regarding their knowledge, perception, and management. Qualitative data were also collected by arranging four focus group discussions involving mothers from the two communities. The prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children was 33.2%, and the knowledge of mothers about the causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoea in the study area was 37.5%. The prevalence of diarrhoeal disease was higher in the settlement area whereas mothers' knowledge was better in the indigenous community; 62.9% of mothers were categorized as having good attitude on causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoeal disease. Community water source, water storage container, and knowledge of mothers remained a strong predictor of diarrhoeal morbidity after conducting logistic regression analysis (OR=8.4, CI 3.59-31.85; OR=2.2, CI 1.02-4.89; and OR=3.62, CI 1.23-4.71 respectively). Diarrhoeal morbidity was high in the study areas. On the contrary, knowledge and attitude of mothers, recognizing the danger sign of dehydration due to diarrhoea, and the prevention and management of childhood diarrhoeal diseases were not adequate. Information, education and communication strategy may help increase the knowledge and create positive attitude among mothers regarding the cause, prevention, and management of diarrhoea.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening primary health care is critical to reducing health inequity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Audit and Best practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE project has facilitated the implementation of modern Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI approaches in Indigenous community health care centres across Australia. The project demonstrated improvements in health centre systems, delivery of primary care services and in patient intermediate outcomes. It has also highlighted substantial variation in quality of care. Through a partnership between academic researchers, service providers and policy makers, we are now implementing a study which aims to 1 explore the factors associated with variation in clinical performance; 2 examine specific strategies that have been effective in improving primary care clinical performance; and 3 work with health service staff, management and policy makers to enhance the effective implementation of successful strategies. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in Indigenous community health centres from at least six States/Territories (Northern Territory, Western Australia, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland and Victoria over a five year period. A research hub will be established in each region to support collection and reporting of quantitative and qualitative clinical and health centre system performance data, to investigate factors affecting variation in quality of care and to facilitate effective translation of research evidence into policy and practice. The project is supported by a web-based information system, providing automated analysis and reporting of clinical care performance to health centre staff and management. Discussion By linking researchers directly to users of research (service providers, managers and policy makers, the partnership is well placed to generate new knowledge on effective strategies for improving the quality of primary
Full Text Available In the Australian higher education context Indigenous students have consistently been under-represented in business education compared to other disciplines, such as education and arts, and compared to non-Indigenous students. According to Asmar, Page and Radloff (2011. “Compared with non-Indigenous students, Indigenous students… were more likely to be studying in the humanities; slightly more likely to be studying education, in a field of health, or in the creative arts; and less likely to be studying science, engineering or business” (p. 4. Progress on participation rates in business education has been slow as evidenced by Schwab making similar observations of the pattern of Indigenous participation in higher education in 1996 (Schwab 1996. The literature has revealed various attempts to increase overall Indigenous commencement and completion rates at universities (see e.g., Asmar et al., 2011; Barney, 2013; Behrendt et al., 2012; Raciti et al., 2014; Rahman, 2013. Nevertheless, little research has been undertaken on the topic of improving the uptake of higher education in business courses in particular (see Behrendt et al., 2012 and Rkein & Norris 2012 for exceptions. Among various measures, fostering Indigenous students’ participation in business education is ‘crucial for [indirectly] fostering [economic] independence’ (Foley, 2013, p. 25 and required if more Indigenous businesses are to be created. Against this backdrop, this paper contributes to our understanding of the complex issue of Indigenous students’ participation in business education. It begins by providing a brief review of the literature exploring enrolment and completion rates in business disciplines at the tertiary level. The paper then presents a case study of an innovative intervention developed by an Australian higher educational institution designed to inspire young Indigenous students to consider tertiary business studies as a viable option which would result
Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell
In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…
The use of indigenous knowledge has been seen by many as an alternative way of promoting development in poor rural communities in many parts of the world. By reviewing much of the recent work on indigenous knowledge, the paper suggests that a number of problems and tensions has resulted in indigenous knowledge not being as useful as hoped for or supposed. These include problems emanating from a focus on the (arte)factual; binary tensions between western science and indigenous knowledge system...
Santos H. Alvarado Dzul; Francisco J. Rosado-May; Susanne Kissmann; Gemma Burford; Marie K. Harder
Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenou...
The American continent has a long tradition of autonomous regimes, both territorial and non-territorial. Autonomous regimes of American indigenous communities in particular have not been the subject of intense discussion and comparison, partly because the task of discussing such autonomous regimes in the whole of the Americas represents a huge challenge.
Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani
Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…
Wyatt, Geoffrey; Hamacher, Duane W
The Australian National Curriculum promotes Indigenous culture in school education programs. To foster a broader appreciation of cultural astronomy, to utilise the unique astronomical heritage of the site, and to develop an educational program within the framework of the National Curriculum, Sydney Observatory launched Dreamtime Astronomy, a program incorporating Australian Indigenous culture, astronomy, and Sydney's astronomical history and heritage. This paper reviews the development and implementation of this program and discusses modifications following an evaluation by schools.
Juliana Rízia Félix de Melo
Full Text Available Em função do crescimento do uso e do abuso do álcool nas populações indígenas do Brasil, esta pesquisa se propôs a investigar o consumo do álcool na comunidade Potiguara do Estado da Paraíba, devido à especificidade cultural e regional desta etnia. Trata-se de um estudo de campo exploratório. A amostra foi composta por 55 índios, maiores de 18 anos e de ambos os sexos. O instrumento utilizado foi uma entrevista semiestruturada aplicada individualmente. Para a análise dos dados, foi utilizado o software SPSS e Análise de Conteúdo Temática. Os resultados revelaram que 41,8% da amostra estudada têm, pelo menos, um membro da família que faz uso de bebida alcoólica, em sua maioria destiladas, e que o uso ocorre em idade precoce, estando desvinculado da cultura e de rituais. Dos entrevistados 27,3% afirmaram que a bebida traz diversos problemas para toda a família, inclusive com a morte. Pode-se concluir que, na população indígena estudada, o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas já ocorre de forma abusiva e precoce, necessitando-se de um trabalho mais efetivo de prevenção e de resgate da cultura desta comunidade.Due to the growth of usage and alcohol abuse in indigenous populations of Brazil, this research aims to investigate alcohol consumption in the Potiguara community, in the State of Paraíba, considering its specific cultural and regional differences of ethnicity. This is an exploratory field study. The sample consisted of 55 Indians, aged over 18 years and of both sexes. The instrument was a semistructured interview administered individually. For data analysis, we used the SPSS software and qualitative analysis. The results revealed that 41.8% of the sample have at least one family member who uses alcohol, mostly distilled, and that use starts at an early age, being detached from the culture and rituals. Of the respondents 27.3% said that drinking brings many problems for the entire family, including death. We can concluded
Nakata, N M; Warren, J; Byrne, A; Pagnucco, M; Harley, R; Venugopal, S; Thorpe, K; Neville, R; Bolt, R
Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the general public for the future. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project involving experts in the higher education, library, and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a cult...
Jerry P. White
Full Text Available Indigenous peoples have, since time immemorial, understood that water is central to the cycles of life. Yet, as many of the articles in this special issue on water in Indigenous communities point out, Indigenous peoples have real problems accessing safe water. Why?Indigenous peoples have always cared for the water and followed practices that, depending on their geography, varied by season to protect and conserve fresh safe water. They have celebrated it as witnessed by the ceremony and language used. Colonial practices have disrupted the care and knowledge passing in Indigenous communities.Cost-effective technology exists to deliver safe water to Indigenous communities. The issue is that utilization of technology and environmental sustainability rest on the social determinants of safe water. From a policy perspective, this means we have to look outside of Western technological solutions and come to listen to the other ‘story’ - the one that emanates from Indigenous Traditional Knowledge.
The issue of family violence and sexual abuse in Indigenous communities across Australia has attracted much attention throughout 2007, including significant intervention by the federal government into communities deemed to be in crisis. This paper critically examines the reporting and recording of Indigenous violence in Australia and reflects on what 'statistics' can offer as we grapple with how to respond appropriately to a problem defined as a 'national emergency'. PMID:19130914
Friscia, J. M.; Epstein, B.; Cumberbatch, T.; Okuneff, A.
