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Sample records for australian field cricket

  1. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  2. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ruth Archer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus.

  3. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C Ruth; Hempenstall, Sarah; Royle, Nick J; Selman, Colin; Willis, Sheridan; Rapkin, James; Blount, Jon D; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus. PMID:26783958

  4. CRICKET

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has played 18 matches so far this season, winning 12 and losing 6, with 12 fixtures remaining before the end of the season. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule, which includes a weekend trip to Milan at the end of September, can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prévessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting).

  5. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

      The start of the 2012 Cricket season is only days away!  The CERN club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 19 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf), from 18:00 to around 19:30. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 22 April.  Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2012 can be found on the web at: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/.

  6. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2010-01-01

    The start of the Cricket season is upon us! Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 15 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site, starting at 18:00 (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf). All newcomers will be made very welcome. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 18 April. Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2010 can be found on the web at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/  

  7. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Nathan W.; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: ...

  8. Acceleration Kinematics in Cricketers: Implications for Performance in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lockie Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cricket fielding often involves maximal acceleration to retrieve the ball. There has been no analysis of acceleration specific to cricketers, or for players who field primarily in the infield (closer to the pitch or outfield (closer to the boundary. This study analyzed the first two steps of a 10-m sprint in experienced cricketers. Eighteen males (age = 24.06 ± 4.87 years; height = 1.81 ± 0.06 m; mass = 79.67 ± 10.37 kg were defined as primarily infielders (n = 10 or outfielders (n = 8. Timing lights recorded 0-5 and 0-10 m time. Motion capture measured first and second step kinematics, including: step length; step frequency; contact time; shoulder motion; lead and rear arm elbow angle; drive leg hip and knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion; swing leg hip and knee flexion, and ankle dorsi flexion. A one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05 determined between-group differences. Data was pooled for a Pearson’s correlation analysis (p < 0.05 to analyze kinematic relationships. There were no differences in sprint times, and few variables differentiated infielders and outfielders. Left shoulder range of motion related to second step length (r = 0.471. First step hip flexion correlated with both step lengths (r = 0.570-0.598, and frequencies (r = -0.504--0.606. First step knee flexion related to both step lengths (r = 0.528-0.682, and first step frequency (r = -0.669. First step ankle plantar flexion correlated with second step length (r = -0.692 and frequency (r = 0.726. Greater joint motion ranges related to longer steps. Cricketers display similar sprint kinematics regardless of fielding position, likely because players may field in the infield or outfield depending on match situation. Due to relationships with shoulder and leg motion, and the importance and trainability of step length, cricketers should target this variable to enhance acceleration.

  9. Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchers, W R; Brooks, R; Jennions, M D; Tregenza, T; Dworkin, I; Hunt, J

    2013-05-01

    Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders' equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent study, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) stability are sparse, and largely focused on morphological traits. Here, we compared P for the structure of the complex sexual advertisement call of six divergent allopatric populations of the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We measured a subset of calls from wild-caught crickets from each of the populations and then a second subset after rearing crickets under common-garden conditions for three generations. In a second experiment, crickets from each population were reared in the laboratory on high- and low-nutrient diets and their calls recorded. In both experiments, we estimated P for call traits and used multiple methods to compare them statistically (Flury hierarchy, geometric subspace comparisons and random skewers). Despite considerable variation in means and variances of individual call traits, the structure of P was largely conserved among populations, across generations and between our rearing diets. Our finding that P remains largely stable, among populations and between environmental conditions, suggests that selection has preserved the structure of call traits in order that they can function as an integrated unit. PMID:23530814

  10. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF THE FIELD CRICKET (GRYLLUS TESTACEUS WALKER)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DunWang; Yao-yuBai; Jiang-hongLi; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition and the nutritional quality of protein, fatty acids and chitin of adult field cricket Gryllus testaceus Walker were investigated. The adult insect contalned: crude protein 58.3 %; fat 10.3 %, chitin 8.7 % and ash 2.96 % on dry matter basis respectively. The essential amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cysteine and methionine. The fatty acid analysis showed unsaturated acid of the field cricket to be present in high quantities, and the total percentage of oleic acid, linolic acid and linolenic acid was 77.51%. The chitin content of the insect was 8.7 % with a better quality than the commercial chitin that was prepared from shells of shrimp and crab. Therefore the chemical composition of the field cricket indicates the insect to be a good supplement to nutrition for food and feed, even a raw material for medicine.

  11. Effect of a strong, DC-induced magnetic field on circadian singing activity of the house cricket (orthoptera:gryllidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, K.C.; Bitzer, R.J.; Galliart, L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effect of a strong, DC-induced electromagnetic field (EMF) on the circadian singing activity of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). Groups of 10 crickets were exposed to strong, DC-induced EMFs under two light regimes, 12:12 (L:D) h and 0:24 (L:D) h. Exposure to the strong EMF resulted in an increase in mean time per hour during which one or more crickets were singing and in number of crickets singing per hour. Correcting for phase shift during O:24 (L:D) h, the daily pattern of singing was apparently unaffected by any treatment. The greatest percentage of singing and number of crickets singing per hour occurred during actual or expected scotophase. This is the first report of an increase in insect activity during exposure to a strong DC-induced EMF.

  12. Behavioral response to antennal tactile stimulation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Jiro; Akamine, Seiryo

    2012-01-01

    We examined behavioral responses of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to tactile stimuli to the antennae. Three stimulants of similar shape and size but different textures were used: a tibia from the hunting spider Heteropoda venatoria (potential predator), a tibia from the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi (less likely predator), and a glass rod. Each stimulus session comprised a first gentle contact and a second strong contact. The evoked behavioral responses were classified into four c...

  13. Calling song and phonotactic selectivity in the field cricket Teleogryllus emma (Orthoptera: Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Jang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Males of the field cricket Teleogryllus emma produce calling songs that are attractive to receptive females. The callingsongs of T. emma consist of two components, the long chirp that is composed of up to 12 single pulses, followed by avariable number of short chirps. Based on the analysis of coefficient of variation (CV, temporal characters of the longchirp were less variable than those of the short chirps in male calling songs. To test for phonotactic selectivity of females,we conducted a single-stimulus playback experiment in which five stimuli (standard, long chirp only, long chirp augmented,short chirps only, and short chirps augmented were used. The standard stimulus included both long and shortchirps whose characteristics were derived from the calling songs of field populations. Results of the playback experimentshowed that female crickets oriented more frequently toward the stimuli that included the long chirp (standard, longchirp only, and long chirp augmented stimuli than toward the stimuli lacking the long chirp (short chirps only and shortchirps augmented stimuli, indicating that the long chirp in the calling songs was required to elicit positive phonotaxis inthe female crickets. The result of CV analysis of the male calling songs and the findings of the female phonotaxis experimentsuggested that the long chirp of calling songs may play a role in species recognition in T. emma.

