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Sample records for australian field cricket

  1. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  2. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus

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    C. Ruth Archer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus.

  3. CRICKET

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has played 18 matches so far this season, winning 12 and losing 6, with 12 fixtures remaining before the end of the season. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule, which includes a weekend trip to Milan at the end of September, can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prévessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting).

  4. The sliding stop: a technique of fielding in cricket with a potential for serious knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hagen, K; Roach, R; Summers, B

    2000-10-01

    The sliding stop method of fielding in cricket is gaining popularity in schools and club cricket through its frequent exposure on television. The case history is reported of a cricketer who suffered a torn medial meniscus in his knee, a rare cricketing injury, while performing this technique incorrectly in a club game. The correct method of performing the technique is described in coaching manuals but is not commonly instructed at club or school level. The sliding stop should be discouraged in school and for club cricketers unless appropriately coached.

  5. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2010-01-01

    The start of the Cricket season is upon us! Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 15 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site, starting at 18:00 (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf). All newcomers will be made very welcome. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 18 April. Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2010 can be found on the web at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/  

  6. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

      The start of the 2012 Cricket season is only days away!  The CERN club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 19 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf), from 18:00 to around 19:30. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 22 April.  Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2012 can be found on the web at: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/.

  7. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics in the Field Cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Nathan William; Veltsos, Paris; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A. Harvey; Ritchie, Michael Gordon; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2013-01-01

    This work was supported by a Natural Environment Research Council Junior Postdoctoral Fellowship (NE/G014906/1) and Pacific Rim Foundation funding (08-T-PRRP-05-0029) to N.W.B. Field crickets (family Gryllidae) frequently are used in studies of behavioral genetics, sexual selection, and sexual conflict, but there have been no studies of transcriptomic differences among different tissue types. We evaluated transcriptome variation among testis, accessory gland, and the remaining whole-body p...

  8. Acceleration Kinematics in Cricketers: Implications for Performance in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lockie Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cricket fielding often involves maximal acceleration to retrieve the ball. There has been no analysis of acceleration specific to cricketers, or for players who field primarily in the infield (closer to the pitch or outfield (closer to the boundary. This study analyzed the first two steps of a 10-m sprint in experienced cricketers. Eighteen males (age = 24.06 ± 4.87 years; height = 1.81 ± 0.06 m; mass = 79.67 ± 10.37 kg were defined as primarily infielders (n = 10 or outfielders (n = 8. Timing lights recorded 0-5 and 0-10 m time. Motion capture measured first and second step kinematics, including: step length; step frequency; contact time; shoulder motion; lead and rear arm elbow angle; drive leg hip and knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion; swing leg hip and knee flexion, and ankle dorsi flexion. A one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05 determined between-group differences. Data was pooled for a Pearson’s correlation analysis (p < 0.05 to analyze kinematic relationships. There were no differences in sprint times, and few variables differentiated infielders and outfielders. Left shoulder range of motion related to second step length (r = 0.471. First step hip flexion correlated with both step lengths (r = 0.570-0.598, and frequencies (r = -0.504--0.606. First step knee flexion related to both step lengths (r = 0.528-0.682, and first step frequency (r = -0.669. First step ankle plantar flexion correlated with second step length (r = -0.692 and frequency (r = 0.726. Greater joint motion ranges related to longer steps. Cricketers display similar sprint kinematics regardless of fielding position, likely because players may field in the infield or outfield depending on match situation. Due to relationships with shoulder and leg motion, and the importance and trainability of step length, cricketers should target this variable to enhance acceleration.

  9. Chemical cues mediate species recognition in field crickets

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    Frances eTyler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are important in mate choice in many insects, and may be used for species recognition if CHC profiles differ between potentially hybridizing species. In the sibling field cricket species Gryllus campestris and G. bimaculatus, females of G. bimaculatus are tolerant towards G. campestris males and can mate with them. However, G. campestris females are highly aggressive towards heterospecific G. bimaculatus males, and matings between them never happen. We examined whether cricket females might use CHCs to determine the species identity of their potential mates. We firstly analyzed the cuticular chemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to assess the potential of CHCs to be used for species recognition in these crickets. We then manipulated females’ ability to detect chemical cues by carrying out chemical ablation of the antennae, and measured changes in aggressive responses to heterospecific males. We show that there are significant interspecies differences in CHC expression for both sexes, and that females with chemically ablated antennae reduce aggressive behavior towards heterospecific males. Our findings support the prediction that cuticular semiochemicals can play a key role in reproductive isolation between closely related insect species.

  10. Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchers, W R; Brooks, R; Jennions, M D; Tregenza, T; Dworkin, I; Hunt, J

    2013-05-01

    Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders' equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent study, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) stability are sparse, and largely focused on morphological traits. Here, we compared P for the structure of the complex sexual advertisement call of six divergent allopatric populations of the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We measured a subset of calls from wild-caught crickets from each of the populations and then a second subset after rearing crickets under common-garden conditions for three generations. In a second experiment, crickets from each population were reared in the laboratory on high- and low-nutrient diets and their calls recorded. In both experiments, we estimated P for call traits and used multiple methods to compare them statistically (Flury hierarchy, geometric subspace comparisons and random skewers). Despite considerable variation in means and variances of individual call traits, the structure of P was largely conserved among populations, across generations and between our rearing diets. Our finding that P remains largely stable, among populations and between environmental conditions, suggests that selection has preserved the structure of call traits in order that they can function as an integrated unit.

  11. Maternal effects, but no good or compatible genes for sperm competitiveness in Australian crickets.

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    Dowling, Damian K; Nystrand, Magdalena; Simmons, Leigh W

    2010-05-01

    Explanations for the evolution of polyandry often center on the idea that females garner genetic benefits for their offspring by mating multiply. Furthermore, postcopulatory processes are thought to be fundamental to enabling polyandrous females to screen for genetic quality. Much attention has focused on the potential for polyandrous females to accrue such benefits via a sexy- or good-sperm mechanism, whereby additive variation exists among males in sperm competitiveness. Likewise, attention has focused on an alternative model, in which offspring quality (in this context, the sperm competitiveness of sons) hinges on an interaction between parental haplotypes (genetic compatibility). Sperm competitiveness that is contingent on parental compatibility will exhibit nonadditive genetic variation. We tested these models in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, using a design that allowed us to partition additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental variance for sperm competitiveness. We found an absence of additive and nonadditive genetic variance in this species, challenging the direct relevance of either model to the evolution of sperm competitiveness in particular, and polyandry in general. Instead, we found maternal effects that were possibly sex-linked or cytoplasmically linked. We also found effects of focal male age on sperm competitiveness, with small increments in age conferring more competitive sperm.

  12. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics in the Field Cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W.; Veltsos, Paris; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A. Harvey; Ritchie, Michael G.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2013-01-01

    Field crickets (family Gryllidae) frequently are used in studies of behavioral genetics, sexual selection, and sexual conflict, but there have been no studies of transcriptomic differences among different tissue types. We evaluated transcriptome variation among testis, accessory gland, and the remaining whole-body preparations from males of the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Non-normalized cDNA libraries from each tissue were sequenced on the Roche 454 platform, and a master assembly was constructed using testis, accessory gland, and whole-body preparations. A total of 940,200 reads were assembled into 41,962 contigs, to which 36,856 singletons (reads not assembled into a contig) were added to provide a total of 78,818 sequences used in annotation analysis. A total of 59,072 sequences (75%) were unique to one of the three tissues. Testis tissue had the greatest proportion of tissue-specific sequences (62.6%), followed by general body (56.43%) and accessory gland tissue (44.16%). We tested the hypothesis that tissues expressing gene products expected to evolve rapidly as a result of sexual selection—testis and accessory gland—would yield a smaller proportion of BLASTx matches to homologous genes in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster compared with whole-body tissue. Uniquely expressed sequences in both testis and accessory gland showed a significantly lower rate of matching to annotated D. melanogaster genes compared with those from general body tissue. These results correspond with empirical evidence that genes expressed in testis and accessory gland tissue are rapidly evolving targets of selection. PMID:23390599

  13. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF THE FIELD CRICKET (GRYLLUS TESTACEUS WALKER)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DunWang; Yao-yuBai; Jiang-hongLi; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition and the nutritional quality of protein, fatty acids and chitin of adult field cricket Gryllus testaceus Walker were investigated. The adult insect contalned: crude protein 58.3 %; fat 10.3 %, chitin 8.7 % and ash 2.96 % on dry matter basis respectively. The essential amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cysteine and methionine. The fatty acid analysis showed unsaturated acid of the field cricket to be present in high quantities, and the total percentage of oleic acid, linolic acid and linolenic acid was 77.51%. The chitin content of the insect was 8.7 % with a better quality than the commercial chitin that was prepared from shells of shrimp and crab. Therefore the chemical composition of the field cricket indicates the insect to be a good supplement to nutrition for food and feed, even a raw material for medicine.

  14. Adaptive plasticity in wild field cricket's acoustic signaling.

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    Susan M Bertram

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive when phenotypes are closely matched to changes in the environment. In crickets, rhythmic fluctuations in the biotic and abiotic environment regularly result in diel rhythms in density of sexually active individuals. Given that density strongly influences the intensity of sexual selection, we asked whether crickets exhibit plasticity in signaling behavior that aligns with these rhythmic fluctuations in the socio-sexual environment. We quantified the acoustic mate signaling behavior of wild-caught males of two cricket species, Gryllus veletis and G. pennsylvanicus. Crickets exhibited phenotypically plastic mate signaling behavior, with most males signaling more often and more attractively during the times of day when mating activity is highest in the wild. Most male G. pennsylvanicus chirped more often and louder, with shorter interpulse durations, pulse periods, chirp durations, and interchirp durations, and at slightly higher carrier frequencies during the time of the day that mating activity is highest in the wild. Similarly, most male G. veletis chirped more often, with more pulses per chirp, longer interpulse durations, pulse periods, and chirp durations, shorter interchirp durations, and at lower carrier frequencies during the time of peak mating activity in the wild. Among-male variation in signaling plasticity was high, with some males signaling in an apparently maladaptive manner. Body size explained some of the among-male variation in G. pennsylvanicus plasticity but not G. veletis plasticity. Overall, our findings suggest that crickets exhibit phenotypically plastic mate attraction signals that closely match the fluctuating socio-sexual context they experience.

  15. Pattern recognition in field crickets: concepts and neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarakos, Konstantinos; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Since decades the acoustic communication behavior of crickets is in the focus of neurobiology aiming to analyze the neural basis of male singing and female phonotactic behavior. For temporal pattern recognition several different concepts have been proposed to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying the tuning of phonotaxis in females. These concepts encompass either some form of a feature detecting mechanism using cross-correlation processing, temporal filter properties of brain neurons or an autocorrelation processing based on a delay-line and coincidence detection mechanism. Current data based on intracellular recordings of auditory brain neurons indicate a sequential processing by excitation and inhibition in a local auditory network within the protocerebrum. The response properties of the brain neurons point towards the concept of an autocorrelation-like mechanism underlying female pattern recognition in which delay-lines by long lasting inhibition may be involved.

  16. First Record of the Field-Cricket Turanogryllus eous (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae from Korea

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    Tae-Woo Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The field-cricket Turanogryllus eous Bey-Bienko, 1956 and its genus Turanogryllus Tarbinsky, 1940 were recorded for the first time from Chungcheongbuk-do province in Korea to carry out the project ‘The sound guides to Korean animals.’ Depending on the discovery of the cricket, its distributional ranges are more widened towards East Asia to the Korean peninsula from China mainland, the Turanogryllus was 10th to known Gryllinae genera in Korea. Description, photos of habitus, figure of male genitalia, oscillogram and spectrogram for the calling sound are provided for aid identification. Voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, Korea.

  17. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2015-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, with a game involving some of the ex members (but unfortunately none of the founder members) followed by dinner on Saturday, September 5th. CERN started playing cricket on various football fields in the Geneva Canton, then on the Meyrin site next to where the Kindergarten is now situated, bowling from one end only. Later, net practice took place where building 40 is now, before moving over to the Prevessin site in the early 70s. Lots of work was done to prepare a strip onto which a mat was rolled and the strip was rolled before each match using a heavy roller which required a minimum of 6 to push! This pre-match training is no longer necessary as the club invested in an artificial wicket in 2001. CERN now has one of the best grounds in the region. Last year CERN made it to the Cricket Switzerland semi-final, losing a close match in the last over, but is hoping to go one better in this year’s semi-final on September 13th, which will be...

  18. Calling, courtship, and condition in the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus.

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    Sarah J Harrison

    Full Text Available Theoretically, sexual signals should provide honest information about mating benefits and many sexually reproducing species use honest signals when signalling to potential mates. Male crickets produce two types of acoustic mating signals: a long-distance mate attraction call and a short-range courtship call. We tested whether wild-caught fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus males in high condition (high residual mass or large body size produce higher effort calls (in support of the honest signalling hypothesis. We also tested an alternative hypothesis, whether low condition males produce higher effort calls (in support of the terminal investment hypothesis. Several components of long-distance mate attraction calls honestly reflected male body size, with larger males producing louder mate attraction calls at lower carrier frequencies. Long-distance mate attraction chirp rate dishonestly signalled body size, with small males producing faster chirp rates. Short-range courtship calls dishonestly reflected male residual mass, as chirp rate and pulse rate were best explained by a curvilinear function of residual mass. By producing long-distance mate attraction calls and courtship calls with similar or higher effort compared to high condition males, low condition males (low residual mass or small body size may increase their effort in current reproductive success at the expense of their future reproductive success, suggesting that not all sexual signals are honest.

  19. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2017-01-01

    Cern Cricket Club The CERN Cricket Club 2017 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 13th, at 18:00! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/cricket/. Or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://cern.ch/cricket/CERN-Ground.html.

  20. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2013 season begins soon! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 18th until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 21st against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  1. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a good start to the season, winning five and losing two matches, with one cancelled due to torrential rain in the South of France. Reports of the matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “Match reports”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place every week at 18:00 on the Prevessin site.

  2. Recognition of variable courtship song in the field cricket Gryllus assimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedenina, Varvara Yu; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the courtship song of the field cricket Gryllus assimilis. The song comprises two elements: groups of ca. 10 pulses (chirps) with low fundamental frequency (3.5-3.7 kHz) alternating with high-frequency (15-17 kHz) pulses (ticks) that usually occur as doublets. Some elements of courtship song are quite variable (high coefficient of variation) both within and between males, whereas others are more stereotypical. In experiments with playback of synthesized courtship songs, we studied the importance of several song parameters for mating success, which we evaluated as the probability with which females mounted muted, courting males. Altering some features that show little variability, such as chirp-pulse rate or carrier frequency of ticks, resulted in significant decreases in mounting frequency, consistent with the notion that trait values showing little variability are constrained by stabilizing selection exerted by females. However, alteration of one invariant trait, the occurrence of both song components, by omitting either component from test songs only slightly affected female responsiveness. Alteration of a variable song trait, the number of ticks per song phrase, had no effect on female response rate, thus failing to provide support for the idea that variable traits provide a substrate for sexual selection. An unusual characteristic feature of the song of G. assimilis is that chirp pulses often contain substantial high-frequency power, and indeed may entirely lack power at the fundamental frequency. Playback experiments showed that such songs are, nevertheless, behaviorally effective. To understand the neural basis for this, we recorded the responses of the two principal ascending auditory interneurons of crickets, AN1 and AN2. Our results suggest that the frequency selectivity of the neurons is sufficiently broad to tolerate the spectral variability of courtship chirps.

  3. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2016 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 14th, at 18:00!  The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html There will be an indoor game at the Bout-du-Monde on April 3rd and the season starts with a match at home on Sunday, April 24th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  4. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a mixed first month of what has been the wettest and coldest start to a season ever, winning two and losing two matches, with one cancelled. Information about the club can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Reports of the matches can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” and the schedule, which includes weekend trips to the South of France, Bellingham (UK), and Milan, can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting – several sessions have already been cancelled due to the inclement weather).

  5. Juvenile immune status affects the expression of a sexually selected trait in field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, A; Scheuber, H; Kurtz, J; Brinkhof, M W G

    2005-07-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory presumes that variation in sexual traits reliably reflects variation in parasite resistance among available mates. One mechanism that may warrant signal honesty involves costs of immune system activation in the case of a parasitic infection. We investigated this hypothesis in male field crickets Gryllus campestris, whose attractiveness to females depends on characteristics of the sound-producing harp that are essentially fixed following adult eclosion. During the nymphal stage, males subjected to one of two feeding regimes were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to investigate condition-dependent effects on harp development as compared to other adult traits. Nymphal nutritional status positively affected adult body size, condition, and harp size. However, nymphal immune status affected harp size only, with LPS-males having smaller harps than control-injected males. In addition, the harps of LPS-males showed a lesser degree of melanization, indicating an enhanced substrate use by the melanin-producing enzyme cascade of the immune system. Thus, past immune status is specifically mirrored in sexual traits, suggesting a key role for deployment costs of immunity in parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  6. No intra-locus sexual conflict over reproductive fitness or ageing in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Zajitschek

    Full Text Available Differences in the ways in which males and females maximize evolutionary fitness can lead to intra-locus sexual conflict in which genes delivering fitness benefits to one sex are costly when expressed in the other. Trade-offs between current reproductive effort and future reproduction and survival are fundamental to the evolutionary biology of ageing. This leads to the prediction that sex differences in the optimization of age-dependent reproductive effort may generate intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing rates. Here we test for intra-locus sexual conflict over age-dependent reproductive effort and longevity in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Using a half-sib breeding design, we show that the most important components of male and female reproductive effort (male calling effort and the number of eggs laid by females were positively genetically correlated, especially in early adulthood. However, the genetic relationships between longevity and reproductive effort were different for males and females, leading to low genetic covariation between male and female longevity. The apparent absence of intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing suggests that male and female longevity can evolve largely independently of one another.

  7. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club is now midway through the season and has had mixed fortunes, winning seven and losing five matches, with one drawn last weekend against the Fleet Street Strollers. Two wins were recorded against Trafford Solicitors in Bellingham in the north of England only days after the heaviest rainfall in the North East in living memory, read the detailed match report online to see what the grounds man had to say when we insisted on playing! Reports of all matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “ Matches (Fixtures, results, reports) ”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Upcoming fixtures include the Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition on August 19th and away matches against Rhone CC in Lyon and against Milan and Euratom Cricket clubs in Settimo Milanese in September. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on Thursday every week...

  8. Influence of the male ejaculate on post-mating prezygotic barriers in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Larson

    Full Text Available Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create 'spermless' males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs.

  9. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club Annual General Meeting will be held on Monday 26th November 2012 at 18:30 Restaurant No 1 (NOVAE) Draft Agenda Opening/Adoption of agenda/Apologies for absence Minutes of the 2011 AGM Captain's Report for 2012 Treasurer's Report for 2012 Groundsman's and Kit Report for 2012 Election of Officers for 2013 SCA affairs and CERN Fixtures for 2013 Any other business Close of meeting Offices up for election are: Secretary, Captain, Vice-captain, Treasurer and Groundsman. Any nominations should be sent to the Secretary in time for the Meeting. For more details on the CERN Cricket Club, see the web page http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  10. Effect of auditory deafferentation on the synaptic connectivity of a pair of identified interneurons in adult field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodfuehrer, P D; Hoy, R R

    1988-01-01

    In adult crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, unilateral auditory deafferentation causes the medial dendrites of an afferent-deprived, identified auditory interneuron (Int-1) in the prothoracic ganglion to sprout and form new functional connections in the contralateral auditory neuropil. The establishment of these new functional connections by the deafferented Int-1, however, does not appear to affect the physiological responses of Int-1's homolog on the intact side of the prothoracic ganglion which also innervates this auditory neuropil. Thus it appears that the sprouting dendrites of the deafferented Int-1 are not functionally competing with those of the intact Int-1 for synaptic connections in the remaining auditory neuropil following unilateral deafferentation in adult crickets. Moreover, we demonstrate that auditory function is restored to the afferent-deprived Int-1 within 4-6 days following deafferentation, when few branches of Int-1's medial dendrites can be seen to have sprouted. The strength of the physiological responses and extent of dendritic sprouting in the deafferented Int-1 progressively increase with time following deafferentation. By 28 days following deafferentation, most of the normal physiological responses of Int-1 to auditory stimuli have been restored in the deafferented Int-1, and the medial dendrites of the deafferented Int-1 have clearly sprouted and grown across into the contralateral auditory afferent field. The strength of the physiological responses of the deafferented Int-1 to auditory stimuli and extent of dendritic sprouting in the deafferented Int-1 are greater in crickets deafferented as juveniles than as adults. Thus, neuronal plasticity persists in Int-1 following sensory deprivation from the earliest juvenile stages through adulthood.

  11. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club Match Reports The cricket season is well under way, despite the weather, and several matches have been played. The match reporters have, however, found it too difficult to limit their reports to ¼ of a page, hence the reports have not appeared in the bulletin. All reports can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/reports/reports.html The list of forthcoming matches can be consulted at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/fixtures.html Further information about the CERN Cricket Club can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  12. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is

  13. Sexual conflict and cryptic female choice in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Luc F; Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D; Brooks, Robert

    2006-04-01

    The prevalence and evolutionary consequences of cryptic female choice (CFC) remain highly controversial, not least because the processes underlying its expression are often concealed within the female reproductive tract. However, even when female discrimination is relatively easy to observe, as in numerous insect species with externally attached spermatophores, it is often difficult to demonstrate directional CFC for certain male phenotypes over others. Using a biological assay to separate male crickets into attractive or unattractive categories, we demonstrate that females strongly discriminate against unattractive males by removing their spermatophores before insemination can be completed. This results in significantly more sperm being transferred by attractive males than unattractive males. Males respond to CFC by mate guarding females after copulation, which increases the spermatophore retention of both attractive and unattractive males. Interestingly, unattractive males who suffered earlier interruption of sperm transfer benefited more from mate guarding, and they guarded females more vigilantly than attractive males. Our results suggest that postcopulatory mate guarding has evolved via sexual conflict over insemination times rather than through genetic benefits of biasing paternity toward vigorous males, as has been previously suggested.

  14. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC VERSUS TRAFFORD SOLICITORS CC IN BELLINGHAN ON JUNE 26th/27th 2010 The CERN cricket club traveled to the North of England for their first tour of the season, playing two games over the course of the weekend of 26-27th June against Trafford Solicitors CC (TSCC).   The sunny weather was almost unprecedented in the history of this fixture.  The first game on Saturday saw the CERN team rewarded for their accurate bowling, as they restricted TSCC to 130 all out: T. Goodyear the pick of the bowlers with 4-7, with three wickets for Stucki.  Despite losing three wickets, the runs were comfortable chased down in 26 overs, with Elvin top scoring on 34, and K. Goodyear hitting the winning runs to finish on 32 not out. The second match saw TSCC setting a challenging target of 179 from their 30 overs, Hoburn scoring 61, and Barrett taking 3-40.  Osborne very narrowly failed to take a hat-trick in the final over.   CERN CC’s reply started w...

  15. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC JOINS IN THREE DAYS OF GOODWILL FOR UK JOURNALISTS   22 24 July vs FLEET STREET STROLLERS Fleet Street Strollers Cricket Club, a 17-strong group of professional journalists and friends from the UK Home Counties, visited CERN for the first time on 22-24 July. On Friday 22 July, CERN's Visitor Centre provided their usual polished tour and information services.  Before the visit the Strollers had hoped to stroll underground to the Atlas detector.  Forewarned that this was not possible they hid any disappointment, judging by the acuteness and variety of the question-and-answer sessions.  And the cash register of the Visitor Shop was busy. On Saturday 23 July, Strollers won the toss and batted first in a 35-over game.  D'Mello and Campbell bowled tightly for CERN and Strollers were 13 for 2 after 6 overs.  CERN released the pressure with a few overs from L. Osborne and Curtis but, at the point where Strollers were looking...

  16. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-11-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation.

  17. The Aware Cricket Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Wazir Zada; Arshad, Quratul Ain

    2011-01-01

    The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it [1]. This research work is a mere effort for automated decision making during sports of most common interest leveraging ubiquitous computing. Primarily cricket has been selected for the first implementation of the idea. A positioning system is used for locating the objects moving in the field. Main objectives of the research are to help achieve the following goals. 1) Make Decisions where human eye can make error due to human limitations. 2) Simulate the Match activity during and after the game in a 3D computerized Graphics system. 3) Make various types of game and performance analysis of a certain team or a player.

  18. Constant illumination reduces circulating melatonin and impairs immune function in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Durrant

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to constant light has a range of negative effects on behaviour and physiology, including reduced immune function in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is proposed that the associated suppression of melatonin (a ubiquitous hormone and powerful antioxidant in response to the presence of light at night could be an underlying mechanistic link driving the changes to immune function. Here, we investigated the relationship between constant illumination, melatonin and immune function, using a model invertebrate species, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Crickets were reared under either a 12 h light: 12 h dark regimen or a constant 24 h light regimen. Circulating melatonin concentration and immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity and phenoloxidase (PO activity were assessed in individual adult crickets through the analysis of haemolymph. Constant illumination reduced melatonin and had a negative impact on haemocyte concentrations and lytic activity, but its effect on PO activity was less apparent. Our data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a link between exposure to constant illumination and variation in haemocyte concentration in an invertebrate model, while also highlighting the potential complexity of the immune response following exposure to constant illumination. This study provides insight into the possible negative effect of artificial night-time lighting on the physiology of invertebrates, but whether lower and potentially more ecologically relevant levels of light at night produce comparable results, as has been reported in several vertebrate taxa, remains to be tested.

  19. New field data for old museum specimens: A peculiar cricket (Grylloidea, Orthoptera from SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero, Pedro J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We obtained the first records of Sciobia (Thilptoblemus natalia in Europe after a single record from Algeciras (Spain, about one century ago. We found the species in Tarifa, Benelup-Casas Viejas and Alcalá de los Gazules (Cádiz province in plots with open land and herbaceous vegetation of wasteland, cattle states, edges of agricultural land, and hedgerows of pathways and local roads. The species may be common locally, in late spring. It may coexist with Sciobia (Thliptoblemus caliendrum although the later presents a wider ecological spectrum whereas S. (T. natalia prefers dense vegetation in more humid soils. Acoustic analyses indicate that the song of both species are very different, making field identification feasible. S. (T. natalia may however easily go unnoticed among populations of the more conspicuous S. (T. caliendrum. We discuss possible reasons why this species has gone unnoticed so far and factors that may pose at risk the maintenance of its populations.Obtenemos las primeras observaciones of Sciobia (Thilptoblemus natalia en Europa después de un único registro de Algeciras hace casi un siglo. Hemos encontrado la especie en Tarifa, Benalup-Casas Viejas y Alcalá de los Gazules (provincia de Cádiz en terrenos abiertos con vegetación herbácea de baldíos, fincas ganaderas y bordes de parcelas agrícolas, caminos y carreteras. Puede ser localmente común a finales de primavera y coexistir con Sciobia (Thliptoblemus caliendrum, especie de más amplio espectro ecológico mientras que S. (T. natalia muestra preferencia por vegetación más densa en suelos más húmedos. El análisis del canto de ambas especies muestra notables diferencias y su identificación en el campo es posible, aunque S. (T. natalia puede pasar desapercibida entre poblaciones de la especie más conspicua, S (T. caliendrum. Discutimos las razones por las que la especie ha pasado desapercibida hasta ahora y los factores que pueden poner en riesgo el mantenimiento

  20. CERN Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket club

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2015 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 16th, at 18:00! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 16th (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 19th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  1. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC in the 20/20 Tournament at the Bout-du-Monde on 11th/12th September CERN played Nestlé in the first semi-final on Saturday. Nestlé were bowled out for 82 in the 20th over, thanks to excellent bowling by Campbell (4 overs, 3 for 9), D’Mello (4 overs, 2 for 14, including a beautiful C&B), Onions (4 overs, 2 for 20), Elvin (4 overs, 1 for 29) and Ahmed (4 overs, 1 for 16). Campbell (44 no) and Osborne (25no) made short work of the total, ably assisted by any number of wides, reaching the target in the 9th over. On Sunday, CERN played GICC in the final. This time batting first, CERN made 196 for 7 thanks mainly to a partnership of 124 runs between D’Mello and McNaught (whose two previous scores were ducks) that ran into the 16th over. D’Mello hit a superb and quick-fire 69 in 47 balls, including 8 fours and 3 sixes. It included sumptuous straight sixes from both ends. (Anything which ends up in the adjoining football fields or tennis courts...

  2. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    Bern CC V CERN CC in Bern on Sunday 6th May 2012 The storm clouds gathered over Switzerland this weekend as a CERN XI travelled more in hope than expectation to Bern for our first league game of the season. Despite the gloomy weather forecast the sun shone and Captain Elvin won the toss and put Bern into bat on a damp, soft and tricky wicket. Early success came as D'Mello had the Bern captain caught by D. Ahmed in his second over. This was to prove the only success in the first 20 overs as BERN made light of the pitch and the CERN attack to go into the drinks break on 108-1. CERN came storming out after the break with Elvin making the breakthrough to dismiss the Bern number 2 for 74. D'Mello then came back into the attack and ended up with 4-34 as CERN held their catches and fielded well. Chauduri was in fine form and stormed in to take 3-27. Elvin was tight and economical until he went for 23 in his final over but D. Ahmed mopped up the tail with 2-16 in a fine 4 over spell. CERN...

  3. Examining the effectiveness of discriminant function analysis and cluster analysis in species identification of male field crickets based on their calling songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Jaiswara

    Full Text Available Traditional taxonomy based on morphology has often failed in accurate species identification owing to the occurrence of cryptic species, which are reproductively isolated but morphologically identical. Molecular data have thus been used to complement morphology in species identification. The sexual advertisement calls in several groups of acoustically communicating animals are species-specific and can thus complement molecular data as non-invasive tools for identification. Several statistical tools and automated identifier algorithms have been used to investigate the efficiency of acoustic signals in species identification. Despite a plethora of such methods, there is a general lack of knowledge regarding the appropriate usage of these methods in specific taxa. In this study, we investigated the performance of two commonly used statistical methods, discriminant function analysis (DFA and cluster analysis, in identification and classification based on acoustic signals of field cricket species belonging to the subfamily Gryllinae. Using a comparative approach we evaluated the optimal number of species and calling song characteristics for both the methods that lead to most accurate classification and identification. The accuracy of classification using DFA was high and was not affected by the number of taxa used. However, a constraint in using discriminant function analysis is the need for a priori classification of songs. Accuracy of classification using cluster analysis, which does not require a priori knowledge, was maximum for 6-7 taxa and decreased significantly when more than ten taxa were analysed together. We also investigated the efficacy of two novel derived acoustic features in improving the accuracy of identification. Our results show that DFA is a reliable statistical tool for species identification using acoustic signals. Our results also show that cluster analysis of acoustic signals in crickets works effectively for species

  4. Genes with Restricted Introgression in a Field Cricket (Gryllus firmus/Gryllus pennsylvanicus) Hybrid Zone Are Concentrated on the X Chromosome and a Single Autosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroja, Luana S; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-08-26

    Characterizing the extent of genomic differentiation between recently diverged lineages provides an important context for understanding the early stages of speciation. When such lineages form discrete hybrid zones, patterns of differential introgression allow direct estimates of which genome regions are likely involved in speciation and local adaptation. Here we use a backcross experimental design to construct a genetic linkage map for the field crickets Gryllus firmus and Gryllus pennsylvanicus, which interact in a well-characterized hybrid zone in eastern North America. We demonstrate that loci with major allele frequency differences between allopatric populations are not randomly distributed across the genome. Instead, most are either X-linked or map to a few small autosomal regions. Furthermore, the subset of those highly differentiated markers that exhibit restricted introgression across the cricket hybrid zone are also concentrated on the X chromosome (39 of 50 loci) and in a single 7-cM region of one autosome. Although the accumulation on the sex chromosome of genes responsible for postzygotic barriers is a well-known phenomenon, less attention has been given to the genomic distribution of genes responsible for prezygotic barriers. We discuss the implications of our results for speciation, both in the context of the role of sex chromosomes and also with respect to the likely causes of heterogeneous genomic divergence. Although we do not yet have direct evidence for the accumulation of ecological, behavioral, or fertilization prezygotic barrier genes on the X chromosome, faster-X evolution could make these barriers more likely to be X-linked.

  5. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    CERN CRICKET CLUB   The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has been a good one so far with the team qualifying for the Swiss Cup semi-finals, with home advantage on the Prevessin ground on Sunday, August 24th. Their opponents will only be known the day before when the final game in the Eastern Division is played.  The CERN ground hasn’t quite recovered from the Bosons&More party last year, the wet weather making it impossible to roll the ground, but the new, wider strip is a big improvement. Net practice eventually started in late July, which is probably why the results at the beginning of the season weren’t so good. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes pla...

  6. Cern Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Cricket Club

    2014-01-01

      Cern Cricket Club The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has started earlier than usual, with a game scheduled for the first time ever on Easter Sunday.  Due to repair work for the damage done to the ground because of the “Bosons&More” party at the end of September, all games until June have had to be scheduled away. Net practice, which normally takes place on the ground from mid-April, will not start until mid-June. The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    

  7. Crickets in Sunshine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, Hermann

    1985-12-01

    1. A method is described which makes the registration of body temperatures possible without disturbing the animals. Thus it is possible to observe and quantify the effect of basking on the development of a population. 2. In crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) the time of development is drastically reduced by the possibility to bask in sunshine at self-determined intervals. The old rule of temperature-sums is demonstrated to be invalid in this case; the changing body temperature acts as a signal to unknown processes which speed up the development of the animal.

  8. Dynamic Visual Acuity Training in Cricket Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Edgar, B.Optom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is the ability of an observer to correctly identify details of a moving target and is considered to be important for tasks like driving. Dynamic Visual Acuity is better in athletes involved in sports such as basketball and baseball; however, no previous studies have considered the sport of cricket. We conducted a study to determine whether there was any difference in DVA between cricket and non-cricket players. Method: Dynamic visual acuity was measured by asking subjects to identify the orientation of the gap of a moving Landolt C target as a four-alternative forced-choice task. The Landolt C targets had confusion bars surrounding them. The participants in the study were tested twice with a break of seven weeks. In between the two measurements, participants underwent two training sessions (similar to the testing sessions, each three weeks apart. Results: The initial mean DVA for cricket players was 107.7 deg/sec, and the mean DVA for non-cricket players was 105.5 deg/sec, with a target size of 6/15. The subjects who participated in training (cricketers and non-cricketers improved in DVA by 41 deg/sec in contrast to the improvement in the non-training subjects of 18 deg/sec (p=0.0032. The cricketers who participated in the training improved in DVA by 44 deg/sec, whereas the cricketers who did not participate in the training improved by 19 deg/sec (p=0.0167. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in initial DVA between the cricket players and the non-cricket players. The training resulted in an extremely significant improvement in DVA performance by both the cricketers and non-cricketers.

  9. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  10. Microbiology of cooked and dried edible Mediterranean field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) submitted to four different heating treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2017-01-01

    To increase the shelf life of edible insects, modern techniques (e.g. freeze-drying) add to the traditional methods (degutting, boiling, sun-drying or roasting). However, microorganisms become inactivated rather than being killed, and when rehydrated, many return to vegetative stadia. Crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) were submitted to four different drying techniques (T1 = 10' cooking, 24 h drying at 60℃; T2 = 10' cooking, 24 h drying at 80℃; T3 = 30' cooking, 12 h drying at 80℃, and 12 h drying at 100℃; T4 = boiling T3-treated insects after five days) and analysed for total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, bacilli, yeasts and moulds counts, E. coli, salmonellae, and Listeria monocytogenes (the latter three being negative throughout). The microbial counts varied strongly displaying species- and treatment-specific patterns. T3 was the most effective of the drying treatments tested to decrease all counts but bacilli, for which T2 was more efficient. Still, total bacteria counts remained high (G. bimaculatus > Z. atratus). Other opportunistically pathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus thuringiensis, B. licheniformis, B. pumilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Cryptococcus neoformans) were also encountered. The tyndallisation-like T4 reduced all counts to below detection limit, but nutrients leakage should be considered regarding food quality. In conclusion, species-specific drying procedures should be devised to ensure food safety.