Over the course of a six-week period in both 2009 and 2010, an investigation into the collection and usage of water was undertaken in the Bongo District of Ghana. The outcome of this research was to provide data for the design of a defluoridation filter for the groundwater that could be used either in the household or at the borehole. This filter would use laterite as the filter medium and would prevent the development of dental fluorosis, which is common in the District. In 2009, the focus was on denser, more centrally located communities, while the research in 2010 focused on communities in which people live further from water sources. The localities studied were in Namoo, Kuyelingo, Bongo Central, and Kadare. After an analysis of data collected in 2009 and a preliminary review of data collected in 2010, it has been determined that the different localities have different requirements for a filter design. Denser communities, including parts of Namoo, Kuyelingo, and Bongo Central, would benefit most from a filter installed directly at the borehole. This filter would not process all the water fetched, since less than half the water collected is ingested. In more remote communities, such as parts of Kuyelingo near the Vea Dam and Kadare, a household filter would be ideal. In these communities, when people live far from the borehole, they seek other sources, including river water, wells, rainwater, and dam water. Many of these sources are unsafe to drink without proper treatment. Therefore, a household filter that can filter the fluoride from borehole water (when the household does indeed fetch from the pump) and can filter bacteria and viruses from the other water sources would be most appropriate. The results from the water survey provide an overview of the water collection rate throughout the day, distance the water is carried to the individual households, and breakdown of water usage within the household - in both dense and remote communities. Child with Dental
McNeave, C.; Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; Huntington, H.; Pulsifer, P. L.; McCann, H.
Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide 'frontline' observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. ELOKA fills a critical gap in Arctic research by providing data management services to social and physical science projects, community-based research projects, and other projects with ‘non-traditional data’ that currently have few options for support. ELOKA continues to develop methods for collection, management, and distribution of these important data. Management systems and processes include services for metadata authorship; online presentation of research including maps, photographs, and interactive hunter and elder interviews with translations. ELOKA is also investigating techniques for sharing geographic information over the Internet with computer-based mapping as well as providing data discovery and access via keyword-based catalogue searches. This presentation provides details on some of the methods and procedures developed by ELOKA to support the wider research community and beyond with collection support, and access and discoverability services.
Parker Eleanor J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians suffer substantially poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts and new approaches are needed to address these disparities. Previous work in Port Augusta, South Australia, a regional town with a large Indigenous community, revealed associations between low oral health literacy scores and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study aims to determine if implementation of a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention improves oral health literacy-related outcomes measured by use of dental services, and assessment of oral health knowledge, oral health self-care and oral health- related self-efficacy. Methods/design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT that utilises a delayed intervention design. Participants are Indigenous adults, aged 18 years and older, who plan to reside in Port Augusta or a nearby community for the next two years. The intervention group will receive the intervention from the outset of the study while the control group will be offered the intervention 12 months following their enrolment in the study. The intervention consists of a series of five culturally sensitive, oral health education workshops delivered over a 12 month period by Indigenous project officers. Workshops consist of presentations, hands-on activities, interactive displays, group discussions and role plays. The themes addressed in the workshops are underpinned by oral health literacy concepts, and incorporate oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related fatalism, oral health knowledge, access to dental care and rights and entitlements as a patient. Data will be collected through a self-report questionnaire at baseline, at 12 months and at 24 months. The primary outcome measure is oral health literacy. Secondary outcome measures include oral health knowledge, oral health self-care, use of dental services, oral health-related self-efficacy and oral health-related fatalism
Mizanur Rahman; Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman; Mahmuda Islam
A study was conducted to investigate the cultural and financial management techniques of betel leaf based agroforestry system practiced in or near homegardens of Khasia community in Jaintapur Upazila in the district of Sylhet, Bangladesh. The Khasia is an educated community where 100% of Khasia people were literate, a stunning fact for this ethnic community in Bangladesh. The average family size in the study area was 7.68, with a ration of male and females of 141:100. The homegardens of the Khasia are rich in species composition, which 15 timber species, 22 horticultural species, six medicinal species, 13 annual crops including leafy vegetables, seven species of spices and five species of bamboo were identified along with betel leaf. The Khasia is an economically prosperous community with the minimum family incomes of Tk 4000 per month (Tk. 70=1 US Dollar). Betel leaf based agroforestry is very common being a prevalent source of income. About 95.45% of the households are involved in betel leaf husbandry. The mean annual income from one hectare of betel leaf plantation was estimated to be Tk. 80979. This practice was proven to be a profitable business where the benefit cost ratio was calculated to be 4.47. Moreover, the species composition in the betel leaf plantation area (the forest area once utilized by Khasia for shifting cultivation) was found to be very promising to play the significant role in conservation of biological diversity making the practice a sustainable agroforestry system.
Meyer, Lois M.
In an era when U.S. and Mexican teachers are valued more for their academic achievements than their community-based knowledge and local/ethnic identity (e.g. Teach for America, or its off-shoot, Teach for Mexico), this study provides initial results of a one-year (2011-2012) intensive professional development experience (called a…
Traa-Valarezo, Ximena; Reyes, Joel; Alvarez, Lia; Meza, Darlyn; Sanchez, Saul; Traviezo, Jorge; Sabio, Ambrosio; Martinez, Mateo; Figueroa, Luz Maria
The New Agenda of the Honduran government proposes the provision of preschool and primary school education for all Honduran children, including those living in isolated areas and in extreme poverty. The Community-Based Education Program (PROHECO) was launched in February 1999, and by December 2000 some 820 schools serving 39,540 students were in…
This thesis is concerned with refugees and their impact on the host community. Throughout the World, the UNHCR is not only concerned with the hosting, feeding, sheltering, clothing and educating the refugees. It is also addressing their impact on the host communities that face the consequences of their presence. In the effort to host protracted refugees, many developing host communities face various forms of socio-cultural influence and economic challenges. Previous findings from researc...
Juana Valentina Nieto
This article reflects on the representations of communal work and collective property held by promoters of income-generating projects in the Witoto community “El Once”, near Leticia in the Colombian Amazon. It focuses on the ways women get involved in development projects, in comparison with their organization for the production of handicrafts and subsistence agricultural crops. The main argument is that work in agriculture and handicrafts is organized based on a close connection between the ...
Indigenous People movements are present in Latin American regions since the 80’s (Betancur, 2011:7) In the case of Peru, the State has incorporated international treatments related to indigenous people rights, such as ILO 169 Convention as well as the United Nation’s Declaration of Indigenous people rights. (Chirif and García, 2011:116) Despite of this, indigenous people are still victims of racism, exploitation and discrimination nowadays. Recently, inside indigenous people own movement,...
SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED
Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.
Full Text Available In an era when the acceptance of Indigenous art within our galleries is assumed confidently as self-evident, it is easy to overlook how such a remarkable transformation occurred almost within the space of a decade. Even more misunderstood is the prominent role Daryl Lindsay played in the early acceptance and legitimisation of Australian indigenous art. Within months of becoming director of the NGV, Lindsay prepared a major exhibition of primitive art, including Australian indigenous works, an event that became the defining catalyst for a cultural shift towards indigenous art. In the early 1960s, in the influential role of chair of the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board, Lindsay advocated for the inclusion of Australian Aboriginal art, chosen for aesthetic merit as a dedicated collecting stream in the future NGA. It was a decisive objective, and one that was a central tenet of his vision for Australian art. Yet it is clear that Lindsays role in encouraging the re-evaluation of Australian Indigenous art remains poorly understood within the field of Australian gallery practice. Even within recent years, art historians have misattributed later events as being the catalyst for change, either positioning Lindsay as a reactionary late in his term as director, or placing him outside the formative years of the shift in attitude altogether. This paper explores Lindsays young adult experiences in Central Australia, the backdrop for his empathy with Australian Indigenous culture, and the remarkable shift in Australian Art Museum practice undertaken during his directorship that saw Indigenous artefacts exhibited and appreciated for their artistic merit.
Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Berardi, Andrea; Tschirhart, Céline; Bignante, Elisa; Haynes, Lakeram; Benjamin, Ryan; Albert, Grace; Xavier, Rebecca; Jafferally, Deirdre; de Ville, Géraud
In an era of increasing access to digital technologies, Indigenous communities are progressively more able to present sophisticated and differentiated narratives in order to maximise their long-term survival. In this article, we explore how Indigenous communities use participatory video and participatory photography as tools of Indigenous media to enhance, adapt and/or reinforce their collective social memory. This social memory is key for identity formation and self-representation, and the w...
Juana Valentina Nieto
Full Text Available This article reflects on the representations of communal work and collective property held by promoters of income-generating projects in the Witoto community “El Once”, near Leticia in the Colombian Amazon. It focuses on the ways women get involved in development projects, in comparison with their organization for the production of handicrafts and subsistence agricultural crops. The main argument is that work in agriculture and handicrafts is organized based on a close connection between the body, the person, and the products of his/her work, in contrast with the development projects promoted by diverse external agencies, which assume a logic of communal work and collective property. All this has as a consequence the dissatisfaction of both parties –the promoters and those “promoted”–with the results of such projects.
This paper has a purpose and that purpose is to tell a story. An important story. A story that will sadden you and perhaps give rise to dismay. But it’s not a story about a princess. This story takes place, not in the glitz and glamour of Europe with fast cars, great shopping and an avid and enthusiastic paparazzi, but rather in the desert of Central Australia where you need a good four-wheel drive to get home on the dusty roads, where shopping is limited to the basics at the local stor...
Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.
The Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley Review, 2008) and the Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (Behrendt Review, 2012) identified the need for tertiary institutions to incorporate Indigenous knowledges into curriculum to improve educational outcomes for Indigenous…
Maferetlhane, Oageng Ivan
Although the importance of Indigenous Knowledge systems has been recognised by international organisations, such as the United Nations and World Bank, the role of Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction has to date not received the attention it deserves in South Africa. Little is known about how South Africa‘s indigenous communities use Indigenous Knowledge to avoid, prevent and deal with disasters. This study has sought to investigate the role of Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster Risk...
Ying, S C; Damashek, J; Fendorf, S; Francis, C A
Arsenic (As) cycling within soils and sediments of the Mekong Delta of Cambodia is affected by drastic redox fluctuations caused by seasonal monsoons. Extensive flooding during monsoon seasons creates anoxic soil conditions that favor anaerobic microbial processes, including arsenate [As(V)] respiration-a process contributing to the mobilization of As. Repeated oxidation and reduction in near-surface sediments, which contain 10-40 mg kg(-1) As, lead to the eventual downward movement of As to the underlying aquifer. Amplification of a highly conserved functional gene encoding dissimilatory As(V) reductase, arrA, can be used as a molecular marker to detect the genetic potential for As(V) respiration in environmental samples. However, few studies have successfully amplified arrA from sediments without prior enrichment, which can drastically shift community structure. In the present study, we examine the distribution and diversity of arrA genes amplified from multiple sites within the Cambodian Mekong Delta as a function of near-surface depth (10, 50, 100, 200, and 400 cm), where sediments undergo seasonal redox fluctuations. We report successful amplification of 302 arrA gene sequences (72 OTUs) from near-surface Cambodian soils (without prior enrichment or stimulation with carbon amendments), where a large majority (>70%) formed a well-supported clade that is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported sequences from Cambodia and other South and Southeast Asian sediments, with highest sequence similarity to known Geobacter species capable of As(V) respiration, further supporting the potentially important role of Geobacter sp. in arsenic mobilization in these regions. PMID:26466963
澳大利亚作家凯瑟琳·苏珊娜·普里查德，在她的土著题材作品中，努力克服种族偏见，对土著民和土著文化倾注了同情、理解和尊重；不仅如此，作为一个女性作家，她还对土著女性的不利生存地位给予了特别的关注，这使得她的土著题材作品既有反对种族主义的一面，又有关注性别歧视的一面。本文结合《库娜图》等四部作品，探讨了澳大利亚土著女性在19世纪末至20世纪初的殖民时期所遭受的种族和性别的双重压迫。%In her fictional writing about the Australian Aborigines, Katharine Susannab Prichard uniquely attempts to free herself from racial prejudice and expresses her sympathy, understanding and respect towards the Aborigines in general. As a woman writer, she also concerns with Indigenous women＇s disadvantaged living status. This renders her novels and other works characteristically anti- racist and anti-sexist. In the study of Coonardoo and her three other works, this paper examines the double oppressions of racism and sexism imposed upon Indigenous women in colonial Australia in the late 19th and early 20th century.
The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…
Hamacher, Duane W
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
Hamacher, Duane W.
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael
The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence and incidence of diabetes and other common comorbid conditions (hypertension, coronary heart disease, renal disease and chronic lung disease are extremely high among Indigenous Australians. Recent measures to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous community settings, while apparently successful at increasing screening and routine check-up rates, have shown only modest or little improvements in appropriate care such as the introduction of insulin and other scaled-up drug regimens in line with evidence-based guidelines, together with support for risk factor reduction. A new strategy is required to ensure high quality integrated family-centred care is available locally, with continuity and cultural safety, by community-based care coordinators with appropriate system supports. Methods/design The trial design is open parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. The objective of this pragmatic trial is to test the effectiveness of a model of health service delivery that facilitates integrated community-based, intensive chronic condition management, compared with usual care, in rural and remote Indigenous primary health care services in north Queensland. Participants are Indigenous adults (aged 18–65 years with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>=8.5 and at least one other chronic condition. The intervention is to employ an Indigenous Health Worker to case manage the care of a maximum caseload of 30 participants. The Indigenous Health Workers receive intensive clinical training initially, and throughout the study, to ensure they are competent to coordinate care for people with chronic conditions. The Indigenous Health Workers, supported by the local primary health care (PHC team and an Indigenous Clinical Support Team, will manage care, including coordinating access to multidisciplinary team care based on best practice standards. Allocation by cluster to the intervention and control groups is by simple
Magali Barreto Ávila
Magali Barreto Avila describes how since the seizure of lands carried out by the Zapatistas from 1994 to 1997, Mayan indigenous women from Ocosingo, Chiapas have worked to build food autonomy for indigenous communities.
Regmi, Jagadish; Fleming, Michelle
This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students' experiences are more complex than many non-indigenous students; and how science and globalization complicates the preservation of indigenous knowledge. In this forum we suggest that research on indigenous knowledge be examined through the lens of the locally situated contexts and the extent to which globalization hinders this kind of knowledge in the name of value neutral scientific knowledge. We finally suggest that research in indigenous communities has to be more intentional and respectful, and teachers need to rethink how useful and meaningful science learning can be for indigenous students.
Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J
To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669
Kyra Y L Chua
Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159 to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding α-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and α-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new virulence factors, suggesting that this clone's enhanced pathogenicity could lie within subtler genome changes, such as SNPs within regulatory genes. To investigate the role of accessory genome elements in CA-MRSA epidemiology, we next sequenced three additional Australian non-ST93 CA-MRSA strains and compared them with JKD6159, 19 completed S. aureus genomes and 59 additional S. aureus genomes for which unassembled genome sequence data was publicly available (82 genomes in total. These comparisons showed that despite its distinctive genotype, JKD6159 and other CA-MRSA clones (including USA300 share a conserved repertoire of three notable accessory elements (SSCmecIV, PVL prophage, and pMW2. This study demonstrates that the genetically distinct ST93 CA-MRSA from Australia is highly virulent. Our comparisons of geographically and genetically diverse CA-MRSA genomes suggest that apparent convergent evolution in CA-MRSA may be better explained by the rapid
Hercus, Luise; Koch, Harold
Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases,...
Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.
Adir Casaro Nascimento
Full Text Available The policy on school education has always been explicit in its intentions to produce identities for indigenous peoples. The Federal Constitution of 1988 broke with the assimilationist/integrationist/colonizing proposal of curricula imposed on indigenous people and recognizes the ethnic identities of indigenous people inserted within the context of their cultural relations and the right to their customs, values, traditions, languages and knowledge. The use of the mother tongue and of learning processes has been orienting categories in the curricula of their schools. With culture as the focal point of discussion, this text is supported on testimonies by indigenous teachers from Terena, Guarani and Kaiowá tribes, subjects living the ambiguities and conflicts as well as their identities and the identities of those looking for schooling in different communities. Despite the difficulties that the indigenous school still faces, indigenous movements question homogenous and colonizing schooling models. This school is part of their lives and plays its social role of working with knowledge without excluding cultures as producers of sense and meaning, their knowledge that guarantees the difference in curriculum, area of struggle, and in the production of indigenous subjects.