  14. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2015-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, with a game involving some of the ex members (but unfortunately none of the founder members) followed by dinner on Saturday, September 5th. CERN started playing cricket on various football fields in the Geneva Canton, then on the Meyrin site next to where the Kindergarten is now situated, bowling from one end only. Later, net practice took place where building 40 is now, before moving over to the Prevessin site in the early 70s. Lots of work was done to prepare a strip onto which a mat was rolled and the strip was rolled before each match using a heavy roller which required a minimum of 6 to push! This pre-match training is no longer necessary as the club invested in an artificial wicket in 2001. CERN now has one of the best grounds in the region. Last year CERN made it to the Cricket Switzerland semi-final, losing a close match in the last over, but is hoping to go one better in this year’s semi-final on September 13th, which will be...

  15. Sex-specific effect of juvenile diet on adult disease resistance in a field cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint D Kelly

    Full Text Available Food limitation is expected to reduce an individual's body condition (body mass scaled to body size and cause a trade-off between growth and other fitness-related traits, such as immunity. We tested the condition-dependence of growth and disease resistance in male and female Gryllus texensis field crickets by manipulating diet quality via nutrient content for their entire life and then subjecting individuals to a host resistance test using the live bacterium Serratia marcescens. As predicted, crickets on a high-quality diet eclosed more quickly, and at a larger body size and mass. Crickets on a high-quality diet were not in better condition at the time of eclosion, but they were in better condition 7-11 days after eclosion, with females also being in better condition than males. Despite being in better condition, however, females provided with a high-quality diet had significantly poorer disease resistance than females on a low-quality diet and in poor condition. Similarly, males on low- and high-quality diets did not differ in their disease resistance, despite differing in their body condition. A sex difference in disease resistance under diet-restriction suggests that females might allocate resources toward immunity during development if they expect harsh environmental conditions as an adult or it might suggest that females allocate resources toward other life history activities (i.e. reproduction when food availability increases. We do not know what immune effectors were altered under diet-restriction to increase disease resistance, but our findings suggest that increased immune function might provide an explanation for the sexually-dimorphic increase in longevity generally observed in diet-restricted animals.

  16. Behavioral response to antennal tactile stimulation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Jiro; Akamine, Seiryo

    2012-07-01

    We examined behavioral responses of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to tactile stimuli to the antennae. Three stimulants of similar shape and size but different textures were used: a tibia from the hunting spider Heteropoda venatoria (potential predator), a tibia from the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi (less likely predator), and a glass rod. Each stimulus session comprised a first gentle contact and a second strong contact. The evoked behavioral responses were classified into four categories: aversion, aggression, antennal search, and no response. Regardless of the stimulants, the crickets exhibited antennal search and aversion most frequently in response to the first and second stimuli, respectively. The frequency of aversion was significantly higher to the tibia of H. venatoria than to other stimulants. The most striking observation was that aggressive responses were exclusive to the H. venatoria tibia. To specify the hair type that induced aggression, we manipulated two types of common hairs (bristle and fine) on the tibia of the predatory spider. When bristle hairs were removed from the H. venatoria tibia, aggression was significantly reduced. These results suggest that antennae can discriminate the tactile texture of external objects and elicit adaptive behavioral responses. PMID:22534774

  17. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a good start to the season, winning five and losing two matches, with one cancelled due to torrential rain in the South of France. Reports of the matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “Match reports”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place every week at 18:00 on the Prevessin site.

  18. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2013 season begins soon! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 18th until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 21st against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  19. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  20. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2016 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 14th, at 18:00!  The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html There will be an indoor game at the Bout-du-Monde on April 3rd and the season starts with a match at home on Sunday, April 24th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  1. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a mixed first month of what has been the wettest and coldest start to a season ever, winning two and losing two matches, with one cancelled. Information about the club can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Reports of the matches can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” and the schedule, which includes weekend trips to the South of France, Bellingham (UK), and Milan, can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting – several sessions have already been cancelled due to the inclement weather).

  2. Acoustic experience shapes alternative mating tactics and reproductive investment in male field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W; Gray, Brian; Zuk, Marlene

    2010-05-11

    Developmental plasticity allows juvenile animals to assess environmental cues and adaptively shape behavioral and morphological traits to maximize fitness in their adult environment. Sexual signals are particularly conspicuous cues, making them likely candidates for mediating such responses. Plasticity in male reproductive traits is a common phenomenon, but empirical evidence for signal-mediated plasticity in males is lacking. We tested whether experience of acoustic sexual signals during juvenile stages influences the development of three adult traits in the continuously breeding field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: male mating tactics, reproductive investment, and condition. All three traits were affected by juvenile acoustic experience. Males of this species produce a long-range calling song to attract receptive females, but they can also behave as satellites by parasitizing other males' calls. Males reared in an environment mimicking a population with many calling males were less likely to exhibit satellite behavior, invested more in reproductive tissues, and attained higher condition than males reared in a silent environment. These results contrast with other studies and demonstrate how the effects of juvenile social experience on adult male morphology, reproductive investment, and behavior may subsequently influence sexual selection and phenotypic evolution. PMID:20417103

  3. Juvenile pathogen exposure affects the presence of personality in adult field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eDiRienzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ever increasing interest in animal personalities, i.e. among-individual variation in behavior, there are still several gaps in our understanding of how experiences during ontogeny influence the expression of behavior in adulthood. Immune challenges during ontogeny have been proposed to drive feedback loops between investment in immune function and personality type. In this study we investigate the effects of an early immune challenge, in the form of an introduced bacterial pathogen, on the development of personality in field crickets. Our results indicate that early pathogen exposure does not influence life history characteristics, immune response, or mean level of boldness behavior. Instead, early immune challenge affects the presence of personality later in the adult stage. Specifically, immune challenged individuals lack repeatability in some aspects of boldness behavior, indicating that among-individual variation is not present, while non-immune challenged individuals remain repeatable in their boldness behavior. This study joins a slowly growing body of literature indicating that experiences during ontogeny can have large influences on the among-individual differences in behaviors, thus affecting the presence of personality as adults.