  11. Chronobiology of crickets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    Crickets provide a good model for the study of mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms and photoperiodic responses. They show clear circadian rhythms in their overt behavior and the sensitivity of the visual system. Classical neurobiological studies revealed that a pair of optic lobes is the locus of the circadian clock controlling these rhythms and that the compound eye is the major photoreceptor necessary for synchronization to environmental light cycles. The two optic lobe clocks are mutually coupled through a neural pathway and the coupling regulates an output circadian waveform and a free-running period. Recent molecular studies revealed that the cricket's clock consists of cyclic expression of so-called clock genes and that the clock mechanism is featured by both Drosophila-like and mammalian-like traits. Molecular oscillation is also observed in some extra-optic lobe tissues and depends on the optic lobe clock in a tissue dependent manner. Interestingly, the clock is also involved in adaptation to seasonally changing environment. It fits its waveform to a given photoperiod and may be an indispensable part of a photoperiodic time-measurement mechanism. With adoption of modern molecular technologies, the cricket becomes a much more important and promising model animal for the study of circadian and photoperiodic biology.

  12. Atmospheric radon, CO2 and CH4 dynamics in an Australian coal seam gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, D. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane concentrations (CH4) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) were used to gain insight into atmospheric chemistry within an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). A˜3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 2 km to 4 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p gas field related to point sources (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffse soil sources due to changes in the soil structural and hydrological characteristics. A rapid qualitative assessment of CH4 and CO2 concentration, and carbon isotopes using a mobile cavity ring-down spectrometer system showed a widespread enrichment of both CH4 and CO2 within the production gas field. Concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were as high as 6.89 ppm and 541 ppm respectively compared average concentrations of 1.78 ppm (CH4) and 388 ppm (CO2) outside the gas field. The δ13C values showed distinct differences between areas inside and outside the production field with the δ13C value of the CH4 source within the field matching that of the methane in the CSG.

  13. Strength and Power Correlates of Throwing Velocity on Subelite Male Cricket Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan L; Carter, Thomas; Whitaker, Gary; Nicholls, Owen; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-06-01

    Throwing velocity is an important aspect of fielding in cricket to affect run-outs and reduce the opponent's run-scoring opportunities. Although a relationship between strength and/or power and throwing velocity has been well established in baseball, water polo, and European handball, it has not been adequately explored in cricket. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the relationship between measures of strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players. Seventeen male cricket players (mean ± SD; age, 21.1 ± 1.6 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; weight, 79.8 ± 6.4 kg) from an elite athlete program were tested for maximal throwing velocity from the stretch position and after a 3-meter shuffle. They were also assessed for strength and power using a range of different measures. Throwing velocity from the stretch position (30.5 ± 2.4 m·s) was significantly related to dominant leg lateral-to-medial jump (LMJ) distance (r = 0.71; p MB Rot) throw velocity and medicine ball chest pass (MB CP) distance (r = 0.67; p MB Rot and MB CP explained 66% of the variance. The results were similar for velocity after a shuffle step (31.8 ± 2.1 m·s); however, VJ height reached statistical significance (r = 0.51; p ≤ 0.05). The multiple regression was also similar with MB Rot and MB CP explaining 70% of the variance. The cricketers in this study threw with greater velocity than elite junior and subelite senior cricketers but with lower velocities than elite senior cricketers and collegiate level and professional baseball players. This is the first study to demonstrate a link between strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players and highlight the importance of power development as it relates to throwing velocity. Exercises that more closely simulated the speed (body weight jumps and medicine ball throws) or movement pattern (shoulder IR) of overhead throwing were greater predictors of throwing velocity. Strength and conditioning staff should

  14. Optical, physical and chemical characteristics of Australian Desert dust aerosols: results from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Keywood

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is one of the major components of the world's aerosol mix, having a number of impacts within the Earth system. However, the climate forcing impact of mineral dust is currently poorly constrained, with even its sign uncertain. As Australian deserts are more reddish than those in the northern hemisphere, it is important to better understand the physical, chemical and optical properties of this important aerosol. We have investigated the properties of Australian desert dust at a site in SW Queensland, which is strongly influenced by both dust and biomass burning aerosol. Three years of ground-based monitoring of spectral optical thickness has provided a statistical picture of gross aerosol properties. In November 2006 we undertook a field campaign which collected 4 sets of size-resolved aerosol samples for laboratory analysis – both ion beam analysis and ion chromatography.

    The aerosol optical depth data showed a weak seasonal cycle with an annual mean of 0.06±0.03. The Angstrom coefficient showed a stronger cycle, indicating the influence of the winter-spring burning season in Australia's north. Size distribution inversions showed a bimodal character, with the coarse mode assumed to be mineral dust, and the fine mode a mixture of biomass burning and marine biogenic material. Ion Beam Analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of all filter samples, although elemental ratios were considered the most reliable output. Scatter plots showed that Fe, Al and Ti were well correlated with Si, and Co reasonably well correlated, with the Fe/Si ratio higher than the crustal average, as expected. Scatter plots for Ca, Mn and K against Si showed clear evidence of a second population, which in some cases could be identified with a particular sample day or size fraction. Ion Chromatography was used to quantify water soluble ions for 2 of our sample sets, showing the importance of marine influences on both fine (biogenic and

  15. The importance of partnerships in cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    In cricket, it has long been accepted that synergy in a batting partnership is an important aspect in batting performance. This project investigates the importance of partnerships in various forms of cricket by comparing the performance of opening batsmen with their “synergistic” partners, to the performance of these batsmen with alternative partners. Our statistical analyses conclude that the importance of partnerships may be considered a sporting myth.

  16. High background noise shapes selective auditory filters in a tropical cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arne K D; Riede, Klaus; Römer, Heiner

    2011-05-15

    Because of call frequency overlap and masking interference, the airborne sound channel represents a limited resource for communication in a species-rich cricket community like the tropical rainforest. Here we studied the frequency tuning of an auditory neuron mediating phonotaxis in the rainforest cricket Paroecanthus podagrosus, suffering from strong competition, in comparison with the same homologous neuron in two species of European field crickets, where such competition does not exist. As predicted, the rainforest species exhibited a more selective tuning compared with the European counterparts. The filter reduced background nocturnal noise levels by 26 dB, compared with only 16 and 10 dB in the two European species. We also quantified the performance of the sensory filter under the different filter regimes by examining the representation of the species-specific amplitude modulation of the male calling song, when embedded in background noise. Again, the filter of the rainforest cricket performed significantly better in terms of representing this important signal parameter. The neuronal representation of the calling song pattern within receivers was maintained for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios because of the more sharply tuned sensory system and selective attention mechanisms. Finally, the rainforest cricket also showed an almost perfect match between the filter for sensitivity and the peripheral filter for directional hearing, in contrast to its European counterparts. We discuss the consequences of these adaptations for intraspecific acoustic communication and reproductive isolation between species.

  17. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket tooth

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Xueqing; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    Cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of the cricket teeth are always interested. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of the cricket teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. While, the interior of the teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points at the top of tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate random into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp was proposed and a d...

  18. Hearing in mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A C; Forrest, T G; Hoy, R R

    1998-06-01

    We have studied auditory responses in two species of mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii and S. abbreviatus) to determine (1) whether they show sensitivity to ultrasound, (2) whether their hearing (at both low and high frequencies) is based on the same neural circuitry as that of true crickets, and (3) whether ultrasound sensitivity in different mole cricket species varies with their ability to fly. S. borellii are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies. There is evidence of a segregation of frequency bands in prothoracic auditory neurons. There are two pairs of omega neurons (ONs) with similar morphology to ON1 of true crickets. The two pairs of ONs differ in tuning. One pair has two sensitivity peaks: at the frequency of the calling song of this species (3 kHz), and in the ultrasonic range (25 kHz). The other pair lacks the high-frequency sensitivity and responds exclusively to frequencies in the range of the species song. These two types are not morphologically distinguishable. In S. abbreviatus, only one class of ON was found. S. abbreviatus ONs are narrowly tuned to the frequency of the species' calls. A T-neuron had the best ultrasonic frequency sensitivity in S. borellii. This cell showed a broad tuning to ultrasonic frequencies and was inhibited by low-frequency stimuli. A morphologically similar neuron was also recorded in S. abbreviatus, but lacked the high-frequency sensitivity peak of that in S. borellii. We also assessed the responses of flying S. borellii to ultrasound using field playbacks to free-flying animals. The attractiveness of broadcast calling song was diminished by the addition of an ultrasound signal, indicating that S. borellii avoid high-frequency sound. The results indicate that mole crickets process low-frequency auditory stimuli using mechanisms similar to those of true crickets. They show a negative behavioural response to high-frequency stimuli, as do true crickets, but the organization of ultrasound-sensitive auditory circuitry in

  19. Optical, physical and chemical characteristics of Australian continental aerosols: results from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radhi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is one of the major components of the world's aerosol mix, having a number of impacts within the Earth system. However, the climate forcing impact of mineral dust is currently poorly constrained, with even its sign uncertain. As Australian deserts are more reddish than those in the Northern Hemisphere, it is important to better understand the physical, chemical and optical properties of this important aerosol. We have investigated the properties of Australian desert dust at a site in SW Queensland, which is strongly influenced by both dust and biomass burning aerosol.

    Three years of ground-based monitoring of spectral optical thickness has provided a statistical picture of gross aerosol properties. The aerosol optical depth data showed a clear though moderate seasonal cycle with an annual mean of 0.06 ± 0.03. The Angstrom coefficient showed a stronger cycle, indicating the influence of the winter-spring burning season in Australia's north. AERONET size distributions showed a generally bimodal character, with the coarse mode assumed to be mineral dust, and the fine mode a mixture of fine dust, biomass burning and marine biogenic material.

    In November 2006 we undertook a field campaign which collected 4 sets of size-resolved aerosol samples for laboratory analysis – ion beam analysis and ion chromatography. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of all filter samples, although elemental ratios were considered the most reliable output. Scatter plots showed that Fe, Al and Ti were well correlated with Si, and Co reasonably well correlated with Si, with the Fe/Al ratio somewhat higher than values reported from Northern Hemisphere sites (as expected. Scatter plots for Ca, Mn and K against Si showed clear evidence of a second population, which in some cases could be identified with a particular sample day or size fraction. These data may be used to attempt to build a signature of soil in this

  20. The development of the edible cricket industry in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Flore, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Since cricket farming was introduced in Thailand in 1997, domestic, regional and international interest in the edible cricket industry has increased. This study aims to identify emerging themes related the development of the edible cricket industry over the past decades. It also discusses additio...

  1. Hair-based flow-sensing inspired by the cricket cercal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.; Droogendijk, H.; Steinmann, T.; Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Casas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) offer exciting possibilities for the fabri­cation of bioinspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensor arrays for spatio-temporal flow-field observations (i.e., flow-cameras) and source localization. Whereas m

  2. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  3. A Field of Desire: Visions of Education in Selected Australian Silent Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    The 1920s was an ambivalent decade in Australia: on the one hand Australians were still reeling from the disastrous effects of the Great War and on the other they were witnessing unprecedented and exciting technological and social changes brought about by modernity. One of the most important modern technologies was the cinema, which Australians…

  4. Cricket Ball Aerodynamics: Myth Versus Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rabindra D.; Koga, Demmis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerodynamics plays a prominent role in the flight of a cricket ball released by a bowler. The main interest is in the fact that the ball can follow a curved flight path that is not always under the control of the bowler. ne basic aerodynamic principles responsible for the nonlinear flight or "swing" of a cricket ball were identified several years ago and many papers have been published on the subject. In the last 20 years or so, several experimental investigations have been conducted on cricket ball swing, which revealed the amount of attainable swing, and the parameters that affect it. A general overview of these findings is presented with emphasis on the concept of late swing and the effects of meteorological conditions on swing. In addition, the relatively new concept of "reverse" swing, how it can be achieved in practice and the role in it of ball "tampering", are discussed in detail. A discussion of the "white" cricket ball used in last year's World Cup, which supposedly possesses different swing properties compared to a conventional red ball, is also presented.

  5. Imitating cricket mechanosensory hairs: dream or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijs J.M.; Casas, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    MEMS offers exciting possibilities for bio-inspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensors for flow observations. In stimulating interactions within EU consortia important insights have surfaced and MEMS sensors with demonstrated acoustic sensitivit

  6. Field evaluation of an equine influenza ELISA used in New South Wales during the 2007 Australian outbreak response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S G; Kirkland, Peter D; Cowled, Brendan D

    2009-12-01

    During the Australian epidemic of equine influenza in 2007, tens of thousands of horses were infected. From the resulting field data, 475 known infected and 1323 uninfected horses were identified to allow a post outbreak evaluation of the performance of the commonly used bELISA for influenza A under field conditions. A variety of techniques, such as ROC plots, area under the curve and hypothesis testing were used to assess the overall performance of the test. The test was deemed to be accurate (area under curve=0.993+/-0.003 standard error) and significantly informative (z=-32.0; ptest as used in the response (cut-point percentage inhibition> or =50) were 0.992 (95% CI: 0.979-0.997) and 0.967 (95% CI: 0.957-0.976), respectively.

  7. Nematomorph parasites indirectly alter the food web and ecosystem function of streams through behavioural manipulation of their cricket hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Egusa, T.; Fukushima, K.; Oda, T.; Ohte, N.; Tokuchi, Naoko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Murakami, Isaya; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites manipulate crickets to enter streams where the parasites reproduce. These manipulated crickets become a substantial food subsidy for stream fishes. We used a field experiment to investigate how this subsidy affects the stream community and ecosystem function. When crickets were available, predatory fish ate fewer benthic invertebrates. The resulting release of the benthic invertebrate community from fish predation indirectly decreased the biomass of benthic algae and slightly increased leaf break-down rate. This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function. Nematomorphs are common, and many other parasites have dramatic effects on host phenotypes, suggesting that similar effects of parasites on ecosystems might be widespread.

  8. Enrichment of radon and carbon dioxide in the open atmosphere of an Australian coal seam gas field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Douglas R; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Cyronak, Tyler J; Davis, Rachael J

    2013-04-02

    Atmospheric radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ~390 ppm at the control site to ~467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ~3 fold increase in maximum (222)Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average (222)Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields.

  9. RAD/COMM ''Cricket'' Test Report

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, P J

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate and characterize the radiological response of a ''Cricket'' radiation detection system. The ''Cricket'' is manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems Corp., which is located in Ontario, Canada. The system is designed to detect radioactive material that may be contained in scrap metal. The Cricket's detection unit is mounted to the base of a grappler and monitors material, while the grappler's tines hold the material. It can also be used to scan material in an attempt to isolate radioactive material if an alarm occurs. Testing was performed at the Environmental Effects Laboratory located at ORNL and operated by the Engineering Science and Technology Division. Tests performed included the following: (1) Background stability, (2) Energy response using sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, and sup 6 sup 0 Co, (3) Surface uniformity, (4) Angular dependence, (5) Alarm actuation, (6) Alarm threshold vs. background, (7) Shielding, (8) Re...

  10. Notes on southern Africa Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Sia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David B; Bazelet, Corinna S

    2013-02-18

    The Old World Jerusalem cricket (JC) subfamily Siinae contains one genus, Sia, with two subgenera: Sia (Sia) with two fully winged species from southeast Asia, and Sia (Maxentius) with four wingless species from southern Africa. Because there is a dearth of published data about the behavior and biology of these insects, we present new field and laboratory research on southern African Sia (Maxentius), gather museum and literature information, and present guidelines for collecting and rearing specimens. While we make no taxonomic decisions, this review should be useful for future studies, including a needed taxonomic revision. We also compare results from these southern African JCs with recent investigations on related New World taxa, where fascinating biological traits and extensive cryptic biodiversity have been uncovered. DNA analysis reveals that these Old and New World JCs are polyphyletic.

  11. Temporomandibular joint dislocation and deafness from a cricket ball injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, P; Bandasson, C; Dhillon, R S

    1994-05-01

    Cricket is a national sport in some countries and can be potentially hazardous. We report an incident of a cricket ball impact to the chin, which resulted in posterior dislocation of both temporomandibular joints and bilateral mixed deafness. There appear to be no similar case reports in the literature.

  12. Fluid Mechanics of Cricket and Tennis Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rabindra D.

    2009-11-01

    Aerodynamics plays a prominent role in defining the flight of a ball that is struck or thrown through the air in almost all ball sports. The main interest is in the fact that the ball can often deviate from its initial straight path, resulting in a curved, or sometimes an unpredictable, flight path. It is particularly fascinating that that not all the parameters that affect the flight of a ball are always under human influence. Lateral deflection in flight, commonly known as swing, swerve or curve, is well recognized in cricket and tennis. In tennis, the lateral deflection is produced by spinning the ball about an axis perpendicular to the line of flight, which gives rise to what is commonly known as the Magnus effect. It is now well recognized that the aerodynamics of sports balls are strongly dependent on the detailed development and behavior of the boundary layer on the ball's surface. A side force, which makes a ball curve through the air, can also be generated in the absence of the Magnus effect. In one of the cricket deliveries, the ball is released with the seam angled, which trips the laminar boundary layer into a turbulent state on that side. The turbulent boundary layer separates relatively late compared to the laminar layer on the other side, thereby creating a pressure difference and hence side force. The fluid mechanics of a cricket ball become very interesting at the higher Reynolds numbers and this will be discussed in detail. Of all the round sports balls, a tennis ball has the highest drag coefficient. This will be explained in terms of the contribution of the ``fuzz" drag and how that changes with Reynolds number and ball surface wear. It is particularly fascinating that, purely through historical accidents, small disturbances on the ball surface, such as the stitching on cricket balls and the felt cover on tennis balls are all about the right size to affect boundary layer transition and development in the Reynolds numbers of interest. The fluid

  13. A cricket Gene Index: a genomic resource for studying neurobiology, speciation, and molecular evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quackenbush John

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the developmental costs of genomic tools decline, genomic approaches to non-model systems are becoming more feasible. Many of these systems may lack advanced genetic tools but are extremely valuable models in other biological fields. Here we report the development of expressed sequence tags (EST's in an orthopteroid insect, a model for the study of neurobiology, speciation, and evolution. Results We report the sequencing of 14,502 EST's from clones derived from a nerve cord cDNA library, and the subsequent construction of a Gene Index from these sequences, from the Hawaiian trigonidiine cricket Laupala kohalensis. The Gene Index contains 8607 unique sequences comprised of 2575 tentative consensus (TC sequences and 6032 singletons. For each of the unique sequences, an attempt was made to assign a provisional annotation and to categorize its function using a Gene Ontology-based classification through a sequence-based comparison to known proteins. In addition, a set of unique 70 base pair oligomers that can be used for DNA microarrays was developed. All Gene Index information is posted at the DFCI Gene Indices web page Conclusion Orthopterans are models used to understand the neurophysiological basis of complex motor patterns such as flight and stridulation. The sequences presented in the cricket Gene Index will provide neurophysiologists with many genetic tools that have been largely absent in this field. The cricket Gene Index is one of only two gene indices to be developed in an evolutionary model system. Species within the genus Laupala have speciated recently, rapidly, and extensively. Therefore, the genes identified in the cricket Gene Index can be used to study the genomics of speciation. Furthermore, this gene index represents a significant EST resources for basal insects. As such, this resource is a valuable comparative tool for the understanding of invertebrate molecular evolution. The sequences presented here will

  14. Field prevalence and laboratory susceptibility of southern Australian land snails to Brachylaima cribbi sporocyst infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher A.R.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylaima cribbi is a terrestrial trematode of birds and mammals with helic id and hygromild land snails reported as first and second Intermediate hosts. However, reports describing the first Intermediate host range of B. cribbi have been limited to those snail species present In a small number of geographical locations In South Australia. The natural first Intermediate host range, distribution and prevalence of B. cribbi In land snails In southern Australia were determined. A total of 6,432 introduced and native land snails were collected from eight geographical districts across 3,000 km of southern Australia and examined microscopically for B. cribbi sporocysts. Four Introduced European snails, Theba pisana, Cernuella virgata, Cochlicella acuta and Cochlicella barbara were natural first Intermediate hosts. Sporocyst-infected snails were detected In all districts from Victoria to the west coast of South Australia, a distance of over 1,300 km. Natural sporocyst infection was not observed in introduced European snails Microxeromagna armillata and Helix aspersa or In native Australian land snails Succinea australis and Strangesta gawleri. Egg feeding experiments in the laboratory with B. cribbi confirmed the susceptibility of those species of snails found to be natural first intermediate hosts. Of those species not found to be Infected In nature, only M. armillata could be Infected In the laboratory. Although this study has shown that five different species of European land snails are suitable first Intermediate hosts for B. cribbi there are as yet no reports of B. cribbi from these snails In Europe or from other countries where they have been introduced. Further Investigations are needed in Europe to clarify the origins of this parasite.

  15. Kinematics of Terrestrial Locomotion in Mole Cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; He Huang; Xiangyang Liu; Luquan Ren

    2011-01-01

    The fore leg of mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) has developed into claw for digging and excavating. As the result of having a well-suited body and appendages for living underground, mole cricket still needs to manoeuvre on land in some cases with some kinds of gait. In this paper, the three-dimensional kinematics information of mole cricket in terrestrial walking was recorded by using a high speed 3D video recording system. The mode and the gait of the terrestrial walking mole cricket were investigated by analyzing the kinematics parameters, and the kinematics coupling disciplines of each limb and body were discussed. The results show that the locomotion gait of mole cricket in terrestrial walking belongs to a distinctive alternating tripod gait. We also found that the fore legs of a mole cricket are not as effective as that ofcommon hexapod insects, its middle legs and body joints act more effective in walking and turning which compensate the function of fore legs. The terrestrial locomotion of mole cricket is the result of biological coupling of three pairs of legs, the distinctive alternating tripod gait and the trunk locomotion.

  16. Ultrasound sensitive neurons in the cricket brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodfuehrer, P D; Hoy, R R

    1990-03-01

    1. The aim of this study was to identify neurons in the brain of the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, that are tuned to high frequencies and to determine if these neurons are involved in the pathway controlling negative phonotaxis. In this paper we describe, both morphologically and physiologically, 20 neurons in the cricket brain which are preferentially tuned to high frequencies. 2. These neurons can be divided into two morphological classes: descending brain interneurons (DBINs) which have a posteriorly projecting axon in the circumesophageal connective and local brain neurons (LBNs) whose processes reside entirely within the brain. All the DBINs and LBNs have processes which project into one common area of the brain, the ventral brain region at the border of the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum. Some of the terminal arborizations of Int-1, an ascending ultrasound sensitive interneuron which initiates negative phonotaxis, also extend into this region. 3. Physiologically, ultrasonic sound pulses produce 3 types of responses in the DBINs and LBNs. (1) Seven DBINs and 6 LBNs are excited by ultrasound. (2) Ongoing activity in one DBIN and 5 LBNs is inhibited by ultrasound, and (3) one cell, (LBN-ei), is either excited or inhibited by ultrasound depending on the direction of the stimulus. 4. Many of the response properties of both the DBINs and LBNs to auditory stimuli are similar to those of Int-1. Specifically, the strength of the response, either excitation or inhibition, to 20 kHz sound pulses increases with increasing stimulus intensity, while the response latency generally decreases. Moreover, the thresholds to high frequencies are much lower than to low frequencies. These observations suggest that the DBINs and LBNs receive a majority of their auditory input from Int-1. However, the response latencies and directional sensitivity of only LBN-ei suggest that it is directly connected to Int-1. 5. The response of only one identified brain neuron, DBIN8, which is

  17. The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bazazi

    Full Text Available Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level.

  18. The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazazi, Sepideh; Ioannou, Christos C; Simpson, Stephen J; Sword, Gregory A; Torney, Colin J; Lorch, Patrick D; Couzin, Iain D

    2010-12-14

    Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level.

  19. Corollary discharge inhibition and audition in the stridulating cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, J F A

    2005-11-01

    The romantic notion of crickets singing on a warm summer's evening is quickly dispelled when one comes ear to ear with a stridulating male. Remarkably, stridulating male crickets are able to hear sounds from the environment despite generating a 100 db song (Heiligenberg 1969; Jones and Dambach 1973). This review summarises recent work examining how they achieve this feat of sensory processing. While the responsiveness of the crickets' peripheral auditory system (tympanic membrane, tympanic nerve, state of the acoustic spiracle) is maintained during sound production, central auditory neurons are inhibited by a feedforward corollary discharge signal precisely timed to coincide with the auditory neurons' maximum response to self-generated sound. In this way, the corollary discharge inhibition prevents desensitisation of the crickets' auditory pathway during sound production.

  20. Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2017-01-01

    , their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...... capital. As such, further empirical data and case study analyses are needed in order to advance our understanding of this particular livelihood strategy....

  1. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALAYSIAN NATIONAL CRICKET BATSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia Ul Haq

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the morphological characteristics and physical strength of the Malaysian cricket batsmen. Methods: Twenty four top order batsmen from the Malaysian senior, under-19s and under-16s cricket team were recruited for the study. Twenty six anthropometric, four somatotype and two physical strength variables were measured from all participants. Stature were measured by using stadiometer, calipers for skin-fold, non-stretch tape for girth, sliding caliper for segmental lengths and circumferences (breadths and dynamometers for hand grip and back strength. Cater and heath (1990 equation was used to find the somatotype variables of height-weight ratio, endomorph, mesomorph and ectomorph. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyses significant between group differences in the variables. Results: The senior batsmen were significantly higher than under-19s and under-16s in body mass, relax and flex arm girths, forearm girth, chest girth, waist girth, calf girth, bi-acromial breadth, transvers breadth and hand grip strength. Both senior and under-19s batsmen were significantly higher than under-16s batsmen in arm span, total arm length, humerus and femur breadths. The under-16s batsmen were also significantly lesser than senior in hip girths, hand lengths and bi-ilocrist breadth, and from under-19s in sitting height and total leg length. Conclusion: Senior batsmen were significantly higher in the anthropometric measurement of girths, breadth and lengths than U-16 because of 10 years age difference. Future research is essential to confirm the relationship between the anthropometric characteristics of batsmen with the batting technique and performance.

  3. Australian Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  4. Field dissipation and environmental hazard assessment of clomazone, molinate, and thiobencarb in Australian rice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Wendy C; Oliver, Danielle P; Zrna, Sharyn

    2006-09-20

    The fates of clomazone [2-(2-chlorophenyl)methyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone], molinate (S-ethyl hexahydro-1-H-azepine-1-carbothioate), and thiobencarb {S-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]diethylcarbamothioate} applied to rice were studied at two locations in New South Wales (Australia). Rates of dissipation (DT50) from floodwaters and soils were measured. Dissipation of the three herbicides from water and soil can be best explained by a first-order decay process. DT(50) values for clomazone, molinate, and thiobencarb were 7.2, 5.1, and 3.5 days, respectively, in water and 14.6, 23.9, and >46 days, respectively, in surface soil. Maximum measured concentrations of clomazone, molinate, and thiobencarb in floodwaters were 202, 1042, and 148 microg/L, respectively, taking 18.4, 26.4, and 21.4 days to dissipate to concentrations set to protect aquatic ecosystems. A hazard assessment identified clomazone as presenting a low environmental hazard while molinate and thiobencarb presented a medium environmental hazard when used at registered field rates.

  5. Central projections of auditory receptor neurons of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Kazuo; Pollack, Gerald S

    2005-12-19

    We describe the central projections of physiologically characterized auditory receptor neurons of crickets as revealed by confocal microscopy. Receptors tuned to ultrasonic frequencies (similar to those produced by echolocating, insectivorous bats), to a mid-range of frequencies, and a subset of those tuned to low, cricket-like frequencies have similar projections, terminating medially within the auditory neuropile. Quantitative analysis shows that despite the general similarity of these projections they are tonotopic, with receptors tuned to lower frequencies terminating more medially. Another subset of cricket-song-tuned receptors projects more laterally and posteriorly than the other types. Double-fills of receptors and identified interneurons show that the three medially projecting receptor types are anatomically well positioned to provide monosynaptic input to interneurons that relay auditory information to the brain and to interneurons that modify this ascending information. The more laterally and posteriorly branching receptor type may not interact directly with this ascending pathway, but is well positioned to provide direct input to an interneuron that carries auditory information to more posterior ganglia. These results suggest that information about cricket song is segregated into functionally different pathways as early as the level of receptor neurons. Ultrasound-tuned and mid-frequency tuned receptors have approximately twice as many varicosities, which are sites of transmitter release, per receptor as either anatomical type of cricket-song-tuned receptor. This may compensate in part for the numerical under-representation of these receptor types.

  6. The effect of central contracts on the stability and performance of the England Test cricket team. [El efecto de contratos centrales sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bullough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB decided to implement central contracts for elite player management to give them control over a group of players to represent the England national team in Test cricket. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that this change in policy has had on the stability and performance of the England Test team, and discuss implications thereof. Using a sample of 13 seasons pre-central contracts (1987-1999 and 13 seasons post-central contracts (2000-2012, the results, from secondary analysis of England’s Test match scorecards from both sample periods, allowed investigation of team performance and stability. To gain a greater understanding of how central contracts impacted on the England Test side, eight interviews were also organised with key stakeholders in English cricket. The results showed that both the stability and performance of the England Test side improved considerably in the sample period post-central contracts (2000-2012 with a much greater consistency of selection (fewer changes per match alongside an improvement in England’s on-field performance (better win ratio and points per match. The paper identifies two key challenges facing the current player management system in England from domestic and external sources. Resumen En 1999 El Consejo de Cricket en Inglaterra y Gales (ECB – England and Wales Cricket Board decidió implementar contratos centrales para la dirección de jugadores de élite, con el fin de darle control sobre el grupo de jugadores que representan el equipo nacional de Inglaterra de Test cricket. El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el impacto que este cambio ha tenido sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket y considerar sus implicaciones. Tras emplear una muestra de 13 temporadas antes de la firma de los contratos centrales (entre 1987 y 1999 y otras 13 temporadas después de su implementación (entre 2000 y 2012, los

  7. Arginine vasotocin injection increases probability of calling in cricket frogs, but causes call changes characteristic of less aggressive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, C A; Chu, J; Wilczynski, W

    1995-12-01

    Male cricket frogs, Acris crepitans communicate to males and females using advertisement calls, which are arranged into call groups. Calls at the middle and end, but not beginning of the call group, are modified in response to male-male aggressive interactions. We found in this field study of male cricket frogs in natural breeding choruses that the peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) not only increased the probability that males called after injections, but also caused modifications in middle and end calls to produce calls characteristic of less aggressive males. Moreover, AVT-injected males showed significantly greater increases in call dominant frequency than saline-injected males, again, a characteristic of less aggressive males. Cricket frog calls are used to both repel males and attract females, thus call changes may relate to male-male and/or male-female interactions. Saline-injected males also demonstrated significant changes in several call traits, including changes that occurred in the beginning and middle calls of the call groups, but not the end calls. AVT appeared to block some call changes produced through handling. These data suggest that AVT can influence acoustic communication in frogs in several ways, including effects on call characteristics and dominant frequency, as well as potentially blocking some handling effects.

  8. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  9. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  10. The 5th Umpire: Automating Cricket's Edge Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The game of cricket and the use of technology in the sport have grown rapidly over the past decade. However, technology-based systems introduced to adjudicate decisions such as run outs, stumpings, boundary infringements and close catches are still prone to human error, and thus their acceptance has not been fully embraced by cricketing administrators. In particular, technology is not employed for bat-pad decisions. Although the snickometer may assist in adjudicating such decisions it depends heavily on human interpretation. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of Wavelets in developing an edgedetection adjudication system for the game of cricket. Artificial Intelligence (AI tools, namely Neural Networks, will be employed to automate this edge detection process. Live audio samples of ball-on-bat and ball-on-pad events from a cricket match will be recorded. DSP analysis, feature extraction and neural network classification will then be employed on these samples. Results will show the ability of the neural network to differentiate between these key events. This is crucial to developing a fully automated edge detection system.

  11. Silk from crickets: a new twist on spinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Walker

    Full Text Available Raspy crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllacrididae are unique among the orthopterans in producing silk, which is used to build shelters. This work studied the material composition and the fabrication of cricket silk for the first time. We examined silk-webs produced in captivity, which comprised cylindrical fibers and flat films. Spectra obtained from micro-Raman experiments indicated that the silk is composed of protein, primarily in a beta-sheet conformation, and that fibers and films are almost identical in terms of amino acid composition and secondary structure. The primary sequences of four silk proteins were identified through a mass spectrometry/cDNA library approach. The most abundant silk protein was large in size (300 and 220 kDa variants, rich in alanine, glycine and serine, and contained repetitive sequence motifs; these are features which are shared with several known beta-sheet forming silk proteins. Convergent evolution at the molecular level contrasts with development by crickets of a novel mechanism for silk fabrication. After secretion of cricket silk proteins by the labial glands they are fabricated into mature silk by the labium-hypopharynx, which is modified to allow the controlled formation of either fibers or films. Protein folding into beta-sheet structure during silk fabrication is not driven by shear forces, as is reported for other silks.

  12. Diversity of intersegmental auditory neurons in a bush cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpner, Andreas; Molina, Jorge

    2006-12-01

    Various auditory interneurons of the duetting bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata with axons ascending to the brain are presented. In this species, more intersegmental sound-activated neurons have been identified than in any other bush cricket so far, among them a new type of ascending neuron with posterior soma in the prothoracic ganglion (AN4). These interneurons show not only morphological differences in the prothoracic ganglion and the brain, but also respond differently to carrier frequencies, intensity and direction. As a set of neurons, they show graded differences for all of these parameters. A response type not described among intersegmental neurons of crickets and other bush crickets so far is found in the AN3 neuron with a tonic response, broad frequency tuning and little directional dependence. All neurons, with the exception of AN3, respond in a relatively similar manner to the temporal patterns of the male song: phasically to high syllable repetitions and rhythmically to low syllable repetitions. The strongest coupling to the temporal pattern is found in TN1. In contrast to behavior the neuronal responses depend little on syllable duration. AN4, AN5 and TN1 respond well to the female song. AN4 (at higher intensities) and TN1 respond well to a complete duet.

  13. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects.

  14. Brief report: Performing on the stage, the field, or both? Australian adolescent extracurricular activity participation and self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation. In general, participation in any type of extracurricular activity was associated with a higher social and academic self-concept, and general self-worth, compared to no participation. Adolescents who participated in both sports and non-sports also reported a more positive social self-concept and general self-worth, compared to those who only participated in one of the activity types. This research provides support for extracurricular activities as a context facilitative of positive self-concept, and demonstrates the importance of a mixed participation profile for an adolescent's self-concept.

  15. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of a Filiform Mechanosensory Hair Socket of Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kanishka; Mian, Ahsan; Miller, John

    2016-08-01

    Filiform mechanosensory hairs of crickets are of great interest to engineers because of the hairs' highly sensitive response to low-velocity air-currents. In this study, we analyze the biomechanical properties of filiform hairs of the cercal sensory system of a common house cricket. The cercal sensory system consists of two antennalike appendages called cerci that are situated at the rear of the cricket's abdomen. Each cercus is covered with 500-750 flow sensitive filiform mechanosensory hairs. Each hair is embedded in a complex viscoelastic socket that acts as a spring and dashpot system and guides the movement of the hair. When a hair deflects due to the drag force induced on its length by a moving air-current, the spiking activity of the neuron that innervates the hair changes and the combined spiking activity of all hairs is extracted by the cercal sensory system. Filiform hairs have been experimentally studied by researchers, though the basis for the hairs' biomechanical characteristics is not fully understood. The socket structure has not been analyzed experimentally or theoretically from a mechanical standpoint, and the characterization that exists is mathematical in nature and only provides a very rudimentary approximation of the socket's spring nature. This study aims to understand and physically characterize the socket's behavior and interaction with the filiform hair by examining hypotheses about the hair and socket biomechanics. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was first created using confocal microscopy images of the hair and socket structure of the cricket, and then finite-element analyses (FEAs) based on the physical conditions that the insect experiences were simulated. The results show that the socket can act like a spring; however, it has two-tier rotational spring constants during pre- and postcontacts of iris and hair bulge due to its constitutive nonstandard geometric shapes.