Trofanenko, Brenda; Segall, Avner
In museums with Indigenous objects, the exhibits present a particular representation of the culture and history of Indigenous peoples. More recently, the move toward partnerships with Indigenous communities represents a radical departure from long-held attitudes about the relationship between Indigenous people and museums. This article both…
Science Teacher, 2005
Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…
Segar, Simon T.; Dunn, Derek W.; Darwell, Clive T.; Cook, James M.
Endophytic insects and their parasitoids provide valuable models for community ecology. The wasp communities in inflorescences of fig trees have great potential for comparative studies, but we must first describe individual communities. Here, we add to the few detailed studies of such communities by describing the one associated with Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. First, we describe community composition, using two different sampling procedures. Overall, we identified 14 species of non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) that fall into two size classes. Small wasps, including pollinators, gallers and their parasitoids, were more abundant than large wasps (both galler and parasitoid species). We show that in figs where wasps emerge naturally, the presence of large wasps may partly explain the low emergence of small wasps. During fig development, large gallers oviposit first, before and around the time of pollination, while parasitoids lay eggs after pollination. We further show that parasitoids in the subfamily Sycoryctinae, which comprise the majority of all individual NPFWs, segregate temporally by laying eggs at different stages of fig development. We discuss our results in terms of species co-existence and community structure and compare our findings to those from fig wasp communities on other continents.
LU, FLORA; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Mena, Carlos F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; BARBIERI, ALISSON; Walsh, Stephen J.
To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist ...
Prout, Sarah; Yap, Mandy
Indigenous Australians have often been described as highly mobile people, particularly in historical and remote "wilderness" contexts. To date though, very little research has examined the relationship between Indigenous temporary mobilities and formal education systems, which assume and require "settled" residency practice. This paper situates…
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, th...
Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki
Social concerns surrounding commercial plantation forest management practices in Australia have resulted in calls for more participatory forms of forest management decision-making. Public participation (or community engagement, CE) processes provide opportunities for affected and interested communit
Hayden, Helen L; Mele, Pauline M; Bougoure, Damian S; Allan, Claire Y; Norng, Sorn; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Desantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Williams, Amity L; Hovenden, Mark J
The microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi is described in an Australian native grassland soil after more than 5 years exposure to different atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) (ambient, +550 ppm) and temperatures (ambient, + 2°C) under different plant functional types (C3 and C4 grasses) and at two soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). Archaeal community diversity was influenced by elevated [CO2], while under warming archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers increased for C4 plant Themeda triandra and decreased for the C3 plant community (P < 0.05). Fungal community diversity resulted in three groups based upon elevated [CO2], elevated [CO2] plus warming and ambient [CO2]. Overall bacterial community diversity was influenced primarily by depth. Specific bacterial taxa changed in richness and relative abundance in response to climate change factors when assessed by a high-resolution 16S rRNA microarray (PhyloChip). Operational taxonomic unit signal intensities increased under elevated [CO2] for both Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and increased under warming for Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. For the interaction of elevated [CO2] and warming there were 103 significant operational taxonomic units (P < 0.01) representing 15 phyla and 30 classes. The majority of these operational taxonomic units increased in abundance for elevated [CO2] plus warming plots, while abundance declined in warmed or elevated [CO2] plots. Bacterial abundance (16S rRNA gene copy number) was significantly different for the interaction of elevated [CO2] and depth (P < 0.05) with decreased abundance under elevated [CO2] at 5-10 cm, and for Firmicutes under elevated [CO2] (P < 0.05). Bacteria, archaea and fungi in soil responded differently to elevated [CO2], warming and their interaction. Taxa identified as significantly climate-responsive could show differing trends in the direction of response ('+' or '-') under elevated CO2 or warming, which could then not be used to
Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.
Hamacher, Duane W
Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the sky-watching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Australian Aboriginal traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Indigenous traditions, and an account of a nova in Aboriginal traditions has been confirmed, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous oral or material traditions.
Michele J. Fleming
Full Text Available Historically the preserve of the elite, higher education around the world remains dominated by students from middle and upper classes (Gale, Tranter, Bills, Hattam & Comber, 2010. In recent decades, numerous equity initiatives have targeted specific groups with some degrees of success. The Bradley Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley, Noonan, Nugent & Scales, 2008 identified the three most disadvantaged groups in Australian higher education. These are Indigenous Australians, students from rural and remote areas, and those from low socio-economic status (SES backgrounds. Moreover, they remain the three groups that have shown the least improvement in participation rates (Centre for the Study of Higher Education, 2008; Gale et al., 2010. Given the high proportion of the rural and remote population who are also Indigenous (Baxter, Gray & Hayes, 2011, and the high numbers of Indigenous people who are also socioeconomically disadvantaged (Hunter, 1996, it is not surprising that the Behrendt Review (Behrendt, Larkin, Griew & Kelly, 2012 revealed a continuation of lower participation and completion rates by Indigenous students in higher education. At all levels of study there is huge disparity between the numbers of Indigenous students participating (Barney, 2013; Pechenkina, Kowal & Paradies, 2011 both compared to the Indigenous population as a whole, and to other under-represented groups. While Indigenous university students are typically older than their non-Indigenous peers (Pechenkina & Anderson, 2011, the numbers of Indigenous students entering university directly from school remain low in part due to inadequate preparation (Anderson & Potok, 2010 and high dropout rates during high school (Helme & Lamb, 2011. Thus, in specifically targeting aspirations for higher education and the transition from high school to university, the University of Canberra has developed a program for Indigenous students – the ACT-Indigenous Success (ACT
Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This research project explored the models of Indigenous support programs in Australian academic libraries, and how they align with the needs of the students they support. The research objective was to gather feedback from Indigenous students and obtain evidence of good practice models from Australian academic libraries to inform the development and enhancement of Indigenous support programs. The research presents the viewpoints of both Indigenous students and librarians. Methods – The research methods comprised an online survey using SurveyMonkey and a focus group. The survey was conducted nationally in Australia to gather evidence on the different models of Indigenous support provided by academic libraries. The survey explored the nature of support services such as specialized study spaces and resources, information literacy education, and liaison services for Indigenous students. The survey also asked respondents to comment on the challenges they encountered and improvements they would recommend in providing Indigenous student support. To provide a student perspective, a small cohort of Indigenous students at a small university in South East Queensland was interviewed in a focus group about their library experiences. The focus group explored Indigenous students’ perceptions of the library, their frequency of use and where they go for help with their studies. Results – The survey found that 84% of academic libraries provide some specific support for Indigenous students with 89% of those support services being conducted in a place other than the library. Across the sector, Australian academic libraries have a strong commitment to the success of Indigenous students and considerable engagement with Indigenous issues. The focus group found that Indigenous students’ needs and concerns about using the library were not differentiated by their cultural background. Rather their concerns were similar to issues being raised
Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne
Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid.
Guthridge Steven L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimated life expectancy at birth for Indigenous Australians is 10-11 years less than the general Australian population. The mean family income for Indigenous people is also significantly lower than for non-Indigenous people. In this paper we examine poverty or socioeconomic disadvantage as an explanation for the Indigenous health gap in hospital morbidity in Australia. Methods We utilised a cross-sectional and ecological design using the Northern Territory public hospitalisation data from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2008 and socio-economic indexes for areas (SEIFA from the 2006 census. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Both total and potentially avoidable hospitalisations were investigated. Results This study indicated that lifting SEIFA scores for family income and education/occupation by two quintile categories for low socio-economic Indigenous groups was sufficient to overcome the excess hospital utilisation among the Indigenous population compared with the non-Indigenous population. The results support a reframing of the Indigenous health gap as being a consequence of poverty and not simplistically of ethnicity. Conclusions Socio-economic disadvantage is a likely explanation for a substantial proportion of the hospital morbidity gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Efforts to improve Indigenous health outcomes should recognise poverty as an underlying determinant of the health gap.