  4. Costs of an induced immune response on sexual display and longevity in field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, Alain; Scheuber, Hannes; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2004-10-01

    Immune system activation may benefit hosts by generating resistance to parasites. However, natural resources are usually limited, causing a trade-off between the investment in immunity and that in other life-history or sexually selected traits. Despite its importance for the evolution of host defense, state-dependent fitness costs of immunity received little attention under natural conditions. In a field experiment we manipulated the nutritional condition of male field crickets Gryllus campestris and subsequently investigated the effect of an induced immune response through inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Immune system activation caused a condition-dependent reduction in body condition, which was proportional to the condition-gain during the preceding food-supplementation period. Independent of nutritional condition, the immune insult induced an enduring reduction in daily calling rate, whereas control-injected males fully regained their baseline level of sexual signaling following a temporary decline. Since daily calling rate affects female mate choice under natural conditions, this suggests a decline in male mating success as a cost of induced immunity. Food supplementation enhanced male life span, whereas the immune insult reduced longevity, independent of nutritional status. Thus, immune system activation ultimately curtails male fitness due to a combined decline in sexual display and life span. Our field study thus indicates a key role for fitness costs of induced immunity in the evolution of host defense. In particular, costs expressed in sexually selected traits might warrant the honest advertisement of male health status, thus representing an important mechanism in parasite-mediated sexual selection. PMID:15562690

  5. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club is now midway through the season and has had mixed fortunes, winning seven and losing five matches, with one drawn last weekend against the Fleet Street Strollers. Two wins were recorded against Trafford Solicitors in Bellingham in the north of England only days after the heaviest rainfall in the North East in living memory, read the detailed match report online to see what the grounds man had to say when we insisted on playing! Reports of all matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “ Matches (Fixtures, results, reports) ”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Upcoming fixtures include the Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition on August 19th and away matches against Rhone CC in Lyon and against Milan and Euratom Cricket clubs in Settimo Milanese in September. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on Thursday every week...

  6. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club Annual General Meeting will be held on Monday 26th November 2012 at 18:30 Restaurant No 1 (NOVAE) Draft Agenda Opening/Adoption of agenda/Apologies for absence Minutes of the 2011 AGM Captain's Report for 2012 Treasurer's Report for 2012 Groundsman's and Kit Report for 2012 Election of Officers for 2013 SCA affairs and CERN Fixtures for 2013 Any other business Close of meeting Offices up for election are: Secretary, Captain, Vice-captain, Treasurer and Groundsman. Any nominations should be sent to the Secretary in time for the Meeting. For more details on the CERN Cricket Club, see the web page http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  7. Influence of the male ejaculate on post-mating prezygotic barriers in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Larson

    Full Text Available Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create 'spermless' males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs.

  8. Sexual Signaling and Immune Function in the Black Field Cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    OpenAIRE

    Drayton, Jean M.; Matthew D Hall; John Hunt; Jennions, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis predicts that male sexual trait expression should be positively correlated with immunocompetence. Here we investigate if immune function in the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus, is related to specific individual components of male sexual signals, as well as to certain multivariate combinations of these components that females most strongly prefer. Male T. commodus produce both advertisement and courtship calls prior to mating. We measured fine-scale stru...

  9. Cricket Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Gamage Harsha Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of a compilation of three research papers and a non-statistical essay.Chapter 2 considers the decision problem of when to declare during the third innings of atest cricket match. There are various factors that affect the decision of the declaring teamincluding the target score, the number of overs remaining, the relative desire to win versusdraw, and the scoring characteristics of the particular match. Decision rules are developedand these are assessed against historical ...

  10. Sex, death, and genetic variation: natural and sexual selection on cricket song

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, D.A.; Cade, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Male field crickets, Gryllus integer, in Texas, USA, produce a trilled calling song that attracts female crickets, resulting in enhanced mating success. Gravid female parasitoid flies, Ormia ochracea, are also attracted to male cricket calling song, resulting in the death of the male within about seven days. Using playbacks of field-cricket calling song in the natural habitat, we show that both female crickets and female parasitoid flies prefer male calling song with average numbers of pulses...

  11. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club Match Reports The cricket season is well under way, despite the weather, and several matches have been played. The match reporters have, however, found it too difficult to limit their reports to ¼ of a page, hence the reports have not appeared in the bulletin. All reports can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/reports/reports.html The list of forthcoming matches can be consulted at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/fixtures.html Further information about the CERN Cricket Club can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  12. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is

  13. Sexual signaling and immune function in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Drayton

    Full Text Available The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis predicts that male sexual trait expression should be positively correlated with immunocompetence. Here we investigate if immune function in the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus, is related to specific individual components of male sexual signals, as well as to certain multivariate combinations of these components that females most strongly prefer. Male T. commodus produce both advertisement and courtship calls prior to mating. We measured fine-scale structural parameters of both call types and also recorded nightly advertisement calling effort. We then measured two standard indices of immune function: lysozyme-like activity of the haemolymph and haemocyte counts. We found a weak, positive relationship between advertisement calling effort and lysozyme-like activity. There was, however, little evidence that individual structural call components or the net multivariate attractiveness of either call type signalled immune function. The relationships between immunity and sexual signaling did not differ between inbred and outbred males. Our data suggest that it is unlikely that females assess overall male immune function using male calls.

  14. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL. Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk.

  15. Cricket club

    CERN Document Server

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC JOINS IN THREE DAYS OF GOODWILL FOR UK JOURNALISTS   22 24 July vs FLEET STREET STROLLERS Fleet Street Strollers Cricket Club, a 17-strong group of professional journalists and friends from the UK Home Counties, visited CERN for the first time on 22-24 July. On Friday 22 July, CERN's Visitor Centre provided their usual polished tour and information services.  Before the visit the Strollers had hoped to stroll underground to the Atlas detector.  Forewarned that this was not possible they hid any disappointment, judging by the acuteness and variety of the question-and-answer sessions.  And the cash register of the Visitor Shop was busy. On Saturday 23 July, Strollers won the toss and batted first in a 35-over game.  D'Mello and Campbell bowled tightly for CERN and Strollers were 13 for 2 after 6 overs.  CERN released the pressure with a few overs from L. Osborne and Curtis but, at the point where Strollers were looking...