  17. MULTI LEVEL SEMANTIC EXTRACTION FOR CRICKET VIDEO BY TEXT PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. SUNITHA ABBURU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Semantic video analysis, indexing and retrieval are necessary for effective utilization of video repositories. The semantics can be extracted from the semantic carriers such as voice and video text. Super imposed text is the proper source to extract semantics of the video which will increase the efficiency of retrieval system. This paper proposes a semiautomatic method to generate annotation for cricket videos and an automated tool- DLER, to extract the semantics of cricket video. The DLER tool provides a fast and robust approach for text Detection, Localization, Extraction, and Reorganization in video frames, which is flexible and customer friendly. The DLER integrates all the pre-processing steps and the OCR steps in to a single unit. The annotator can pick the ROI, increase or decrease the threshold, contrast, brightness or inverse the image based on the typeof the broadcasted video. The tool has been implemented and tested with cricket video and the results of the experiments are promising. Finally conclusion and future work has been discussed.

  18. Female effects, but no intrinsic male effects on paternity outcome in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, L W; Lovegrove, M; Almbro, M

    2014-08-01

    Competitive fertilization success can depend on the relative abilities of competing males to fertilize available ova, and on mechanisms of cryptic female choice that moderate paternity. Competitive fertilization success is thus an emergent property of competing male genotypes, female genotype and their interactions. Accurate estimates of intrinsic male effects on competitive fertilization success are therefore problematic. We used a cross-classified nonbreeding design in which rival male family background was standardized to partition variation in competitive fertilization success among male and female family backgrounds in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Male effects were close to zero, supporting previous quantitative genetic designs in which male competitors were assigned at random. In contrast, some 22% of the variance in competitive fertilization success was explained by female effects, suggesting that paternity in this species is influenced strongly by cryptic female choice.

  19. Dioptrics of the facet lenses in the dorsal rim area of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukhanov, KY; Leertouwer, HL; Gribakin, FG; Stavenga, DG

    1996-01-01

    1. The optics of the corneal facet lenses from the dorsal rim area (DRA) and from the dorso-lateral areas (DA) of the compound eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus were studied. 2. The DRA of the cricket eye contains quite normally shaped facet lenses. The diameter of the facet lens in the DA is 2

  20. A descriptive analysis of batting backlift techniques in cricket: Does the practice of elite cricketers follow the theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbhai, M Habib; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship that is coached from a young age is to play with a straight bat. Limited studies to date have examined whether top international batsmen use this traditionally described technique. Accordingly, we performed a descriptive, observational study of the backlift technique adopted by 65 of the most successful batsmen of all time, based on their career averages, strike rate and runs scored. The batsmen were divided into two groups depending on whether they played the game before or after 1954. Surprisingly, more than 70% of these successful batsmen did not adopt the traditionally taught technique. Instead, they adopted a more looped action in which the initial movement of the bat was in the direction of the slips, and in extreme cases it was either towards the gully/point region or to have the face of the bat directed towards the off-side. This suggests that traditionally taught batting coaching techniques may hinder, rather than enhance future cricketing performance. Since the vast majority of cricketers are not coached in this technique, this finding probably indicates that this looped technique is likely a contributing factor to effective batsmanship.

  1. Asymmetry in cricket song: female preference and proximate mechanism of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtenlehner, Stefan; Küng, Saskia; Kainz, Franz; Römer, Heiner

    2013-06-01

    Subtle random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilateral traits are suggested to signal reduced phenotypic and genetic quality of a sender, but little is known about the related receiver mechanisms for discriminating symmetrical from asymmetrical traits. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. A downward frequency modulation at the end of each syllable in the calling song has been suggested to indicate morphological asymmetry in sound radiating structures between left and right forewings. Even under ideal laboratory conditions on a trackball system, female crickets only discriminated between songs of symmetrical and asymmetrical males in two-choice experiments at carrier frequencies of 4.4 kHz and a large modulation depth of 600 and 800 Hz. Under these conditions they preferred the pure-tone calling songs over the modulated (asymmetrical) alternative, whereas no preference was observed at carrier frequencies of 4.9 and 5.2 kHz. These preferences correlate well with the responses of a pair of identified auditory interneurons (AN1), known for their importance in female phonotaxis. The AN1 interneuron is tuned to an average frequency of 4.9 kHz, and the roll-off towards lower and higher frequencies determines the magnitude of responses to pure-tone and frequency-modulated calling songs. The difference in response magnitude between the two neurons appears to drive the decision of females towards the song alternatives. We discuss the relevance of song differences based on asymmetry in the morphology of song-producing structures under natural conditions.

  2. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L Volpov

    Full Text Available This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC, and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application.

  3. Two steps to suicide in crickets harbouring hairworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, M.I.; Ponton, F.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.

    2008-01-01

    The hairworm (Nematomorpha) Paragordius tricuspidatus has the ability to alter the behaviour of its terrestrial insect host (the cricket Nemobius sylvestris), making it jump into the water to reach its reproductive habitat. Because water is a limited and critical resource in the ecosystem, we...... predicted that hairworms should adaptively manipulate host behaviour to maximize parasite reproductive success. Our results supported the hypothesis that the host manipulation strategy of hairworms consists of at least two distinct steps, first the induction of erratic behaviour and then suicidal behaviour...

  4. Effect of toss and weather on County Cricket Championship outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David; Dorsey, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The principal competition in English professional cricket has become more competitive with the introduction of hierarchical divisions linked by promotion and relegation. Using regression analysis, we examine the effect on league points when teams suffer different degrees of weather disruption over the season and different amounts of luck in winning the toss for choice of first innings. The results are used to illustrate the sensitivity of championship, promotion, and relegation outcomes to such matters of chance and revised league tables are produced after applying adjustments to account for the influence of weather and toss. Policy recommendations are presented on how the influence of weather and toss might be lessened in future seasons.

  5. Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary-Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary is a book that could be useful to sport tourism studies. It could be an excellent student’s handbook at universities with one condition to be added questions to the end of each chapter for personal study and homework. The cricket’s link to tourism could also be added with calls for case studies with different nations for university students. This book is a part of cricket’s route in this century.

  6. A novel field method to distinguish between cryptic carcharhinid sharks, Australian blacktip shark Carcharhinus tilstoni and common blacktip shark C. limbatus, despite the presence of hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G J; Buckworth, R C; Lee, H; Morgan, J A T; Ovenden, J R; McMahon, C R

    2017-01-01

    Multivariate and machine-learning methods were used to develop field identification techniques for two species of cryptic blacktip shark. From 112 specimens, precaudal vertebrae (PCV) counts and molecular analysis identified 95 Australian blacktip sharks Carcharhinus tilstoni and 17 common blacktip sharks Carcharhinus limbatus. Molecular analysis also revealed 27 of the 112 were C. tilstoni × C. limbatus hybrids, of which 23 had C. tilstoni PCV counts and four had C. limbatus PCV counts. In the absence of further information about hybrid phenotypes, hybrids were assigned as either C. limbatus or C. tilstoni based on PCV counts. Discriminant analysis achieved 80% successful identification, but machine-learning models were better, achieving 100% successful identification, using six key measurements (fork length, caudal-fin peduncle height, interdorsal space, second dorsal-fin height, pelvic-fin length and pelvic-fin midpoint to first dorsal-fin insertion). Furthermore, pelvic-fin markings could be used for identification: C. limbatus has a distinct black mark >3% of the total pelvic-fin area, while C. tilstoni has markings with diffuse edges, or has smaller or no markings. Machine learning and pelvic-fin marking identification methods were field tested achieving 87 and 90% successful identification, respectively. With further refinement, the techniques developed here will form an important part of a multi-faceted approach to identification of C. tilstoni and C. limbatus and have a clear management and conservation application to these commercially important sharks. The methods developed here are broadly applicable and can be used to resolve species identities in many fisheries where cryptic species exist.

  7. It’s Not [Just] Cricket: The Art and Politics of the Popular – Cultural Imperialism, ‘Sly Civility’ & Postcolonial Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashutosh Gowariker’s critically acclaimed Lagaan (2001, is a marvellous piece of cinematic troubling, which, via an astute use of allegory, reflects upon identity politics and power relations in both colonial and postcolonial contexts. Bringing two cornerstones of Indian popular culture together, namely cricket and Hindi formulae films, Gowariker produces an engagingly, affective alchemy of image and sound, which intervenes critically in the discourses of British colonial rule. This article’s intention is to demonstrate the mimetic devices inherent in Lagaan’s narrative, and how they mirror the regional resilience evident in the global success of both popular Indian cinema and the Indian performance of cricket. The sport of cricket and its role and effectiveness within a larger colonial project, is contextualized and reconsidered by tracing some resistant tangents in the sports evolution and performance in the Asia Pacific region. Making the most of the South Asian diaspora, which has exploited the networks and routes of the former British Empire, Indian popular cinema, likewise, serves to illustrate the point that local cultural dynamics can add their own nuances to global media flows. Interdisciplinary approaches are required to traverse within and between cultures, and to underscore the deep currents of contestation, as well as the radical and often surprising politics that characterise popular culture. In this respect, a range of scholars from different fields of study are consulted; Ashis Nandy, Arjun Appadurai, Chandrima Chakraborty and Homi Bhabha amongst them. Their voices will help to open up uncertainties in the conventional discourses, and to articulate some of the cultural politics and poetics at play in Lagaan specifically and the performance of cricket more generally.

  8. A viral aphrodisiac in the cricket Gryllus texensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Easy, Russell H; Stoltz, Don

    2014-06-01

    We identified the insect iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV as a pathogen of the cricket Gryllus texensis using electron microscopy (EM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. EM showed that the virus attacks the fat body, an organ important for protein production, immune function and lipid storage. During infection the fat body hypertrophied, but egg production withered, leaving the lateral oviducts empty of eggs; the females were effectively sterile. EM of the testis of infected males suggests that the testis was not invaded by the virus, although sperm taken from the spermatophores of infected males showed little or no motility. Nevertheless, males and females continued to mate when infected. In fact, infected males were quicker to court females than uninfected controls. The virus benefits from the continued sexual behaviour of its host; transmission studies show that the virus can be spread through sexual contact. Sickness behaviour, the adaptive reduction of feeding and sexual behaviour that is induced by an activated immune system, was absent in infected crickets. Total haemolymph protein was reduced, as was phenoloxidase activity, suggesting a reduction in immune protein production by the fat body. The evidence suggests that during IIV-6/CrIV infection, the immune signal(s) that induces sickness behaviour is absent. Curtailment of a host's sickness behaviour may be necessary for any pathogen that is spread by host sexual behaviour.

  9. The biomechanics of fast bowling in men's cricket: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R M; Stockill, N P; Elliott, B C; Burnett, A F

    1996-10-01

    This review concentrates on synthesizing and analysing the biomechanical research which has been carried out on fast bowling in men's cricket. Specifically, it relates to those elements of the bowling technique which contribute towards a fast ball release, the aerodynamics and technique of swing bowling, and the association between fast bowling and lower back injury. With regard to bowling technique, no firm conclusions are drawn on the relationships between elements of the fast bowling technique and ball release speed. Recommendations for future research in this area include intra-player studies to establish the bowler-specific factors which contribute to fast ball release and features of body segment dynamics. There is general agreement that the phenomenon of differential boundary layer separation is the reason for normal and reverse cricket ball swing. Systematic research to establish the essential aspects of the bowling technique which contribute to successful swing bowling is recommended, along with studies of the behaviour of the ball in games to ascertain the effects of ball asymmetries on ball swing. There is sufficient evidence in the literature to establish a strong link between injury to the lower back and the use of the mixed technique. Recommendations are made for screening and intervention to reduce the use of the mixed technique, and for research into other aspects of injury. Fundamental research to develop biomechanical models of the lower back in fast bowling is strongly recommended.

  10. Australian network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  11. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

  12. A MATHEMATICAL MODELLING APPROACH TO ONE-DAY CRICKET BATTING ORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Ovens1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While scoring strategies and player performance in cricket have been studied, there has been little published work about the influence of batting order with respect to One-Day cricket. We apply a mathematical modelling approach to compute efficiently the expected performance (runs distribution of a cricket batting order in an innings. Among other applications, our method enables one to solve for the probability of one team beating another or to find the optimal batting order for a set of 11 players. The influence of defence and bowling ability can be taken into account in a straightforward manner. In this presentation, we outline how we develop our Markov Chain approach to studying the progress of runs for a batting order of non- identical players along the lines of work in baseball modelling by Bukiet et al., 1997. We describe the issues that arise in applying such methods to cricket, discuss ideas for addressing these difficulties and note limitations on modelling batting order for One-Day cricket. By performing our analysis on a selected subset of the possible batting orders, we apply the model to quantify the influence of batting order in a game of One Day cricket using available real-world data for current players

  13. A longitudinal study on the effectiveness of injury prevention strategies on injury epidemiology of the elite cricket player / Jaco Peens

    OpenAIRE

    Peens, Jaco

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an injury prevention and training programme for elite cricketers in regard to biomechanical, physical and motor and anthropometric variables over a period of six cricketing off-seasons (1998/1999-2003/2004). A secondary aim was to investigate the injury epidemiology of elite cricket players over a six-season period (1998/1999 – 2003/2004). A total of 93 cricket players, who were part of the North-West profess...

  14. Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ratan Khuman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from five different colleges were requited for the study with purposive sampling. They were assigned into three different groups according to their types of sports, cricket n = 50, soccer n = 50, volleyball n = 50. The static and dynamic balance was assessed using flamingo balance test (FBT and star excursion balance test (SEBT in institutional based sports physiotherapy department. Results: Intra-group comparison for FBT and SEBT score shows no significance difference (P > 0.05. Multiple comparison of FBT and SEBT score between groups reveals significantly difference between cricket and soccer player (P = 0.000, between cricket and volleyball player (P = 0.000 and between soccer player and volleyball players (P = 0.000. FBT and SEBT score were significantly higher in soccer players than volleyball and cricketer were found to have the least score compared with soccer and volleyball players. Conclusion: There is significance difference in static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. The soccer players demonstrate higher balance than volleyball players and the volleyball players have a higher balance than that of cricketers both statically and dynamically.

  15. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research relations.......This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...

  16. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-11-02

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory.

  17. Prior mating success can affect allocation towards future sexual signaling in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswell, Rachel; Girard, Madeline; Fricke, Claudia; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Fitness is often correlated with the expression level of a sexually selected trait. However, sexually selected traits are costly to express such that investment in their expression should be optimised to maximize their overall fitness gains. Social interactions, in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings, may offer males one type of feedback allowing them to gauge how to allocate their resources towards sexual signaling. Here we tested whether adult male black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) modify the extent of their calling effort (the sexually selected trait) in response to successful and unsuccessful matings with females. To examine the effect that mating interactions with females have on investment into sexual signaling, we monitored male calling effort after maturation and then provided males with a female at two points within their life, manipulating whether or not males were able to successfully mate each time. Our results demonstrate that males alter their investment towards sexual signaling in response to successful matings, but only if the experience occurs early in their life. Males that mated early decreased their calling effort sooner than males that were denied a mating. Our results demonstrate that social feedback in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings has the potential to alter the effort a male places towards sexual signaling.

  18. Effects of hedgerows on bats and bush crickets at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurélie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by the loss and fragmentation of habitats. The role of hedgerows in maintaining biodiversity is well established, but few studies have addressed the importance for biodiversity of the intrinsic characteristics of hedgerows and the quality of hedgerow networks along a spatial scale. We examined three quality indices providing information at different territorial levels: density in the landscape, structural diversity and wood production. We performed an acoustic survey in a grassland to estimate the species abundance and community composition of bats (9 taxa) and bush crickets (11 species). Using an approach based on species and traits, we assessed how hedgerow quality influenced the activity of these taxa at different spatial scales (from 50 to 1000 m) and focused on three types of traits: bush cricket mobility ability, bat foraging strategy and habitat specialization. In general, our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for bats and bush crickets, but the strength of the association between taxa and hedgerows varied substantially among the species and the spatial scales. Although it depends on the taxa, the production, density and structural diversity of hedgerows each had an overall positive effect. Our results suggested that these effects were generally more important at large scales. The scale effect of the production index is the best predictor of activity for bat and bush cricket taxa and traits. Our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for the ecology of bat and bush cricket communities and could be used to improve conservation management.

  19. Circadian rhythms and period expression in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Daniel J; Shaw, Kerry L

    2013-05-01

    Daily activity times and circadian rhythms of crickets have been a subject of behavioral and physiological study for decades. However, recent studies suggest that the underlying molecular mechanism of cricket endogenous clocks differ from the model of circadian rhythm generation in Drosophila. Here we examine the circadian free-running periods of walking and singing in two Hawaiian swordtail cricket species, Laupala cerasina and Laupala paranigra, that differ in the daily timing of mating related activities. Additionally, we examine variation in sequence and daily cycling of the period (per) gene transcript between these species. The species differed significantly in free-running period of singing, but did not differ significantly in the free-running period of locomotion. Like in Drosophila, per transcript abundance showed cycling consistent with a role in circadian rhythm generation. The amino acid differences identified between these species suggest a potential of the per gene in interspecific behavioral variation in Laupala.

  20. "A man's game": cricket, war and masculinity, South Africa, 1899-1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    As practitioners of the imperial sport of the Victorian age, cricketers rallied whenever war descended upon England and its colonies. The South African War of 1899-1902 was no different. Adding to existing work on cricket's imperial development within South Africa, this study marks a significant contribution to research on the link between masculinity, war and sport during the Victorian era. A concept emerging from the English public schools of the mid- to late nineteenth century, the masculine ethos of sport and military honour had reached colonial South Africa by the outbreak of war in 1899. In its analysis of cricket and masculinity, this essay examines the events surrounding the war in South Africa and provides an example of the distinct relationship that existed between the military and the masculinity of sport and its organisation during this era.

  1. A corollary discharge mechanism modulates central auditory processing in singing crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, J F A; Hedwig, B

    2003-03-01

    Crickets communicate using loud (100 dB SPL) sound signals that could adversely affect their own auditory system. To examine how they cope with this self-generated acoustic stimulation, intracellular recordings were made from auditory afferent neurons and an identified auditory interneuron-the Omega 1 neuron (ON1)-during pharmacologically elicited singing (stridulation). During sonorous stridulation, the auditory afferents and ON1 responded with bursts of spikes to the crickets' own song. When the crickets were stridulating silently, after one wing had been removed, only a few spikes were recorded in the afferents and ON1. Primary afferent depolarizations (PADs) occurred in the terminals of the auditory afferents, and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were apparent in ON1. The PADs and IPSPs were composed of many summed, small-amplitude potentials that occurred at a rate of about 230 Hz. The PADs and the IPSPs started during the closing wing movement and peaked in amplitude during the subsequent opening wing movement. As a consequence, during silent stridulation, ON1's response to acoustic stimuli was maximally inhibited during wing opening. Inhibition coincides with the time when ON1 would otherwise be most strongly excited by self-generated sounds in a sonorously stridulating cricket. The PADs and the IPSPs persisted in fictively stridulating crickets whose ventral nerve cord had been isolated from muscles and sense organs. This strongly suggests that the inhibition of the auditory pathway is the result of a corollary discharge from the stridulation motor network. The central inhibition was mimicked by hyperpolarizing current injection into ON1 while it was responding to a 100 dB SPL sound pulse. This suppressed its spiking response to the acoustic stimulus and maintained its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. The corollary discharge therefore prevents auditory desensitization in stridulating crickets and allows the animals to respond to external

  2. CFD Analysis of Swing of Cricket Ball and Trajectory Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Jithin; Tom, Josin; Ruishikesh, Kamat; Jose, Jyothish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    This work aims to understand the aerodynamics associated with the flight and swing of a cricket ball and predict its flight trajectory over the course of the game: at start (smooth ball) and as the game progresses (rough ball). Asymmetric airflow over the ball due to seam orientation and surface roughness can cause flight deviation (swing). The values of Drag, Lift and Side forces which are crucial for determining the trajectory of the ball were found with the help of FLUENT using the standard K- ɛ model. Analysis was done to study how the ball velocity, spin imparted to be ball and the tilt of the seam affects the movement of the ball through air. The governing force balance equations in 3 dimensions in combination a MATLAB code which used Heun's method was used for obtaining the trajectory of the ball. The conditions for the conventional swing and reverse swing to occur were deduced from the analysis and found to be in alignment with the real life situation. Critical seam angle for maximum swing and transition speed for normal to reverse swing were found out. The obtained trajectories were compared to real life hawk eye trajectories for validation. The analysis results were in good agreement with the real life situation.

  3. Audio enabled information extraction system for cricket and hockey domains

    CERN Document Server

    Saraswathi, S; B., Sai Vamsi Krishna; S, Suresh Reddy

    2010-01-01

    The proposed system aims at the retrieval of the summarized information from the documents collected from web based search engine as per the user query related to cricket and hockey domain. The system is designed in a manner that it takes the voice commands as keywords for search. The parts of speech in the query are extracted using the natural language extractor for English. Based on the keywords the search is categorized into 2 types: - 1.Concept wise - information retrieved to the query is retrieved based on the keywords and the concept words related to it. The retrieved information is summarized using the probabilistic approach and weighted means algorithm.2.Keyword search - extracts the result relevant to the query from the highly ranked document retrieved from the search by the search engine. The relevant search results are retrieved and then keywords are used for summarizing part. During summarization it follows the weighted and probabilistic approaches in order to identify the data comparable to the k...

  4. Pulses, patterns and paths: neurobiology of acoustic behaviour in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold

    2006-07-01

    Crickets use acoustic communication for pair formation. Males sing with rhythmical movements of their wings and the mute females approach the singing males by phonotaxis. Females walking on a trackball rapidly steer towards single sound pulses when exposed to split-song paradigms. Their walking path emerges from consecutive reactive steering responses, which show no temporal selectivity. Temporal pattern recognition is tuned to the species-specific syllable rate and gradually changes the gain of auditory steering. If pattern recognition is based on instantaneous discharge rate coding, then the tuning to the species-specific song pattern may already be present at the level of thoracic interneurons. During the processing of song patterns, changes in cytosolic Ca(2+ )concentrations occur in phase with the chirp rhythm in the local auditory interneurone. Male singing behaviour is controlled by command neurons descending from the brain. The neuropil controlling singing behaviour is located in the anterior protocerebrum next to the mushroom bodies. Singing behaviour is released by injection of cholinergic agonists and inhibited by gamma-butyric acid (GABA). During singing, the sensitivity of the peripheral auditory system remains unchanged but a corollary discharge inhibits auditory processing in afferents and interneurons within the prothoracic auditory neuropil and prevents the auditory neurons from desensitisation.

  5. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Menninger, Holly L; LaSala, Nathan; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap's distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the relative frequency

  6. "In Loco Parentis"? Public-School Authority, Cricket and Manly Character, 1855-62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the responsibility for schoolboys' behaviour and character when in liminal spaces between home and school, in an historical account of the annual cricket matches in London between Eton, Harrow and Winchester in the late 1850s. The episode is situated in the context of the Clarendon Commission's discussions on school sports,…

  7. Acoustic analysis reveals a new cryptic bush-cricket in the Carpathian Mountains (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgu, Ionuţ Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    A new morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterid bush-cricket from the genus Isophya is described from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains: Isophya dochiasp. n. Sound analysis and morphological details are discussed in the paper comparing the new species with several Isophya species having similar morphology and acoustic behavior.

  8. Acoustic analysis reveals a new cryptic bush–cricket in the Carpathian Mountains (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Iorgu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterid bush–cricket from the genus Isophya is described from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains: Isophya dochia sp. n. Sound analysis and morphological details are discussed in the paper, comparing the new species with several Isophya speciessimilar morphology and acoustic behavior.

  9. Acoustic analysis reveals a new cryptic bush–cricket in the Carpathian Mountains (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut Iorgu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterid bush–cricket from the genus Isophya is described from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains: Isophya dochia sp. n. Sound analysis and morphological details are discussed in the paper comparing the new species with several Isophya species having similar morphology and acoustic behavior.

  10. "In Defence of Cricket": The Imperial Games Ethic in Victorian English Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how societies can be judged by the athletic games they play through presentation of an exchange of letters appearing in the 1872 issues of the Upper Canada College newspaper. Shows how cricket, representing imperial society and muscular Christianity, was threatened by the Yankees and "American baseball." (LS)

  11. Immune challenge and pre- and post-copulatory female choice in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayton, Jean M.; Boeke, J. E. Kobus; Jennions, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade off between the expression of male sexual traits and the immune system. To test for this trade off, male crickets Teleogryllus commodus were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce an immune response and their subsequent pre- and post-copulato

  12. Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

  13. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTsukamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  14. Immune Challenge and Pre- and Post-copulatory Female Choice in the Cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayton, Jean M.; Boeke, J. E. Kobus; Jennions, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade off between the expression of male sexual traits and the immune system. To test for this trade off, male crickets Teleogryllus commodus were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce an immune response and their subsequent pre- and post-copulato

  15. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games.

  16. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  17. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  18. The subgenual organ complex in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae): comparative innervation and sensory evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Strauß, Johannes; Stritih, Nataša; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the organization of nervous systems and sensory organs can reveal their evolution and specific adaptations. In the forelegs of some Ensifera (including crickets and tettigoniids), tympanal hearing organs are located in close proximity to the mechanosensitive subgenual organ (SGO). In the present study, the SGO complex in the non-hearing cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae) is investigated for the neuronal innervation pattern and for organs homologous t...

  19. The Australian National University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2007-01-01

    The Australian National University was established by Federal Parliament in 1946 with a mission to bring credit to the nation and to be one of the world’s great universities.It was the country’s only full-time research university at the time,and had no undergraduate teaching responsibilities.

  20. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  1. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  2. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    defence.gov.au 38 ibid: no page no. 39 ibid: no page no. 40 Aldo Borgu , The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Australian Strategic...Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2002. Borgu Aldo, The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Canberra

  3. Control of cricket stridulation by a command neuron: efficacy depends on the behavioral state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, B

    2000-02-01

    Crickets use different song patterns for acoustic communication. The stridulatory pattern-generating networks are housed within the thoracic ganglia but are controlled by the brain. This descending control of stridulation was identified by intracellular recordings and stainings of brain neurons. Its impact on the generation of calling song was analyzed both in resting and stridulating crickets and during cercal wind stimulation, which impaired the stridulatory movements and caused transient silencing reactions. A descending interneuron in the brain serves as a command neuron for calling-song stridulation. The neuron has a dorsal soma position, anterior dendritic processes, and an axon that descends in the contralateral connective. The neuron is present in each side of the CNS. It is not activated in resting crickets. Intracellular depolarization of the interneuron so that its spike frequency is increased to 60-80 spikes/s reliably elicits calling-song stridulation. The spike frequency is modulated slightly in the chirp cycle with the maximum activity in phase with each chirp. There is a high positive correlation between the chirp repetition rate and the interneuron's spike frequency. Only a very weak correlation, however, exists between the syllable repetition rate and the interneuron activity. The effectiveness of the command neuron depends on the activity state of the cricket. In resting crickets, experimentally evoked short bursts of action potentials elicit only incomplete calling-song chirps. In crickets that previously had stridulated during the experiment, short elicitation of interneuron activity can trigger sustained calling songs during which the interneuron exhibits a spike frequency of approximately 30 spikes/s. During sustained calling songs, the command neuron activity is necessary to maintain the stridulatory behavior. Inhibition of the interneuron stops stridulation. A transient increase in the spike frequency of the interneuron speeds up the chirp

  4. (Z)-7-tricosene and monounsaturated ketones as sex pheromone components of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana: identification, field trapping, and phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M; Morris, B D; Dawson, T E; Bunn, B; Comeskey, D; Dymock, J J

    2006-01-01

    Pheromone gland extracts of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), contained four compounds that elicited responses from male moth antennae in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses. These were identified by GC-mass spectrometry as (Z)-7-tricosene (Z7-23Hy), (Z)-7-octadecen-11-one (Z7-11-one-18Hy), (Z)-7-nonadecen-11-one (Z7-11-one-19Hy), and (Z)-7-tricosen-11-one (Z7-11-one-23Hy) at a ratio of 65:23.5:1.5:10, respectively. Z7-23Hy, Z7-11-one-18Hy, and Z7-11-one-23Hy have not previously been reported as lepidopteran sex pheromone components. Z7-11-one-18Hy was active as a single component, and was synergized by Z7-11-one-23Hy but not Z7-11-one-19Hy, although the latter compound was weakly attractive as a single component. Addition of Z7-23Hy further increased attraction. The amount of the major pheromone component, Z7-11-one-18Hy in female pheromone gland extracts was estimated to be 16.4 ng/female (N = 8). Phenological data gathered over a 12-mo period in 2002 and 2003 using the binary blend indicated that moths are active throughout the year. The pheromone has already been employed to monitor the spread of C. improbana in New Zealand and detect its presence in Queensland, Australia.

  5. Biodiversity of insect-parasitic nematodes in soil pest insect (Orthoptera, Gryllidae and Gryllotalpidae) in wheat fields of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Camino, Nora Beatriz; Achinelly, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    This work was conducted in wheat fields of the Argentine pampas providing an extensive list of nematodes of soil pest insects. Adults and nymphs of crickets and mole crickets, were found parasited by nematodes. Twenty-four nematode species from six families were registered. Thelastomatid nematodes were the most numerous group while Pseudonimidae, Travassosinematidae and Diplogasteridae families were the least represented. The Pampean region constituted an area with...

  6. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  7. Optimization of Cricket-inspired, Biomimetic Artificial Hair Sensors for Flow Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, N; Floris, J; Krijnen, G

    2008-01-01

    High density arrays of artificial hair sensors, biomimicking the extremely sensitive mechanoreceptive filiform hairs found on cerci of crickets have been fabricated successfully. We assess the sensitivity of these artificial sensors and present a scheme for further optimization addressing the deteriorating effects of stress in the structures. We show that, by removing a portion of chromium electrodes close to the torsional beams, the upward lift at the edges of the membrane due to the stress, will decrease hence increase the sensitivity.

  8. STOCHASTIC DOMINANCE AND ANALYSIS OF ODI BATTING PERFORMANCE: THE INDIAN CRICKET TEAM, 1989-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Damodaran

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall team performance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of 'not out' scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the 'not-out' scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the 'not out' innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the 'utility' of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less. However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored. This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman, the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal

  9. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  10. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiene Maria Jesus

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i freshly processed (control; preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii 15 and (iii 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv 15 and (v 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi 15 and (vii 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%, C(% and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls. We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  11. Evidence that histamine is the inhibitory transmitter of the auditory interneuron ON1 of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiebe, P; Corrette, B J; Wiese, K

    1990-08-24

    The omega neurons of crickets are connected with each other by reciprocal inhibition. This inhibition could be mimicked by bath-applied histamine and blocked by histamine H1-antagonists. Histamine, like ON1, also influenced the ascending interneuron AN2, so that its response pattern more closely reflected the temporal structure of the calling song. This evidence strongly suggests that histamine is the inhibitory transmitter of the ON1s.

  12. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema scapterisci Are Preferentially Activated by Cricket Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dihong; Sepulveda, Claudia; Dillman, Adler R

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization. Here we describe a new method of efficiently producing large numbers of S. scapterisci infective juveniles (IJs) in house crickets and for quantifying parasitic activation of the IJs upon exposure to host tissue using morphological features. We found that parasite activation is a temporal process with more IJs activating over time. Furthermore, we found that activated IJs secrete a complex mixture of proteins and that S. scapterisci IJs preferentially activate upon exposure to cricket tissue, reaffirming the description of S. scapterisci as a cricket specialist.

  13. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  14. The influence of elbow joint kinematics on wrist speed in cricket fast bowling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kane Jytte; Alderson, Jacqueline Anne; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Mills, Peter Michael

    2015-01-01

    This modelling study sought to describe the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint linear velocity in cricket fast bowlers, and to assess the sensitivity of wrist velocity to systematic manipulations of empirical joint kinematic profiles. A 12-camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 250 Hz recorded the bowling actions of 12 high performance fast bowlers. Empirical elbow joint kinematic data were entered into a cricket bowling specific "Forward Kinematic Model" and then subsequently underwent fixed angle, angular offset and angle amplification manipulations. A combination of 20° flexion and 20° abduction at the elbow was shown to maximise wrist velocity within the experimental limits. An increased elbow flexion offset manipulation elicited an increase in wrist velocity. Amplification of elbow joint flexion-extension angular displacement indicated that, contrary to previous research, elbow extension range of motion and angular velocity at the time of ball release were negatively related to wrist velocity. Some relationships between manipulated joint angular waveforms and wrist velocity were non-linear, supporting the use of a model that accounts for the non-linear relationships between execution and outcome variables in assessing the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint velocity in cricket fast bowlers.

  15. Lumbar spinal loading during bowling in cricket: a kinetic analysis using a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxin; Ma, Ye; Liu, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate two types of cricket bowling techniques by comparing the lumbar spinal loading using a musculoskeletal modelling approach. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under two cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds while simultaneously forcing their navel down towards their thighs starting just prior to ball release (max-trunk condition). A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model comprised of the pelvis, sacrum, lumbar vertebrae and torso segments, which enabled the motion of the individual lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal, frontal and coronal planes to be actuated by 210 muscle-tendon units, was used to simulate spinal loading based on the recorded kinematic data. The maximal lumbar spine compressive force is 4.89 ± 0.88BW for the max condition and 4.58 ± 0.54BW for the max-trunk condition. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two techniques in trunk moments and lumbar spine forces. This indicates that the max-trunk technique may not increase lower back injury risks. The method proposed in this study could be served as a tool to evaluate lower back injury risks for cricket bowling as well as other throwing activities.

  16. Firing-rate resonances in the peripheral auditory system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Florian; Clemens, Jan; Naumov, Victor; Hennig, R Matthias; Schreiber, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    In many communication systems, information is encoded in the temporal pattern of signals. For rhythmic signals that carry information in specific frequency bands, a neuronal system may profit from tuning its inherent filtering properties towards a peak sensitivity in the respective frequency range. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus evaluates acoustic communication signals of both conspecifics and predators. The song signals of conspecifics exhibit a characteristic pulse pattern that contains only a narrow range of modulation frequencies. We examined individual neurons (AN1, AN2, ON1) in the peripheral auditory system of the cricket for tuning towards specific modulation frequencies by assessing their firing-rate resonance. Acoustic stimuli with a swept-frequency envelope allowed an efficient characterization of the cells' modulation transfer functions. Some of the examined cells exhibited tuned band-pass properties. Using simple computational models, we demonstrate how different, cell-intrinsic or network-based mechanisms such as subthreshold resonances, spike-triggered adaptation, as well as an interplay of excitation and inhibition can account for the experimentally observed firing-rate resonances. Therefore, basic neuronal mechanisms that share negative feedback as a common theme may contribute to selectivity in the peripheral auditory pathway of crickets that is designed towards mate recognition and predator avoidance.