Nitrogen removal characteristics of indigenous aerobic denitrifiers and changes in the microbial community of a reservoir enclosure system via in situ oxygen enhancement using water lifting and aeration technology.
Zhou, Shilei; Huang, Tinglin; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Haihan; Liu, Fei; Zeng, Mingzheng; Shi, Jianchao; Qiu, Xiaopeng
Indigenous aerobic denitrifiers of a reservoir system were enhanced in situ by water lifting and aeration technology. Nitrogen removal characteristics and changes in the bacterial community were investigated. Results from a 30-day experiment showed that the TN in the enhanced water system decreased from 1.08-2.02 to 0.75-0.91mg/L and that TN removal rates varied between 21.74% and 52.54% without nitrite accumulation, and TN removal rate of surface sediments reached 41.37±1.55%. The densities of aerobic denitrifiers in the enhanced system increased. Furthermore, the enhanced system showed a clear inhibition of Fe, Mn, and P performances. Community analysis using Miseq showed that diversity was higher in the in situ oxygen enhanced system than in the control system. In addition, the microbial composition was significantly different between systems. It can be concluded that in situ enhancement of indigenous aerobic denitrifiers is very effective in removing nitrogen from water reservoir systems. PMID:27128190
Kamaljit K. Sangha
Full Text Available In Australia, role of natural resources in Indigenous well-being is completely ignored to date which further leads to inappropriate and ineffective well-being policies. This research addresses the need to develop an appropriate indigenous well-being approach that incorporates indigenous values in relation to natural systems. It focuses on Indigenous people in Australia and examines the available well-being frameworks from global as well as from local (i.e. Australian and Indigenous, perspectives. It applies a holistic approach to assess the role of natural systems in indigenous well-being demonstrating how people’s social, economic and cultural worlds, and how people’s capabilities relate to their natural systems. It integrates various social, economic and ecological values through the application of Capability Approach and the Millennium Assessment Approach. The study proposes an integrated framework that focuses on people’s belongingness to nature i.e. people’s values and capabilities that link to well-being. It emphasises the importance of each connection that people may have with their country in terms of people’s capabilities. The proposed framework can contribute to improved and better-informed policies on indigenous well-being as well as on the use, value and management of natural systems.
Megan Marie Stronach
Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—a rather narrow perspective that fails to acknowledge the situational complexity and socio-cultural diversity of elite athletes. With such a range of personal circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that athletes from different cultural groups will have different individual SCT needs. The researcher is non-Indigenous and mature aged: she encountered a number of challenges in her efforts to understand Indigenous culture and its important sensitivities, and to build trust with the Indigenous male participants she interviewed. An Indigenous philosophy known as Dadirri, which emphasises deep and respectful listening, guided the development of the research design and methodology. Consistent with previous studies conducted by non-Indigenous researchers, an open-ended and conversational approach to interviewing Indigenous respondents was developed. The objective was for the voices of the athletes to be heard, allowing the collection of rich data based on the participants’ perspectives about SCT. An overview of the findings is presented, illustrating that Indigenous athletes experience SCT in complex and distinctive ways. The article provides a model for non-Indigenous researchers to conduct qualitative research with Indigenous people.
Dublin, Devon Ronald
Satoyama concept has been advocated for an ideal model for traditional landscape, where nature and human are in harmony and sustainable. In 2010, the International Partnership for Satoyama Initiative (IPSI) was launched to revitalize the concept of Satoyama in Japan and promote it internationally but no mechanism exists in which it can be thoroughly evaluated. Because of a combination of factors, the existence of indigenous peoples can no longer be based on a hunter-gatherer tradition and req...
In the face of global language contraction, unlikely allies are emerging to support language maintenance and revitalization. This dissertation demonstrates that the interest of many speakers in revitalizing the indigenous Mexican language Highland Oaxaca Chontal is connected to their faith as Jehovah's Witnesses, a new religious movement rooted in the global North. At the time of research, Witness religious meetings were the only high-status context - and the only public context - in which Ch...
van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M
Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy
Herrera Pena, Guillermina; Raymundo, Jorge Manuel
Guatemala is overhauling its justice system to be more congruent with its indigenous reality. A Rafael Landivar University program trains indigenous legal translators not only in legal and linguistic aspects, but also in strengthening indigenous identity and student commitment to the community. Challenges and future plans are described. A former…
Epidemiological studies of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in indigenous communities of Pauini municipality, Amazonas, Brazil Estudos epidemiológicos da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades indígenas do município de Pauini, Amazonas, Brasil
Jansen Fernandes Medeiros
Full Text Available The Mansonella ozzardi has a widespread distribution among the indigenous and riverine communities of Amazonas, Brazil. We estimated the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in indigenous communities of the Pauini municipality, Amazonas state, Brazil and the rate of parasitic infection in vectors. We collected thick blood smears from individuals from six Apurinã indigenous communities along the Purus River and its tributaries. Collections of simuliids were made and dissected, and the larval instars of M. ozzardi identified. The overall prevalence of M. ozzardi was 28.40%, with the highest incidence among males and agricultural workers. Among age groups, children 2-9 years of age had the lowest incidence, while individuals older than 58 exhibited the highest rates of infection. We found infected simuliids in three communities, with Parasitic Infection Rates (PIR of 0.34-6.58%. The prevalence of M. ozzardi among the Apurinã people is high, possibly related to the diary activities of the riparian people, where a high abundance of the vectors exists.Esse trabalho tem como objetivos estimar a prevalência de Mansonella ozzardi em comunidades indígenas do município de Pauini, Amazonas, Brasil e estimar a Taxa de Infecção Parasitária nos vetores. Foram examinados indígenas da etnia Apurinã, pelo método de gota espessa, em seis comunidades localizadas as margens e afluentes do rio Purus. A prevalência geral para M. ozzardi foi de 28,40%, com maior incidência para o sexo masculino e nos indivíduos com atividade no campo (agricultores. Em relação à faixa etária, as menores prevalências foram obtidas nos indivíduos mais jovens (2-9 anos, enquanto as maiores nos indivíduos acima de 58 anos. Foram encontrados simulídeos parasitados em três comunidades, com uma Taxa de Infecção Parasitária que variou de 0,34 a 6,58%. A prevalência de M. ozzardi entre os Apurinã é elevada, possivelmente relacionada às suas atividades diárias as
Full Text Available Valerie Alia’s book, The New Media Nation: Indigenous Peoples and Global Communication (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012, 270 pp., points the way to major communication breakthroughs for traditional communities around the world, in turn fostering a more democratic media discourse. From Canada to Japan, and Australia to Mexico, this ambitious and wide-reaching work examines a broad international movement that at once protects ancient languages and customs but also communicates to audiences across countries, oceans, and political boundaries. The publication is divided roughly into five sections: The emergence of a global vision for Indigenous communities scattered around the world; government policy obstacles and opportunities; lessons from Canada, where Indigenous media efforts have been particularly dynamic; the global surge in television, radio and other technological media advances; and finally the long-term prospects and aspirations for Indigenous media. By laying out such a comprehensive groundwork for the rise of global Indigenous media over a variety of formats, particularly over the past century, Alia shows how recent social media breakthroughs such as the highly successful #IdleNoMore movement—a sustained online protest by Canada’s First Nations peoples—have been in fact inevitable. The world’s Indigenous communities have leveraged media technologies to overcome geographic isolation, to foster new linkages with Indigenous populations globally, and ultimately to mitigate structural power imbalances exacerbated by non-Indigenous media and other institutions.
Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben
Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.
Zander, Kerstin K.; Garnett, Stephen T.
Australians could be willing to pay from $878m to $2b per year for Indigenous people to provide environmental services. This is up to 50 times the amount currently invested by government. This result was derived from a nationwide survey that included a choice experiment in which 70% of the 927 respondents were willing to contribute to a conservation fund that directly pays Indigenous people to carry out conservation activities. Of these the highest values were found for benefits that are like...