  16. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC VERSUS TRAFFORD SOLICITORS CC IN BELLINGHAN ON JUNE 26th/27th 2010 The CERN cricket club traveled to the North of England for their first tour of the season, playing two games over the course of the weekend of 26-27th June against Trafford Solicitors CC (TSCC).   The sunny weather was almost unprecedented in the history of this fixture.  The first game on Saturday saw the CERN team rewarded for their accurate bowling, as they restricted TSCC to 130 all out: T. Goodyear the pick of the bowlers with 4-7, with three wickets for Stucki.  Despite losing three wickets, the runs were comfortable chased down in 26 overs, with Elvin top scoring on 34, and K. Goodyear hitting the winning runs to finish on 32 not out. The second match saw TSCC setting a challenging target of 179 from their 30 overs, Hoburn scoring 61, and Barrett taking 3-40.  Osborne very narrowly failed to take a hat-trick in the final over.   CERN CC’s reply started w...

  17. The Aware Cricket Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Wazir Zada; Arshad, Quratul Ain

    2011-01-01

    The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it [1]. This research work is a mere effort for automated decision making during sports of most common interest leveraging ubiquitous computing. Primarily cricket has been selected for the first implementation of the idea. A positioning system is used for locating the objects moving in the field. Main objectives of the research are to help achieve the following goals. 1) Make Decisions where human eye can make error due to human limitations. 2) Simulate the Match activity during and after the game in a 3D computerized Graphics system. 3) Make various types of game and performance analysis of a certain team or a player.

  18. The Aware Cricket Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wazir Zada Khan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. This research work is a mere effort for automated decision making during sports of most common interest leveraging ubiquitous computing. Primarily cricket has been selected for the first implementation of the idea. A positioning system is used for locating the objects moving in the field. Main objectives of the research are to help achieve the following goals. 1 Make Decisions where human eye can make error due to human limitations. 2 Simulate the Match activity during and after the game in a 3D computerized Graphics system. 3 Make various types of game and performance analysis of a certain team or a player.

  19. CERN Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket club

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2015 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 16th, at 18:00! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 16th (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 19th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  20. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC in the 20/20 Tournament at the Bout-du-Monde on 11th/12th September CERN played Nestlé in the first semi-final on Saturday. Nestlé were bowled out for 82 in the 20th over, thanks to excellent bowling by Campbell (4 overs, 3 for 9), D’Mello (4 overs, 2 for 14, including a beautiful C&B), Onions (4 overs, 2 for 20), Elvin (4 overs, 1 for 29) and Ahmed (4 overs, 1 for 16). Campbell (44 no) and Osborne (25no) made short work of the total, ably assisted by any number of wides, reaching the target in the 9th over. On Sunday, CERN played GICC in the final. This time batting first, CERN made 196 for 7 thanks mainly to a partnership of 124 runs between D’Mello and McNaught (whose two previous scores were ducks) that ran into the 16th over. D’Mello hit a superb and quick-fire 69 in 47 balls, including 8 fours and 3 sixes. It included sumptuous straight sixes from both ends. (Anything which ends up in the adjoining football fields or tennis courts...

  1. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    Bern CC V CERN CC in Bern on Sunday 6th May 2012 The storm clouds gathered over Switzerland this weekend as a CERN XI travelled more in hope than expectation to Bern for our first league game of the season. Despite the gloomy weather forecast the sun shone and Captain Elvin won the toss and put Bern into bat on a damp, soft and tricky wicket. Early success came as D'Mello had the Bern captain caught by D. Ahmed in his second over. This was to prove the only success in the first 20 overs as BERN made light of the pitch and the CERN attack to go into the drinks break on 108-1. CERN came storming out after the break with Elvin making the breakthrough to dismiss the Bern number 2 for 74. D'Mello then came back into the attack and ended up with 4-34 as CERN held their catches and fielded well. Chauduri was in fine form and stormed in to take 3-27. Elvin was tight and economical until he went for 23 in his final over but D. Ahmed mopped up the tail with 2-16 in a fine 4 over spell. CERN...

  2. Examining the effectiveness of discriminant function analysis and cluster analysis in species identification of male field crickets based on their calling songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Jaiswara

    Full Text Available Traditional taxonomy based on morphology has often failed in accurate species identification owing to the occurrence of cryptic species, which are reproductively isolated but morphologically identical. Molecular data have thus been used to complement morphology in species identification. The sexual advertisement calls in several groups of acoustically communicating animals are species-specific and can thus complement molecular data as non-invasive tools for identification. Several statistical tools and automated identifier algorithms have been used to investigate the efficiency of acoustic signals in species identification. Despite a plethora of such methods, there is a general lack of knowledge regarding the appropriate usage of these methods in specific taxa. In this study, we investigated the performance of two commonly used statistical methods, discriminant function analysis (DFA and cluster analysis, in identification and classification based on acoustic signals of field cricket species belonging to the subfamily Gryllinae. Using a comparative approach we evaluated the optimal number of species and calling song characteristics for both the methods that lead to most accurate classification and identification. The accuracy of classification using DFA was high and was not affected by the number of taxa used. However, a constraint in using discriminant function analysis is the need for a priori classification of songs. Accuracy of classification using cluster analysis, which does not require a priori knowledge, was maximum for 6-7 taxa and decreased significantly when more than ten taxa were analysed together. We also investigated the efficacy of two novel derived acoustic features in improving the accuracy of identification. Our results show that DFA is a reliable statistical tool for species identification using acoustic signals. Our results also show that cluster analysis of acoustic signals in crickets works effectively for species

  3. Genes with Restricted Introgression in a Field Cricket (Gryllus firmus/Gryllus pennsylvanicus) Hybrid Zone Are Concentrated on the X Chromosome and a Single Autosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroja, Luana S; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Characterizing the extent of genomic differentiation between recently diverged lineages provides an important context for understanding the early stages of speciation. When such lineages form discrete hybrid zones, patterns of differential introgression allow direct estimates of which genome regions are likely involved in speciation and local adaptation. Here we use a backcross experimental design to construct a genetic linkage map for the field crickets Gryllus firmus and Gryllus pennsylvanicus, which interact in a well-characterized hybrid zone in eastern North America. We demonstrate that loci with major allele frequency differences between allopatric populations are not randomly distributed across the genome. Instead, most are either X-linked or map to a few small autosomal regions. Furthermore, the subset of those highly differentiated markers that exhibit restricted introgression across the cricket hybrid zone are also concentrated on the X chromosome (39 of 50 loci) and in a single 7-cM region of one autosome. Although the accumulation on the sex chromosome of genes responsible for postzygotic barriers is a well-known phenomenon, less attention has been given to the genomic distribution of genes responsible for prezygotic barriers. We discuss the implications of our results for speciation, both in the context of the role of sex chromosomes and also with respect to the likely causes of heterogeneous genomic divergence. Although we do not yet have direct evidence for the accumulation of ecological, behavioral, or fertilization prezygotic barrier genes on the X chromosome, faster-X evolution could make these barriers more likely to be X-linked. PMID:26311650