  17. Context-dependent coding and gain control in the auditory system of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Jan; Rau, Florian; Hennig, R Matthias; Hildebrandt, K Jannis

    2015-10-01

    Sensory systems process stimuli that greatly vary in intensity and complexity. To maintain efficient information transmission, neural systems need to adjust their properties to these different sensory contexts, yielding adaptive or stimulus-dependent codes. Here, we demonstrated adaptive spectrotemporal tuning in a small neural network, i.e. the peripheral auditory system of the cricket. We found that tuning of cricket auditory neurons was sharper for complex multi-band than for simple single-band stimuli. Information theoretical considerations revealed that this sharpening improved information transmission by separating the neural representations of individual stimulus components. A network model inspired by the structure of the cricket auditory system suggested two putative mechanisms underlying this adaptive tuning: a saturating peripheral nonlinearity could change the spectral tuning, whereas broad feed-forward inhibition was able to reproduce the observed adaptive sharpening of temporal tuning. Our study revealed a surprisingly dynamic code usually found in more complex nervous systems and suggested that stimulus-dependent codes could be implemented using common neural computations.

  18. Effects of Serotonergic and Opioidergic Drugs on Escape Behaviors and Social Status of Male Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonova, V. E.; Schürmann, F.-W.; Sakharov, D. A.

    We examined the effects of selective serotonin depletion and opioid ligands on social rank and related escape behavior of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Establishment of social rank in a pair of males affected their escape reactions. Losers showed a lower and dominants a higher percentage of jumps in response to tactile cercal stimulation than before a fight. The serotonin-depleting drug α-methyltryptophan (AMTP) caused an activation of the escape reactivity in socially naive crickets. AMTP-treated animals also showed a lower ability to become dominants. With an initial 51.6+/-3.6% of wins in the AMTP group, the percentage decreased to 26+/-1.6% on day 5 after injection. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone affected fight and escape similarly as AMTP. In contrast to naloxone, the opioid agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin decreased escape responsiveness to cercal stimulation in naive and subordinate crickets. We suggest that serotonergic and opioid systems are involved in the dominance induced depression of escape behavior.

  19. Selective processing of calling songs by auditory interneurons in the female cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus: possible roles in behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jason; Navia, Benjamin; Atkins, Gordon; Stout, John

    2005-05-01

    Female crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus), caught in the field as nymphs, responded as adults in the laboratory with selective phonotaxis to model calling songs (CSs) that reproduced the dominant carrier frequencies and syllable periods (SPs) characteristic of the male's natural calling song. Extracellular recordings demonstrated two types of auditory interneurons in the female's cervical connectives that were very similar to the AN1 and AN2 neurons previously described in other gryllid species. The AN2 neuron responded to model CSs with a phasically encoded immediate response, and a more tonically encoded prolonged response. AN2's immediate response exhibited SP-dependent decreases (termed decrement) in its responses to sequential syllables of the CS that were greatest to CSs with the shortest SPs and diminished as SPs were lengthened, resulting in an SP-dependent habituation. Picrotoxin application transformed this SP-dependent habituation by AN2 to SP-selective responses in which the degree of decrement was greatest to SPs that were most phonotactically attractive. AN2's prolonged response was most sensitive to 5 kHz CSs and correlated with the carrier frequency tuning for the thresholds of phonotaxis by females. Thus, in females, AN2's immediate (in the presence of picrotoxin) and prolonged responses were selectively tuned to the SPs and carrier frequencies of the male's calls that were most attractive behaviorally. AN1's responses at threshold were also tuned to the dominant carrier frequencies of the male's CS.

  20. Sensitive Period for the Recovery of the Response Rate of the Wind-Evoked Escape Behavior of Unilaterally Cercus-Ablated Crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Kanou, Masamichi

    2015-04-01

    We examined the compensational recovery of the response rate (relative occurrence) of the wind-evoked escape behavior in unilaterally cercus-ablated crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and elucidated the existence of a sensitive period for such recovery by rearing the crickets under different conditions. In one experiment, each cricket was reared in an apparatus called a walking inducer (WI) to increase the sensory input to the remaining cercus, i.e., the self-generated wind caused by walking. In another experiment, each cricket was reared in a small plastic case separate from the outside atmosphere (wind-free: WF). In this rearing condition, the cricket did not experience self-generated wind as walking was prohibited. During the recovery period after the unilateral cercus ablation, the crickets were reared under either the WI or WF condition to investigate the role of the sensory inputs on the compensational recovery of the response rate. The compensational recovery of the response rate occurred only in the crickets reared under the WI condition during the early period after the ablation. In particular, WI rearing during the first three days after the ablation resulted in the largest compensational recovery in the response rate. In contrast, no compensational recovery was observed in the crickets reared under the WF condition during the first three days. These results suggest that a sensitive period exists in which sensory inputs from the remaining cercus affect the compensational recovery of the response rate more effectively than during other periods.

  1. The association between four citation metrics and peer rankings of research influence of Australian researchers in six fields of public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Elizabeth Derrick

    Full Text Available Doubt about the relevance, appropriateness and transparency of peer review has promoted the use of citation metrics as a viable adjunct or alternative in the assessment of research impact. It is also commonly acknowledged that research metrics will not replace peer review unless they are shown to correspond with the assessment of peers. This paper evaluates the relationship between researchers' influence as evaluated by their peers and various citation metrics representing different aspects of research output in 6 fields of public health in Australia. For four fields, the results showed a modest positive correlation between different research metrics and peer assessments of research influence. However, for two fields, tobacco and injury, negative or no correlations were found. This suggests a peer understanding of research influence within these fields differed from visibility in the mainstream, peer-reviewed scientific literature. This research therefore recommends the use of both peer review and metrics in a combined approach in assessing research influence. Future research evaluation frameworks intent on incorporating metrics should first analyse each field closely to determine what measures of research influence are valued highly by members of that research community. This will aid the development of comprehensive and relevant frameworks with which to fairly and transparently distribute research funds or approve promotion applications.

  2. The Association between Four Citation Metrics and Peer Rankings of Research Influence of Australian Researchers in Six Fields of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Gemma Elizabeth; Haynes, Abby; Chapman, Simon; Hall, Wayne D.

    2011-01-01

    Doubt about the relevance, appropriateness and transparency of peer review has promoted the use of citation metrics as a viable adjunct or alternative in the assessment of research impact. It is also commonly acknowledged that research metrics will not replace peer review unless they are shown to correspond with the assessment of peers. This paper evaluates the relationship between researchers' influence as evaluated by their peers and various citation metrics representing different aspects of research output in 6 fields of public health in Australia. For four fields, the results showed a modest positive correlation between different research metrics and peer assessments of research influence. However, for two fields, tobacco and injury, negative or no correlations were found. This suggests a peer understanding of research influence within these fields differed from visibility in the mainstream, peer-reviewed scientific literature. This research therefore recommends the use of both peer review and metrics in a combined approach in assessing research influence. Future research evaluation frameworks intent on incorporating metrics should first analyse each field closely to determine what measures of research influence are valued highly by members of that research community. This will aid the development of comprehensive and relevant frameworks with which to fairly and transparently distribute research funds or approve promotion applications. PMID:21494691

  3. Australian Outdoor (and) Environmental Education Research: Senses of "Place" in Two Constituencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The Outdoor Council of Australia's renaming of "Australian Journal of Outdoor Education" ("AJOE") as "Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education" ("JOEE") follows deliberations among Australian and international stakeholders in outdoor education about the future of publishing in the field and raises a…

  4. Sense of Place in Australian Environmental Education Research: Distinctive, Missing or Displaced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Many environmental educators were motivated to enter the field by a concern for the loss of places to which they felt a strong sense of attachment and belonging. This raises the question of whether a sense of place, or attachment to the Australian biophysical or cultural landscape, has shaped Australian environmental education research. An…

  5. Australian University International Student Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  6. The Australian Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Howe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients recently became the target of an unprecedented internet campaign by an individual who disagrees with the content and conclusions of a paper published in the journal last year, viz. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased” by Alan W. Barclay and Jennie Brand-Miller, Nutrients 2011, 3, 491–504. Regrettably, his criticism has extended to the journal and its peer review processes for permitting publication of the article. [...

  7. Evaluation of the third- and fourth-generation GOCE Earth gravity field models with Australian terrestrial gravity data in spherical harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexer, Moritz; Hirt, Christian; Pail, Roland; Claessens, Sten

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013, the fourth generation of European Space Agency's (ESA) global gravity field models, DIR4 (Bruinsma et al. in Proceedings of the ESA living planet symposium, 28 June-2 July, Bergen, ESA, Publication SP-686, 2010b) and TIM4 (Migliaccio et al. in Proceedings of the ESA living planet symposium, 28 June-2 July, Bergen, ESA, Publication SP-686, 2010), generated from the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) gravity observation satellite was released. We evaluate the models using an independent ground truth data set of gravity anomalies over Australia. Combined with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity, a new gravity model is obtained that is used to perform comparisons with GOCE models in spherical harmonics. Over Australia, the new gravity model proves to have significantly higher accuracy in the degrees below 120 as compared to EGM2008 and seems to be at least comparable to the accuracy of this model between degree 150 and degree 260. Comparisons in terms of residual quasi-geoid heights, gravity disturbances, and radial gravity gradients evaluated on the ellipsoid and at approximate GOCE mean satellite altitude ( km) show both fourth generation models to improve significantly w.r.t. their predecessors. Relatively, we find a root-mean-square improvement of 39 % for the DIR4 and 23 % for TIM4 over the respective third release models at a spatial scale of 100 km (degree 200). In terms of absolute errors, TIM4 is found to perform slightly better in the bands from degree 120 up to degree 160 and DIR4 is found to perform slightly better than TIM4 from degree 170 up to degree 250. Our analyses cannot confirm the DIR4 formal error of 1 cm geoid height (0.35 mGal in terms of gravity) at degree 200. The formal errors of TIM4, with 3.2 cm geoid height (0.9 mGal in terms of gravity) at degree 200, seem to be realistic. Due to combination with GRACE and SLR data, the DIR models, at satellite altitude, clearly

  8. A fighter's comeback: dopamine is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Social defeat, i.e. losing an agonistic dispute with a conspecific, is followed by a period of suppressed aggressiveness in many animal species, and is generally regarded as a major stressor, which may play a role in psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite numerous animal models, the mechanisms underlying loser depression and subsequent recovery are largely unknown. This study on crickets is the first to show that a neuromodulator, dopamine (DA), is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat. Crickets avoid any conspecific male just after defeat, but regain their aggressiveness over 3 h. This recovery was prohibited after depleting nervous stores of DA and octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline) with α-methyl-tyrosine (AMT). Loser recovery was also prohibited by the insect DA-receptor (DAR) antagonist fluphenazine, but not the OA-receptor (OAR) blocker epinastine, or yohimbine, which blocks receptors for OA's precursor tyramine. Conversely, aggression was restored prematurely in both untreated and amine depleted losers given either chlordimeform (CDM), a tissue permeable OAR-agonist, or the DA-metabolite homovanillyl alcohol (HVA), a component of the honeybee queen mandibular pheromone. As in honeybees, HVA acts in crickets as a DAR-agonist since its aggression promoting effect on losers was selectively blocked by the DAR-antagonist, but not by the OAR-antagonist. Conversely, CDM's aggression promoting effect was selectively blocked by the OAR-antagonist, but not the DAR-antagonist. Hence, only DA is necessary for recovery of aggressiveness after social defeat, although OA can promote loser aggression independently to enable experience dependent adaptive responses.

  9. Effects of temperature and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer temperatures are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to changes in temperature and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient temperature and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos. We found that reproduction was optimal when ambient temperature reached 30°C and the insects were beneath broad-spectrum lights such that maternal body and soil temperatures reached 35°C. Fewer eggs that developed fully were laid when maternal body and soil temperatures reached 30°C or 37-39°C. We also varied initial soil moisture from 0% to 100% saturated and found that more eggs reached embryonic diapause when initial soil moisture was 25% or 50% of saturated volume. However more of the developed eggs hatched when treated in summer soils with 0-25% of saturated moisture. We conclude that small changes in temperature had large effects on reproduction, whereas large changes in moisture had very small effects on reproduction. This is the first report of Mormon crickets mating in a laboratory setting and laying eggs that hatched, facilitating further research on the role of maternal and embryonic environments in changes in population size.

  10. Calling song recognition in female crickets: temporal tuning of identified brain neurons matches behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarakos, Konstantinos; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-07-11

    Phonotactic orientation of female crickets is tuned to the temporal pattern of the male calling song. We analyzed the phonotactic selectivity of female crickets to varying temporal features of calling song patterns and compared it with the auditory response properties of the ascending interneuron AN1 (herein referred to as TH1-AC1) and four newly identified local brain neurons. The neurites of all brain neurons formed a ring-like branching pattern in the anterior protocerebrum that overlapped with the axonal arborizations of TH1-AC1. All brain neurons responded phasically to the sound pulses of a species-specific chirp. The spike activity of TH1-AC1 and the local interneuron, B-LI2, copied different auditory patterns regardless of their temporal structure. Two other neurons, B-LI3 and B-LC3, matched the temporal selectivity of the phonotactic responses but also responded to some nonattractive patterns. Neuron B-LC3 linked the bilateral auditory areas in the protocerebrum. One local brain neuron, B-LI4, received inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic inputs. Inhibition was particularly pronounced for nonattractive pulse patterns, reducing its spike activity. When tested with different temporal patterns, B-LI4 exhibited bandpass response properties; its different auditory response functions significantly matched the tuning of phonotaxis. Temporal selectivity was established already for the second of two sound pulses separated by one species-specific pulse interval. Temporal pattern recognition in the cricket brain occurs within the anterior protocerebrum at the first stage of auditory processing. It is crucially linked to a change in auditory responsiveness during pulse intervals and based on fast interactions of inhibition and excitation.

  11. A composite study of onset of the Australian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Harry H.; Liebmann, Brant

    1990-01-01

    The circulation changes that accompany an onset (defined as the first occurrence of wet 850-mb westerly winds at Darwin, Australia) of the Australian summer monsoon are documented by a composite study for the years 1957-1987. Composites of atmospheric fields at stations in and about the Australian tropics are constructed relative to the onset data at Darwin. It is shown that the composite onset is dominated by a slow eastward migration of a deep-baroclinic convective circulation displaced south of the equator. This propagating anomaly exhibited many features of the so-called 40-50 day oscillation, including an upper level anticyclone that accompanies the convective anomaly.

  12. Aeromechanics of the Spider Cricket Jump: How to Jump 60+ Times Your Body Length and Still Land on Your Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emily; Deshler, Nicolas; Gorman, David; Neves, Catarina; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flapping, gliding, running, crawling and swimming have all been studied extensively in the past and have served as a source of inspiration for engineering designs. In the current project, we explore a mode of locomotion that straddles ground and air: jumping. The subject of our study is among the most proficient of long-jumpers in Nature: the spider cricket of the family Rhaphidophoridae, which can jump more than 60 times its body length. Despite jumping this immense distance, these crickets usually land on their feet, indicating an ability to control their posture during ``flight.'' We employ high-speed videogrammetry, to examine the jumps and to track the crickets' posture and appendage orientation throughout their jumps. Simple aerodynamic models are developed to predict the aerodynamic forces and moment on the crickets during `flight`. The analysis shows that these wingless insects employ carefully controlled and coordinated positioning of the limbs during flight so as to increase jump distance and to stabilize body posture during flight. The principles distilled from this study could serve as an inspiration for small jumping robots that can traverse complex terrains.

  13. How dietary phosphorus availability during development influences condition and life history traits of the cricket, Acheta domesticas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visanuvimol, Laksanavadee; Bertram, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is extremely limited in the environment, often being 10-20 times lower in plants than what invertebrate herbivores require. This mismatch between resource availability and resource need can profoundly influence herbivore life history traits and fitness. This study investigated how dietary phosphorus availability influenced invertebrate growth, development time, consumption, condition, and lifespan using juvenile European house crickets, Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Crickets reared on high phosphorus diets ate more food, gained more weight, were in better condition at maturity, and contained more phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon in their bodies at death than crickets reared on low phosphorus diets. There was also a trend for crickets reared on high phosphorus diets to become larger adults (interaction with weight prior to the start of the experiment). These findings can be added to the small but growing number of studies that reveal the importance of phosphorus to insect life history traits. Future research should explore the importance of dietary phosphorus availability relative to protein, lipid, and carbohydrate availability.

  14. The bush-cricket Isophya kraussii (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae): bioacoustics, distribution and description of a new subspecies from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgu, Ionuţ Ştefan; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Isophya kraussii Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878, one of the widest spread bush-crickets within this genus, is confirmed to be present east of the Carpathian Mountains. Based on acoustic analysis and morphological characters, the populations from NE Romania are considered to belong to a different subspecies, I. kraussii moldavica ssp. n. A map with distribution of both subspecies is presented.

  15. Colony growth of two species of Solenopsis fire ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reared with crickets and beef liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most diets for rearing fire ants and other ants contain insects such as crickets or mealworms. Unfortunately, insect diets are expensive, especially for large rearing operations, and are not always easily available. This study was designed to examine colony growth of Solenopsis fire ants on beef liv...

  16. Mechanisms of high-frequency song generation in brachypterous crickets and the role of ghost frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Tony; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Grandcolas, Philippe; Robert, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Sound production in crickets relies on stridulation, the well-understood rubbing together of a pair of specialised wings. As the file of one wing slides over the scraper of the other, a series of rhythmic impacts causes harmonic oscillations, usually resulting in the radiation of pure tones delivered at low frequencies (2-8 kHz). In the short-winged crickets of the Lebinthini tribe, acoustic communication relies on signals with remarkably high frequencies (>8 kHz) and rich harmonic content. Using several species of the subfamily Eneopterinae, we characterised the morphological and mechanical specialisations supporting the production of high frequencies, and demonstrated that higher harmonics are exploited as dominant frequencies. These specialisations affect the structure of the stridulatory file, the motor control of stridulation and the resonance of the sound radiator. We placed these specialisations in a phylogenetic framework and show that they serve to exploit high-frequency vibrational modes pre-existing in the phylogenetic ancestor. In Eneopterinae, the lower frequency components are harmonically related to the dominant peak, suggesting they are relicts of ancestral carrier frequencies. Yet, such ghost frequencies still occur in the wings' free resonances, highlighting the fundamental mechanical constraints of sound radiation. These results support the hypothesis that such high-frequency songs evolved stepwise, by a form of punctuated evolution that could be related to functional constraints, rather than by only the progressive increase of the ancestral fundamental frequency.

  17. Descending brain neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (de Geer): auditory responses and impact on walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorović, Maja; Hedwig, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    The activity of four types of sound-sensitive descending brain neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was recorded intracellularly while animals were standing or walking on an open-loop trackball system. In a neuron with a contralaterally descending axon, the male calling song elicited responses that copied the pulse pattern of the song during standing and walking. The accuracy of pulse copying increased during walking. Neurons with ipsilaterally descending axons responded weakly to sound only during standing. The responses were mainly to the first pulse of each chirp, whereas the complete pulse pattern of a chirp was not copied. During walking the auditory responses were suppressed in these neurons. The spiking activity of all four neuron types was significantly correlated to forward walking velocity, indicating their relevance for walking. Additionally, injection of depolarizing current elicited walking and/or steering in three of four neuron types described. In none of the neurons was the spiking activity both sufficient and necessary to elicit and maintain walking behaviour. Some neurons showed arborisations in the lateral accessory lobes, pointing to the relevance of this brain region for cricket audition and descending motor control.

  18. The benefits and limitations of using cricket as a sport for development tool in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Khoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid agencies, or a combination of both. The present paper, by focusing on a cricket for development (CFD program in Samoa, aims to explore outcomes and limitations associated with the use of sport as a community engagement tool. The paper pursues that goal by examining the activities of relevant sport and government organisations, and – most crucially – it interviews key stakeholders involved in the CFD process in Samoa. In short, the prime purpose of this paper is to identify and interpret – from the perspective of locals – whether the CFD program has brought benefits to Samoan communities, and the challenges and limitations they see thus far. This is important because, to date, there has been an absence of qualitative inquiry into the efficacy of sport for development (SFD programs in Samoa, and very limited research in a Pacific Islands context.

  19. Female crickets assess relatedness during mate guarding and bias storage of sperm towards unrelated males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuni, C; Beveridge, M; Simmons, L W

    2013-06-01

    Recent evidence shows that females exert a post-copulatory fertilization bias in favour of unrelated males to avoid the genetic incompatibilities derived from inbreeding. One of the mechanisms suggested for fertilization biases in insects is female control over transport of sperm to the sperm-storage organs. We investigated post-copulatory inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms in females of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We assessed the relative contribution of related and unrelated males to the sperm stores of double-mated females. To demonstrate unequivocally that biased sperm storage results from female control rather than cryptic male choice, we manipulated the relatedness of mated males and of males performing post-copulatory mate guarding. Our results show that when guarded by a related male, females store less sperm from their actual mate, irrespective of the relatedness of the mating male. Our data support the notion that inhibition of sperm storage by female crickets can act as a form of cryptic female choice to avoid the severe negative effects of inbreeding.

  20. Challenges with effective nutrient supplementation for amphibians: A review of cricket studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Shannon; Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Attard, Lydia; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, numerous studies have investigated the impact of insect supplementation on insect nutrient content. In light of recent nutrition related challenges with regards to zoo amphibians fed an insect based diet, this review attempts to comprehensively compile both anecdotal and published data in the context of practical application on this topic. Insects, primarily crickets, used for amphibian diets historically demonstrate low concentrations of key nutrients including calcium and vitamin A. Commonly used practices for supplementation involving powder dusting or gut loading have been shown to improve delivery of calcium and vitamin A, though often not reaching desired nutrient concentrations. The large variety of factors influencing insect nutrient content are difficult to control, making study design, and results often inconsistent. Formulation and availability of more effective gut loading diets, combined with a standardized protocol for insect husbandry and dietary management may be the most effective way to supplement insects for use in amphibian feeding programs. Ideally, the nutritional improvement of feeder insects would begin at the breeder level; however, until this becomes a viable choice, we confirm that supplementation of crickets through both gut-loading and dusting appear necessary to support the nutritional health of amphibians and other insectivores in managed collections.

  1. Ascending auditory interneurons in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus (Walker): comparative physiology and direct connections with afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, R M

    1988-05-01

    Ascending auditory interneurons of the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus (Walker), were investigated using simultaneous intracellular and extracellular recording in order to identify units which had previously been characterized only by extracellular recording. The morphology and physiology of the large adapting unit (LAU: Fig. 1) and of the small tonic unit (STU: Fig. 2) of Teleogryllus correspond well to those of the ascending neuron 2 (AN2) and the ascending neuron 1 (AN1) of Gryllus (Figs. 1, 2), respectively. A summary of the ascending auditory interneurons described by various authors in 5 species of crickets is presented in order to establish common identities. Physiological evidence for direct connections between auditory afferents and the ascending auditory interneurons AN1 (STU) and AN2 (LAU) is presented. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from receptors and interneurons in response to sound as well as the activity of auditory interneurons upon electrical stimulation of the tympanal nerve reveal short and constant latencies of receptor-evoked synaptic activity in AN1 (STU) and AN2 (LAU).

  2. Spike-triggered dendritic calcium transients depend on synaptic activity in the cricket giant interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroto; Baba, Yoshichika; Oka, Kotaro

    2002-02-15

    The relationship between electrical activity and spike-induced Ca2+ increases in dendrites was investigated in the identified wind-sensitive giant interneurons in the cricket. We applied a high-speed Ca2+ imaging technique to the giant interneurons, and succeeded in recording the transient Ca2+ increases (Ca2+ transients) induced by a single action potential, which was evoked by presynaptic stimulus to the sensory neurons. The dendritic Ca2+ transients evoked by a pair of action potentials accumulated when spike intervals were shorter than 100 ms. The amplitude of the Ca2+ transients induced by a train of spikes depended on the number of action potentials. When stimulation pulses evoking the same numbers of action potentials were separately applied to the ipsi- or contra-lateral cercal sensory nerves, the dendritic Ca2+ transients induced by these presynaptic stimuli were different in their amplitude. Furthermore, the side of presynaptic stimulation that evoked larger Ca2+ transients depended on the location of the recorded dendritic regions. This result means that the spike-triggered Ca2+ transients in dendrites depend on postsynaptic activity. It is proposed that Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activated by the action potentials will be enhanced by excitatory synaptic inputs at the dendrites in the cricket giant interneurons.

  3. Sequential filtering processes shape feature detection in crickets: a framework for song pattern recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Gerhard Hedwig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioural and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behaviour is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioural experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behaviour is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song.

  4. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold G

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song.

  5. Analysis of behavioral selection after sensory deprivation of legs in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Morita, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo

    2007-10-01

    An air puff stimulus evoked the swimming of an intact cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, placed on a water surface. When only the forelegs were intact, swimming was initiated frequently, but flying was never initiated. On the other hand, flying was initiated when only the middle legs or hindlegs were intact. Therefore, the sensory inputs from the forelegs are important in the initiation of swimming and for the inhibition of flying when on the water surface. After bilateral ablation of the middle legs and hindlegs, the bilateral segments of the remaining forelegs were sequentially ablated from the distal area to the proximal area of the legs. After bilateral ablation of all tarsomeres, the relative occurrence of swimming decreased and that of flying increased. After the following ablation of the bilateral tibiae, most insects responded to an air puff stimulus by flying. Experiments performed after coating the leg surface with enamel resulted in almost the same behavioral change as that observed in the ablation experiments. These results suggest that the sensory receptors responsible for the initiation of swimming and the inhibition of flying are mainly located on the surface of the tibia and the tarsus of the forelegs. The behavioral change between swimming and walking was also studied using methylcellulose solutions of various viscosities. On the methylcellulose solution, the relative occurrence of walking in the crickets increased with an increase in the viscosity of the solution.

  6. Acoustic evolution in crickets: need for phylogenetic study and a reappraisal of signal effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Desutter-Grandcolas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cricket stridulums and calls are highly stereotyped, except those with greatly modified tegmina and/or vena-tion, or ''unusual'' frequency, duration and/or intensity. This acoustic diversity remained unsuspected until recently, and current models of acoustic evolution in crickets erroneously consider this clade homogeneous for acoustic features. The few phylogenetic studies analyzing acoustic evolution in crickets demonstrated that acoustic behavior could be particularly labile in some clades. The ensuing pattern for cricket evolution is consequently extremely complex. We argue that: (1 phylogeny should always be considered when analyzing acoustic evolution, whatever characters are considered (signals, stridulums or behaviors. Consequently, future studies should be devoted to entire clades, and not consider isolated taxa; character and character state definitions should allow significant reconstructions of character evolutionary transformations; and homologies should be carefully defined for all characters, including behavior. (2 The factors responsible for song effectiveness should be reconsidered and hypotheses on their potential influence on signal evolution tested jointly by phylogenies (for example, to assess correlated transformations of acoustic and ecological features, and population studies (for example, to correlate call range and population structure, or test the predation risk associated with a signal structure. Better understanding these points should help clarifying acoustic evolution in crickets.Os aparelhos estridulatórios e os chamados dos grilos são altamente estereotipados, exceto aqueles com áreas e/ou venação tegminais fortemente modificadas ou com freqüência, duração e/ou intensidade fora do ''normal''. Esta diversidade acústica ficou insuspeita até recentemente, e os modelos correntes de evolução acústica em grilos consideram erroneamente este clado como homogêneo para as características acústicas. Os

  7. Vibratory interneurons in the non-hearing cave cricket indicate evolutionary origin of sound processing elements in Ensifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritih, Natasa; Stumpner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Tympanal hearing organs in the front tibiae of ensiferan insects supposedly evolved from vibration-sensitive tibial organs (TO), like those in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae). If this is true, one expects to find interneurons in the cave cricket that are homologous to auditory neurons from hearing Ensifera. Therefore, we examined the central projections of the foreleg TO of the cave cricket, as well as morphology and response properties of interneurons responding to foreleg vibration. Sensory axons of the TO adjoined to the "tympanal nerve" terminate in the equivalent portion of the ring tract neuropile in the prothoracic ganglion as corresponding receptors of crickets and weta. We found nine putatively homologous elements to sound- and/or vibration-sensitive interneurons of Ensifera--one local neuron (unpaired median, DUM), three T-fibres (TN), three descending (DN) and two ascending neurons (AN). Presumable first-order interneurons arborising in the ring tract correspond to a local auditory DUM cell of bush crickets and to TN1, DN1 and AN2 of various Ensifera, respectively. Homologues of some prominent auditory cells, the "omega" neuron(s) and the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), however, were not found. We conclude that (a) T. neglectus interneurons are morphologically primitive with respect to those of hearing taxa, (b) significant changes in the dendritic structure/synaptic connectivity have taken place during the evolution of the most specialised first-order auditory interneurons of Ensifera, (c) the data do not contradict independent evolution of hearing in Grylloidea and Tettigonoidea. Other interneurons appear morpho-physiologically conserved across hearing and non-hearing species, possibly as a part of a multimodal "alert" system.

  8. Loss of safety in numbers and a novel driver of mass migration: Radiotelemetry reveals heavy predation on a band of Mormon crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated movement of animals is a spectacular phenomenon that has received much attention. Experimental studies of Mormon crickets and locust nymphs have demonstrated that collective motion can arise from cannibalism that compensates for nutritional deficiencies arising from group living. Groupin...

  9. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    OpenAIRE

    John Orchard; Patrick Farhart; Alex Kountouris; et al.

    2010-01-01

    John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers i...

  10. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihisa eMatsumoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

  11. Male Responses to Conspecific Advertisement Signals in the Field Cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yikweon

    2011-01-01

    In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals. PMID:21283758

  12. Male responses to conspecific advertisement signals in the field cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yikweon

    2011-01-20

    In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals.

  13. Ontogenetic changes in immunity and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B

    2012-03-01

    Insects have innate immunity that may be weakened by resource allocation to growth. I measured enzymatic immunity, encapsulation response, and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets of known age. Although the concentrations of circulating spontaneous and total phenoloxidase (PO) increased with age from the most recent molt in late instar nymphs (5th, 6th, and 7th) and 0-5 day old adults, mean values did not differ between stadia, indicating that circulating PO titers are knocked back with each molt. In contrast, encapsulation rate increased throughout nymphal development and adult maturation. No longer required to molt, adult PO titers increased steadily with age. Survivorship also increased with the age at which Metarhizium acridum fungus was applied to adults. I conclude that immunity relevant to defense against fungi continues to develop well into the adult stage. With each molt setting the insects back in circulating PO titers, very young adults are much like nymphs in enzymatic immunity.

  14. Anomalous Diffusion and Long-range Correlations in the Score Evolution of the Game of Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, H V; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the scores of the second most popular sport in world: the game of cricket. By analyzing the scores event-by-event of more than two thousand matches, we point out that the score dynamics is an anomalous diffusive process. Our analysis reveals that the variance of the process is described by a power-law dependence with a super-diffusive exponent, that the scores are statistically self-similar following a universal Gaussian distribution, and that there are long-range correlations in the score evolution. We employ a generalized Langevin equation with a power-law correlated noise that describe all the empirical findings very well. These observations suggest that competition among agents may be a mechanism leading to anomalous diffusion and long-range correlation.

  15. Anomalous diffusion and long-range correlations in the score evolution of the game of cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mukherjee, Satyam; Zeng, Xiao Han T.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the scores of the second most popular sport in the world: the game of cricket. By analyzing, event by event, the scores of more than 2000 matches, we point out that the score dynamics is an anomalous diffusive process. Our analysis reveals that the variance of the process is described by a power-law dependence with a superdiffusive exponent, that the scores are statistically self-similar following a universal Gaussian distribution, and that there are long-range correlations in the score evolution. We employ a generalized Langevin equation with a power-law correlated noise that describes all the empirical findings very well. These observations suggest that competition among agents may be a mechanism leading to anomalous diffusion and long-range correlation.

  16. Hammerhead-mediated processing of satellite pDo500 family transcripts from Dolichopoda cave crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A A; Vazquez-Tello, A; Ferbeyre, G; Venanzetti, F; Bachmann, L; Paquin, B; Sbordoni, V; Cedergren, R

    2000-10-15

    This work reports the discovery and functional characterization of catalytically active hammerhead motifs within satellite DNA of the pDo500 family from several DOLICHOPODA: cave cricket species. We show that in vitro transcribed RNA of some members of this satellite DNA family do self-cleave in vitro. This self-cleavage activity is correlated with the efficient in vivo processing of long primary transcripts into monomer-sized RNA. The high sequence conservation of the satellite pDo500 DNA family among genetically isolated DOLICHOPODA: schiavazzii populations, as well as other DOLICHOPODA: species, along with the fact that satellite members are actively transcribed in vivo suggests that the hammerhead-encoding satellite transcripts are under selective pressure, perhaps because they fulfil an important physiological role or function. Remarkably, this is the third example of hammerhead ribozyme structures associated with transcribed repetitive DNA sequences from animals. The possibility that such an association may not be purely coincidental is discussed.

  17. Fiddler on the tree--a bush-cricket species with unusual stridulatory organs and song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerhard Heller

    Full Text Available Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string and mirror ( =  soundbox.

  18. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  19. Releasing stimuli and aggression in crickets: octopamine promotes escalation and maintenance but not initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eRillich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines have widespread effects on numerous behaviors, but their natural functions are often unclear. We investigated the role of octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline, on initiation and maintenance of aggression in male crickets of different social status. The key-releasing stimulus for aggression is antennal fencing between males, a behavior occurring naturally on initial contact. We show that mechanical antennal stimulation (AS alone is sufficient to initiate an aggressive response (mandible threat display. The efficacy of AS was augmented in winners of a previous fight, but unaffected in losers. The efficacy of AS was not, however, influenced by OA receptor (OAR agonists or antagonists, regardless of social status. Additional experiments indicate that the efficacy of AS is also not influenced by dopamine (DA or serotonin (5HT. In addition to initiating an aggressive response, prior AS enhanced aggression exhibited in subsequent fights, whereby AS with a male antenna was now necessary, indicating a role for male contact pheromones. This priming effect of male-AS on subsequent aggression was dependent on OA since it was blocked by OAR-antagonists, and enhanced by OAR-agonists. Together our data reveal that neither OA, DA nor 5HT are required for initiating aggression in crickets, nor do these amines influence the efficacy of the natural releasing stimulus to initiate aggression. OA’s natural function is restricted to promoting escalation and maintenance of aggression once initiated, and this can be invoked by numerous experiences, including prior contact with a male antenna as shown here.

  20. Quantitative characterization of the filiform mechanosensory hair array on the cricket cercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is approximately 1 cm long, and is covered with 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement vectors, have been characterized semi-quantitatively in studies over the last 40 years, and have been shown to be very stereotypical across different animals in this species. Although the cercal sensory system has been the focus of many studies in the areas of neuroethology, development, biomechanics, sensory function and neural coding, there has not yet been a quantitative study of the functional morphology of the receptor array of this important model system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a quantitative characterization of the structural characteristics and functional morphology of the cercal filiform hair array. We demonstrate that the excitatory direction along each hair's movement plane can be identified by features of its socket that are visible at the light-microscopic level, and that the length of the hair associated with each socket can also be estimated accurately from a structural parameter of the socket. We characterize the length and directionality of all hairs on the basal half of a sample of three cerci, and present statistical analyses of the distributions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The inter-animal variation of several global organizational features is low, consistent with constraints imposed by functional effectiveness and/or developmental processes. Contrary to previous reports, however, we show that the filiform hairs are not re-identifiable in the strict sense.

  1. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system.