Rice, Emma S.; Haynes, Emma; Royce, Paul; Thompson, Sandra C
Introduction The use of social media and digital technologies has grown rapidly in Australia and around the world, including among Indigenous young people who face social disadvantage. Given the potential to use social media for communication, providing information and as part of creating and responding to social change, this paper explores published literature to understand how Indigenous Australian youth use digital technologies and social media, and its positive and negative impacts. Metho...
Paradies Yin C; Cunningham Joan
Abstract Background There is now considerable evidence from around the world that racism is associated with both mental and physical ill-health. However, little is known about the mediating factors between racism and ill-health. This paper investigates relationships between racism and self-assessed mental and physical health among Indigenous Australians as well as potential mediators of these relationships. Methods A total of 164 adults in the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID) s...
Holt, Martin; Lee, Evelyn; Prestage, Garrett P; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Mao, Limin
To assess the changing health promotion needs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive gay men in Australia, we analysed the social and behavioural characteristics of HIV-positive men in the Australian Gay Community Periodic Surveys. We looked at change over time in the characteristics of HIV-positive men (from 2000-2001 to 2008-2009) and compared HIV-positive men with their HIV-negative peers within each time period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent changes over time within each HIV status group. A total of 21,620 responses were included in the analyses; 10,537 in 2000-2001 and 11,083 in 2008-2009. Between the two time periods, HIV-positive and HIV-negative men became more similar in the following areas: paid employment, sexual identity, number of male sex partners, the likelihood of having a regular male partner and having a seroconcordant regular male partner. The two groups diverged in these areas: age, ethnicity, educational level, social engagement with gay men, types of relationship with regular male partners, likelihood of unprotected anal intercourse with casual male partners and likelihood of HIV disclosure to casual male partners. Workforce participation and educational attainment have improved among HIV-positive gay men since 2000, but they still lag behind their HIV-negative peers in these areas. Because HIV-positive men are an ageing cohort, support services will need to increasingly address issues of HIV, sexuality and ageing with HIV-positive men. The increase in unprotected anal intercourse and HIV disclosure with casual partners means that education and support services will increasingly need to address effective HIV disclosure and non-condom-based risk reduction strategies with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men. PMID:22639958
R. M. Law
Full Text Available Earth System Models (ESMs that incorporate carbon-climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1 that combines existing ocean and land carbon models into the physical climate model to simulate exchanges of carbon between the land, atmosphere and ocean. The land carbon model can optionally include both nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the land carbon uptake. The ocean carbon model simulates the evolution of nitrate, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and iron with one class of phytoplankton and zooplankton. From two multi-centennial simulations of the pre-industrial period with different land carbon model configurations, we evaluate the equilibration of the carbon cycle and present the spatial and temporal variability in key carbon exchanges. For the land carbon cycle, leaf area index is simulated reasonably, and seasonal carbon exchange is well represented. Interannual variations of land carbon exchange are relatively large, driven by variability in precipitation and temperature. We find that the response of the ocean carbon cycle shows reasonable agreement with observations and very good agreement with existing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 models. While our model over estimates surface nitrate values, the primary productivity agrees well with observations. Our analysis highlights some deficiencies inherent in the carbon models and where the carbon simulation is negatively impacted by known biases in the underlying physical model. We conclude the study with a brief discussion of key developments required to further improve the realism of our model simulation.
Law, R. M.; Ziehn, T.; Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.; Chamberlain, M. A.; Stevens, L. E.; Wang, Y. P.; Srbinovsky, J.; Bi, D.; Yan, H.; Vohralik, P. F.
Earth System Models (ESMs) that incorporate carbon-climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS)-ESM1 that combines existing ocean and land carbon models into the physical climate model to simulate exchanges of carbon between the land, atmosphere and ocean. The land carbon model can optionally include both nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the land carbon uptake. The ocean carbon model simulates the evolution of nitrate, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and iron with one class of phytoplankton and zooplankton. From two multi-centennial simulations of the pre-industrial period with different land carbon model configurations, we evaluate the equilibration of the carbon cycle and present the spatial and temporal variability in key carbon exchanges. For the land carbon cycle, leaf area index is simulated reasonably, and seasonal carbon exchange is well represented. Interannual variations of land carbon exchange are relatively large, driven by variability in precipitation and temperature. We find that the response of the ocean carbon cycle shows reasonable agreement with observations and very good agreement with existing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. While our model over estimates surface nitrate values, the primary productivity agrees well with observations. Our analysis highlights some deficiencies inherent in the carbon models and where the carbon simulation is negatively impacted by known biases in the underlying physical model. We conclude the study with a brief discussion of key developments required to further improve the realism of our model simulation.
Mitchison, Deborah; Morin, Alexandre; Mond, Jonathan; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Hay, Phillipa
Objective Studies that have investigated quality of life (QoL) in eating disorders (EDs) have been focussed on the impact of the ED on QoL and little is known regarding the possible reciprocal impact of QoL on EDs. The aim of this study was to provide a first-time investigation of possible bidirectional relationships between EDs and both health-related QoL (HRQoL) and psychological distress (PD). Method Structural equation modeling was applied to longitudinal data collected from a community sample of Australian women (N = 828) surveyed at baseline, five annual follow-ups, and again after nine years. Participants reported height and weight (from which body mass index, BMI, was calculated) and completed measures of ED symptoms (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire), HRQoL (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form), and PD (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale). Results Overall, evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship, whereby ED symptoms predicted reduced HRQoL and greater PD over time, while lower levels of HRQoL and greater PD in turn predicted increased levels of ED symptoms. These relationships were stable, observable within 12 months, and remained observable over a time period of at least four years. However, also observed were some inconsistent findings where ED symptoms predicted a short term (one year) improvement in mental HRQoL. This short term boost was not sustained at longer follow-ups. Conclusions Not only do ED symptoms impact on HRQoL and PD, but perceived poor HRQoL and PD also contribute to ED symptom development or exacerbation. This supports a movement away from symptom-centric approaches whereby HRQoL is conceptualized as a passive outcome expected to be rectified by addressing ED symptoms. Improvement in QoL and PD might rather be viewed as targets to be pursued in their own right under broader approaches in the treatment of EDs. PMID:25812047
Full Text Available Studies that have investigated quality of life (QoL in eating disorders (EDs have been focussed on the impact of the ED on QoL and little is known regarding the possible reciprocal impact of QoL on EDs. The aim of this study was to provide a first-time investigation of possible bidirectional relationships between EDs and both health-related QoL (HRQoL and psychological distress (PD.Structural equation modeling was applied to longitudinal data collected from a community sample of Australian women (N = 828 surveyed at baseline, five annual follow-ups, and again after nine years. Participants reported height and weight (from which body mass index, BMI, was calculated and completed measures of ED symptoms (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, HRQoL (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form, and PD (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale.Overall, evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship, whereby ED symptoms predicted reduced HRQoL and greater PD over time, while lower levels of HRQoL and greater PD in turn predicted increased levels of ED symptoms. These relationships were stable, observable within 12 months, and remained observable over a time period of at least four years. However, also observed were some inconsistent findings where ED symptoms predicted a short term (one year improvement in mental HRQoL. This short term boost was not sustained at longer follow-ups.Not only do ED symptoms impact on HRQoL and PD, but perceived poor HRQoL and PD also contribute to ED symptom development or exacerbation. This supports a movement away from symptom-centric approaches whereby HRQoL is conceptualized as a passive outcome expected to be rectified by addressing ED symptoms. Improvement in QoL and PD might rather be viewed as targets to be pursued in their own right under broader approaches in the treatment of EDs.