  4. Examining the effectiveness of discriminant function analysis and cluster analysis in species identification of male field crickets based on their calling songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswara, Ranjana; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2013-01-01

    Traditional taxonomy based on morphology has often failed in accurate species identification owing to the occurrence of cryptic species, which are reproductively isolated but morphologically identical. Molecular data have thus been used to complement morphology in species identification. The sexual advertisement calls in several groups of acoustically communicating animals are species-specific and can thus complement molecular data as non-invasive tools for identification. Several statistical tools and automated identifier algorithms have been used to investigate the efficiency of acoustic signals in species identification. Despite a plethora of such methods, there is a general lack of knowledge regarding the appropriate usage of these methods in specific taxa. In this study, we investigated the performance of two commonly used statistical methods, discriminant function analysis (DFA) and cluster analysis, in identification and classification based on acoustic signals of field cricket species belonging to the subfamily Gryllinae. Using a comparative approach we evaluated the optimal number of species and calling song characteristics for both the methods that lead to most accurate classification and identification. The accuracy of classification using DFA was high and was not affected by the number of taxa used. However, a constraint in using discriminant function analysis is the need for a priori classification of songs. Accuracy of classification using cluster analysis, which does not require a priori knowledge, was maximum for 6-7 taxa and decreased significantly when more than ten taxa were analysed together. We also investigated the efficacy of two novel derived acoustic features in improving the accuracy of identification. Our results show that DFA is a reliable statistical tool for species identification using acoustic signals. Our results also show that cluster analysis of acoustic signals in crickets works effectively for species classification and

  5. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    CERN CRICKET CLUB   The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has been a good one so far with the team qualifying for the Swiss Cup semi-finals, with home advantage on the Prevessin ground on Sunday, August 24th. Their opponents will only be known the day before when the final game in the Eastern Division is played.  The CERN ground hasn’t quite recovered from the Bosons&More party last year, the wet weather making it impossible to roll the ground, but the new, wider strip is a big improvement. Net practice eventually started in late July, which is probably why the results at the beginning of the season weren’t so good. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes pla...

  6. Cern Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Cricket Club

    2014-01-01

      Cern Cricket Club The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has started earlier than usual, with a game scheduled for the first time ever on Easter Sunday.  Due to repair work for the damage done to the ground because of the “Bosons&More” party at the end of September, all games until June have had to be scheduled away. Net practice, which normally takes place on the ground from mid-April, will not start until mid-June. The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    

  7. Rapid evolution and gene expression: a rapidly evolving Mendelian trait that silences field crickets has widespread effects on mRNA and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, S; Liu, X; Ly, T; Fang, Y; Rockliffe, N; Paterson, S; Shirran, S L; Botting, C H; Bailey, N W

    2016-06-01

    A major advance in modern evolutionary biology is the ability to start linking phenotypic evolution in the wild with genomic changes that underlie that evolution. We capitalized on a rapidly evolving Hawaiian population of crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to test hypotheses about the genomic consequences of a recent Mendelian mutation of large effect which disrupts the development of sound-producing structures on male forewings. The resulting silent phenotype, flatwing, persists because of natural selection imposed by an acoustically orienting parasitoid, but it interferes with mate attraction. We examined gene expression differences in developing wing buds of wild-type and flatwing male crickets using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics. Most differentially expressed (DE) transcripts were down-regulated in flatwing males (625 up vs. 1716 down), whereas up- and down-regulated proteins were equally represented (30 up and 34 down). Differences between morphs were clearly not restricted to a single pathway, and we recovered annotations associated with a broad array of functions that would not be predicted a priori. Using a candidate gene detection test based on homology, we identified 30% of putative Drosophila wing development genes in the cricket transcriptome, but only 10% were DE. In addition to wing-related annotations, endocrine pathways and several biological processes such as reproduction, immunity and locomotion were DE in the mutant crickets at both biological levels. Our results illuminate the breadth of genetic pathways that are potentially affected in the early stages of adaptation. PMID:26999731

  8. Student Equity's Starring Role in Australian Higher Education: Not Yet Centre Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    The field of Australian higher education has changed, is changing and is about to change, repositioned in relation to other "fields of power". It is a sector now well defined by its institutional groupings and by their relative claims to selectivity and exclusivity, with every suggestion of their differentiation growing. The potential of a…

  9. Nature and incidence of upper limb injuries in professional cricket players a prospective observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and is gaining in importance in all south-east Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence, nature, and site of acute upper limb injuries sustained by professional cricketers of north India over a period of one year. Material & methods 95 cricket players (mean age 18.9 years were prospectively evaluated for nature and incidence of upper limb injuries from 1st November 2008 to 31st October 2009. For the purpose of comparison the calculated injury incidence included injuries sustained during match as well as practice. Injuries were also grouped according to the type of cricket activities such as batting or fielding. Results Out of 95 players evaluated, 24 were bowlers, 19 were batsmen, 8 were wicket keepers and the other 44 cricketers declared themselves as all rounders. There were a total of 16 upper limb injuries in 16 (16.8% players. The majority of injuries (10/16 occurred while fielding. Out of 16 injuries, 11 were seen in hand, 3 were observed in elbow, while 2 patients suffered from shoulder problem. Twelve were acute injuries while 4 were classified as repetitive stress injuries (RSI. Conclusion The incidence of upper limb injuries in cricketers at the professional and semi-professional level is significant, causing them to miss matches or practice for a significant number of days. This is the first study of Indian cricketers which documents the high incidence of upper limb injuries. The study highlights the importance of injury surveillance for Indian cricket. It is a concern which needs to be addressed by the players, coaches, teachers, administrators and medical personnel involved with cricket.

  10. Cricket for Politics and Peace; from 1987 to 2007 Cricket World Cup between India and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel AHMAD SHAHID

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper will discussed the effectiveness of cricket on both nations as cricket is very popular sport in this region particularly in India and Pakistan. The history of Cricket series between India and Pakistan from 1987 to 2007 cricket world cup will also be analyzed that how cricket was effective during these periods to release the tension of both countries. This study conveyed that the power of Cricket proved a peaceful solution of every circumstance between India and Pakistan can be resolved as compare to the gun diplomacy.