  2. Roles of aminergic neurons in formation and recall of associative memory in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the study of roles of octopaminergic (OA-ergic and dopaminergic (DA-ergic signaling in insect classical conditioning, focusing on our studies on crickets. Studies on olfactory learning in honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that OA-ergic and DA-ergic neurons convey reinforcing signals of appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US and aversive US, respectively. Our work suggested that this is applicable to olfactory, visual pattern and color learning in crickets, indicating that this feature is ubiquitous in learning of various sensory stimuli. We also showed that aversive memory decayed much faster than did appetitive memory, and we proposed that this feature is common in insects and humans. Our study also suggested that activation of OA- or DA-ergic neurons is needed for appetitive or aversive memory recall, respectively. To account for this finding, we proposed a model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are strengthened by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus (CS to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing CS to OA- or DA-ergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive US, respectively. The former is called stimulus-response (S-R connection and the latter is called stimulus-stimulus (S-S connection by theorists studying classical conditioning in vertebrates. Results of our studies using a second-order conditioning procedure supported our model. We propose that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of S-S connection and its activation for memory recall, which are often called cognitive processes.

  3. Corollary discharge inhibition of ascending auditory neurons in the stridulating cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F A; Hedwig, Berthold

    2003-06-01

    Acoustically communicating animals are able to process external acoustic stimuli despite generating intense sounds during vocalization. We have examined how the crickets' ascending auditory pathway copes with self-generated, intense auditory signals (chirps) during singing (stridulation). We made intracellular recordings from two identified ascending auditory interneurons, ascending neuron 1 (AN1) and ascending neuron 2 (AN2), during pharmacologically elicited sonorous (two-winged), silent (one-winged), and fictive (isolated CNS) stridulation. During sonorous chirps, AN1 responded with bursts of spikes, whereas AN2 was inhibited and rarely spiked. Low-amplitude hyperpolarizing potentials were recorded in AN1 and AN2 during silent chirps. The potentials were also present during fictive chirps. Therefore, they were the result of a centrally generated corollary discharge from the stridulatory motor network. The spiking response of AN1 and AN2 to acoustic stimuli was inhibited during silent and fictive chirps. The maximum period of inhibition occurred in phase with the maximum spiking response to self-generated sound in a sonorously stridulating cricket. In some experiments (30%) depolarizing potentials were recorded during silent chirps. Reafferent feedback elicited by wing movement was probably responsible for the depolarizing potentials. In addition, two other sources of inhibition were present in AN1: (1) IPSPs were elicited by stimulation with 12.5 kHz stimuli and (2) a long-lasting hyperpolarization followed spiking responses to 4.5 kHz stimuli. The hyperpolarization desensitized the response of AN1 to subsequent quieter stimuli. Therefore, the corollary discharge will reduce desensitization by suppressing the response of AN1 to self-generated sounds.

  4. Effects of inhibitory timing on contrast enhancement in auditory circuits in crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Z; Pollack, G S

    2000-09-01

    In crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus), the paired auditory interneuron Omega Neuron 1 (ON1) responds to sounds with frequencies in the range from 3 to 40 kHz. The neuron is tuned to frequencies similar to that of conspecific songs (4.5 kHz), but its latency is longest for these same frequencies by a margin of 5-10 ms. Each ON1 is strongly excited by input from the ipsilateral ear and inhibits contralateral auditory neurons that are excited by the contralateral ear, including the interneurons ascending neurons 1 and 2 (AN1 and AN2). We investigated the functional consequences of ON1's long latency to cricket-like sound and the resulting delay in inhibition of AN1 and AN2. Using dichotic stimuli, we controlled the timing of contralateral inhibition of the ANs relative to their excitation by ipsilateral stimuli. Advancing the stimulus to the ear driving ON1 relative to that driving the ANs "subtracted" ON1's additional latency to 4.5 kHz. This had little effect on the spike counts of AN1 and AN2. The response latencies of these neurons, however, increased markedly. This is because in the absence of a delay in ON1's response, inhibition arrived at AN1 and AN2 early enough to abolish the first spikes in their responses. This also increased the variability of AN1 latency. This suggests that one possible function of the delay in ON1's response may be to protect the precise timing of the onset of response in the contralateral AN1, thus preserving interaural difference in response latency as a reliable potential cue for sound localization. Hyperpolarizing ON1 removed all detectable contralateral inhibition of AN1 and AN2, suggesting that ON1 is the main, if not the only, source of contralateral inhibition.

  5. Bilateral consequences of chronic unilateral deafferentation in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, Hadley Wilson; Sheldon, Elizabeth; Cutting, Claire C; Williams, Claire R; Riker, Dana M; Peckler, Hannah R; Sangal, Rohit B

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system of the cricket has the unusual ability to respond to deafferentation by compensatory growth and synapse formation. Auditory interneurons such as ascending neuron 2 (AN-2) in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus possess a dendritic arbor that normally grows up to, but not over, the midline of the prothoracic ganglion. After chronic deafferentation throughout larval development, however, the AN-2 dendritic arbor changes dramatically, and medial dendrites sprout across the midline where they form compensatory synapses with the auditory afferents from the contralateral ear. We quantified the extent of the effects of chronic, unilateral deafferentation by measuring several cellular parameters of 3 different neuronal components of the auditory system: the deafferented AN-2, the contralateral (or nondeafferented) AN-2 and the contralateral auditory afferents. Neuronal tracers and confocal microscopy were used to visualize neurons, and double-label experiments were performed to examine the cellular relationship between pairs of cells. Dendritic complexity was quantified using a modified Sholl analysis, and the length and volume of processes and presynaptic varicosities were assessed under control and deafferented conditions. Chronic deafferentation significantly influenced the morphology of all 3 neuronal components examined. The overall dendritic complexity of the deafferented AN-2 dendritic arbor was reduced, while both the contralateral AN-2 dendritic arbor and the remaining, intact, auditory afferents grew longer. We found no significant changes in the volume or density of varicosities after deafferentation. These complex cellular changes after deafferentation are interpreted in the light of the reported differential regulation of vesicle-associated membrane protein and semaphorin 2a.

  6. Topographic mapping of the axons of the femoral chordotonal organ neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, H

    2000-01-01

    Central projections of the femoral chordotonal organ (FCO) neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus were investigated by selectively staining small numbers of axons. The FCOs in all legs consist of partly fused ventral and dorsal scoloparia in the proximal femur. The ventral scoloparium neurons can be reliably divided into two groups: the ventral group neurons (VG), which are arranged in a sequentially smaller manner distally, and dorsal group neurons (DG), which simply aggregate in the proximal region near the dorsal scoloparium. All axons of the FCO projected to the ipsilateral half of the respective thoracic ganglion. The VG axons possessed dorso-lateral branches in the motor association neuropile and antero-ventral branches dorso-lateral to the anterior ventral association centre. However, the more proximally the somata were situated, the more medially the main neurites terminated. The DG axons showed some variations: some axons of the distally located neurons possessed dorso-lateral branches and terminated on the boundary region of the mVAC, while the other axons terminated exclusively in the medical ventral association centre (mVAC), including the ventral part, which receives auditory sensory neuron projections. All axons of the dorsal scoloparium neurons projected exclusively into the dorsal part of the mVAC; however, the ventrally located neurons projected more ventrally than did the dorsally located neurons. The above characteristics were nearly identical in the pro- and metathoracic FCOs. These results suggest that the cricket FCO axons are roughly organized in a somatotopic map and are broadly differentiated in their function.

  7. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jingjing; Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.

  8. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; Jingjing; Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.……

  9. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  10. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  11. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  12. Differential gene expression during compensatory sprouting of dendrites in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, H W; McCarthy, S S; Johansen, S L; Harris, J M

    2009-08-01

    Neurones that lose their presynaptic partners because of injury usually retract or die. However, when the auditory interneurones of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are denervated, dendrites respond by growing across the midline and forming novel synapses with the opposite auditory afferents. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to detect transcriptional changes 3 days after denervation. This is a stage at which we demonstrate robust compensatory dendritic sprouting. Whereas 49 unique candidates were down-regulated, no sufficiently up-regulated candidates were identified at this time point. Several candidates identified in this study are known to influence the translation and degradation of proteins in other systems. The potential role of these factors in the compensatory sprouting of cricket auditory interneurones in response to denervation is discussed.

  13. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies, and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko eYoshinaga; Hiroaki eAbe; Sayo eMorita; Tetsuya eYoshida; Takako eAboshi; Masao eFukui; Tumlinson, James H.; Naoki eMori

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs), first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrog...

  14. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet.

  15. The subgenual organ complex in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae): comparative innervation and sensory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Stritih, Nataša; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2014-10-01

    Comparative studies of the organization of nervous systems and sensory organs can reveal their evolution and specific adaptations. In the forelegs of some Ensifera (including crickets and tettigoniids), tympanal hearing organs are located in close proximity to the mechanosensitive subgenual organ (SGO). In the present study, the SGO complex in the non-hearing cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae) is investigated for the neuronal innervation pattern and for organs homologous to the hearing organs in related taxa. We analyse the innervation pattern of the sensory organs (SGO and intermediate organ (IO)) and its variability between individuals. In T. neglectus, the IO consists of two major groups of closely associated sensilla with different positions. While the distal-most sensilla superficially resemble tettigoniid auditory sensilla in location and orientation, the sensory innervation does not show these two groups to be distinct organs. Though variability in the number of sensory nerve branches occurs, usually either organ is supplied by a single nerve branch. Hence, no sensory elements clearly homologous to the auditory organ are evident. In contrast to other non-hearing Ensifera, the cave cricket sensory structures are relatively simple, consistent with a plesiomorphic organization resembling sensory innervation in grasshoppers and stick insects.

  16. The subgenual organ complex in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae): comparative innervation and sensory evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Stritih, Nataša; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the organization of nervous systems and sensory organs can reveal their evolution and specific adaptations. In the forelegs of some Ensifera (including crickets and tettigoniids), tympanal hearing organs are located in close proximity to the mechanosensitive subgenual organ (SGO). In the present study, the SGO complex in the non-hearing cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae) is investigated for the neuronal innervation pattern and for organs homologous to the hearing organs in related taxa. We analyse the innervation pattern of the sensory organs (SGO and intermediate organ (IO)) and its variability between individuals. In T. neglectus, the IO consists of two major groups of closely associated sensilla with different positions. While the distal-most sensilla superficially resemble tettigoniid auditory sensilla in location and orientation, the sensory innervation does not show these two groups to be distinct organs. Though variability in the number of sensory nerve branches occurs, usually either organ is supplied by a single nerve branch. Hence, no sensory elements clearly homologous to the auditory organ are evident. In contrast to other non-hearing Ensifera, the cave cricket sensory structures are relatively simple, consistent with a plesiomorphic organization resembling sensory innervation in grasshoppers and stick insects. PMID:26064547

  17. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Cossonay CC at CERN on Sunday, August 22nd, 2010   On a hot sunny August afternoon, CERN entertained Cossonay in a friendly match at CERN. Skipper Elvin won the toss and elected to bat, thus ignoring groundsman Osborne’s suggestion to bat second due to residual dew dampening the outfield. CERN started and were fortunate not to lose a wicket in the opening couple of overs, however this luck would soon run out as Osborne, going for a typical lofted drive was well caught at mid-on. CERN soon found themselves in trouble at 30-4 after 9 overs, but the introduction of Ahmed would demonstrate that boundary scoring was possible as he powered his way to 54, ably helped by Elvin (25), before informing his partner he was tired, and a shot that looked to be bound for another 6 was caught at wide long on from the last ball of the over. Crook (14) would then face the next delivery, and in typical fashion, he told his new partner S. Kumar that there was plenty of time and that the big shots ...

  18. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC – Bellingham Tour 2011 – 2nd / 3rd July vs Trafford Solicitors CC The annual pilgrimage to Bellingham was met with unusually fine weather and a strong assembly of pilgrims to compete with the Mancunian legal team and co-defendants. On day 1 CERN won the toss and put the opposition in. The Trafford left-handed opener Horsford was missed off a sharp return catch and he went on to make 82 on his tour debut for Trafford, who eventually reached a total of 200. Elvin (95) and John Osborne (52) in a third wicket stand of 120 put CERN in control but when Elvin’s innings ended, shortly followed by Osborne, CERN rapidly collapsed and were all out for 195, thus losing by 5 runs. On day 2 Trafford won the toss and elected to bat first. The story of the Trafford innings was once more written with the bat of Horsford, who had scored 70 not out by the end of the innings out of a total of 152. The CERN reply after lunch never really got started. No batsman until Wall at No.5 got ...

  19. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    Rhone CC v CERN CC at Parc de Parilly, Lyon on Sunday 11th September 2011 CERN travelled to Lyon to play our old friends Rhone at their new ground in the pretty and busy Parilly Parc. With no traffic problems CERN were at the ground in good time and even had time for a pre game kick around before skipper Elvin won the toss and decided to bowl. Onions and Chaudhuri opened the bowling and were penalized by some strict wide calling from the Rhone umpires. Onions finally made the breakthrough with the help of a brilliant running catch from the athletic Price. Chaudhuri then picked up 2 more Rhone wickets in a fiery opening spell as CERN took control. Rhone then rallied and Shiva made 50 before S. Ahmed had him trapped LBW. Skipper Elvin then turned to McFayden and the evergreen I. Ahmed to try and wrestle control back and McFayden was unlucky not to have Bala caught behind when the only person who did not think he had edged it was the umpire! Price again took another stunning catch in the deep to give I. Ahmed ...

  20. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    GICC v CERN CC at Bout-du-Monde on August 1st, 2010 On a beautiful summer’s day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Osborne and Chatoo opened the innings. Batting on a new GICC turf was made to look simple by Osborne and Chatoo hitting quick boundaries and sixes. Just when they looked like they were getting into a rhythm, Osborne mis-hit and was caught, bringing McNaught at the crease. The steady partnership for 30 runs was broken when Chatoo was caught by the wicket keeper for a quick fire 20. Captain Bolton was next. Bolton and McNaught then steadied the ship displaying good batting skills. After drinks McNaught reached his half century which included 6 fours and 2 sixes. Some good bowling by Suri got McNaught frustrated and eventually out for a good 57 runs. Bolton was next to go after a watchful 44 runs and a sore rib cage. Bolton’s departure gave way to the famous known-to-all CERN middle order collapse. The next 6 batsmen managed a mere 60 runs. CERN was all out in th...

  1. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC vs SWISS COLTS on Sunday 31st July 2011 Swiss Colts were the visitors for CERN’s final league outing of the season. On a fine summer’s day, visiting captain George won the toss and elected to bat. Opening bowlers Campbell and D’Mello took an early wicket apiece as the Colts slumped to 3-2. George and Greenhalgh led a recovery with some aggressive shots before Paul snared them both, Crook holding onto a fine catch on the boundary. Ahmed then shed the wicketkeeping gloves and destroyed the remainder of the batting order with a fine spell, taking 5 wickets at a personal cost of only 4 runs. Swiss Colts finished on 103 all out. CERN openers Bolton and Osborne then reached 54 without loss when Bolton was run out, D’Mello and Phillips soon following as CERN reached 61 for 3. After Osborne was dismissed by Gaillet, Campbell saw CERN safely home to a 6 wicket victory. Special mention should be made of the wicket keeping prowess of Heggie. Rarely can a visiting kee...

  2. Cricket Club

    CERN Document Server

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Geneva XI Stars CC (Friendly) at CERN on July 25th, 2010 On a very sunny and pleasant day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Ahmed and Keigwin opened the innings, Keigwin departing early after offering a dolly catch. Wickets kept falling till Anand joined Ahmed. Both started building the CERN innings with brilliant hitting by Ahmed all around the ground. After the drinks break, Anand and Ahmed both got out with Ahmed on 74 runs (6 sixes and 7 fours) being the top scorer of CERN’s innings. Onions kept CERN’s innings ticking over until the end, scoring 35. CERN CC was eventually all out for 204 runs in the last over. A healthy lunch break with tables full of fruit, Aloo Parathas and sandwiches was served to both the teams. The response from XI Stars was explosive, with 60 runs on the board in just 6 overs. Bolton had to retire injured and stand-in captain Onions kept trying different options, changing bowlers to try to control the game but nothing succeeded and ...

  3. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition at Prevessin on 28.8.2011 Fourteen players turned out for this knock-out competition, which first took place 20 years ago. In each game, 2 overs are bowled by each player. Players under 18, and those over 50, benefit from one extra run per year of age difference up to a maximum of 10 runs. Two previous winners, Elvin and Ahmed, had the luck of the draw and had byes in the first round, with Ahmed sure to bat second in each round. The first round saw a shock result, young Irsalan Ahmed, 8 years old and benefitting from 10 extra runs, beating Muzaffar, dismissing him twice in consecutive balls (each dismissal costs 6 runs). In the second round, new boy Chaudhuri beat Elvin and Ahmed beat Onions (with 10 extra runs). Other games went as expected. Chaudhuri and Ahmed both won their semi-finals to meet in the 3 over final. Chaudhuri started well but then a drive to mid-on was brilliantly caught one-handed by Muzaffar to turn the match in Ahmed’s favour, especia...

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders and symptom severity among Australian dental hygienists

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie J. Hayes; SMITH, Derek R.; Taylor, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent literature has identified that musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a significant occupational health issue for both dentists and dental hygienists. Research on the occupational health of dental hygienists is lacking in Australia, which is of particular concern given that it is a rapidly growing field in this country. The aims of this research are to investigate the prevalence of MSD and correlating regions of pain among Australian dental hygienists. A self-reporting question...

  5. Evolution of the Australian-Antarctic discordance since Miocene time

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Karen M.; Stock, Joann M.; Quinn, Katherine J.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we chronicle the development of the Australian-Antarctic discordance (AAD), the crenelated portion of the Southeast Indian Ridge between ∼120° and 128°E, since anomaly 6y time (19 Ma). We reconstruct satellite-derived marine gravity fields and depth anomalies at selected times by first removing anomalies overlying seafloor younger than the selected age, and then rotating the remaining anomalies through improved finite rotations based on a very detailed set of magnetic anomaly id...

  6. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  7. Time for National Renewal: Australian adult literacy and numeracy as ‘foundation skills’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Black

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Those working in the field of adult literacy and numeracy are currently anticipating changes in the near future as the federal government has flagged the development of a National Foundation Skills Strategy (Australian Government 2010. ‘Foundation skills’ is a term that has recently been suggested as a way of simplifying discussions about literacy and numeracy (Perkins 2009:8, and it has gained traction in various Australian national policy environments (e.g. Gillard 2009, Council of Australian Governments [COAG] Reform Council 2009, Australian Government 2010. Foundation skills appears to encapsulate adult language, literacy and numeracy, and more broadly, it may also include so-called employability skills such as communication and teamwork (Roberts and Wignall 2010:1. In this paper, our main focus is on the adult literacy and numeracy dimensions of what is needed in the policy renewal.

  8. Mercury Pollution in Cricket in Different Biotopes Suffering from Pollution by Zinc Smelting%锌冶炼不同群落生境蟋蟀汞污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冬梅; 李昕馨; 罗庆

    2012-01-01

    Total mercury contents in cricket bodies were studied in different biotopes in the surrounding of Huludao Zinc Plant to discuss the mercury distribution characteristics in cricket and to reveal the effects of environmental mercury accumulation in the short life-cycle insects through comparing cricket with other insect species.The average mercury content in cricket was 0.081 mg·kg-1 and much higher than those in the control sites(0.012 mg·kg-1 in average) in different biotopes.Mercury contents were found in the order of cricket headwingthorax ≈ abdomenleg.Mercury contents in cricket bodies varied greatly with sample sites.Significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in cricket and the distance from the pollution source as well as the mercury contents in plant stems.No significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in soil and in cricket bodies.Mercury contents in cricket were lower than those in cicadae,similar to those in other insects with shorter life-cycle periods.%研究了葫芦岛锌厂周围不同群落生境蟋蟀汞含量,比较了蟋蟀与其它昆虫汞含量的差异,探讨了汞在不同群落蟋蟀体内的分布特征.结果表明,蟋蟀汞含量很高,平均值为0.081 mg.kg-1,远高于对照点群落汞含量(0.012 mg.kg-1);蟋蟀体内汞的分布特征为头〉翅膀〉胸≈腹〉足.不同群落生境中蟋蟀汞含量差异明显,蟋蟀汞含量与距离污染源的远近、植物茎汞存在显著的相关关系.与土壤汞之间无明显的相关关系.蟋蟀汞含量低于生命周期较长的蝉汞含量,与生命周期较短的其它昆虫相近.

  9. Influences on the Consumption of Australian Ration Packs: Review of a Contextual Model and Application to Australian Defence Force Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    measuring unconsumed food at the end of each day. The average wastage each day was 5.6% of the ration (~180 calorie or 760KJ). Butter concentrate was... food was monitored in one small group. In this group wastage was low - only 5% was wasted if the egg dishes were not counted. On average, 68% of the...Three Factor Model—the food , the individual (soldier) and the environment (field). Previously collected Australian ration pack consumption data was

  10. Contemporary Australian writers and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to see just how much travel writing, writing which does not exclusively belong to the travel sub-genre of "creative non-fiction", and also how many non-Australian locales, with emphasis on European and Asian ones, there are in the recent contemporary Australian writing since the 1960s. This perhaps speaks about a certain preoccupation or downright trait in the Australian national character. Perhaps, it is a reflection of a particular condition of being "down under", itself derived from "a tradition of colonialism and post-colonialism; from geographical location, both a deterrent and a spur; from post-Romantic literary tradition, coinciding with the early years of white settlement; and from the universal lure of ideas of travel, never more flourishing than at the present" (Hergenhan, Petersson xiii. Tourism is an increasingly global phenomenon to some extent shaping the physical reality as well as the spiritual world of the people involved in it. Within this globalization process, with the prospect of "cyber" travel, there is, however, always an individual "national" experience of the country of destination that a literary traveller puts into words, an experience which is typical and conditioned by specific socio-political and cultural circumstances.

  11. Australian blackwood acacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samraj, P.; Chinnamani, S.

    1981-01-01

    An account of the silviculture and uses of Tasmanian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The species is grown in the hills of Nilgiris and Pulneys (above altitude 1500 metres). It can also be grown near centre of livestock farming where the land is unsuitable for intensive cultivation of grasses and legumes, and planted as field boundaries, shelterbelts and ornamental or shade trees. The leaves are used as livestock fodder, twigs as fuelwood, and the wood for pulp, cabinet making, agricultural implements and construction timber.

  12. Status of space science and technology - An Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J. H.

    The ``Tyranny of Distance'' has had a profound influence on Australian history and reaction to it has been an important factor in determining national scientific and technological goals. Because of its size and geographical remoteness, Australia is one of the countries to have gained substantially from the applications of space technology particularly in the fields of communications, meteorology and remote sensing. Australia is the fifth largest investor in INTELSAT which carries a major fraction of the nation's overseas telecommunications. A domestic satellite system, AUSSAT, is being acquired to improve telecommunications within the country. Australia is heavily dependent on satellite data for routine meteorological forecasting. Data from the Australian Landsat Station are in strong demand, particularly for mineral exploration. In the field of space science, Australia is collaborating with Canada and the United States in feasibility studies for STARLAB, a free-flying UV-optical one metre telescope proposed for launch by the US Space Shuttle beginning in 1989. These scientific and technological programs in which Australia is participating are all dependent upon the space programs of other nations and in describing the status of space science and technology from an Australian perspective some comments will be made on particular aspects of the space programs of the United States and Japan.

  13. Professor Alison Lee: A Stellar Presence in Australian Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manathunga, Catherine; Kelly, Frances; Grant, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    For around two decades and up to her untimely death in September 2012, Professor Alison Lee was a significant figure in Australian higher education research. Alison's incisive work ranged across several sub-fields of higher education studies and helped broaden the field as a whole beyond issues of teaching and learning. She also brought an…

  14. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Allegrucci

    Full Text Available The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA. Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  15. Effects of landscape structure on movement patterns of the flightless bush cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekötter, Tim; Speelmans, Marjan; Dusoulier, François; Van Wingerden, Walter K R E; Malfait, Jean-Pierre; Crist, Thomas O; Edwards, Peter J; Dietz, Hansjörg

    2007-02-01

    Because the viability of a population may depend on whether individuals can disperse, it is important for conservation planning to understand how landscape structure affects movement behavior. Some species occur in a wide range of landscapes differing greatly in structure, and the question arises of whether these species are particularly versatile in their dispersal or whether they are composed of genetically distinct populations adapted to contrasting landscapes. We performed a capture-mark-resight experiment to study movement patterns of the flightless bush cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera (De Geer 1773) in two contrasting agricultural landscapes in France and Switzerland. The mean daily movement of P. griseoaptera was significantly higher in the landscape with patchily distributed habitat (Switzerland) than in the landscape with greater habitat connectivity (France). Net displacement rate did not differ between the two landscapes, which we attributed to the presence of more linear elements in the connected landscape, resulting in a more directed pattern of movement by P. griseoaptera. Significant differences in the movement patterns between landscapes with contrasting structure suggest important effects of landscape structure on movement and dispersal success. The possibility of varying dispersal ability within the same species needs to be studied in more detail because this may provide important information for sustainable landscape planning aimed at maintaining viable metapopulations, especially in formerly well-connected landscapes.

  16. Male Armaments and Reproductive Behavior in "Nutcracker" Camel Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae, Pristoceuthophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Lauren P; Gray, David A

    2015-01-07

    Males of many species possess striking weaponry used in intrasexual competition for access to females. Until recently, there were no known cases of male weaponry being used against females in sexual coercion. However, in the camel cricket, Pristoceuthophilus marmoratus, males use modified hind legs to fight with each other and also to trap females and force them to copulate. To determine whether hind leg armaments serve similar fighting and mating functions in morphologically similar congeners, we performed a comparative survey of armament use in intra- and inter-sexual interactions in four additional species of Pristoceuthophilus (P. arizonae and three undescribed species: P. 'Huachuca summer,' P. 'Madera' and P. 'Mt. Pinos'). Intrasexual leg fighting occurred in all species for which trials were performed, and hints of sexual coercion occurred in two species (P. 'Huachuca summer' and P. 'Mt. Pinos'), suggesting additional cases of a uniquely dual-purpose armament. These findings suggest an evolutionary exaptation of hind leg armaments in this genus, wherein an intrasexual fighting weapon took on a secondary function of sexual coercion.

  17. A new species of ant-loving cricket from Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalling, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of ant-loving cricket, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on individuals collected on the Balearic island of Mallorca, Spain. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 was the host ant species. The habitat was evergreen oak forest. The holotype specimen was deposited in the collection of the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève. The species is closely related to Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] and belongs to the subgenus Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de grillo mirmecófilo, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., procedente de la isla de Mallorca (islas Baleares, España. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 es la especie hospedadora y su hábitat es el bosque perenne de roble. El holotipo se ha depositado en la colección del Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Ginebra. La nueva especie está estrechamente relacionada con Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] y pertenece al subgénero Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.

  18. Impact of Power Play Overs on the Outcome of Twenty20 Cricket Match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyojyoti Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to find if better performance in power play leads a team to victory in a Twenty20 match. Based on the methodology devised to do so, the study tries to measure the performance of both the teams during power play overs in terms of batting and bowling. The developed measure is called ‘Prod’ which is a product of the difference of batting and bowling performance of the teams during power play overs. The team with better performance in both the skills during power play is expected to win the match. But it would be difficult to predict the outcome of a match if the performance of a team is better in bowling and worse in batting and vice-versa. A total of 261 matches from different seasons of Indian Premier League (IPL are considered for the study. The outcomes of 220 matches are predicted based on the performance of two teams in power play out of which 153 of them were correctly predicted. Remaining 41 matches could not be predicted as it is not clear which team performed better during power play. Thus, out of the matches where the dominance of a team was clear in the power play, 70 percent cases that team ultimately won the match in Twenty20 cricket.

  19. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae.

  20. Morphology and electrophysiology of water receptors on legs of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Morita, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo

    2007-10-01

    To identify the sensory organs that are sensitive to water stimuli in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, cuticular structures on the legs and the number of sensory neurons innervating them were studied. Some small hair sensilla on the legs were innervated by 2-5 sensory neurons. All such sensilla had a tiny pore at the tip of their hairs. The diameter of the pore was approximately 0.2 mum. These findings suggest that these are chemosensitive hairs (LCS: leg chemosensillum). Of the three pairs of legs, the anterior legs (forelegs) possessed the largest number of LCSs. Of the five leg segments (i.e., coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus), the tarsus possessed the largest number of LCSs on each leg. Electrophysiological investigation by tip recording revealed that some of the LCSs contained water-receptor cells. Because the basitarsus possessed a larger number of LCSs than the other tarsomeres, the distribution of water-receptor-containing LCSs in the basitarsus of a foreleg was investigated morphologically and electrophysiologically. LCSs that contained water-receptor cells were mainly distributed on the ventral surface of the basitarsus. There were two types of water receptor that showed different response patterns to a stimulus, that is, phasic- and tonic-type water receptors. From the distribution of LCSs on the legs, the roles of these different types of water receptors in behavioral selection, that is, the initiation of swimming and the inhibition of flying, will be discussed.

  1. Efficient inhibition of bursts by bursts in the auditory system of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, G; Pollack, G S

    2007-06-01

    In crickets, auditory information about ultrasound is carried bilaterally to the brain by the AN2 neurons. The ON1 neuron provides contralateral inhibitory input to AN2, thereby enhancing bilateral contrast between the left and right AN2s, an important cue for sound localization. We examine how the structures of the spike trains of these neurons affect this inhibitory interaction. As previously shown for AN2, ON1 responds to salient peaks in stimulus amplitude with bursts of spikes. Spike bursts, but not isolated spikes, reliably signal the occurrence of specific features of the stimulus. ON1 and AN2 burst at similar times relative to the amplitude envelope of the stimulus, and bursts are more tightly time-locked to stimulus feature than the isolated spikes. As a consequence, spikes that, in the absence of contralateral inhibition, would occur within AN2 bursts are more likely to be preceded by spikes in ON1 (mainly also in bursts) than are isolated AN2 spikes. This leads to a large decrease in the burst rate of the inhibited AN2. We conclude that the match in coding properties of ON1 and AN2 allows contralateral inhibition to be most efficient for those portions of the response that carry the behaviourally relevant information, i.e. for bursts.

  2. Identified auditory neurons in the cricket Gryllus rubens: temporal processing in calling song sensitive units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Hamilton E; Mason, Andrew C; Hoy, Ronald R

    2004-07-01

    This study characterizes aspects of the anatomy and physiology of auditory receptors and certain interneurons in the cricket Gryllus rubens. We identified an 'L'-shaped ascending interneuron tuned to frequencies > 15 kHz (57 dB SPL threshold at 20 kHz). Also identified were two intrasegmental 'omega'-shaped interneurons that were broadly tuned to 3-65 kHz, with best sensitivity to frequencies of the male calling song (5 kHz, 52 dB SPL). The temporal sensitivity of units excited by calling song frequencies were measured using sinusoidally amplitude modulated stimuli that varied in both modulation rate and depth, parameters that vary with song propagation distance and the number of singing males. Omega cells responded like low-pass filters with a time constant of 42 ms. In contrast, receptors significantly coded modulation rates up to the maximum rate presented (85 Hz). Whereas omegas required approximately 65% modulation depth at 45 Hz (calling song AM) to elicit significant synchrony coding, receptors tolerated a approximately 50% reduction in modulation depth up to 85 Hz. These results suggest that omega cells in G. rubens might not play a role in detecting song modulation per se at increased distances from a singing male.

  3. The morphology and fine structure of the giant interneurons of the wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Lazzari, C R; Casas, J

    2011-02-01

    The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of giant interneurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris were investigated by means of cobalt and fluorescent dye backfilling and transmission electron microscopy. The projections of the 8 eight pairs of the biggest ascending interneurons (giant interneurons) are described in detail. The somata of all interneurons analyzed are located contralateral to their axons, which project to the posterior region of the terminal ganglion and arborise in the cercal glomerulus. Neuron 7-1a is an exception, because its arborisation is restricted to the anterior region of the ganglion. The fine structure of giant interneurons shows typical features of highly active cells. We observed striking indentations in the perineural layer, enabling the somata of the giant interneurons to be very close to the haemolymph. The cercal glomerulus exhibits a high diversity of synaptic contacts (i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, dendro-axonic, and dendro-dendritic), as well as areas of tight junctions. Electrical synapses seem to be present, as well as mixed synapses. The anatomical organization of the giant interneurons is finally discussed in terms of functional implications and on a comparative basis.

  4. Quantitative genetics of shape in cricket wings: developmental integration in a functional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Debat, Vincent; Roff, Derek A

    2010-10-01

    The role of developmental and genetic integration for evolution is contentious. One hypothesis states that integration acts as a constraint on evolution, whereas an alternative is that developmental and genetic systems evolve to match the functional modularity of organisms. This study examined a morphological structure, the cricket wing, where developmental and functional modules are discordant, making it possible to distinguish the two alternatives. Wing shape was characterized with geometric morphometrics, quantitative genetic information was extracted using a full-sibling breeding design, and patterns of developmental integration were inferred from fluctuating asymmetry of wing shape. The patterns of genetic, phenotypic, and developmental integration were clearly similar, but not identical. Heritabilities for different shape variables varied widely, but no shape variables were devoid of genetic variation. Simulated selection for specific shape changes produced predicted responses with marked deflections due to the genetic covariance structure. Three hypotheses of modularity according to the wing structures involved in sound production were inconsistent with the genetic, phenotypic, or developmental covariance structure. Instead, there appears to be strong integration throughout the wing. The hypothesis that genetic and developmental integration evolve to match functional modularity can therefore be rejected for this example.

  5. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the philosophy

  6. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  7. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  8. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  9. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  10. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  11. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  12. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  13. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  14. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ben H; Baudin, Rémy; Franck, Antoine; Hugel, Sylvain; Strasberg, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis) can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species). A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between islands.

  15. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben H Warren

    Full Text Available Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species. A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between

  16. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko eYoshinaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs, first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata, fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution can not be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a

  17. Quantification of dendritic and axonal growth after injury to the auditory system of the adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra ePfister

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite and axon growth and branching during development are regulated by a complex set of intracellular and external signals. However, the cues that maintain or influence adult neuronal morphology are less well understood. Injury and deafferentation tend to have negative effects on adult nervous systems. An interesting example of injury-induced compensatory growth is seen in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. After unilateral loss of an ear in the adult cricket, auditory neurons within the central nervous system sprout to compensate for the injury. Specifically, after being deafferented, ascending neurons (AN-1 and AN-2 send dendrites across the midline of the prothoracic ganglion where they receive input from auditory afferents that project through the contralateral auditory nerve (N5. Deafferentation also triggers contralateral N5 axonal growth. In this study, we quantified AN dendritic and N5 axonal growth at 30 hours, as well as at 3, 5, 7, 14 and 20 days after deafferentation in adult crickets. Significant differences in the rates of dendritic growth between males and females were noted. In females, dendritic growth rates were non-linear; a rapid burst of dendritic extension in the first few days was followed by a plateau reached at 3 days after deafferentation. In males, however, dendritic growth rates were linear, with dendrites growing steadily over time and reaching lengths, on average, twice as long as in females. On the other hand, rates of N5 axonal growth showed no significant sexual dimorphism and were linear. Within each animal, the growth rates of dendrites and axons were not correlated, indicating that independent factors likely influence dendritic and axonal growth in response to injury in this system. Our findings provide a basis for future study of the cellular features that allow differing dendrite and axon growth patterns as well as sexually dimorphic dendritic growth in response to deafferentation.

  18. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies, and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Abe, Hiroaki; Morita, Sayo; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Aboshi, Takako; Fukui, Masao; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs), first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata), fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution cannot be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a different way.