Traditional Indigenous Approaches to Healing and the modern welfare of Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality and Lands: A critical reflection on practices and policies taken from the Canadian Indigenous Example
Julian A. Robbins
Full Text Available In order for traditional knowledge to be maintained and to develop, it has to be practiced. Traditional healing provides a vehicle for this to occur. In Canada, the spiritual revitalization of Indigenous communities and individuals often involves the use numerous components of traditional healing. These elements are reflectedmost clearly at the grassroots level, however, current Indigenous programs delivered by Indigenous and governmental agencies have made some accommodating efforts as well. Perhaps most importantly, traditional knowledge and Indigenous spirituality hinges on the maintenance and renewal of relationships to the land.Indigenous land bases and the environment as a whole remain vitally important to the practice of traditional healing.A focus on Indigenous healing, when discussing Indigenous knowledge systems and spirituality, is paramount today due to the large scale suppression of Indigenous cultural expressions during the process of colonization. With respect to policy, there appears to be a historical progression of perception or attitude towards Indigenous traditional healing in Canada from one of disfavour to one favour. There are nevertheless continuing challenges for traditional healing. Mainstream perceptions and subsequent policy implementations sometimes still reflect attitudes that were formulated during the decline of traditional healing practice during colonization processes. As a consequence the ability for particular communities to maintain and use their specific understandings ofIndigenous knowledge continues encounter obstacles. Indigenous Knowledge systems are living entities and not relics of the past. Today, these knowledge systems are still greatly being applied to help Indigenous communities and Indigenous people recover fromintergenerational pain and suffering endured during the colonization process. Future policy development and implementation should aim to support Indigenous peoples and communities when
Kerstin K. Zander
Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous-led natural resource management (NRM on traditionally owned land in northern Australia has raised important questions in relation to policies that compensate indigenous Australians for providing environmental services. A choice experiment survey was mailed out to respondents across the whole of Australia to assess if and to what extent Australian people think that society benefits from these services and how much they would pay for them. More than half the respondents would in principle support indigenous NRM in northern Australia, with a high willingness to pay for carbon, biodiversity, and recreational services. Social aspects of indigenous NRM, however, were not valued by the society, emphasizing the need for awareness raising and clarifications of benefits that indigenous people gain while carrying out land management on their traditional country. Any marketing campaign should take into account preference variation across Australian society, which this research shows is substantial, particularly between people from the north and those from the south. People from the south were more likely to support indigenous NRM, a significant finding for campaigns targeting potential donors.
Donato, Ronald; Segal, Leonie
This paper provides an analysis of the national Indigenous reform strategy - known as Closing the Gap - in the context of broader health system reforms underway to assess whether current attempts at addressing Indigenous disadvantage are likely to be successful. Drawing upon economic theory and empirical evidence, the paper analyses key structural features necessary for securing system performance gains capable of reducing health disparities. Conceptual and empirical attention is given to the features of comprehensive primary healthcare, which encompasses the social determinants impacting on Indigenous health. An important structural prerequisite for securing genuine improvements in health outcomes is the unifying of all funding and policy responsibilities for comprehensive primary healthcare for Indigenous Australians within a single jurisdictional framework. This would provide the basis for implementing several key mutually reinforcing components necessary for enhancing primary healthcare system performance. The announcement to introduce a long-term health equality plan in partnership with Aboriginal people represents a promising development and may provide the window of opportunity needed for implementing structural reforms to primary healthcare. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Notwithstanding the intention of previous policies, considerable health disparity exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Australia has now embarked on its most ambitious national Indigenous health reform strategy, but there has been little academic analysis of whether such reforms are capable of eliminating health disadvantage for Aboriginal people.WHAT DOES THE PAPER ADD? This paper provides a critical analysis of Indigenous health reforms to assess whether such policy initiatives are likely to be successful and outlines key structural changes to primary healthcare system arrangements that are necessary to secure genuine system performance gains and improve health
Megan Marie Stronach; Daryl Adair
Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT) experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—...
Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth
This article discusses emerging research on youth and Indigenous languages. Based on a comparative and international Indigenous education study in Peru and the United States, the intersection between Indigenous community spaces, schools, and languages is examined. Given global trends of Indigenous language loss, comparative research provides the…
Benrimoj, Shalom I; Werner, Joel B; Raffaele, Catherine; Roberts, Alison S
There is a growing trend, globally, for consumers to self-medicate with non-prescription medications for common ailments. Pharmacists and pharmacy assistants are thought to be in a unique position to support consumers' purchases of these medicines through the application of knowledge and skills, in an environment in which safety and quality remains paramount. Standards of practice have been developed by the profession to address the provision of these medicines, using a consumer-focused and risk management approach. The application of these standards has been monitored since 2002, by the Quality Care Pharmacy Support Centre (QCPSC), created as a joint venture between the University and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The establishment of the QCPSC has allowed the development of a system to monitor and improve the application of standards for the provision of non-prescription medicines to consumers in community pharmacies in Australia. This system is unique in two aspects. The first is the use of pseudo-patient methodology, also called "mystery shoppers", "pseudo-customers" and "simulated patients", for the purpose of both assessment and quality improvement. The second unique aspect is the capturing of data based on assessments of behaviour in practice environments. To date, the centre has conducted 14,738 standards maintenance assessment (SMA) visits, involving over 4,200 pharmacies across all states and territories in Australia. The data generated by such a system create a feedback mechanism for policy decision-making in the area of Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) for non-prescription medicines, which is of critical importance to the health and safety of consumers. PMID:17939057
自然资源社区共管模式在中国近20年实践表明,一方面社区共管是一种有效的管理模式,另一方面本土化是社区共管在自然资源保护中持续发挥作用的必然趋势。社区共管的本土化可以从四个方面入手：社区共管的定义可以在融合基本原则的基础上发展本土化的表述;社区共管的内容可以整合地方性知识;社区共管的组织化建设需要加强农民合作;在开展项目过程中注重兼顾效率与公平。%The practice of community-based co-management model in the past 20 years in China shows that it is one effective kind of natural resource management model.Meanwhile,indigenization becomes its inevitable tendency to play a continued role in the protection of natural resources.The indigenization of community-based co-management could be promoted in four aspects： its definition could be developed with the local expressions based on its principles;its content could be integrated into the local knowledge;its organization could develop the peasants＇ cooperation;and its co-efficiency and fairness could be shown in carrying out the projects.
“I Don't Think that Any Peer Review Committee . . . Would Ever ‘Get’ What I Currently Do”: How Institutional Metrics for Success and Merit Risk Perpetuating the (Reproduction of Colonial Relationships in Community-Based Participatory Research Involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada
Full Text Available This article reports on findings from a study that explored how a group of leading health researchers who do Indigenous community-engaged research (n = 20 in Canada envision enacting ethically sound research with Indigenous communities, as well as the concomitant tensions associated with doing so. In particular, we explore how institutional metrics for assessing merit and granting tenure are seen to privilege conventional discourses of productivity and validity in research and, as a result, are largely incongruent with the relational values associated with decolonizing research through community-based participatory health research. Our findings reveal that colonial incursion from the academy risk filtering into such research agendas and create a conflict between relational accountability to community partners and academic accountability to one’s discipline and peers.
Indigenous, land and politics in Colombia. The indigenous communities of Bolivar Grande in the second half of the nineteenth century Indígenas, tierra y política en Colombia. Las comunidades indígenas del Bolívar Grande en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX
Sergio Paolo Solano D.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the indigenous population of the Great Bolivar (Colombia in the third quarter of the nineteenth century, in the context of formation of the nation and the expansion of livestock. We show how the discursive elements of the mestizo nation and the citizens' political identity, plus the internal fragmentation of indigenous communities, facilitated the actions of farmers and mestizo populations to try to dissolve the communal ownership of land guards. Also we show the forms of resistance displayed by the Indians, especially the manipulation that made liberal discourse, and the negotiations that established with other social and political groups to defend their interests.Este artículo analiza la población indígena del Bolívar Grande (Colombia en el tercer cuarto del siglo XIX, en el contexto de formación de la nación y la expansión de la ganadería. Mostramos cómo los elementos discursivos sobre la nación mestiza y la identidad política ciudadana, más el fraccionamiento interno de las comunidades indígenas, facilitaron las acciones de ganaderos y poblaciones mestizas para intentar disolver la propiedad comunal de las tierras de los resguardos. También analizamos las formas de resistencia desplegadas por los indígenas, en especial la instrumentalización que realizaron del discurso liberal, y las negociaciones que establecieron con otros sectores sociales y políticos para defender sus intereses.
Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John
Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be
The NASW Code of Ethics identifies social justice as one of six foundational values of the social work profession. Indigenous communities have long questioned the authenticity of this commitment and rightly so, given the historical activities of social work and social workers. Still, the commitment persists as an inspiration for an imperfect, yet determined, profession. This article presents a theoretical discussion of questions pertinent for social justice in social work practice in Native American communities: Whose definition of social justice should prevail in work with and in Indigenous communities? What can a revisioning of social justice mean to the development of Native communities and for Native youths in particular? What methods or processes of social work are most appropriate for this social justice work? This article presents a case for the practice of youth participatory action research as one method to work for social justice in Native communities.
A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended
Full Text Available Carbon markets afford potentially useful opportunities for supporting socially and environmentally sustainable land management programs but, to date, have been little applied in globally significant fire-prone savanna settings. While fire is intrinsic to regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of savanna systems, in north Australian savannas frequent and extensive late dry season wildfires incur significant environmental, production and social impacts. Here we assess the potential of market-based savanna burning greenhouse gas emissions abatement and allied carbon biosequestration projects to deliver compatible environmental and broader socio-economic benefits in a highly biodiverse north Australian setting. Drawing on extensive regional ecological knowledge of fire regime effects on fire-vulnerable taxa and communities, we compare three fire regime metrics (seasonal fire frequency, proportion of long-unburnt vegetation, fire patch-size distribution over a 15-year period for three national parks with an indigenously (Aboriginal owned and managed market-based emissions abatement enterprise. Our assessment indicates improved fire management outcomes under the emissions abatement program, and mostly little change or declining outcomes on the parks. We attribute improved outcomes and putative biodiversity benefits under the abatement program to enhanced strategic management made possible by the market-based mitigation arrangement. For these same sites we estimate quanta of carbon credits that could be delivered under realistic enhanced fire management practice, using currently available and developing accredited Australian savanna burning accounting methods. We conclude that, in appropriate situations, market-based savanna burning activities can provide transformative climate change mitigation, ecosystem health, and community benefits in northern Australia, and, despite significant challenges, potentially in other fire-prone savanna
Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince
The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...
Ong Katherine S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health economics is increasingly used to inform resource allocation decision-making, however, there is comparatively little evidence relevant to minority groups. In part, this is due to lack of cost and effectiveness data specific to these groups upon which economic evaluations can be based. Consequently, resource allocation decisions often rely on mainstream evidence which may not be representative, resulting in inequitable funding decisions. This paper describes a method to overcome this deficiency for Australia’s Indigenous population. A template has been developed which can adapt mainstream health intervention data to the Indigenous setting. Methods The ‘Indigenous Health Service Delivery Template’ has been constructed using mixed methods, which include literature review, stakeholder discussions and key informant interviews. The template quantifies the differences in intervention delivery between best practice primary health care for the Indigenous population via Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs, and mainstream general practitioner (GP practices. Differences in costs and outcomes have been identified, measured and valued. This template can then be used to adapt mainstream health intervention data to allow its economic evaluation as if delivered from an ACCHS. Results The template indicates that more resources are required in the delivery of health interventions via ACCHSs, due to their comprehensive nature. As a result, the costs of such interventions are greater, however this is accompanied by greater benefits due to improved health service access. In the example case of the polypill intervention, 58% more costs were involved in delivery via ACCHSs, with 50% more benefits. Cost-effectiveness ratios were also altered accordingly. Conclusions The Indigenous Health Service Delivery Template reveals significant differences in the way health interventions are delivered from ACCHSs compared to
McLoughlin, Catherine; Oliver, Ron
Considers cultural diversity in Web design and traces the design processes involved in the development of an online learning environment for indigenous Australian learners entering university. Highlights include culture, constructivist learning and situated cognition; cultural pluralism in instructional design; and ten design principles for…
McLaughlin, Juliana M.; Whatman, Susan L.
The imperative for Indigenous education in Australia is influenced by national political, social and economic discourses as Australian education systems continue to grapple with an agreed aspiration of full participation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Innovations within and policies guiding our education systems are often…
Dockery, Alfred Michael
This study provides new evidence on the inter-relationships between Indigenous Australians' association with their traditional culture and their engagement with vocational education and training. It builds on previous work to develop a "richer" measure of the concept of cultural attachment. This report discusses the links between cultural identity…
The last decade or so of research in Canada, reflected in this special issue, has increased our understanding of the distinction between Indigenous resilience and the research into Indigenous resilience.Measurement offers glimpses of resilience, mostly from the potentially distorted view of how resilient youth face specific adversity - adversity that is set by the funding opportunity: tobacco, substance abuse, suicide, or HIV infection. The driving role of funding has obvious problems; the priorities of funders may not be the priorities of communities and results can tell more about the funding opportunity than about resilience itself. Even so, this problem-focussed research has the very practical advantage of producing results geared to solutions.A major lesson of this body of work is that we should allow ourselves the space (and the modesty) to recognize that Aboriginal resilience is greater than we have been able to measure under specific funding opportunities. Even with this limitation, our results shows a large degree of specificity - what strengthens youth resilience to one type of adversity in one setting might well not work in another. Five proposals emerge from the findings. PMID:20835299
Scott L. Morgensen
Full Text Available Indigenous AIDS activists join AIDS activists worldwide today in theorizing the AIDS pandemic as a construct of social relations of power. Their anti-colonial and transnational activism holds scholars accountable to studying how power structures the production of knowledge about AIDS. This essay first examines how Indigenous AIDS activists theorize the colonial and transnational conditions of AIDS, and challenge states and international agencies to respect the sovereignty of Indigenous communities and knowledges. The essay then cites Indigenous activist knowledge as inspiration for revisiting critiques of coloniality in anthropology, and their implications for the anthropology of AIDS. Anthropologists studying AIDS can respond to AIDS activists by addressing how colonial legacies shape the processes and products of research and writing. By working within intersubjective and reflexive relationships with people and communities affected by AIDS, anthropologists can enter accountable dialogue with AIDS activists and on that basis produce anti-colonial and transnational knowledge about AIDS.
Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Sherwood, Juanita; Geia, Lynore
If health professionals are to effectively contribute to improving the health of Indigenous people, understanding of the historical, political, and social disadvantage that has lead to health disparity is essential. This paper describes a teaching and learning experience in which four Australian Indigenous academics in collaboration with a non-Indigenous colleague delivered an intensive workshop for masters level post-graduate students. Drawing upon the paedagogy of Transformative Learning, the objectives of the day included facilitating students to explore their existing understandings of Indigenous people, the impact of ongoing colonisation, the diversity of Australia's Indigenous people, and developing respect for alternative worldviews. Drawing on a range of resources including personal stories, autobiography, film and interactive sessions, students were challenged intellectually and emotionally by the content. Students experienced the workshop as a significant educational event, and described feeling transformed by the content, better informed, more appreciative of other worldviews and Indigenous resilience and better equipped to contribute in a more meaningful way to improving the quality of health care for Indigenous people. Where this workshop differs from other Indigenous classes was in the involvement of an Indigenous teaching team. Rather than a lone academic who can often feel vulnerable teaching a large cohort of non-Indigenous students, an Indigenous teaching team reinforced Indigenous authority and created an emotionally and culturally safe space within which students were allowed to confront and explore difficult truths. Findings support the value of multiple teaching strategies underpinned by the theory of transformational learning, and the potential benefits of facilitating emotional as well as intellectual student engagement when presenting sensitive material.
Full Text Available In Australia tertiary enabling or ‘bridging’ programs have been introduced as alternative entry pathways to address the still proportionally low numbers of certain marginal groups accessing and being successful in Higher Education. Included in these marginal groups are Indigenous students. In the mainstream these enabling programs tend to focus on the academic skills required for success at a first year University level. However, one program that has been specifically designed for Indigenous students has recognised that these students benefit from a more holistic approach. The Preparation for Tertiary Success (PTS program, which is part of the Australian Centre for Indigenous Knowledges and Education (ACIKE - a partnership between Batchelor Institute and Charles Darwin University – takes a multifaceted approach to enabling education. At the centre of this approach is the knowledge that it has been designed specifically for Indigenous students and is shaped by the concepts of cultural safety, ‘Both Ways’ learning and the cultural interface.