  11. Dynamic Visual Acuity Training in Cricket Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Edgar, B.Optom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is the ability of an observer to correctly identify details of a moving target and is considered to be important for tasks like driving. Dynamic Visual Acuity is better in athletes involved in sports such as basketball and baseball; however, no previous studies have considered the sport of cricket. We conducted a study to determine whether there was any difference in DVA between cricket and non-cricket players. Method: Dynamic visual acuity was measured by asking subjects to identify the orientation of the gap of a moving Landolt C target as a four-alternative forced-choice task. The Landolt C targets had confusion bars surrounding them. The participants in the study were tested twice with a break of seven weeks. In between the two measurements, participants underwent two training sessions (similar to the testing sessions, each three weeks apart. Results: The initial mean DVA for cricket players was 107.7 deg/sec, and the mean DVA for non-cricket players was 105.5 deg/sec, with a target size of 6/15. The subjects who participated in training (cricketers and non-cricketers improved in DVA by 41 deg/sec in contrast to the improvement in the non-training subjects of 18 deg/sec (p=0.0032. The cricketers who participated in the training improved in DVA by 44 deg/sec, whereas the cricketers who did not participate in the training improved by 19 deg/sec (p=0.0167. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in initial DVA between the cricket players and the non-cricket players. The training resulted in an extremely significant improvement in DVA performance by both the cricketers and non-cricketers.

  12. The influence of pay-to-view television on professional cricket : professional cricket player perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, James

    2014-01-01

    Professional cricket in England and Wales has undergone a significant period of transformation during the last 20 years. The aim of this study is to identify the role that pay-to-view television has played during this period of transformation from the perspective of professional cricket players. Specifically, this research seeks to identify the influence of pay-to-view television on cricket governance, economics and culture, from the perspective of professional cricket players in England and ...

  13. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  14. Cricket: A Mapped, Persistent Object Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekita, Eugene; Zwilling, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Cricket, a new database storage system that is intended to be used as a platform for design environments and persistent programming languages. Cricket uses the memory management primitives of the Mach operating system to provide the abstraction of a shared, transactional single-level store that can be directly accessed by user applications. In this paper, we present the design and motivation for Cricket. We also present some initial performance results which show that, for its intended applications, Cricket can provide better performance than a general-purpose database storage system.

  15. Atmospheric radon, CO2 and CH4 dynamics in an Australian coal seam gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, D. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane concentrations (CH4) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) were used to gain insight into atmospheric chemistry within an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). A˜3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 2 km to 4 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p gas field related to point sources (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffse soil sources due to changes in the soil structural and hydrological characteristics. A rapid qualitative assessment of CH4 and CO2 concentration, and carbon isotopes using a mobile cavity ring-down spectrometer system showed a widespread enrichment of both CH4 and CO2 within the production gas field. Concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were as high as 6.89 ppm and 541 ppm respectively compared average concentrations of 1.78 ppm (CH4) and 388 ppm (CO2) outside the gas field. The δ13C values showed distinct differences between areas inside and outside the production field with the δ13C value of the CH4 source within the field matching that of the methane in the CSG.

  16. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of cricket teeth are always interesting. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of a cricket tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. The interior of the tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points towards the top of the tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate randomly into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp is proposed and a detailed discussion is given in this paper. (authors)

  17. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket tooth

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Xueqing; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    Cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of the cricket teeth are always interested. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of the cricket teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. While, the interior of the teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points at the top of tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate random into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp was proposed and a d...

  18. The development of the edible cricket industry in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Flore, Roberto;

    2016-01-01

    considered in this study: cricket farmers; wholesale traders and market vendors; tourism agents; international organisa tions; chefs; private companies; researchers; and governmental representatives. The farming and sale of crickets is still a small-scale activity which is relatively profitable...

  19. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  20. Effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in the Australian North West region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Edwin; Lowe, Ryan; Péquignet, Christine; Ivey, Greg; Jones, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern Australian coastline is subject to frequent extreme wave forcing resulting from tropical cyclones (TCs) during the summer months on Australia's North West Shelf (NWS). Compared to the northern hemisphere, knowledge about the wave climate, and TC generated waves in particular on the NWS is limited. TCs on the NWS show considerable variability in paths: some move predominantly parallel to the coastline, while others propagate in a coast-normal direction. It has been suggested that surface wave fields generated by coast-parallel moving TCs are different compared to TCs moving in a coast-normal direction across the shelf. In particular, wave heights generated by coast-parallel storms may be limited in size due to both refraction and bottom friction effects. First, this study evaluates the performance of a numerical wave model (SWAN) to hindcast the surface wave fields under different TC conditions forced by a parametric TC wind model of the region. Hindcast simulations were run for 4 case studies: the coast-parallel TCs Nicholas (2008) and Bianca (2011), and the coast-normal TCs Lua (2012) and Christine (2013). Model output was compared both temporally and spatially by in situ wave buoy data and satellite altimeter data and generally showed a good agreement for throughout the history of these TCs. However, for the more intense and larger system TC Lua, the model was found to overestimate the significant wave heights, especially in the left front quadrant of the storm. A modified SWAN model using adjusted wave energy dissipation terms was found to improve model output under these conditions. Second, output from the numerical simulations is used to analyse the mechanisms behind the generation and dissipation of the wave field and to relate them to tropical cyclone characteristics including the radius of maximum winds and the storm translation speed and direction.

  1. Optical, physical and chemical characteristics of Australian continental aerosols: results from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radhi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is one of the major components of the world's aerosol mix, having a number of impacts within the Earth system. However, the climate forcing impact of mineral dust is currently poorly constrained, with even its sign uncertain. As Australian deserts are more reddish than those in the Northern Hemisphere, it is important to better understand the physical, chemical and optical properties of this important aerosol. We have investigated the properties of Australian desert dust at a site in SW Queensland, which is strongly influenced by both dust and biomass burning aerosol.

    Three years of ground-based monitoring of spectral optical thickness has provided a statistical picture of gross aerosol properties. The aerosol optical depth data showed a clear though moderate seasonal cycle with an annual mean of 0.06 ± 0.03. The Angstrom coefficient showed a stronger cycle, indicating the influence of the winter-spring burning season in Australia's north. AERONET size distributions showed a generally bimodal character, with the coarse mode assumed to be mineral dust, and the fine mode a mixture of fine dust, biomass burning and marine biogenic material.