  19. Impact of cercal air currents on singing motor pattern generation in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Pedro F; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-11-01

    The cercal system of crickets detects low-frequency air currents produced by approaching predators and self-generated air currents during singing, which may provide sensory feedback to the singing motor network. We analyzed the effect of cercal stimulation on singing motor pattern generation to reveal the response of a singing interneuron to predator-like signals and to elucidate the possible role of self-generated air currents during singing. In fictive singing males, we recorded an interneuron of the singing network while applying air currents to the cerci; additionally, we analyzed the effect of abolishing the cercal system in freely singing males. In fictively singing crickets, the effect of short air stimuli is either to terminate prematurely or to lengthen the interchirp interval, depending on their phase in the chirp cycle. Within our stimulation paradigm, air stimuli of different velocities and durations always elicited an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in the singing interneuron. Current injection in the singing interneuron elicited singing motor activity, even during the air current-evoked inhibitory input from the cercal pathway. The disruptive effects of air stimuli on the fictive singing pattern and the inhibitory response of the singing interneuron point toward the cercal system being involved in initiating avoidance responses in singing crickets, according to the established role of cerci in a predator escape pathway. After abolishing the activity of the cercal system, the timing of natural singing activity was not significantly altered. Our study provides no evidence that self-generated cercal sensory activity has a feedback function for singing motor pattern generation.

  20. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies, and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Abe, Hiroaki; Morita, Sayo; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Aboshi, Takako; Fukui, Masao; Tumlinson, James H.; Mori, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs), first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata), fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution cannot be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a different way. PMID

  1. Quantification of dendritic and axonal growth after injury to the auditory system of the adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Alexandra; Johnson, Amy; Ellers, Olaf; Horch, Hadley W

    2013-01-01

    Dendrite and axon growth and branching during development are regulated by a complex set of intracellular and external signals. However, the cues that maintain or influence adult neuronal morphology are less well understood. Injury and deafferentation tend to have negative effects on adult nervous systems. An interesting example of injury-induced compensatory growth is seen in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. After unilateral loss of an ear in the adult cricket, auditory neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) sprout to compensate for the injury. Specifically, after being deafferented, ascending neurons (AN-1 and AN-2) send dendrites across the midline of the prothoracic ganglion where they receive input from auditory afferents that project through the contralateral auditory nerve (N5). Deafferentation also triggers contralateral N5 axonal growth. In this study, we quantified AN dendritic and N5 axonal growth at 30 h, as well as at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 20 days after deafferentation in adult crickets. Significant differences in the rates of dendritic growth between males and females were noted. In females, dendritic growth rates were non-linear; a rapid burst of dendritic extension in the first few days was followed by a plateau reached at 3 days after deafferentation. In males, however, dendritic growth rates were linear, with dendrites growing steadily over time and reaching lengths, on average, twice as long as in females. On the other hand, rates of N5 axonal growth showed no significant sexual dimorphism and were linear. Within each animal, the growth rates of dendrites and axons were not correlated, indicating that independent factors likely influence dendritic and axonal growth in response to injury in this system. Our findings provide a basis for future study of the cellular features that allow differing dendrite and axon growth patterns as well as sexually dimorphic dendritic growth in response to deafferentation.

  2. Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Anthropometric Variables among Four International Cricket Teams Competed in ACC Premier League Malaysia 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Mondam, Rahul Shaik, Jalaj Jalaja Prakash, Jeffrey Low Fook, Sirisha Nekkanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Chronic musculoskeletal injuries are more common in cricket players. Acute problems may be due to trauma or injuries during sporting. The musculoskeletal system includes muscles, joints, bones, cartilage, ligaments, fascia, nerves and other associated soft tissues. Whatever the mode of injury, it causes pain, movement restriction, muscle weakness, and ultimately loss of functions. Anthropometric variables of each player in cricket will also influence the occurrence of problems. The current study focused on identifying the most common site involved in musculoskeletal problems and to explore possible variations in anthropometric characteristics. Methodology: This study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where Asian Cricket Council Premier League 2014 was conducted. Permission to approach the players was taken from the council members and all the players were assured that the information collected from them will be kept confidential and all were explained about the objective study. Modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to the players and instructions were given about how to fill the questionnaire. Their anthropometric characteristics, experience and time of training sessions were collected by a blinded assessor. Results: Player's height (p = 0.003, weight (p = 0.050, experience (p = 0.001 and practicing hours per week (0.002 were analyzed. There is a statistically significant difference in these characteristics was observed. Occurrence of acute troubles (within 7 days of upper back and elbow region were found different in four teams with a P value of 0.007 and 0.022 respectively. Persistence of neck, shoulder and lower back troubles in the last one year has a significant difference between the groups with a P value of 0.014, 0.003 and 0.021 respectively. Conclusion: This study can conclude that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries is more in cricket. Especially shoulder, neck, lower

  3. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  4. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  5. Exposure assessment modeling for volatiles--towards an Australian indoor vapor intrusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turczynowicz, Leonid; Robinson, Neville I

    2007-10-01

    Human health risk assessment of sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons involves site-specific evaluations of soil or groundwater contaminants and development of Australian soil health-based investigation levels (HILs). Exposure assessment of vapors arising from subsurface sources includes the use of overseas-derived commercial models to predict indoor air concentrations. These indoor vapor intrusion models commonly consider steady-state assumptions, infinite sources, limited soil biodegradation, negligible free phase, and equilibrium partitioning into air and water phases to represent advective and diffusive processes. Regional model construct influences and input parameters affect model predictions while steady-state assumptions introduce conservatism and jointly highlight the need for Australian-specific indoor vapor intrusion assessment. An Australian non-steady-state indoor vapor intrusion model has been developed to determine cumulative indoor human doses (CIHDs) and to address these concerns by incorporating Australian experimental field data to consider mixing, dilution, ventilation, sink effects and first-order soil and air degradation. It was used to develop provisional HILs for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), naphthalene, and volatile aliphatic and aromatic total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) < or = EC16 fractions for crawl space dwellings. This article summarizes current state of knowledge and discusses proposed research for differing exposure scenarios based on Australian dwelling and subsurface influences, concurrent with sensitivity analyses of input parameters and in-field model validation.

  6. Cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters in cricket oocytes: composition, dynamics and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Irina S; Bogolyubov, Dmitry S; Skovorodkin, Ilya N; Parfenov, Vladimir N

    2007-03-01

    The organization and molecular composition of complicated Cajal bodies (CBs) and interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs) in oocytes of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, were studied using immunofluorescent/confocal and Immunogold labeling/electron microscopy. In A. domesticus oocytes, the CB consists of the fibrillar matrix and a central cavity containing a predominantly granular body with insertions of tightly packed fibrillar material. The latter structure was identified as an "internal" IGC, since it is enriched with the SC35 protein, a marker for IGCs. The IGCs located outside the CB were also identified. Microinjections of the fluorescein-tagged U7 snRNA into the ooplasm showed the targeting of the U7 to the matrix of the CB. Some other essential CB components (coilin, snRNPs, fibrillarin) were found to be colocalized in the matrix of the CB. Neither confocal nor Immunogold microscopy revealed significant amounts of RNA polymerase II (pol II) in the CB of A. domesticus oocytes. The splicing factor SC35 was detected in the matrix of the CB. In oocytes treated with DRB, the amount of IGCs in the nucleoplasm increased significantly, granular and fibrillar components of IGCs were segregated, and the fibrillar areas accumulated pol II. Additionally, IG-like granules were shown to display on the surface of the CB probably due to a shifting from the internal IGC. We believe that in A. domesticus oocytes, CBs are involved in nuclear distribution of splicing factors, but their role in pol II transport is less significant. We also suggest that the formation of complicated CBs is a result of interconnection between two different nuclear domains, CBs and IGCs.

  7. Dynamics of free intracellular Ca2+ during synaptic and spike activity of cricket tibial motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Tom; Hedwig, Berthold

    2009-04-01

    For all nervous systems, motoneurons are the main output pathway. They are involved in generating episodic motor activity as well as enduring motor rhythms. To determine whether changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) correlate with motor performance, we studied the spatiotemporal dynamics, mode of entry and role of free intracellular Ca(2+) in cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) front leg tibial extensor and flexor motoneurons. Synaptic activation or intracellular depolarising current injection uniformly increased Ca(2+) with the same dynamics throughout the primary and secondary branches of the dendritic tree of all motoneurons. Ca(2+) rise times (mean tau(rise), 233-295 ms) were lower than decay times (mean tau(decay), 1927-1965 ms), and resulted in a Ca(2+) plateau during repetitive activation, such as during walking. The neurons therefore operate with a different Ca(2+) level during walking than during episodic leg movements. Ca(2+) enters the dendritic processes of motoneurons via a voltage-activated mechanism. Entry is driven by subthreshold excitation, and is largely independent of the neurons' spiking activity. To what extent ligand-activated mechanisms of Ca(2+) entry operate remains uncertain. We found no evidence for any prominent Ca(2+)-activated secondary currents in these motoneurons. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by extracellular stimulation of descending neurons were unaffected by the level of free intracellular Ca(2+). The activity of tibial motoneurons therefore appears to be only weakly dependent on the level of free intracellular Ca(2+) in dendrites. This is different to what has been found for many other neurons studied, and may represent an essential prerequisite for insect motoneurons to support a wide range of both episodic and rhythmic motor sequences underlying behaviour.

  8. What's in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Pauchet

    Full Text Available Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and starts to eat it while sperm from the ampulla are evacuated into the female reproductive tract. When the female has finished consuming the spermatophylax, she detaches the ampulla and terminates sperm transfer. Hence, one simple function of the spermatophylax is to ensure complete sperm transfer by distracting the female from prematurely removing the ampulla. However, the majority of orally active components of the spermatophylax itself and their subsequent effects on female behavior have not been identified. Here, we report the first analysis of the proteome of the G. sigillatus spermatophylax and the transcriptome of the male accessory glands that make these proteins. The accessory gland transcriptome was assembled into 17,691 transcripts whilst about 30 proteins were detected within the mature spermatophylax itself. Of these 30 proteins, 18 were encoded by accessory gland encoded messages. Most spermatophylax proteins show no similarity to proteins with known biological functions and are therefore largely novel. A spermatophylax protein shows similarity to protease inhibitors suggesting that it may protect the biologically active components from digestion within the gut of the female recipient. Another protein shares similarity with previously characterized insect polypeptide growth factors suggesting that it may play a role in altering female reproductive physiology concurrent with fertilization. Characterization of the spermatophylax proteome provides the

  9. Anatomy and physiology of neurons composing the commissural ring nerve of the cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, K A; Bollins, J P; Govind, C K

    2000-03-01

    The commissural ring nerve (RN) of the cricket Acheta domesticus links together the two cercal motor nerves of the terminal abdominal ganglion. It contains the axons of almost 100 neurons including two bilateral clusters of eight to 13 ventrolateral neurons and approximately 75 neurons with midline somata within the terminal abdominal ganglion. The ventrolateral neurons have an ipsilateral dendritic arborization within the dorsal neuropil of the ganglion and their axons use the RN as a commissure in order to enter the contralateral nerves of the tenth ganglionic neuromere. In contrast, most midline neurons have bifurcating axons projecting bilaterally into the neuropil of the ganglion as well as into the RN where they often branch extensively before entering the contralateral tenth nerves. Most RN neurons have small, non-spiking somata with spike initiation zones distant from the soma. Many midline neurons also produce double-peaked spikes in their somata, indicative of multiple spike initiation zones. Spontaneous neuronal activity recorded extracellularly from the RN reveals several units, some with variable firing patterns, but none responding to sensory stimuli. The RN is primarily composed of small (50 nm diameter) axon profiles with a few large (0.5-1 microm diameter) profiles. Occasionally, profiles of nerve terminals containing primarily small clear vesicles and a few large dense vesicles are observed. These vesicles can sometimes be clustered about an active zone. We conclude that the primary function of the RN is to serve as a peripheral nerve commissure and that its role as a neurohemal organ is negligible. J. Exp. Zool. 286:350-366, 2000.

  10. Adaptation and selective information transmission in the cricket auditory neuron AN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Klaus; Hildebrandt, K Jannis; Hennig, R Matthias; Obermayer, Klaus

    2008-09-26

    Sensory systems adapt their neural code to changes in the sensory environment, often on multiple time scales. Here, we report a new form of adaptation in a first-order auditory interneuron (AN2) of crickets. We characterize the response of the AN2 neuron to amplitude-modulated sound stimuli and find that adaptation shifts the stimulus-response curves toward higher stimulus intensities, with a time constant of 1.5 s for adaptation and recovery. The spike responses were thus reduced for low-intensity sounds. We then address the question whether adaptation leads to an improvement of the signal's representation and compare the experimental results with the predictions of two competing hypotheses: infomax, which predicts that information conveyed about the entire signal range should be maximized, and selective coding, which predicts that "foreground" signals should be enhanced while "background" signals should be selectively suppressed. We test how adaptation changes the input-response curve when presenting signals with two or three peaks in their amplitude distributions, for which selective coding and infomax predict conflicting changes. By means of Bayesian data analysis, we quantify the shifts of the measured response curves and also find a slight reduction of their slopes. These decreases in slopes are smaller, and the absolute response thresholds are higher than those predicted by infomax. Most remarkably, and in contrast to the infomax principle, adaptation actually reduces the amount of encoded information when considering the whole range of input signals. The response curve changes are also not consistent with the selective coding hypothesis, because the amount of information conveyed about the loudest part of the signal does not increase as predicted but remains nearly constant. Less information is transmitted about signals with lower intensity.

  11. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T, which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52% between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T.

  12. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Luo, Jin; Li, Wei; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T) was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis) living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T), which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52%) between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T) confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T) represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%). The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T).

  13. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. EGFR signaling is required for re-establishing the proximodistal axis during distal leg regeneration in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus nymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Taro; Mito, Taro; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare

    2008-07-01

    Nymphs of hemimetabolous insects, such as cockroaches and crickets, possess functional legs with a remarkable capacity for epimorphic regeneration. In this study, we have focused on the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in regeneration of a nymphal leg in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. We performed loss-of-function analyses with a Gryllus Egfr homolog (Gb'Egfr) and nymphal RNA interference (RNAi). After injection of double-stranded RNA for Gb'Egfr in the body cavity of the third instar cricket nymph, amputation of the leg at the distal tibia resulted in defects of normal distal regeneration. The regenerated leg lacked the distal tarsus and pretarsus. This result indicates that EGFR signaling is required for distal leg patterning in regeneration during the nymphal stage of the cricket. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR signaling acts downstream of the canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and regulates appendage proximodistal (PD) patterning genes aristaless and dachshund during regeneration. Our results suggest that EGFR signaling influences positional information along the PD axis in distal leg patterning of insects, regardless of the leg formation mode.

  15. Analysis On Development Feasibility of Chinese Cricket%我国板球运动发展的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯坚; 刘玮

    2011-01-01

    The cricket is one of the movements promoted vigorously for recent two years in China. It is an item which emphasizes the association cooperation, has the body and mind exercise value and extremely leisure our sports items. This article through tracing cricket history, relates the development situation of Chinese present cricket, from socialized angle of view, carries on the analysis to promotion feasibility of Chinese cricket from sports' characteristics, development environment, development form etc.%板球运动是近两年来在我国大力推广的运动项目之一,是一项讲求团体合作,极具身心锻炼价值的休闲体育项目。通过溯源板球运动历史,结合中国板球运动发展现状,以社会化的视角,从板球项目的特点、发展环境、发展形式等方面对我国板球运动推广的可行性进行分析。

  16. Predicting the names of the best teams after the knock-out phase of a cricket series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Hermanus Hofmeyr

    2014-01-01

    Cricket players' performances can best be judged after a large number of matches had been played. For test or one-day international (ODI) players, career data are normally used to calculate performance measures. These are normally good indicators of future performances, although various factors influence the performance of a player in a specific match. It is often necessary to judge players' performances based on a small number of scores, e.g. to identify the best players after a short series of matches. The challenge then is to use the best available criteria in order to assess performances as accurately and fairly as possible. In the present study the results of the knock-out phase of an International Cricket Council (ICC) World Cup ODI Series are used to predict the names of the best teams by means of a suitably formulated logistic regression model. Despite using very sparse data, the methods used are reasonably successful. It is also shown that if the same technique is applied to career ratings, very good results are obtained.

  17. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  18. The function of the cercal sensory system in escape behavior of the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus Krauss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, S

    2000-01-01

    Long cerci of cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus Krauss (Rhaphidophoridae, Orthoptera) are, in contrast to other investigated species, oriented perpendicularly to the ground. Behavioural experiments indicated that cave crickets detect wind direction and respond to stimulation by jumping away from the stimulus. Directed wind puffs deflect filiform sensory hairs on the cerci, trigger physiological responses of their sensory neurons and change activity of interneurons that control the escape direction. Two local interneuron pairs, one non-spiking and one spiking, were identified using intracellular recording and subsequent dye injection techniques. The non-spiking interneuron responds to the puffs from sides with a large depolarization and to the puffs from the front and back of the animal with a small depolarization. After stimulation from the ipsilateral side the spiking interneuron responds with a burst of spikes at the onset of stimulation and, after stimulation from the contralateral side, it responds with a burst of spikes at the onset and at the end of the stimulation.

  19. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  20. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  1. Australian Tropical Marine Micromolluscs: An Overwhelming Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter U. Middelfart

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the marine biodiversity of the tropics can be overwhelming, especially for the Mollusca, one of the largest marine phyla in the sea. With a diversity that can exceed macrofaunal richness in many groups, the micro/meiofaunal component is one of most overlooked biotas in surveys due to the time-consuming nature of collecting, sorting, and identifying this assemblage. We review trends in micromollusc research highlighting the Australian perspective that reveals a dwindling taxonomic effort through time and discuss pervasive obstacles of relevance to the taxonomy of micromolluscs globally. Since a high during the 1970s, followed by a smaller peak in 2000, in 2010 we observe a low in micromolluscan collection activity in Australia not seen since the 1930s. Although challenging, considered planning at each step of the species identification pathway can reduce barriers to micromolluscan research (e.g., role of types, dedicated sampling, integration of microscopy and genetic methods. We discuss new initiatives to trial these methods in Western Australia, an understudied region with high biodiversity, and highlight why micromolluscs are worth the effort. A number of important fields that would benefit from increased focus on this group (e.g., ecological gaps are considered. The methods and strategies for resolving systematic problems in micromolluscan taxonomy are available, only the desire and support to reverse the decline in knowledge remains to be found.

  2. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  3. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  4. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  5. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Natural soundscape has always constituted a reference in cognitive and emotional processes. The imitation of natural sounds contributed to the origin of the verbal language, which has been then subjected to an even more refined process of abstraction throughout history. The musical language also evolved along the same path of imitation. Among the many sonic elements of a natural environment, the stridulation of crickets is one of the most consistent for its timbre, articulation, diffusion and intrinsic emotional power. More than 900 species of crickets, in fact, have been described. They can be found in all parts of the world with the exception of cold regions at latitudes higher than 55° North and South. Among the many species we're working on (Order Orthoptera and Suborder Ensifera), we refer here of a comparison between the morphology of the acoustic emission systems and the corresponding waveforms/spectral patterns of sound in three widespread species from central Italy: Gryllus Bimaculatus, Acheta Domesticus (Gryllidae), and Ruspolia Nitidula (Conocephalidae). The samples of the acoustic apparatus of the target individuals, stored in ethanol, were observed under a Field Emission Gun Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope (FEG-ESEM, Quanta 200, FEI, The Netherlands). The use of this type of microscope allowed to analyze the samples without any kind of manipulation (dehydration and/or metallization), while maintaining the morphological features of the fragile acoustic apparatus. The observations were made with different sensors (SE: secondary-electron sensor and BSE: backscattered-electron sensor), and performed at low-medium vacuum with energies varying from c.ca 10 to 30kV. Male individuals have an acoustic apparatus consisting in two cuticular structures (tegmina) positioned above wings, while both male and females have receiving organs (tympanum) in forelegs. Stridulation mechanism is produced when the file and the scraper (plectrum) scrub one another

  6. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADF Australian Defence Force COLA cost of living adjustment CPI consumer price index CSB career status bonus CSS...will help you build a Lego city; however, mum will still need to change the nappies. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION...by Disney and Johnson (2001) and the World Bank (Pordes, 1994). There have also been various papers and reviews about Australian and U.S. military

  7. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  8. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  9. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  10. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  11. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  12. Educational Research: The State of Sweden and the Australian 2.2 World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss Lindblad, Rita; Lindblad, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Current tendencies in educational research in Sweden are presented and compared to Australia. We here refer to; organization of research, research allocation, publication patterns, and assessments of research qualities. Different trajectories of educational research were identified, where Australian research was organized as a field of study,…

  13. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ˜ 20{}^\\circ cm or more, which certainly is

  14. Effects of adaptation on neural coding by primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, H; Theunissen, F; Miller, J P

    1997-01-01

    Methods of stochastic systems analysis were applied to examine the effect of adaptation on frequency encoding by two functionally identical primary interneurons of the cricket cercal system. Stimulus reconstructions were obtained from a linear filtering transformation of spike trains elicited in response to bursts of broadband white noise air current stimuli (5-400 Hz). Each linear reconstruction was compared with the actual stimulus in the frequency domain to obtain a measure of waveform coding accuracy as a function of frequency. The term adaptation in this paper refers to the decrease in firing rate of a cell after the onset or increase in power of a white noise stimulus. The increase in firing rate after stimulus offset or decrease in stimulus power is assumed to be a complementary aspect of the same phenomenon. As the spike rate decreased during the course of adaptation, the total amount of information carried about the velocity waveform of the stimulus also decreased. The quality of coding of frequencies between 70 and 400 Hz decreased dramatically. The quality of coding of frequencies between 5 and 70 Hz decreased only slightly or even increased in some cases. The disproportionate loss of information about the higher frequencies could be attributed in part to the more rapid loss of spikes correlated with high-frequency stimulus components than of spikes correlated with low-frequency components. An increase in the responsiveness of a cell to frequencies > 70 Hz was correlated with a decrease in the ability of that cell to encode frequencies in the 5-70 Hz range. This nonlinear property could explain the improvement seen in some cases in the coding accuracy of frequencies between 5 and 70 Hz during the course of adaptation. Waveform coding properties also were characterized for fully adapted neurons at several stimulus intensities. The changes in coding observed through the course of adaptation were similar in nature to those found across stimulus powers

  15. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results.

  16. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  17. Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Champion

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia (IPWEA has recently published the Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines. The Guidelines provide new assistance to link the technical (engineering and financial aspects of managing infrastructure and services, and to assist infrastructure owners such as local government to develop sustainable long-term asset and financial management plans. Financial management for long-life infrastructure assets (such as roads, water, sewerage, and stormwater networks, and community buildings is about ensuring sustainability in the provision of services required by the community. These new Guidelines offer advice for every organisation and individual with responsibility for the management of infrastructure assets. They assist in defining best practice approaches for: • Accounting for infrastructure • Depreciation, valuation, useful life, fair value • Managing financial sustainability • Integrating asset management planning and long term financial planning • Meeting requirements for financial reporting The project was a joint initiative of IPWEA and the National Local Government Financial Management Forum. A steering committee representing national and state governments, technical and financial professionals, local government associations and auditors oversaw it.

  18. Someone Else's Story? Reflections on Australian Studies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask; Leer, Martin Hugo; Ward, Stuart James

    2004-01-01

    History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach......History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach...

  19. GeneKnockout by Targeted Mutagenesis in a Hemimetabolous Insect, the Two-Spotted Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, using TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahito; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Hemimetabolous, or incompletely metamorphosing, insects are phylogenetically basal. These insects include many deleterious species. The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is an emerging model for hemimetabolous insects, based on the success of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene-functional analyses and transgenic technology. Taking advantage of genome-editing technologies in this species would greatly promote functional genomics studies. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has proven to be an effective method for site-specific genome manipulation in various species. TALENs are artificial nucleases that are capable of inducing DNA double-strand breaks into specified target sequences. Here, we describe a protocol for TALEN-based gene knockout in G. bimaculatus, including a mutant selection scheme via mutation detection assays, for generating homozygous knockout organisms.

  20. Mechanisms of frequency-specific responses of omega neuron 1 in crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus): a polysynaptic pathway for song?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Z; Pollack, G S

    2001-04-01

    In crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus), the auditory interneuron omega neuron 1 (ON1) responds to sounds over a wide range of frequencies but is most sensitive to the frequency of conspecific songs (4.5 kHz). Response latency is longest for this same frequency. We investigate the mechanisms that might account for the longer latency of ON1 to cricket-like sounds. Intracellular recordings revealed no evidence for appropriately timed postsynaptic inhibition of ON1 that might increase its latency, nor was latency affected by picrotoxin. The onset of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) was delayed for 4.5 kHz stimuli compared with ultrasound stimuli, pointing to a presynaptic locus for the latency difference. When ON1 is stimulated with high frequencies, discrete, apparently unitary EPSPs can be recorded in its dendrite, and these are latency-locked to spikes recorded simultaneously in the auditory nerve. This suggests that input to ON1 from high-frequency-tuned auditory receptor neurons is monosynaptic. In agreement with this, brief ultrasound stimuli evoke a single, short-latency EPSP in ON1. In contrast, the EPSP evoked by a brief 4.5 kHz stimulus consists of an early component, similar in latency to that evoked by ultrasound and possibly evoked by ultrasound-tuned receptors, and a later, dominant component. We interpret the early peak as arising from a monosynaptic afferent pathway and the late peak from a polysynaptic afferent pathway. Multiple-peak EPSPs, with timing similar to those evoked by sound stimuli, were also evoked by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve.

  1. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  2. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  3. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  4. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  5. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Lundy

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (p99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production.

  6. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  7. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  8. Phenylphenalenones from the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia

    2009-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.

  9. A Woman At War: The Life And Times Of Dr Phoebe Chapple MM (1879-1967, An Australian Doctor On The Western Front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Neuhaus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available • Dr Phoebe Chapple was one of 15 Australian women doctors who undertook overseas military service during World War I. • She was the first Australian, and the only female doctor, to receive the Military Medal – awarded for gallantry in the field. • Despite multiple foreign awards, the military service of these women has been largely overlooked by their own country. • The only other Australian female doctor to have been so honoured is Carol Vaughan-­‐Evans who was awarded the Medal for Gallantry following the Rwandan Kibheo massacre in 2005.

  10. Seasonality influences cuticle melanization and immune defense in a cricket: support for a temperature-dependent immune investment hypothesis in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorka, Kenneth M; Copeland, Emily K; Winterhalter, Wade E

    2013-11-01

    To improve thermoregulation in colder environments, insects are expected to darken their cuticles with melanin via the phenoloxidase cascade, a phenomenon predicted by the thermal melanin hypothesis. However, the phenoloxidase cascade also plays a significant role in insect immunity, leading to the additional hypothesis that the thermal environment indirectly shapes immune function via direct selection on cuticle color. Support for the latter hypothesis comes from the cricket Allonemobius socius, where cuticle darkness and immune-related phenoloxidase activity increase with latitude. However, thermal environments vary seasonally as well as geographically, suggesting that seasonal plasticity in immunity may also exist. Although seasonal fluctuations in vertebrate immune function are common (because of flux in breeding or resource abundance), seasonality in invertebrate immunity has not been widely explored. We addressed this possibility by rearing crickets in simulated summer and fall environments and assayed their cuticle color and immune function. Prior to estimating immunity, crickets were placed in a common environment to minimize metabolic rate differences. Individuals reared under fall-like conditions exhibited darker cuticles, greater phenoloxidase activity and greater resistance to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. These data support the hypothesis that changes in the thermal environment modify cuticle color, which indirectly shapes immune investment through pleiotropy. This hypothesis may represent a widespread mechanism governing immunity in numerous systems, considering that most insects operate in seasonally and geographically variable thermal environments.

  11. Seasonality influences cuticle melanization and immune defense in a cricket: support for a temperature-dependent immune investment hypothesis in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorka, K. M. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Copeland, E. K. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Winterhalter, W. E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-07-18

    To improve thermoregulation in colder environments, insects are expected to darken their cuticles with melanin via the phenoloxidase cascade, a phenomenon predicted by the thermal melanin hypothesis. However, the phenoloxidase cascade also plays a significant role in insect immunity, leading to the additional hypothesis that the thermal environment indirectly shapes immune function via direct selection on cuticle color. Support for the latter hypothesis comes from the cricket Allonemobius socius, where cuticle darkness and immune-related phenoloxidase activity increase with latitude. However, thermal environments vary seasonally as well as geographically, suggesting that seasonal plasticity in immunity may also exist. Although seasonal fluctuations in vertebrate immune function are common (because of flux in breeding or resource abundance), seasonality in invertebrate immunity has not been widely explored. We addressed this possibility by rearing crickets in simulated summer and fall environments and assayed their cuticle color and immune function. Prior to estimating immunity, crickets were placed in a common environment to minimize metabolic rate differences. Individuals reared under fall-like conditions exhibited darker cuticles, greater phenoloxidase activity and greater resistance to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. These data support the hypothesis that changes in the thermal environment modify cuticle color, which indirectly shapes immune investment through pleiotropy. This hypothesis may represent a widespread mechanism governing immunity in numerous systems, considering that most insects operate in seasonally and geographically variable thermal environments.

  12. Processing of species-specific auditory patterns in the cricket brain by ascending, local, and descending neurons during standing and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorović, M; Hedwig, B

    2011-05-01

    The recognition of the male calling song is essential for phonotaxis in female crickets. We investigated the responses toward different models of song patterns by ascending, local, and descending neurons in the brain of standing and walking crickets. We describe results for two ascending, three local, and two descending interneurons. Characteristic dendritic and axonal arborizations of the local and descending neurons indicate a flow of auditory information from the ascending interneurons toward the lateral accessory lobes and point toward the relevance of this brain region for cricket phonotaxis. Two aspects of auditory processing were studied: the tuning of interneuron activity to pulse repetition rate and the precision of pattern copying. Whereas ascending neurons exhibited weak, low-pass properties, local neurons showed both low- and band-pass properties, and descending neurons represented clear band-pass filters. Accurate copying of single pulses was found at all three levels of the auditory pathway. Animals were walking on a trackball, which allowed an assessment of the effect that walking has on auditory processing. During walking, all neurons were additionally activated, and in most neurons, the spike rate was correlated to walking velocity. The number of spikes elicited by a chirp increased with walking only in ascending neurons, whereas the peak instantaneous spike rate of the auditory responses increased on all levels of the processing pathway. Extra spiking activity resulted in a somewhat degraded copying of the pulse pattern in most neurons.

  13. The anatomical structure and physiological function of cricket visual system%蟋蟀视觉系统的解剖结构与生理机能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷雪; 谢璐; 那杰

    2009-01-01

    The visual system of cricket is composed of ocelli, compound eyes and optic lobes. The ocelli of cricket are called dorsal ocelli, which consists of comea, comeagenous cells, and the retina etc. The ocelli of insects are to improve the perception of visual stimuli excited about the level of the excitation site. The compound eye of cricket is the most important organ of visual system. It is composed of cornea, crystalline conel, rhabdom, retinula cell and basement membrane. It is a center of photo and visual transduction cascade reaction. Optic lobe, the center of vision system, is constituted by lamina, medulla and lobula.%蟋蟀视觉系统由单眼、复眼、视叶三部分组成.蟋蟀的单眼为背单眼,由角膜、角膜生成细胞、视网膜等组成,是提高昆虫复眼所感知的视觉刺激的兴奋水平部位;复眼是最主要的视觉器官,由角膜、晶锥、感杆束和网膜细胞、基膜组成,是光电转导和视觉级联反应的中心;视叶由神经节层、外髓和内髓组成,是视觉神经系统的中心.

  14. Bioelectromagnetics Research within an Australian Context: The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Sarah P.; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Bentvelzen, Alan; Elwood, Mark; Finnie, John; Horvat, Joseph; Iskra, Steve; Ivanova, Elena P.; Manavis, Jim; Mudiyanselage, Chathuranga Keerawella; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Martinac, Boris; McIntosh, Robert; McKenzie, Raymond; Mustapic, Mislav; Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Pirogova, Elena; Rashid, M. Harunur; Taylor, Nigel A.; Todorova, Nevena; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Vink, Robert; Wood, Andrew; Yarovsky, Irene; Croft, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC)-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains. The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR) is a National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence that is undertaking research addressing the most important aspects of the MC-EMF health debate, with a strong focus on mechanisms, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and exposure dosimetry. This research takes as its starting point the current scientific status quo, but also addresses the adequacy of the evidence for the status quo. Risk communication research complements the above, and aims to ensure that whatever is found, it is communicated effectively and appropriately. This paper provides a summary of this ACEBR research (both completed and ongoing), and discusses the rationale for conducting it in light of the prevailing science. PMID:27690076

  15. Bioelectromagnetics Research within an Australian Context: The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Loughran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains. The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR is a National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence that is undertaking research addressing the most important aspects of the MC-EMF health debate, with a strong focus on mechanisms, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and exposure dosimetry. This research takes as its starting point the current scientific status quo, but also addresses the adequacy of the evidence for the status quo. Risk communication research complements the above, and aims to ensure that whatever is found, it is communicated effectively and appropriately. This paper provides a summary of this ACEBR research (both completed and ongoing, and discusses the rationale for conducting it in light of the prevailing science.

  16. Chinese Australian Urban Politics in the Context of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Tsen Kwok

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and the rise of East Asia have accelerated the migration of Chinese populations across the Asia-Pacific rim. Ethnic Chinese populations from highly diverse sub-ethnic, socio-economic and political backgrounds are increasingly aggregated in major cities throughout the region. Nonetheless, there remains insufficient attention to the implications of greater economic interdependence and accelerated population movement upon the political cultures of host nations such as Australia, especially in the context of ensuing spatial and economic concentrations of activity. Both articulate and interlocking relationships between political and economic fields exist in the metropolitan engagements of Chinese Australian community groups and associations. Many of these political dimensions extend into ‘formal’ modes of politics. Framed by urban regime theory and the broader notion of urban politics, this paper claims that network resource exchange within Chinese Australian communities are tied to ethnic economies, and in certain contexts global processes. These kinds of social dynamics have implications for the expression of diasporic Chinese affinity and constructions of Chineseness. Explorations of transnational political tensions, in fact, highlight the diversity and potential fragility of diasporic interdependence within ethnic Chinese communities – communities that are persistently refashioned through new waves of migration and from different points of origin. This paper seeks to advance these perspectives through a case study of a particular period of tension between two representative peak bodies in Brisbane, Queensland. Grounded in the testimony of elite political actors, it reflects upon the nature of ethnic Chinese community representation in contemporary Australia.

  17. Age estimation charts for a modern Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkin, Matthew; Taylor, Jane

    2012-09-10

    Calculation of the biological age of an individual has application in many fields of dentistry. It can be used to determine the appropriate timing of interventionist treatment for example in orthodontics; to analyse the developmental stage of an individual relative to the general population in the management of genetic or congenital conditions which disturb growth; and to estimate the age of a living or deceased person for forensic purposes. Many of the techniques used to estimate age can be quite time consuming to complete. This time component is a major disadvantage in a forensic context when age estimations in mass disasters are required as part of the post-mortem examination process. Consequently, forensic practitioners have tended to use the simpler but less reliable atlas style techniques of Schour and Massler and Ubelaker in these situations. For mass disaster situations, such as the recent Victorian Bushfires, it would be advantageous to have access to Australian specific data in the convenient Schour and Massler format. This project reinterpreted the Australian data previously collected by Blenkin and other relevant studies and applied it to a schematic similar to that of Ubelaker to develop a reliable, convenient and contemporary reference for use in age estimation.

  18. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  19. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  20. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB...

  1. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  2. The Dawkins Reconstruction of Australian Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Grant

    Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…

  3. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  4. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  5. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  6. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Ted

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…

  7. The Reflexive Modernization of Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, David

    2004-01-01

    The profound changes occurring in Australian higher education are viewed here in the context of the social, cultural, political and economic effects of globalization. Particular attention is paid to providing a theoretical foundation for understanding these effects using the reflexive modernization perspective. Highlighted are some of the…

  8. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  9. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  10. Contributions to Indo-Australian Herpetology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1934-01-01

    A complete account of all the reptiles then known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago was published by De Rooij in 1915 and 1917. Since this time several new species have been described, while others have been suppressed or revived. Also the problem of geographical variation begins to penetr

  11. The Australian species of Rhodamnia (Myrtaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, C.T.

    1937-01-01

    The genus Rhodamnia, founded by W. JACK (Malayan Miscellanies 1822) on the common Malayan R. cinerea, find its greatest development in the Australian and Papuan regions. DIELS (in LAUTERB., Beitr. Fl. Papuasien, V, ex ENGL., Bot. Jahrb. LVII, 360, 1922) recognizes five species, with a doubtful sixth

  12. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  13. Anglo-Australian Observatory August 2009 newsletter

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbie, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The August 2009 edition of the AAO newsletter contains articles on observations of the lunar impact of the Kaguya satellite, mapping the ISM towards Omega Centauri, early results from the Anglo-Australian Rocky Planet search, details of a new AAOmega observing mode, the new telescope control system and a number of regular features.

  14. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Point ( HACCP ) program, and use of the Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) decision-making tree (Australian Food and Grocery Council...to cow’s milk and beef meat proteins. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89 61-64. Emmett, S. E., et al. (1999) Perceived prevalence of peanut allergy in

  15. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  16. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  17. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  18. Industrial Relations in Australian Tertiary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Keith

    1989-01-01

    A government official in industrial relations and former university administrator chronicles the emergence of unions in Australian universities and discusses the current state of academic trade unionism, focusing on the restructuring of the compensation system and the problems resulting from the process. (MSE)

  19. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  20. Prevalence of headache in Australian footballers

    OpenAIRE

    McCrory, P; Heywood, J.; Coffey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Methods: A prospective questionnaire based survey was performed on elite Australian footballers participating in a national competition. The survey was designed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for headache using standardised International Headache Society (HIS) criteria. Headache prevalence was compared with that of an age and sex matched community control population.

  1. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  2. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, J. C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  3. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with draft…

  4. Adolescent Breakfast Skipping: An Australian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the findings of an Australian survey of adolescents concerning the extent of skipping breakfast. Finds that skippers are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body shape and to be on a diet to lose weight. Findings suggest that skipping breakfast is a matter of individual choice rather than a result of poverty. (Author/GCP)

  5. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  6. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  7. Postsynaptic inhibition mediates high-frequency selectivity in the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: implications for flight phonotaxis behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, T G; Hoy, R R

    1987-07-01

    The frequency selectivity of the identified auditory interneuron, Int-1, in the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus was examined using intracellular recording and staining techniques. Previous behavioral assays showed that crickets discriminate the low frequencies of the species calling song (4-5 kHz) from the high frequencies contained in the vocalizations of insectivorous bats (Nolen and Hoy, 1986a). Int-1 was excited by frequencies between 3 and 40 kHz, being similar, therefore, to the tympal organ (ear) in its broad range sensitivity; however, it responded differentially to high and low frequencies in terms of the number of action potentials evoked per stimulus tone pulse, the average discharge rate, and the latency of response. It was especially responsive to ultrasound (greater than 20 kHz), discharging at rates up to 400 spikes/sec (average rate), with 10 msec latencies; its response to pulses of the calling song was less than 150 spikes/sec, with 30 msec latencies. Int-1's dynamic range for ultrasound was also quite large, about 50 dB, compared to 20 dB for the calling song frequency. In addition, it responded well to trains of short, batlike pulses of ultrasound. These results are consistent with previous behavioral experiments showing that during flight, Int-1 was both necessary and sufficient for the ultrasound avoidance steering behavior (Nolen and Hoy, 1984), as long as it discharged above a rate of 180 spikes/sec. Ultrasound readily produced such high rates, whereas calling song rarely did; ultrasound reliably evoked avoidance steering over a wide dynamic range, while tone pulses of the calling song rarely did so (Nolen and Hoy, 1986a). A unique source of ipsilaterally mediated inhibition, tuned to the calling song frequency, accounted for the poor response to calling song and hence the neuron's high-frequency selectivity, and the behavioral and physiological effects of 2-tone suppression of high frequencies by the calling song (Nolen and Hoy, 1986b

  8. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  9. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  10. Historical cosmologies: Epistemology and axiology in Australian secondary school history discourse

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the discourse of modern history in Australian secondary schools from the perspectives of systemic functional linguistics and social realist sociology of education. In particular it develops work on genre and field in history discourse in relation to knowledge structure, and the role of technical concepts realised as '-isms'. These are interpreted in relation to recent social realist work on the axiological charging of terms, especially in humanities and social science dis...

  11. Measurement of Level of Intellectual Development in Australian Secondary Schools: A Report to the Education Research and Development Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Anthony J. D.

    This document reports data on 610 secondary level Australian high school students drawn from 36 urban and rural high schools to determine levels of Piagetian cognitive development, provide a profile of field independence (FDI) across the urban population, validate the Understanding in Science Test instrument, and determine influence of reading…

  12. Examining the Average Citation Index of "Education in Rural Australia" (Now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John

    2013-01-01

    The journal "Education in Rural Australia" (now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education") has been in existence since 1991. During the Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) period, the journal maintained a B ranking, indicating that it was a quality journal within a specialised field. With the abolishment…

  13. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  14. The Australian SuperSite Network: A continental, long-term terrestrial ecosystem observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Mirko; Liddell, Michael; Prober, Suzanne M; Arndt, Stefan; Beringer, Jason; Boer, Matthias; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Grace, Peter; Van Gorsel, Eva; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hutley, Lindsay; Macfarlane, Craig; Metcalfe, Dan; Meyer, Wayne; Pendall, Elise; Sebastian, Alvin; Wardlaw, Tim

    2016-10-15

    Ecosystem monitoring networks aim to collect data on physical, chemical and biological systems and their interactions that shape the biosphere. Here we introduce the Australian SuperSite Network that, along with complementary facilities of Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN), delivers field infrastructure and diverse, ecosystem-related datasets for use by researchers, educators and policy makers. The SuperSite Network uses infrastructure replicated across research sites in different biomes, to allow comparisons across ecosystems and improve scalability of findings to regional, continental and global scales. This conforms with the approaches of other ecosystem monitoring networks such as Critical Zone Observatories, the U.S. National Ecological Observatory Network; Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems, Europe; Chinese Ecosystem Research Network; International Long Term Ecological Research network and the United States Long Term Ecological Research Network. The Australian SuperSite Network currently involves 10 SuperSites across a diverse range of biomes, including tropical rainforest, grassland and savanna; wet and dry sclerophyll forest and woodland; and semi-arid grassland, woodland and savanna. The focus of the SuperSite Network is on using vegetation, faunal and biophysical monitoring to develop a process-based understanding of ecosystem function and change in Australian biomes; and to link this with data streams provided by the series of flux towers across the network. The Australian SuperSite Network is also intended to support a range of auxiliary researchers who contribute to the growing body of knowledge within and across the SuperSite Network, public outreach and education to promote environmental awareness and the role of ecosystem monitoring in the management of Australian environments.

  15. Australian Lasioglossum + Homalictus form a monophyletic group: resolving the "Australian enigma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, B N; Ji, S

    2001-04-01

    The bee genus Lasioglossum includes > 1,000 species of bees distributed on all continents except Antarctica. Lasioglossum is a major component of the bee fauna in the Holarctic, Ethiopian, and Asian regions and is an important group for investigating the evolution of social behavior in bees. Given its cosmopolitan distribution, the historical biogeography of the genus is of considerable interest. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the subgenera and species within Lasioglossum s.s., using DNA sequence data from a slowly evolving nuclear gene, elongation factor-1 alpha. The entire data set includes > 1,604 aligned nucleotide sites (including three exons plus two introns) for 89 species (17 outgroups plus 72 ingroups). Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses provide strong evidence that the primarily Indoaustralian subgenera (Homalictus, Chilalictus, Parasphecodes) form a monophyletic group. Bootstrap support for the Australian clade ranged from 73% to 77%, depending on the method of analysis. Monophyly of the Australian Lasioglossum suggests that a single colonization event (by way of Southeast Asia and New Guinea) gave rise to a lineage of > 350 native Indoaustralian bees. We discuss the implications of Australian monophyly for resolving the "Australian enigma"--the similarity in social behavior among the Australian halictine bees relative to that of Holarctic groups.

  16. The role of quadratus lumborum asymmetry in the occurrence of lesions in the lumbar vertebrae of cricket fast bowlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Hans; Adam, Clayton J; Crozier, Stuart; Pearcy, Mark J

    2007-10-01

    In cricket fast bowlers an increased incidence of stress fractures or lesions in the L4 pars interarticularis is observed, which shows a strong statistical correlation with the presence of hypertrophy in the contralateral Quadratus Lumborum (QL) muscle. This study aims to find a physical explanation for this correlation. A mathematical model was used to estimate the forces and moments on the L3 and L4 vertebrae in six postures attained during fast bowling. These forces and moments were used in finite element models to estimate the stresses in the pars interarticularis. Two scenarios were examined per posture: symmetric QL muscles, and right QL muscle volume 30% enlarged. Influence of muscle activation was also investigated. QL asymmetry only correlates with significant stress increases when stress levels are relatively low. When stress levels are high, due to extreme posture or muscle activation, asymmetry only causes small stress changes, suggesting that asymmetry is not the cause of stress fractures in the pars. There are even indications that asymmetry might help to reduce stresses, but more detailed knowledge of the size and activation of the lumbar muscles is needed to confirm this.

  17. Female monopolization and paternity assurance in South American crickets (Orthoptera, Grylloidea: mating plugs, extra claspers and forced copulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. de Mello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first three cases in which male crickets monopolize females by means of mating plugs. The origin of the plugs vary among the cases (i.e., they are not homologous. Female monogamy is assured by the permanent presence of the plug attached to their genitalia after first mating, while males are potentially polygamous. The presence of an additional clasping structure and the occurrence of forced copulation are also described.Este trabalho descreve os primeiros três casos em que grilos machos monopolizam suas fêmeas através de plugues de acasalamento. A origem dessas estruturas varia entre os casos (i.e., não há homologia entre as mesmas. A monogamia feminina é assegurada pela presença permanente do plugue de acasalamento aderido a sua genitália após a primeira cópula, enquanto que os machos são potencialmente poligâmicos. Descrevem-se ainda a presença de clásper adicional e a ocorrência de cópulas forçadas.

  18. Phalangopsidae crickets from Tropical Africa (Orthoptera, Grylloidea), with descriptions of new taxa and an identification key for African genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2015-04-22

    New Phalangopsidae crickets are described from tropical Africa, including three new genera and ten new species: Afrophaloria Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Afrophaloria amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, Afrophaloria apiariensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Afrophaloria hempae Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria gabonensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria nigricornis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria trimaculata Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Paragryllodes amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Phasmagryllus Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Phasmagryllus elegans Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, Upupagryllus Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Upupagryllus subalatus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, and Upupagryllus alatus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp. All these taxa, except Paragryllodes amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., belong to the subfamily Phaloriinae. The subfamily is redefined, to take into account their morphological (apterous taxa) and ecological (straminicolous taxa) diversity. A key for phalangopsid African genera is proposed, and the status of Larandeicus Chopard, 1937 briefly discussed.

  19. Age-dependent occurrence of an ascending axon on the omega neuron of the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, G; Pollack, G S

    1986-01-22

    The omega neurons (ON1s) are a mirror-symmetrical pair of identified prothoracic auditory interneurons of crickets which have been previously described as intraganglionic. Using intracellular techniques we stained ON1s of female Teleogryllus oceanicus and found that many ON1s have axons which project anteriorly out of the prothoracic ganglion. The ascending axon arises contralateral to the soma at the most anteriolateral bend of the bow-shaped process of an otherwise "archetypical" ON1 and travels up the neck connective in a ventral position just inside the connective tissue sheath. The occurrence of the ascending axon is age-dependent. Seventy-five percent of ON1s stained in late nymphal stages and in young adults had an ascending axon while only 30% of ON1s in older adults had an ascending axon. Evidence is presented to show that ON1s having ascending axons are developmental variants of the "archetypical" ON1 and do not represent a separate neuron type. The two morphological types of ON1s are not distinguishable on the basis of their responses to sound stimuli having carrier frequencies of 3.5-60 kHz. Although we know that the ascending axon conducts action potentials, its target and terminal morphology are not yet known.

  20. Diurnal and circadian rhythm in compound eye of cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus): changes in structure and photon capture efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakura, Midori; Takasuga, Kyo; Watanabe, Mami; Eguchi, Eisuke

    2003-07-01

    Day-night changes in rhabdom size of compound eyes were investigated in three groups of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus): nymphs and adult males and females. In both adults and nymphs, the rhabdoms were larger at night than during a day. In adults, the mean rhabdom occupation ratios (RORs) of ommatidial retinulae at midnight were about two times greater than the values at midday. This change contributes to control of the photon capture efficiency (PCE) of the eye according to photic environment. The RORs of adult males at midnight were higher than those of both adult females and nymphs. This suggests that the PCE of the compound eye of adult males is the greatest of all groups. Under constant darkness, day-night changes in ROR were detected only in adult males, but neither in adult females nor in nymphs. On the other hand, no day-night changes were detected in any experimental group under constant light. These results suggest that the change in rhabdom size between day and night is an adaptation to the photic environment that is controlled mainly by the light-dark (day-night) cycle. However, the change in male adults is induced by an endogenous circadian clock.

  1. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ in the splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris Irish 1986 (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Schizodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-11-15

    The subgenual chordotonal organ complex in insects is modified in ensiferan taxa like Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae into hearing organs with specific sets of auditory receptors. Here, this sensory organ complex is documented in the nonhearing splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris. The tibial chordotonal organ consists of three parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the crista acustica homolog. The latter is an array of linearly organized neurons homologous to auditory receptors in the tibial hearing organs of Tettigoniidae. The tibial organ is structurally similar in all three leg pairs, with similar neuron numbers in the fore- and midleg, but lower numbers in the hindleg. The foreleg crista acustica homolog consists of 34±4 neurons, the highest number in an atympanate Ensiferan. Additionally, an accessory chordotonal organ with 15±5 neurons innervated by nerve 5B1 is present in the foreleg. The central projection of the tibial organreveals ipsilateral sensory terminals in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center with terminations close to the midline. As determined from extracellular recordings, the entire tibial organ is vibrosensitive. The organization of the tibial organ is compared to other ensiferan auditory and nonauditory tibial organs. Spatial orientation of neurons in the crista acustica homolog is not reminiscent of auditory structures, and the neuroanatomy is discussed with respect to stridulation behavior and the evolutionary origin of hearing in Ensifera.

  2. Acceleration profiles in elite Australian soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, M C; Aughey, R J

    2013-01-01

    We quantified the acceleration and high-velocity running of elite Australian soccer players. We hypothesised that high-intensity activity would be underestimated when excluding acceleration during match analysis given its high metabolic demand and occurrence at low velocities. Player movements were observed from 29 players (forwards and central and wide defenders and midfielders) during domestic Australian competition using 5-Hz global positioning system. Effort occurrence were determined for high-velocity running, sprinting and maximal accelerations. The commencement and final velocity of maximal accelerations were also identified. Players undertook an 8~fold greater number of maximal accelerations than sprints per game (65±21 vs. 8±5). Of maximal accelerations ~98% commenced from a starting velocity lower than what would be considered high-velocity running while ~85% did not cross the high-velocity running threshold. The number of efforts performed in all categories were position dependent (Psprints compared to all other positions (Pdrills.

  3. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  4. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  5. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  6. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated) for distance educ...

  7. Management of psychosis in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Janice; Miller, Graeme; Ng, Anthea

    2006-03-01

    The BEACH program, a continuous national study of general practice activity in Australia, gives us an overview of consultations involving the management of psychoses. In this analysis we have included schizophrenia, affective disorders/bipolar, organic psychoses, and senile psychoses, with undefined psychosis and chronic brain syndrome grouped as 'other'. This synopsis provides a backdrop against which the theme articles in this issue of Australian Family Physician can be further considered.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Australian Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    gained experience in industrial and environmental chemistry with Pasminco . He undertakes chemical, microbiological and food technology research in...NAPOC QWG Engineer NBCD c/- DENGRS-A, HQ Engineer Centre, Liverpool Military Area, NSW 2174 Librarian, Australian Defence Force Academy Counsellor... NSW 2070 Directorate of Fleet Supply Services, Dept. of Defence (Navy), Campbell Park 3-1-5, Canberra ACT 2600 Assistant Chief Material - A (ACMAT-A

  9. Australian Eager to Enter China's LNG Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han

    2002-01-01

    @@ Australian Trade Minister Mark Vaile made a trip to China, Japan and Republic of Korea in mid-April in an attempt to locate potential users for LNG from the northwestern continental shelf of the country.Australia has made tenacious efforts for the annual 3-million-ton LNG supply project in China's Guangdong Province. In addition, Australia also hopes to have more users in Japan and Republic of Korea.

  10. Chinese, Australian scholars meet in Beijing to probe sustainable ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Co-hosted by CAS, the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) and the Australian Academy of Science(AAS), a Sino-Australian Workshop on Sustaining Global Ecosystems convened from 8 to 10 August in Beijing. It brought together more than 100 participants from universities, research institutions, government departments and enterprises to discuss various ecological issues of global significance ranging from sustainable water, land, air and energy, to health and the environment.

  11. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  12. The Anglo-Australian Observatory's 2dF Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, I J; Taylor, K; Glazebrook, K; Bailey, J A; Baldry, I K; Barton, J R; Bridges, T J; Dalton, G B; Farrell, T J; Gray, P M; Lankshear, A; McCowage, C; Parry, I R; Sharples, R M; Shortridge, K; Smith, G A; Stevenson, J; Straede, J O; Waller, L G; Whittard, J D; Wilcox, J K; Willis, K C

    2002-01-01

    The 2dF (Two-degree Field) facility at the prime focus of the Anglo-Australian Telescope provides multiple object spectroscopy over a 2 degree field of view. Up to 400 target fibres can be independently positioned by a complex robot. Two spectrographs provide spectra with resolutions of between 500 and 2000, over wavelength ranges of 440nm and 110nm respectively. The 2dF facility began routine observations in 1997. 2dF was designed primarily for galaxy redshift surveys and has a number of innovative features. The large corrector lens incorporates an atmospheric dispersion compensator, essential for wide wavelength coverage with small diameter fibres. The instrument has two full sets of fibres on separate field plates, so that re-configuring can be done in parallel with observing. The robot positioner places one fibre every 6 seconds, to a precision of 0.3 arcsec (20micron) over the full field. All components of 2dF, including the spectrographs, are mounted on a 5-m diameter telescope top-end ring for ease of ...

  13. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennison, Linda

    2013-04-01

    (1990,) J Quirk (1998) and RE White (2012). In 1989 a motion was narrowly defeated to introduce a Fellows category of membership to the Society. In 2012 members attending the annual general meeting of the Society discussed the introduction of a Fellow category as an Award and members voted to continue discussion on this initiative. Federal Council initiated a Student Award in 1969 and over ensuing years a range of awards were initiated; JA Prescott Medal of Soil Science (1972), Australian Society of Soil Science Inc Publication Medal (1979), JK Taylor OBE Gold Medal in Soil Science (1984), CG Stephens PhD Award in Soil Science (2003), LJH Teakle Award (2010) along with the Society's conference presentation awards. Branches were busy during this time and hosted many activities including seminars, field trips and conferences for both members and those interested in soil science. By the early seventies several branches had conducted refresher courses and in 1974 the Society became incorporated. The Society hosted its first world congress, the 9th International Society of Soil Science Congress, in Adelaide in 1968 with 310 papers printed, 239 papers presented and 720 delegates. In contrast, 42 years later the 19th World Congress of Soil Science returned to Australia, where in Brisbane 1914 delegates from 68 countries were treated to 343 presentations, 1227 research posters, 8 keynote and 65 invited lead speakers. A commemorative stamp was produced for the first Congress and another stamp was created in 2007 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Society. Originally Society conferences were held every four years however this was reduced to, and still remains, at two year intervals. An inaugural joint conference of the New Zealand Society of Soil Science and the Australian Society of Soil Science Inc. was held in Rotorua in November 1986. This paved the way for the series of joint national conferences between the two societies, the first one of which was held in Melbourne

  14. Nutritional physiology of life-history trade-offs: how food protein-carbohydrate content influences life-history traits in the wing-polymorphic cricket Gryllus firmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rebecca M; Zera, Anthony J; Behmer, Spencer T

    2015-01-15

    Although life-history trade-offs result from the differential acquisition and allocation of nutritional resources to competing physiological functions, many aspects of this topic remain poorly understood. Wing-polymorphic insects, which possess alternative morphs that trade off allocation to flight capability versus early reproduction, provide a good model system for exploring this topic. In this study, we used the wing-polymorphic cricket Gryllus firmus to test how expression of the flight capability versus reproduction trade-off was modified across a heterogeneous protein-carbohydrate nutritional landscape. Newly molted adult female long- and short-winged crickets were given one of 13 diets with different concentrations and ratios of protein and digestible carbohydrate; for each cricket, we measured consumption patterns, growth and allocation to reproduction (ovary mass) versus flight muscle maintenance (flight muscle mass and somatic lipid stores). Feeding responses in both morphs were influenced more by total macronutrient concentration than by protein-carbohydrate ratio, except at high-macronutrient concentration, where protein-carbohydrate balance was important. Mass gain tended to be greatest on protein-biased diets for both morphs, but was consistently lower across all diets for long-winged females. When long-winged females were fed high-carbohydrate foods, they accumulated greater somatic lipid stores; on high-protein foods, they accumulated greater somatic protein stores. Food protein-carbohydrate content also affected short-winged females (selected for early reproductive onset), which showed dramatic increases in ovary size, including ovarian stores of lipid and protein, on protein-biased foods. This is the first study to show how the concentration and ratio of dietary protein and carbohydrate affects consumption and allocation to key physiological features associated with the reproduction-dispersal life-history trade-off.

  15. 基于单片机的蟋蟀玩具机器人研制%Development of the Cricket Toy Robot Based on Single-Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春蓝

    2012-01-01

    Service robot is one main direction of cutting edge research about today's robot. And toy robot is one important branch of service robot. The paper takes the cricket toy robot as an example, introduces the working principles, software and hardware of the System. In the cricket toy robot, single-chip STC89C51 is used as the controller. Signals from photoelectric triode and micro switch can be sent to the single-chip for further processing. Then output signals from the single-chip will drive motors. It can simulate the cricket fighting.%服务机器人是当前机器人及其相关领域前沿研究的一个主攻方向,其中的玩具机器人是服务机器人的一个重要分支.该文以蟋蟀玩具机器人为例,介绍了蟋蟀机器人的系统功能原理和软、硬件系统组成.蟋蟀玩具机器入以STC89C51单片机作为控制器,通过光电三极管和触碰开关等传感器,将输入信号传输给单片机进行处理和控制,单片机的输出信号再驱动多个电机旋转,可以模拟实现斗蟋蟀的过程.

  16. The Mormon cricket, an old threat in modern day western USA:A search for fungal pathogens%美国西部重要害虫摩门螽斯病原真菌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐诺德·罗伯茨; Drauzio E N Rangel; Chad A Keyser; Helen G Bignayan; Seth J Dettenmaier; Everton K K Fernandes; Mark P Miller; Edward W Evans

    2007-01-01

    The Mormon cricket (MC),Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera:Tettigoniidae),has a long and negative history with agriculture in the western states of the USA where MC often migrates in large groups and causes significant damage to forage plants and cultivated crops.In this review, virulence to MC of isolates of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae varieties acridum and anisopliae were compared in an effort to identify isolates with promise for use as MC biological control agents.All of the isolates tested induced 100% or nearly 100% mortality by six days post application of the fungal conidia.Searches for new Metarhizium isolates with high heat and UV-B tolerance included isolation fungi from field-caught MC and grasshopper after they died in the laboratory and culturing fungi from soil samples collected from numerous western USA sites.The survey was preceded by development of a dodine based selective medium that,at 0.002% active ingredient,permitted growth of M.anisopliae var.acridum,but inhibited most contaminating fungi.The M.anisopliae var.acridum isolates examined to date have much higher tolerance to heat and UV-B irradiation than M.anisopliae var.anisopliae isolates,and this may be critical to successful field applications.The variety acridum has not yet been found in the USA,so our search for such isolates continues.Several new M.anisopliae var.anisopliae and Beauveria spp.were found,and the Metarhizium isolates are being characterized as to stress tolerance and virulence to insects.Characterization includes comparisons of new and pre-existing Metarhizium isolates by amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.Finally, experiments on MC developmental biology were conducted to gather data needed to develop a degree day model and to establish laboratory colonies of MC.

  17. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998–1999 to 2008–2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI] were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture.Results: Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–7.1. Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03–2.1 and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.5 were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4–1.1. Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group.Conclusion: Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a

  18. Science Education in Partnership: The 2002 Australian American Fulbright Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, E.; Oliver, C.; Wilmoth, K.; Vozzo, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Australian American Fulbright 2002 Symposium: Science Education in Partnership was held in parallel-in partnership-with the scientific meeting of the IAU 213 Bioastronomy 2002 Symposium: Life Among the Stars. In practice, the two meetings modeled partnership between educators and scientists, both professional events interacting while maintaining individual goals. Leading scientists attending the IAU meeting participated in the Fulbright with presentations based upon their work and their experiences. Educators and scientists interacted on how their work impacts science education and strategies for building direct connections between scientists and classrooms. Educators attending the Fulbright Symposium attended a number of scientific presentations in IAU meeting as well. A major issue in science education is teaching science in a way that is relevant to the student. Partnerships between scientists and teachers can provide real-life scientific research experience in the laboratory and the field for teachers and students. These partnerships enhance the quality of both teaching and learning, and engage students directly in projects and curricula that lead to a better understanding of the nature and practice of science. Scientists are often engaged in the development of new curricula as a part of the education and public outreach programs affiliated with research programs. Participants explored the similarities and differences between the approach to this endeavor in Australia and the US. Partnerships between all the professionals involved-scientists, teachers, and writers-creates an opportunity for innovative, cutting-edge research to reach the classroom. The excitement of seeking new knowledge, exploring the unknown, can motivate students to pursue science studies in high school and beyond at the university. Oral papers, posters and workshops presented the results of partnerships between scientists and educators in Australian and the USA as well as opportunities

  19. Supporting the Language and Learning Development of EAL Students in Australian Higher Education

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    Paul J. Moore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of learning advising in improving the educational outcomes of students for whom English is an additional language (EAL in Australian universities has received significant attention in recent years. A combination of research findings, governmental pressure and media scrutiny has provided renewed impetus for universities to address issues of language proficiency and academic literacy amongst the growing population of onshore international students for whom English is an additional language (EAL. In this paper, I discuss the role of academic language and learning advising in the Australian university context, including how this practice is influenced by a range of political, pedagogical and practical factors. In doing so, I draw on Carson and Mynard’s (2012 analysis of the aims, practices, skills, locations and discourses of advising in language learning to explore how the two fields might inform each other.

  20. Mapping Point-of-Purchase Influencers of Food Choice in Australian Remote Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Henryks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians relies, in part, on addressing the poor levels of nutrition in remote Indigenous communities (RIC. This article identifies and maps key influencers of food choice at the point-of-purchase (POP in Australian RIC and identifies gaps in our knowledge. It is based on a narrative review of the literature pertaining to food in RIC from a range of disciplinary perspectives including nutrition, ethnography, public health, anthropology, and remote health to map POP drivers of food choice. In particular, the role of habit is identified as a key factor that has previously not been discussed in the literature. The conceptual framework can be used as a basis for future POP research in RIC and provides guidance for social marketers, public health, nutrition, and policy workers operating in this field.

  1. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  2. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  3. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  4. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  5. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  6. Great Powers, National Interests, and Australian Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Australian Journal of Political Science 31, no.2 (July 1997): 169. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 22 March 2013). 331 Ann Capling, “Twenty...Australia in the Asia Pacific.” Australian Journal Of Political Science 32, no. 2 (July 1997): 169. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 22

  7. Australian Higher Education and the Relevance of Newman.

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    Coady, Tony; Miller, Seumas

    1993-01-01

    John Henry Newman's conception of the university as a teaching institution in which the guiding concept is transmission of liberal knowledge is examined as it applies to the Australian context. The theory is seen as a useful starting point for developing a theory of the modern Australian university. (MSE)

  8. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  9. The Effect of Energy Srategy on Australian Economic Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    necessary for a green energy economy , a smart grid greatly improves the viability of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic...Australia’s energy economy to influence national policy. This paper examines the current Australian internal and external energy economies for...than many developed economies , while the expanding world energy market provides alternative customers if an Australian energy customer refused to

  10. What Do We Know about the Chancellors of Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Bernard; Petzall, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    This research attempts to explore the key social characteristics and demographics of Australian chancellors to determine who they are and where they come from. The chancellor of an Australian university wields an enormous amount of power, from overseeing the appointment of the Vice-Chancellor (VC) to fulfilling various statutory requirements.…

  11. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  12. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

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    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  13. Educational Malpractice: American Trends and Implications for Australian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, P. W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Educational malpractice developments in America may affect legal accountability of Australian teachers and educational institutions. This paper discusses significant American cases and commentators' observations in the context of the Australian legal system. Teachers should embrace their widening legal responsibility in order to advance…

  14. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  15. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  16. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  17. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  18. The Teaching of First Year Economics in Australian Universities*

    OpenAIRE

    Nilss Olekalns

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys current pedagogical practice in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics and microeconomics in Australian universities. Survey results are presented detailing lecturers’ approaches to their teaching over 2001 and other aspects of their teaching environment. A comparison of the content and methodology of the main textbooks used in Australian introductory economic courses is also presented.

  19. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  20. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  1. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  2. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  3. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  4. Developmental gene discovery in a hemimetabolous insect: de novo assembly and annotation of a transcriptome for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zeng

    Full Text Available Most genomic resources available for insects represent the Holometabola, which are insects that undergo complete metamorphosis like beetles and flies. In contrast, the Hemimetabola (direct developing insects, representing the basal branches of the insect tree, have very few genomic resources. We have therefore created a large and publicly available transcriptome for the hemimetabolous insect Gryllus bimaculatus (cricket, a well-developed laboratory model organism whose potential for functional genetic experiments is currently limited by the absence of genomic resources. cDNA was prepared using mRNA obtained from adult ovaries containing all stages of oogenesis, and from embryo samples on each day of embryogenesis. Using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing, we sequenced over four million raw reads, and assembled them into 21,512 isotigs (predicted transcripts and 120,805 singletons with an average coverage per base pair of 51.3. We annotated the transcriptome manually for over 400 conserved genes involved in embryonic patterning, gametogenesis, and signaling pathways. BLAST comparison of the transcriptome against the NCBI non-redundant protein database (nr identified significant similarity to nr sequences for 55.5% of transcriptome sequences, and suggested that the transcriptome may contain 19,874 unique transcripts. For predicted transcripts without significant similarity to known sequences, we assessed their similarity to other orthopteran sequences, and determined that these transcripts contain recognizable protein domains, largely of unknown function. We created a searchable, web-based database to allow public access to all raw, assembled and annotated data. This database is to our knowledge the largest de novo assembled and annotated transcriptome resource available for any hemimetabolous insect. We therefore anticipate that these data will contribute significantly to more effective and higher-throughput deployment of molecular analysis tools in

  5. Functional coupling between sodium-activated potassium channels and voltage-dependent persistent sodium currents in cricket Kenyon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Izumi; Yoshino, Masami

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examined the functional coupling between Na(+)-activated potassium (KNa) channels and Na(+) influx through voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Single-channel activity of KNa channels was recorded with the cell-attached patch configuration. The open probability (Po) of KNa channels increased with increasing Na(+) concentration in a bath solution, whereas it decreased by the substitution of Na(+) with an equimolar concentration of Li(+). The Po of KNa channels was also found to be reduced by bath application of a high concentration of TTX (1 μM) and riluzole (100 μM), which inhibits both fast (INaf) and persistent (INaP) Na(+) currents, whereas it was unaffected by a low concentration of TTX (10 nM), which selectively blocks INaf. Bath application of Cd(2+) at a low concentration (50 μM), as an inhibitor of INaP, also decreased the Po of KNa channels. Conversely, bath application of the inorganic Ca(2+)-channel blockers Co(2+) and Ni(2+) at high concentrations (500 μM) had little effect on the Po of KNa channels, although Cd(2+) (500 μM) reduced the Po of KNa channels. Perforated whole cell clamp analysis further indicated the presence of sustained outward currents for which amplitude was dependent on the amount of Na(+) influx. Taken together, these results indicate that KNa channels could be activated by Na(+) influx passing through voltage-dependent persistent Na(+) channels. The functional significance of this coupling mechanism was discussed in relation to the membrane excitability of Kenyon cells and its possible role in the formation of long-term memory.

  6. Reproductive behaviour in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer. II. Neural control of the genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, M; Sakai, M

    2001-03-01

    To understand the neural mechanisms of reproductive behaviour in the male cricket, we identified motor neurones innervating the muscles in each genital organ by backfilling with cobalt/nickel and recording their extracellular spike activity from nerve bundles of the terminal abdominal ganglion during tethered copulation and spermatophore formation. During tethered copulation, at least two motor neurones innervating two ipsilateral muscles were activated during projection of the guiding rod of the phallic dorsal pouch. Only one motor neurone, innervating four ipsilateral muscles of the dorsal pouch, was responsible for spermatophore extrusion by deforming the dorsal pouch. For spermatophore transfer, three motor neurones, singly innervating three epiphallus muscles, played a major role in opening passages for haemolymph to enter the ventral lobes and median pouch by bending the epiphallus. Two ventral lobe and 3-5 median pouch motor neurones seemed to play a role in expanding or folding the two membranous structures by relaxing or contracting their muscle fibres. After spermatophore transfer, most of the genital motor neurones exhibited a rhythmic burst of action potentials causing movement of the phallic complex coupled with strong abdominal contractions. For spermatophore formation, the genital motor neurones began to accelerate their rhythmic bursts approximately 30 s prior to subgenital plate opening and then changed their activity to tonic bursting or silence. The results have allowed us to describe the timing of the onset and termination of genital muscle contraction more precisely than before, to examine the neural mechanisms of copulatory motor control and to speculate on the neural organization of the reproductive centre for spermatophore extrusion and protrusion.

  7. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  8. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  9. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  10. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Wallis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin’s model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  11. Halictine social evolution: the Australian enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerer, G; Schwarz, M

    1976-10-22

    Australian halictines belong to the primitive genus Lasioglossum or related subgenera. The underground nests have lined cells in series or clusters and sometimes at the end of laterals. Two full generations per year are produced in the communal nests. Overwintered and newly emerged females form unique "pseudosocieties" rather than matrifilial societies along Holarctic patterns. Several Chilalictus species produce a "male caste" of big-headed, flightless males, in addition to normal individuals. Oviposition of unfertilized eggs on large pollen balls causes such allometric bees.

  12. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  13. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Nunan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated for distance education in university teaching and learning in Australia.

  14. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  15. Ciguatera: Australian perspectives on a global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera is a global disease caused by the consumption of certain warm-water fish that have accumulated orally effective levels of sodium channel activator toxins (ciguatoxins) through the marine food chain. Symptoms of ciguatera arising from the consumption of ciguateric fish include a range of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. This review examines progress in our understanding of ciguatera from an Australian perspective, especially the laboratory-based research into the problem that was initiated by the late "Bob" Endean at the University of Queensland.

  16. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  17. Teaching evolution in the Australian classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzo, Les

    A summary of the key issues of controversy encountered by science teachers in Australian classrooms. Evolution, cloning and gene manipulation, fertility control, artificial intelligence, irradiation of food, the use of nuclear energy, radiation from powerlines are some of the topics discussed and debated in classrooms. What are some of the difficulties encountered by teachers when students ask questions that raise moral dilemmas and challenges entrenched beliefs and views of the world. What are some of the teaching strategies used that deal with these difficulties.