    In November 2006 we undertook a field campaign which collected 4 sets of size-resolved aerosol samples for laboratory analysis – ion beam analysis and ion chromatography. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of all filter samples, although elemental ratios were considered the most reliable output. Scatter plots showed that Fe, Al and Ti were well correlated with Si, and Co reasonably well correlated with Si, with the Fe/Al ratio somewhat higher than values reported from Northern Hemisphere sites (as expected. Scatter plots for Ca, Mn and K against Si showed clear evidence of a second population, which in some cases could be identified with a particular sample day or size fraction. These data may be used to attempt to build a signature of soil in this

  2. Enrichment of Radon and Carbon Dioxide in the Open Atmosphere of an Australian Coal Seam Gas Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Douglas R.; Santos, Isaac R.; Maher, Damien T.; Cyronak, Tyler J.; Davis, Rachael J.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both 222Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ∼390 ppm at the control s...

  3. Strength and Power Correlates of Throwing Velocity on Subelite Male Cricket Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan L; Carter, Thomas; Whitaker, Gary; Nicholls, Owen; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-06-01

    Freeston, JL, Carter, T, Whitaker, G, Nicholls, O, and Rooney, KB. Strength and power correlates of throwing velocity on subelite male cricket players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1646-1651, 2016-Throwing velocity is an important aspect of fielding in cricket to affect run-outs and reduce the opponent's run-scoring opportunities. Although a relationship between strength and/or power and throwing velocity has been well established in baseball, water polo, and European handball, it has not been adequately explored in cricket. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the relationship between measures of strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players. Seventeen male cricket players (mean ± SD; age, 21.1 ± 1.6 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; weight, 79.8 ± 6.4 kg) from an elite athlete program were tested for maximal throwing velocity from the stretch position and after a 3-meter shuffle. They were also assessed for strength and power using a range of different measures. Throwing velocity from the stretch position (30.5 ± 2.4 m·s) was significantly related to dominant leg lateral-to-medial jump (LMJ) distance (r = 0.71; p distance (r = 0.67; p distance (p = 0.97), nondominant shoulder IR strength (p = 0.80), 1 repetition maximum (RM) squat strength (p = 0.57), 1RM bench press strength (p = 0.90), height (p = 0.33), or weight (p = 0.29). Multiple regression analysis revealed that dominant MB Rot and MB CP explained 66% of the variance. The results were similar for velocity after a shuffle step (31.8 ± 2.1 m·s); however, VJ height reached statistical significance (r = 0.51; p ≤ 0.05). The multiple regression was also similar with MB Rot and MB CP explaining 70% of the variance. The cricketers in this study threw with greater velocity than elite junior and subelite senior cricketers but with lower velocities than elite senior cricketers and collegiate level and professional baseball players. This is the first study to demonstrate a link between

  4. Inbreeding and courtship calling in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, J M; Milner, R N C; Hall, M D; Jennions, M D

    2011-01-01

    Male field crickets produce two acoustic signals for mating: advertisement calls and courtship calls. While the importance of advertisement calling in mate attraction is well understood, the function of courtship calling is less clear. Here, we tested if the courtship call of male crickets Teleogryllus commodus signals aspects of male quality by comparing the calls of inbred and outbred males. We examined the effect of one generation of full sibling mating on fine-scale call structure, along with several life history traits. Inbreeding reduced nymph survival but had no significant effect on weight or development time. Inbreeding resulted in a small but significant change in two of the six call parameters measured. We then tested if inbreeding affects call trait combinations that are important to females by using the results of a previous selection analysis to compare the multivariate attractiveness of the calls of inbred and outbred males. There was no difference. We conclude that the courtship call of T. commodus is not a reliable signal of aspects of male quality that are affected by inbreeding (which generally reduces fitness-enhancing traits). It might, however, signal components of male fitness that are not affected by changes in heterozygosity. PMID:21054622

  5. Acoustic signalling for mate attraction in crickets: Abdominal ganglia control the timing of the calling song pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Pedro F; Hedwig, Berthold

    2016-08-01

    Decoding the neural basis of behaviour requires analysing how the nervous system is organised and how the temporal structure of motor patterns emerges from its activity. The stereotypical patterns of the calling song behaviour of male crickets, which consists of chirps and pulses, is an ideal model to study this question. We applied selective lesions to the abdominal nervous system of field crickets and performed long-term acoustic recordings of the songs. Specific lesions to connectives or ganglia abolish singing or reliably alter the temporal features of the chirps and pulses. Singing motor control appears to be organised in a modular and hierarchically fashion, where more posterior ganglia control the timing of the chirp pattern and structure and anterior ganglia the timing of the pulses. This modular organisation may provide the substrate for song variants underlying calling, courtship and rivalry behaviour and for the species-specific song patterns in extant crickets. PMID:27109338

  6. Hydration benefits to courtship feeding in crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, T. M.; Johnson, J. C.; Sakaluk, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The spermatophore transferred by male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) at mating includes a large gelatinous spermatophylax that the female consumes after copulation. Although previous studies have shown that G. sigillatus females gain no nutritional benefits from consuming food gifts, there may be other benefits to their consumption. We examined potential hydration benefits to females by experimentally manipulating both the availability of water and the number of food gifts that fem...

  7. The aeration of clay soils in cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Simon A.

    2012-01-01

    In the game of cricket good ball-surface interactions are essential and require a hard, flat surface. To achieve this the clay loam soil comprising the pitch is compressed and compacted using a smooth wheeled roller, which when combined with the drying action of the grass plant roots, causing the clay minerals within the soil to shrink, creates a high bulk density, hard surface on which to play. High bulk density soils present difficult growing conditions for plants due to h...

  8. RAD/COMM ''Cricket'' Test Report

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, P J

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate and characterize the radiological response of a ''Cricket'' radiation detection system. The ''Cricket'' is manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems Corp., which is located in Ontario, Canada. The system is designed to detect radioactive material that may be contained in scrap metal. The Cricket's detection unit is mounted to the base of a grappler and monitors material, while the grappler's tines hold the material. It can also be used to scan material in an attempt to isolate radioactive material if an alarm occurs. Testing was performed at the Environmental Effects Laboratory located at ORNL and operated by the Engineering Science and Technology Division. Tests performed included the following: (1) Background stability, (2) Energy response using sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, and sup 6 sup 0 Co, (3) Surface uniformity, (4) Angular dependence, (5) Alarm actuation, (6) Alarm threshold vs. background, (7) Shielding, (8) Re...