  18. A novel method of comparing mating success and survival reveals similar sexual and viability selection for mobility traits in female tree crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercit, K; Gwynne, D T

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between sexual and viability selection in females is necessarily different than that in males, as investment in sexual traits potentially comes at the expense of both fecundity and survival. Accordingly, females do not usually invest in sexually selected traits. However, direct benefits obtained from mating, such as nuptial gifts, may encourage competition among females and subsidize investment into sexually selected traits. We compared sexual and viability selection on female tree crickets Oecanthus nigricornis, a species where females mate frequently to obtain nuptial gifts and sexual selection on females is likely. If male choice determines female mating success in this species, we expect sexual selection for fecundity traits, as males of many species prefer more fecund females. Alternatively, intrasexual scramble or combat competition on females may select for larger jumping legs or wider heads (respectively). We estimated mating success in wild caught crickets using microsatellite analysis of stored sperm and estimated relative viability by comparing surviving female O. nigricornis to those captured by a common wasp predator. In support of the scramble competition hypothesis, we found sexual selection for females with larger hind legs and narrower heads. We also found stabilizing viability selection for intermediate head width and hind leg size. As predicted, traits under viability and sexual selection were very similar, and the direction of that selection was not opposing. However, because the shape of sexual and viability selection differs, these episodes of selection may favour slightly different trait sizes.

  19. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  20. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

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    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  1. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis.

  2. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  3. Healthcare and complicity in Australian immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Australian immigration detention has received persistent criticism since its introduction almost 25 years ago. With the recent introduction of offshore processing, these criticisms have intensified. Riots, violence, self-harm, abuse and devastating mental health outcomes are all now well documented, along with a number of deaths. Clinicians have played a central role working in these environments, faced with the overarching issue of delivering healthcare while facilitating an abusive and harmful system. Since the re-introduction of offshore processing a number of authors have begun to discuss the possibility of a boycott. While taking such action may lead to change, further discussion is needed, not only in relation to the impact of a boycott, but whether it is possible for clinicians to engage with this system in more productive, ethical ways. This article utilises a framework proposed by Lepora and Goodin (On complicity and compromise, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013) that provides a structured approach to examine complicity and seeks to explore how clinicians have engaged with Australian immigration detention and ultimately whether they should continue to do so.

  4. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Day, Carolyn; Gilmour, Stuart; Hall, Wayne

    2006-05-02

    Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  5. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour Stuart

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  6. Neutron scattering science at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    Neutron scattering science at ANSTO is integrated into a number of fields in the Australian scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor are well advanced. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. A brief overview will be presented of all the instruments presently available at ANSTO with emphasis on the SANS instrument. This will be followed by a description of the replacement research reactor and its instruments. (author)

  7. Seeing white: a critical exploration of occupational therapy with Indigenous Australian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to critique current occupational therapy practice and theory using Indigenous Australian people as a case example. Critical race theory will be used to help question the privileged position of an occupational therapist from a dominant Westernized culture. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 (eight female and seven male) Indigenous Australian young people about their perspectives of health and physical activity. In addition, the Kawa model was used as an alternative data-collection tool and detailed field notes and researcher reflections were used as data sources. Preliminary analysis of data is used to illustrate the ways in which critical race theory can inform occupational therapy practitioners and researchers about the ways Indigenous Australian young people view their health. Methodological dilemmas are also discussed. The paper is based on preliminary findings and further analysis needs to continue. Cross-cultural research is inherently complex but can offer those from the dominant culture valuable insights into their taken-for-granted assumptions. Further use of critical race theory may prove useful as the occupational therapy profession continues to evolve its understanding of cultural safety.

  8. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  9. Slovenia as a locale in contemporary Australian verse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the writer Patrick White had worked on his novels for a short while also at Lake Bled in Slovenia at Hotel "Toplice", just like Agatha Christie did at Lake Bohinj, Slovenia has only recently come to feature in mainstream Australian literature, more precisely in contemporary Australian poetry. It should be stressed that Slovenia is thus no longer present only in Slovene migrant poetry written in Australia as has so far been the case: it entered the major contemporary Australian anthologies. This testifies to the fact that Slovenia no longer belongs to the uncharted part of Central Europe on the geographical and consequently also on the Australian literary map. Rather than that Slovenia increasingly makes part of an average Australian 'Grand Tour' travel itinerary in Europe; it has thus become present in the Australian cultural consciousness. In this light two recent Australian poems with Slovenia as a literary locale are discussed, Andrew Taylor's "Morning in Ljubljana" I and Susan Hampton's poem "Yugoslav Story".

  10. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  11. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  13. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  14. The Australian experiment with ETS-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    Land-mobile satellite propagation measurements were implemented at L Band (1.5 GHz) in South-Eastern Australia during an 11 day period in October 1988. Transmissions (CW) from both the Japanese ETS-5 and INMARSAT Pacific geostationary satellites were accessed. Previous measurements in this series were performed at both L Band (1.5 GHz) and UHF (870 MHz) in Central Maryland, North-Central Colorado, and the southern United States. The objectives of the Australian campaign were to expand the data base acquired in the U.S. to another continent, to validate a U.S. derived empirical model for estimating the fade distribution, to establish the effects of directive antennas, to assess the isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions, to derive estimates of fade as well as non-fade durations, and to evaluate diversity reception. All these objectives were met.

  15. Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to produce effective implants, the materials used must be biocompatible. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material similar to the mineral component of teeth and bone which is often used for orbital implants and bone graft applications. HAp can be manufactured from corals via hydrothermal conversion. Coral is particularly useful as a starting material for hydroxyapatite production because of its porous nature. When a porous structure is used tissue ingrowth can occur readily and hence an excellent mechanical bond can be achieved. A large pore size and a high degree of pore interconnections are desirable implant properties. In the present paper a comparison of the properties of four different species of Australian coral has been made to determine the most favourable species to use as a starting material for hydrothermal conversion.

  16. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, Christopher G.; Butler, Paul; Horner, Jonathan; Carter, Brad; Wright, Duncan; Jones, H. R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for exoplanets have undergone a revolution in recent years: now precisions of 1 m/s or better are being demonstrated by many instruments, and new purpose-built spectrographs hold the promise of bringing Earth-mass planets into the realm of secure detectability. In the "race to the bottom," it is critical not to overlook the impact of long-running planet search programs that continue to hold the advantage of time. We highlight the continuing impact of the 18-year Anglo-Australian Planet Search: the characterisation of long-period giant planets, and the insights into the occurrence rate of Jupiter and Saturn analogs. To fully understand the origins of planetary systems and the fundamental question of how common (or rare) the architecture of the Solar system is in the Galaxy, we must continue these "legacy" surveys to probe ever-larger orbital separations.

  17. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  18. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  19. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  20. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2016-12-24

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  1. The Performance of Western Australian Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck

    2008-01-01

    <正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.

  2. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P

    2014-12-31

    In 2013, there were 143 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network (NNN). This was the lowest number of laboratory confirmed IMD cases referred to the NNN since the inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed IMD is notifiable in Australia. There were 149 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2013. Meningococcal serogrouping was determined for 139/143 laboratory confirmed IMD cases; 74.8% (104 cases) were serogroup B infections; 5.8% (8 cases) were serogroup C infections; 8.6% (12 cases) were serogroup W135; and 10.8% (15 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed, respectively, in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years). Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over where serogroup Y predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was low, and has been proportionally stable over recent years. The number of IMD cases caused by W135 and Y serogroups was similar to previous years but the proportion has increased with the overall reduction in numbers of IMD cases. Molecular typing was performed on 92 of the 93 IMD isolates, and 23 of the 50 cases confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing. In 2013, the most common porA genotype circulating in Australia was P1.7-2,4. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was observed in 78.5% of isolates.

  3. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Suzie

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. During the survey period of 1 January to 31 December 2014, 1,022 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 733 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 480 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 253 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. Genotype G1P[8] was the 2nd most common strain nationally, representing 22.9% of samples, followed by genotype G3P[8] (14.9%). This report highlights the continued significance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G1P[8] being the dominant genotype (29%) followed by G12P[8] as the 2nd most common genotype (26%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G1P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  4. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health.

  5. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  6. Control of Legionnaires' disease -- An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, C.R.

    1999-07-01

    Major outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease (causative agent, ionella spp.) occurred in Australia during the 1980s and early 1990s. The putative sources were primarily heat rejection systems of the recirculating cooling water type (cooling towers). These outbreaks prompted engineers to carry out field studies on which to base improved design and maintenance practices for such heat rejection systems. Health authorities introduced regulations and guidelines to encourage owners to establish and maintain hygienic conditions in these and other systems. Central to this progress is the recognition that Legionella is essentially a biofilm organism and that it prefers the surfaces of warmer parts of systems for growth. This is particularly so if there are deadlegs in the system or accumulations of sediment. Biocidal water treatment approaches must therefore take biofilm control into account. A recent Australian innovation is the preparation of a national performance-based regulatory standard to complement earlier standards that are of a prescriptive nature. The aim of this new standard is to allow alternative strategies that may not necessitate system shutdown for regular cleaning yet provide for an equivalent level of system hygiene. The standard requires that a risk assessment strategy be implemented involving identification of performance indicators and control and monitoring of parameters likely to move beyond stipulated limits.

  7. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2016-07-19

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible.

  8. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  9. The Australian Space Eye: studying the history of galaxy formation with a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Anthony; Spitler, Lee; Mathers, Naomi; Petkovic, Michael; Griffin, Douglas; Barraclough, Simon; Benson, Craig; Dimitrijevic, Igor; Lambert, Andrew; Previte, Anthony; Bowen, John; Westerman, Solomon; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Reisenfeld, Sam; Lawrence, Jon; Zhelem, Ross; Colless, Matthew; Boyce, Russell

    2016-07-01

    The Australian Space Eye is a proposed astronomical telescope based on a 6U CubeSat platform. The Space Eye will exploit the low level of systematic errors achievable with a small space based telescope to enable high accuracy measurements of the optical extragalactic background light and low surface brightness emission around nearby galaxies. This project is also a demonstrator for several technologies with general applicability to astronomical observations from nanosatellites. Space Eye is based around a 90 mm aperture clear aperture all refractive telescope for broadband wide field imaging in the i' and z' bands.

  10. The Australian Space Eye: studying the history of galaxy formation with a CubeSat

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Anthony; Mathers, Naomi; Pektovic, Michael; Griffin, Douglas; Barraclough, Simon; Benson, Craig; Dimitrijevic, Igor; Lambert, Andrew; Previte, Anthony; Bowen, John; Westerman, Solomon; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Reisenfeld, Sam; Lawrence, Jon; Zhelem, Ross; Colless, Matthew; Boyce, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Space Eye is a proposed astronomical telescope based on a 6U CubeSat platform. The Space Eye will exploit the low level of systematic errors achievable with a small space based telescope to enable high accuracy measurements of the optical extragalactic background light and low surface brightness emission around nearby galaxies. This project is also a demonstrator for several technologies with general applicability to astronomical observations from nanosatellites. Space Eye is based around a 90 mm aperture clear aperture all refractive telescope for broadband wide field imaging in the i and z bands.

  11. Structural impediments to TQM in Australian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, P; Carnegie, M

    1995-01-01

    The culture of quality called for by total quality management (TQM) has much to recommend it. Australian experience, however, suggests that it is not something that can easily be added to the profession-based structures and cultures prevailing in most Australian hospitals. Implementing TQM is not just a matter of advocating it. The institutional transformation implied by TQM requires additional action on multiple fronts, both internal and external to the hospital.

  12. Measures of Buyer Concentration in the Australian Wool Market

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The study uses empirical measures of market concentration to examine buyer competition in wool between 1974 and 1992. Three measures of concentration are examined, concentration ratios, Herfindahl indices and Lorenz curves. Data from the Australian Council of Wool Exporters are used to obtain estimates of these measures over the sample period. The results indicate that the buying sector in the Australian wool market is relatively concentrated and calculation of Spearman correlation coefficien...

  13. Creating Royal Australian Navy Standard Operating Procedures using Flow Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    DST-Group-TR-3137 UNCLASSIFIED Acronyms 4TQ 4TQ Toolkit ABR Australian Book of Reference ADF Australian Defence Force BPMN Business...steps to perform the activity. Object Management Group’s (OMG) Business Process Model and Notation ( BPMN ) [10] is becoming the standard to use when...Department of Defence 10. Object Management Group, Business Process Model and Notation ( BPMN ), version 2.0. 2011, Object Management Group: http

  14. Records of Australian Fouling Organisms: Sessile Barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Dr. W.A. Newman) Laboratorio de Ensayo de Materiales e Investigaciones Tecnologicas (LEMIT), Argentina. (Attention: Dr. V. Rascio) Dept. of Zoology...AD-A105 265 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) FIG B/1 RECORDS OF AUSTRALIAN FOULING ORGANISMS: SESSILE BARNACLES (CRU--ETC(U) APR 81 J A...SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES MELBOURNE, VICTORIA REPORT . MRL-R-809 RECORDS OF AUSTRALIAN FOULING ORGANISMS: SESSILE

  15. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these ...

  16. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 14, Number 2, Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Australian DEFENCESCIENCE BRIEFS DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research Extended range for Joint Direct Attack Munition Missile Approach...for ADF frontline aircraft DSTO and the Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding...and ANSTO Executive Director Mr Ian Smith signed the agreement in Sydney on 29 August. DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research

  17. Raja Junankar, Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    DOUGLAS, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy is a compilation of academic articles written by P.N. Junankar and coauthors on the topic of immigration in Australia. From the effects of immigration on Australia’s economy to the Australian labor market environment immigrants encounter, this book addresses important questions regarding immigration that are relevant to any economy.Keywords. Australia, International migration, International economics.JEL. F00, F22,...

  18. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon Paul; Gates Peter; Swift Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone a...

  19. Protection of Military Personnel Against Vector-Borne Diseases: A Review of Collaborative Work of the Australian and US Military Over the Last 30 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Stephen P; Edstein, Michael D; Debboun, Mustapha; Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Australian and US military medical services have collaborated since World War II to minimize vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and scrub typhus. In this review, collaboration over the last 30 years is discussed. The collaborative projects and exchange scientist programs have resulted in mutually beneficial outcomes in the fields of drug development and personal protection measures against vector-borne diseases.

  20. Modulatory action of acetylcholine on the Na+-dependent action potentials in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazima, E; Yoshino, M

    2010-12-01

    Kenyon cells, intrinsic neurons of the insect mushroom body, have been assumed to be a site of conditioning stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) association in olfactory learning and memory. Acetylcholine (ACh) has been implicated to be a neurotransmitter mediating CS reception in Kenyon cells, causing rapid membrane depolarization via nicotinic ACh receptors. However, the long-term effects of ACh on the membrane excitability of Kenyon cells are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effects of ACh on Na(+) dependent action potentials (Na(+) spikes) elicited by depolarizing current injection and on net membrane currents under the voltage clamp condition in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Current-clamp studies using amphotericin B perforated-patch recordings showed that freshly dispersed cricket Kenyon cells could produce repetitive Na(+) spikes in response to prolonged depolarizing current injection. Bath application of ACh increased both the instantaneous frequency and the amplitudes of Na(+) spikes. This excitatory action of ACh on Kenyon cells is attenuated by the pre-treatment of the cells with the muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and scopolamine, but not by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine. Voltage-clamp studies further showed that bath application of ACh caused an increase in net inward currents that are sensitive to TTX, whereas outward currents were decreased by this treatment. These results indicate that in order to mediate CS, ACh may modulate the firing properties of Na(+) spikes of Kenyon cells through muscarinic receptor activation, thus increasing Na conductance and decreasing K conductance.

  1. 信任对板球团队冲突影响的实证研究%Effect of trust on cricket team conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 董传升; 王娇; 张麟寰; 徐向东

    2014-01-01

    信任是团队成员合作的基础和前提,对团队绩效的提升具有重要作用。运用案例分析法和问卷调查法对沈阳体育学院板球团队进行了实证研究,研究结果表明信任对板球团队冲突有影响,即认知信任水平越高,团队内关系冲突越少,任务冲突越少;相对于较成熟的团队,情感信任水平越高,关系冲突越少,但相对于关系冲突,任务冲突有可能会增加。%Trust is a key factor to promote team performance as the basis and prerequisite of cooperation of team. In this paper,using the case analysis and questionnaire survey,an empirical research has been carried on shenyang sports college cricket team,the results show that trust has influence on the cricket team conflict,namely,the higher cognitive level of trust, the less team relationship conflict,the less task conflict. Relative to the more mature team,the higher the emotional level of trust,the less relationship conflict,but relative to the relationship conflict,task conflict is likely to increase.

  2. Ionic channel mechanisms mediating the intrinsic excitability of Kenyon cells in the mushroom body of the cricket brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Murata, Kaoru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kakuta, Eri; Tanemura, Saori; Hatakeyama, Shiori; Nakamura, Atsunao; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Hasebe, Masaharu; Kosakai, Kumiko; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Intrinsic neurons within the mushroom body of the insect brain, called Kenyon cells, play an important role in olfactory associative learning. In this study, we examined the ionic mechanisms mediating the intrinsic excitability of Kenyon cells in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. A perforated whole-cell clamp study using β-escin indicated the existence of several inward and outward currents. Three types of inward currents (INaf, INaP, and ICa) were identified. The transient sodium current (INaf) activated at -40 mV, peaked at -26 mV, and half-inactivated at -46.7 mV. The persistent sodium current (INaP) activated at -51 mV, peaked at -23 mV, and half-inactivated at -30.7 mV. Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM) completely blocked both INaf and INaP, but 10nM TTX blocked INaf more potently than INaP. Cd(2+) (50 μM) potently blocked INaP with little effect on INaf. Riluzole (>20 μM) nonselectively blocked both INaP and INaf. The voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) activated at -30 mV, peaked at -11.3 mV, and half-inactivated at -34 mV. The Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil (100 μM) blocked ICa in a use-dependent manner. Cell-attached patch-clamp recordings showed the presence of a large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel, and the activity of this channel was decreased by removing the extracellular Ca(2+) or adding verapamil or nifedipine, and increased by adding the Ca(2+) agonist Bay K8644, indicating that Ca(2+) entry via the L-type Ca(2+) channel regulates BK channel activity. Under the current-clamp condition, membrane depolarization generated membrane oscillations in the presence of 10nM TTX or 100 μM riluzole in the bath solution. These membrane oscillations disappeared with 1 μM TTX, 50 μM Cd(2+), replacement of external Na(+) with choline, and blockage of Na(+)-activated K(+) current (IKNa) with 50 μM quinidine, indicating that membrane oscillations are primarily mediated by INaP in cooperation with IKNa. The plateau potentials observed either in

  3. Modelling seasonality in Australian building approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M Karamujic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of seasonal influences on Australian housing approvals, represented by the State of Victoria[1] building approvals for new houses (BANHs. The prime objective of BANHs is to provide timely estimates of future residential building work. Due to the relevance of the residential property sector to the property sector as whole, BANHs are viewed by economic analysts and commentators as a leading indicator of property sector investment and as such the general level of economic activity and employment. The generic objective of the study is to enhance the practice of modelling housing variables. In particular, the study seeks to cast some additional light on modelling the seasonal behaviour of BANHs by: (i establishing the presence, or otherwise, of seasonality in Victorian BANHs; (ii if present, ascertaining is it deterministic or stochastic; (iii determining out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications; and (iv speculating on possible interpretation of the results. To do so the study utilises a structural time series model of Harwey (1989. The modelling results confirm that the modelling specification allowing for stochastic trend and deterministic seasonality performs best in terms of diagnostic tests and goodness of fit measures. This is corroborated with the analysis of out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications, which showed that the models with deterministic seasonal specification exhibit superior forecasting capabilities. The paper also demonstrates that if time series are characterized by either stochastic trend or seasonality, the conventional modelling approach[2] is bound to be mis-specified i.e. would not be able to identify statistically significant seasonality in time series.According to the selected modeling specification, factors corresponding to June, April, December and November are found to be significant at five per cent level

  4. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  5. Australians Abroad: Narrative Paths and Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Nooy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although commonly characterized as an immigrant nation, Australia has been shaped just as importantly by the overseas journeys of its people, and the liminal experiences thus provided have not only been self-defining and defining of the other, but at times nation-defining. This special issue proposes a multidisciplinary analysis of Australian travellers and expatriates past and present: the reasons for and destinations of their travel, its impact on their identity, the roles they play, their writings and reflections, their linguistic and intercultural competence. Clusters of travellers to particular destinations give rise to narrative patterns which solidify into templates, the narrative equivalent of the beaten track. The essays that follow highlight both discursive grooves and off-piste accounts that challenge the patterns. In both cases, the emphasis in the essays is on the travellers’ active engagement in the experience and on their negotiation of existing discourses. For even those who follow the trail invest it with personal meanings.

  6. Injection Efficiency Monitor for the Australian Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassool R. P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Synchrotron AS is moving towards a continuous injection mode called top-up. During top-up the linac and booster synchrotron injection system will be in continuous operation rather than usedevery eight hours the way they are used at present. In order to monitor the performance of the injection system areal-time injection efficiency monitoring system has been developed. The system consists of several Fast CurrentTransformers [1] and matching digitisers [2] and is designed to count every beam pulse and measure the transmission efficiency through the whole accelerator complex. After calibrating the system using a properly matchedFaraday Cup at the electron gun, a transmission efficiency is then calculated at each stage of transferring the beamfrom 90 keV out of the gun to 3 GeV in the storage ring. The system is used to optimise the injection process inorder to maximise the injection efficiency and as an early warning system when equipment starts to fail and theinjection efficiency decreases.

  7. Effective teaching strategies in Australian multicultural classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芳卉

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction@@ Australia's population is increasingly culturally diverse.The diverse composition of the Australian population is reflected in the ACT.The 1991 census showed 65,739 people counted in the ACT were bern overseas,representing 23.5% of the population.Almost 10% of the respondents to the census came from non-English - speaking countries.(1) The results from the 2001 census showed that of the 4,645,000 people in Victoria,almost one quarter (23.4%) were born overseas,represented 208 countries and spoke 151 languages.English was spoken at home by 75.3% of Victorians.(2) These numbers are reflected in our schools because students come from many cultural,educational and language backgrounds.The increasingly muhieultural populations in our schools present many challenges for schools and teachers,with regards to inclusive teaching strategies,language differences,muhieuhural curricular practices,racism issues and numerous other factors.

  8. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship.

  9. Malignant otitis externa: An Australian case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish a clinicopathological profile of malignant otitis externa (MOE) in an Australian tertiary referral institution. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort outcomes study. METHODS: 24 patients were identified with MOE between January 1998 and July 2007. Patients were classified into Radiological Grades I-IV. Laboratory investigations Including C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and average glucose level over admission were recorded. RESULTS: Radiological Grade was significantly associated with duration of therapy (rank correlation 0.57, p = 0.004). CRP was a useful indicator confirming disease resolution. Diabetics with MOE had elevated average blood sugar levels during their Hospital admission (p < 0.001) and had poor overall glycaemic control represented by Elevated HBA1c scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant otitis externa is a rare disease, which is best managed in a multidisciplinary team setting. This practical grading system can be used to predict the duration of therapy at time of diagnosis, which enables the efficient utilisation of Hospital resources. Poorly controlled diabetics are more susceptible to developing. MOE than diabetics with satisfactory glycaemic control and may represent a subgroup of more brittle diabetics. CRP combined with appropriate clinical and radiological investigations is useful in assessing disease resolution.

  10. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  11. Lords of the Square Ring: Future Capital and Career Transition Issues for Elite Indigenous Australian Boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Marie Stronach

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Australia a serious and widely documented statistical gap exists between the socio-economic circumstances of the country’s Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Areas of divergence include life expectancy, health, housing, income, and educational opportunity and employment. This has made career attainment problematic for most Aboriginal people. Among male Indigenous people, professional sport is portrayed as one of the few realms in which they can prosper. This is particularly true in the major football codes – Australian Rules and rugby league – and a feature of elite-level boxing, where Indigenous fighters are also statistically over-represented. However, while sport has provided opportunities for a small number of talented Indigenous athletes, it has rarely been a pathway to lifelong prosperity. This paper contends that as a result of over-reliance on an abundant bank of physical capital, Indigenous Australian boxers are particularly vulnerable to potential occupational obsolescence should their bodily assets erode more quickly than envisaged. Drawing on an Indigenous concept, Dadirri, to inform a wider interpretive phenomenological approach, the paper examines retirement experiences of fourteen elite male Indigenous Australian boxers; the goal of this research is to understand their post-sport career decision making. In this respect, Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, capital and field are utilised to frame and interpret the capacity of Indigenous boxers to develop sustainable career pathways – which we describe as future capital – during their time as elite athletes. For this group of athletes, being an Indigenous person was found to be a significant factor in their decision-making to enter the sport, which may then leave them open to exploitation within the field. Many boxers find their engagement with education and vocational training remains restricted to occupations that complement an Indigenous sense of cultural

  12. Risk communication discourse: A content analysis of some Australian media coverage of cyclones in Queensland, Australia in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Mohammad Alharbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As a cross-disciplinary field, the risk communication (RC discourse is complex. Thereof, media coverage of disasters as a fundamental resource of RC should be examined to guarantee successful delivery of risk information. Thus, this study investigated the content of risk information of cyclone-related news of the Brisbane Times and The Australian newspapers. It scrutinized the different types of risk-related messages by means of a quantitative content analysis based on the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM proposed by Witte (1980. The media coverage of the 2011 Queensland cyclones was examined with respect to the main question: what type of risk information the public was provided with? It was shown that the coverage of the Brisbane Times and The Australian might be enhanced by covering main components equally, focusing more on the component of efficacy, specifically ‘the outcomes of preventive actions’.

  13. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  14. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists – an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professionalpractice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australianpharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-countermedications. This review aims to identify Australian studiesinvolving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing.Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacistprescribing were identified and considered in the context ofits implementation internationally. Australian studies havemainly focused on the attitudes of community and hospitalpharmacists towards such an expansion. Studies evaluatingthe views of Australian consumers and pharmacy clients werealso considered. The available Australian literature indicatedsupport from pharmacists and pharmacy clients for anexpanded pharmacist prescribing role, with preference fordoctors retaining a primary role in diagnosis. Australianpharmacists and pharmacy client’s views were also inagreement in terms of other key issues surrounding expandedpharmacist prescribing. These included the nature of anexpanded prescribing model, the need for additional trainingfor pharmacists and the potential for pharmacy clients gainingimproved medication access, which could be achieved withinan expanded role that pharmacists could provide. Currentevidence from studies conducted in Australia providesvaluable insight to relevant policymakers on the issue ofpharmacist prescribing in order to move the agenda ofpharmacist prescribing forwards.

  15. Influence of Northwest Cloudbands on Southwest Australian Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Telcik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest cloudbands are tropical-extratropical feature that crosses the Australian continent originating from Australia’s northwest coast and develops in a NW-SE orientation. In paper, atmospheric and oceanic reanalysis data (NCEP and Reynolds reconstructed sea surface temperature data were used to examine northwest cloudband activity across the Australian mainland. An index that reflected the monthly, seasonal, and interannual activity of northwest cloudbands between 1950 and 1999 was then created. Outgoing longwave radiation, total cloud cover, and latent heat flux data were used to determine the number of days when a mature northwest cloudband covered part of the Australian continent between April and October. Regional indices were created for site-specific investigations, especially of cloudband-related rainfall. High and low cloudband activity can affect the distribution of cloudbands and their related rainfall. In low cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands were mostly limited to the south and west Australian coasts. In high cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands penetrated farther inland, which increased the inland rainfall. A case study of the southwest Australian region demonstrated that, in a below average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall was limited to the coast. In an above average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall occurred further inland.

  16. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  17. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  18. On the utility of data from the International HapMap Project for Australian association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovich, Jim; Cox, Charles J; Tan, Rachel B; Montgomery, Douglas S; Huxtable, Stewart J; Rubio, Justin P; Ehm, Margaret G; Johnson, Laura; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Speed, Terence P; Roses, Allen D; Bahlo, Melanie; Foote, Simon J

    2006-03-01

    We compare patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for 633 SNPs in two regions between samples collected in two Australian states and HapMap samples collected from Utah residents of Northern and Western (NW) European ancestry (CEU). Patterns of LD in the Australian and HapMap samples are similar, and tag SNPs chosen using HapMap genotypes perform almost as well on Australian samples as tags chosen using Australian genotypes.

  19. Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O’Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

  20. The emergence of sarcoptic mange in Australian wildlife: an unresolved debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Tamieka A; Charleston, Michael; Martin, Alynn; Polkinghorne, Adam; Carver, Scott

    2016-06-02

    Due to its suspected increase in host range and subsequent global diversification, Sarcoptes scabiei has important implications at a global scale for wildlife conservation and animal and human health. The introduction of this pathogen into new locations and hosts has been shown to produce high morbidity and mortality, a situation observed recently in Australian and North American wildlife.Of the seven native animal species in Australia known to be infested by S. scabiei, the bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus) suffers the greatest with significant population declines having been observed in New South Wales and Tasmania. The origins of sarcoptic mange in Australian native animals are poorly understood, with the most consistent conclusion being that mange was introduced by settlers and their dogs and subsequently becoming a major burden to native wildlife. Four studies exist addressing the origins of mange in Australia, but all Australian S. scabiei samples derive from only two of these studies. This review highlights this paucity of phylogenetic knowledge of S. scabiei within Australia, and suggests further research is needed to confidently determine the origin, or multiple origins, of this parasite.At the global scale, numerous genetic studies have attempted to reveal how the host species and host geographic location influence S. scabiei phylogenetics. This review includes an analysis of the global literature, revealing that inconsistent use of gene loci across studies significantly influences phylogenetic inference. Furthermore, by performing a contemporary analytical approach on existing data, it is apparent that (i) new S. scabiei samples, (ii) appropriate gene loci targets, and (iii) advanced phylogenetic approaches are necessary to more confidently comprehend the origins of mange in Australia. Advancing this field of research will aid in understanding the mechanisms of spillover for mange and other parasites globally.

  1. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Walsh, Mark [Mater Hospital and Lady Cilento Children' s Hospital Medical Imaging Department, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Francis, Joshua R. [Royal Darwin Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Darwin (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  2. Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research: Creating Spaces for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides some background information about the Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research initiative: a joint program of work sponsored by the Australian Association for Research in Education and the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In addition, it offers some broader analysis of the contexts within which…

  3. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  4. Values-Based Education in Schools in the 2000s: The Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the teaching of values in Australian schools through a framework established by the Australian Federal government during the 2000s. This paper focuses on: the approaches employed by the Australian Federal government in the implementation of Values Education; and the application of cases of values-based education utilized by…

  5. Estimating the Social Rate of Return to Education for Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junankar, P. N.; Liu, J.

    2003-01-01

    Compares estimates of the social rate of return to education of Indigenous Australians with those of non-Indigenous Australians. Finds that social rate of return is higher for Indigenous Australians than for non-Indigenous. Draws implications for public policy. (Contains 4 tables and 32 references.)(PKP)

  6. The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous…

  7. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  8. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  9. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  10. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  11. Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Carleigh S; Liu, Bette C; Snelling, Thomas L; Ward, James S; Kaldor, John M; Wilson, David P

    2016-06-30

    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013. Data are collected from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities designated at-risk for endemic trachoma within New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. The World Health Organization grading criteria were used to diagnose cases of trachoma in Aboriginal children, with jurisdictions focusing screening activities on the 5-9 years age group; but some children in the 1-4 and 10-14 years age groups were also screened. The prevalence of trachoma within a community was used to guide treatment strategies as a public health response. Aboriginal adults aged 40 years or over were screened for trichiasis. Screening coverage for the estimated population of children aged 5-9 years and adults aged 40 years or over in at-risk communities required to be screened in 2013 was 84% and 30%, respectively. There was a 4% prevalence of trachoma among children aged 5-9 years who were screened. Of communities screened, 50% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 33% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment was required in 75 at-risk communities screened. Treatment coverage for active cases and their contacts varied between jurisdictions from 79% to 100%. Trichiasis prevalence was 1% within the screened communities.

  12. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingham, Lizzie

    2009-09-01

    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas.

  13. Design and Implementation of the Australian National Data Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Treloar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 This paper will describe the genesis and realisation of the Australian National Data Service (ANDS. It will commence by outlining the context within which ANDS was conceived, both in the international research and Australian research support domains. It will then describe the process that brought about the ANDS vision and the principles that informed the realisation of that vision. The paper will then outline each of the four ANDS programs (Developing Frameworks, Providing Utilities, Seeding the Commons, and Building Capabilities while also discussing particular items of note about the approach ANDS is taking. The paper concludes by briefly examining related work in the UK and US.

  14. Cerebral lateralization determines hand preferences in Australian parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum; Magat, Maria

    2011-08-23

    Individual preference for the use of one limb over the other to explore the environment or manipulate objects is common trait among vertebrates. Here, we explore the hypothesis that limb preference is determined by the engagement of a particular cerebral hemisphere to analyse certain stimuli. We recorded the eye and foot preferences of 322 individuals from 16 species of Australian parrots while investigating potential food items. Across all species, eye preferences explained 99 per cent of the variation in foot use in Australian parrots. The vast majority of species showed significant relationships between eye and foot preferences at the population level.

  15. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori......We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show...

  16. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  17. Course diversity within South Australian secondary schools as a factor of successful transition and retention within Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There has long been a disparity in the provision of curriculum within Australian secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate whether diversity within schools alters students’ university experiences. While much of the existing literature focuses on each aspect individually, this paper attempts to clarify a link between these factors by focussing on the transition process. A theoretical analysis of key concepts surrounding a web of inter-related issues, including student satisfaction, interest and motivation frames the quantitative data collection. The methodology employed consists of analysing a balanced sample of South Australian secondary schools, from an array of different locations, SES groupings and sizes, and an acknowledgement of previous studies into the first year experience within Australian Universities. The findings suggest that there is a disparity between learning areas in school curricula and an inherent link has been established with issues such as student attrition and dissatisfaction in universities.

  18. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daley, Denise A; Thin Lee, Yung; Pearson, Julie C; Robinson, J Owen; Nimmo, Graeme R; Collignon, Peter; Howden, Benjamin P; Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D

    2016-06-30

    From 1 January to 31 December 2014, 27 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2014 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the isolates. Overall, 18.8% of the 2,206 SAB episodes were methicillin resistant, which was significantly higher than that reported in most European countries. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 23.4%, which was significantly higher than the 14.4% mortality associated with methicillin-sensitive SAB (P important that antimicrobial resistance patterns in community and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.

  19. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  20. Personalised Medicine: A New Approach to Improving Health in Indigenous Australian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Kym M; Grimson, Steve; Pringle, Kirsty G

    2017-01-06

    Personalised medicine is a newly emerging field with much to offer to all populations in improved clinical treatment options. Since the 1970s, clinicians and researchers have all been working towards improving the health of Indigenous Australians. However, there has been little research on the impact of genetics on Indigenous health, how genetic and environmental factors interact to contribute to poor health in Indigenous people, and how genetic factors specific to Indigenous people affect their responses to particular treatments. This short review highlights the urgent need for more genetic studies specific to Indigenous people in order to provide more appropriate care and to improve health outcomes. This paper explores why genetic work with Indigenous communities has been limited, how personalised medicine could benefit Indigenous communities, and highlights a number of specific instances in which personalised medicine has been critical for improving morbidity and mortality in other high-risk groups. In order to take the next step in advancing the health of Indigenous peoples, targeted research into the genetic factors behind chronic diseases is critically needed. This research may allow clinicians a better understanding of how genetic factors interact with environmental factors to influence an Indigenous Australian's individual risk of disease, prognosis, and response to therapies. It is hoped that this knowledge will produce clinical interventions that will help deliver clearly targeted, more appropriate care to this at-risk population.