  9. An Introductory Application of Principal Components to Cricket Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manage, Ananda B. W.; Scariano, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis is widely used in applied multivariate data analysis, and this article shows how to motivate student interest in this topic using cricket sports data. Here, principal component analysis is successfully used to rank the cricket batsmen and bowlers who played in the 2012 Indian Premier League (IPL) competition. In…

  10. Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Williams, Caroline M.; Staples, James F.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    The time required to recover from cold-induced paralysis (chill-coma) is a common measure of insect cold tolerance used to test central questions in thermal biology and predict the effects of climate change on insect populations. The onset of chill-coma in the fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) is accompanied by a progressive drift of Na+ and water from the hemolymph to the gut, but the physiological mechanisms underlying recovery from chill-coma are not unders...

  11. Energy and greenhouse gas emissions of Australian cotton : from field to fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabbaz, B.G.; Chen, G.; Baillie, C. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which a life cycle assessment (LCA) of cotton production in Australia was conducted to evaluate energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tillage to export shipping. The study showed that on-farm indirect cotton-farming is the most energy consuming component, consuming nearly 32.36 GJ/ha of energy. On-farm indirect cotton-farming is the most GHG emitting component, emitting about 1.64 tonne of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/ha. Energy use and the emissions by off-farm direct cotton-farming were calculated as 5.09 GJ/ha and 0.14 tonne CO{sub 2}/ha respectively. Energy consumed by off-farm indirect farming was found to be 0.036 GJ/ha or 0.002 tonne CO{sub 2}/ha. The total energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the Australian cotton farming system were estimated to be 46.43 GJ/ha and 2.42 tonnes CO{sub 2}/ha for on-farm, and 5.13 GJ/ha and 0.145 tonne CO{sub 2}/ha for the off-farm sections. In total, after including emissions caused by nitrogen based fertilizers, 51.57 GJ/ha of energy is used and 2.86 tonnes CO{sub 2}/ha is emitted by a typical Australian cotton farming system from tillage to export shipping.

  12. Enrichment of radon and carbon dioxide in the open atmosphere of an Australian coal seam gas field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Douglas R; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Cyronak, Tyler J; Davis, Rachael J

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ~390 ppm at the control site to ~467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ~3 fold increase in maximum (222)Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average (222)Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  13. Two matched filters and the evolution of mating signals in four species of cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Matthias R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male field crickets produce pure-tone calling songs to attract females. Receivers are expected to have evolved a "matched filter" in the form of a tuned sensitivity for this frequency. In addition, the peripheral directionality of field crickets is sharply tuned as a result of a pressure difference receiver. We studied both forms of tuning in the same individuals of four species of cricket, where Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris are largely allopatric, whereas Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus occur also sympatrically. Results The sharpness of the sensitivity filter is highest for T. commodus, which also exhibits low interindividual variability. Individual receivers may also vary strongly in the best frequency for directional hearing. In G. campestris, such best frequencies occur even at frequencies outside the range of carrier frequencies of males. Contrary to the predictions from the "matched filter hypothesis", in three of the four species the frequency optima of the two involved filters are not matched to each other, and the mismatch can amount to 1.2 kHz. The mean carrier frequency of the male population is between the frequency optima of both filters in three species. Only in T. commodus we found a match between both filters and the male carrier frequency. Conclusion Our results show that a mismatch between the sensitivity and directionality tuning is not uncommon in crickets, and an observed match (T. commodus appears to be the exception rather than the rule. The data suggests that independent variation of both filters is possible. During evolution each sensory task may have been driven by independent constraints, and may have evolved towards its own respective optimum.

  14. The decision to fight or flee - insights into underlying mechanism in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony eStevenson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience-dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent’s actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide and some neuropeptides may promote an insect’s tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent’s actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in

  15. The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bazazi

    Full Text Available Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level.

  16. Time and timing in the acoustic recognition system of crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RalfMatthiasHennig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The songs of many insects exhibit precise timing as the result of repetitive and stereotyped subunits on several time scales. As these signals encode the identity of a species, time and timing are important for the recognition system that analyzes these signals. Crickets are a prominent example as their songs are built from sound pulses that are broadcast in a long trill or as a chirped song. This pattern appears to be analyzed on two timescales, short and long.\tRecent evidence suggests that song recognition in crickets relies on two computations with respect to time; a short Gabor function as part of a linear-nonlinear (LN model that operates as a filter for pulse rate and a longer integration time window for monitoring song energy over time. Therefore there is a twofold role for timing. A filter for pulse rate shows differentiating properties for which the specific timing of excitation and inhibition is important. For an integrator, however, the duration of the time window is more important than the precise timing of events.\tHere, we first review evidence for the role of Gabor functions and integration time windows for song recognition in crickets. We then explore the effects of duration, frequency, phase and offset of Gabor functions as these will result in differently timed patterns of excitation and inhibition. These filter properties were compared with known preference functions of crickets and katydids. In a comparative approach, the power for song discrimination by LN-models was tested with the songs of over 100 cricket species. It is demonstrated, how the acoustic signals of crickets occupy a simple 2-dimensional space for song recognition that arises from timing, the Gabor function, and time, the integration window. Finally, we discuss the evolution of recognition systems in insects based on simple sensory computations.

  17. Brief Report: Performing on the Stage, the Field, or Both? Australian Adolescent Extracurricular Activity Participation and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfield, Corey J.; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation.…

  18. Aligning Curriculum Materials with the Australian Curriculum: What Is Happening in the Field and What Needs to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to inform the deliberations of a policymakers' working group by investigating what key actors in the materials' marketplace are doing to align digital and print-based materials with the Australian Curriculum and what steps need to be taken to deliver aligned materials to schools. Content analysis method was used to…

  19. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  20. INNOVATIVE METHOD TO PRACTICE & IMPROVE THE GAME OF CRICKET

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Tariq Murtaza; Mohd. Imran; Mohd Sharique

    2015-01-01

    The game of cricket has a magnificent past and a complex history (Bob Woolmer 2008). It relishes 400-Odd years of annals (Murtaza S. T. & et. al. 2014). Authors believe that it has been originated from the ancient sport of India i.e. Gilli Danda (Tipcat in English) which has possibly the origin over 2500 years ago (Steve Craig-2002 & John Arlott-1975). Cricket was taken by the British to their Colonies & started playing & expanding into every continent on the globe. Modern day’...

  1. The effect of central contracts on the stability and performance of the England Test cricket team. [El efecto de contratos centrales sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bullough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB decided to implement central contracts for elite player management to give them control over a group of players to represent the England national team in Test cricket. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that this change in policy has had on the stability and performance of the England Test team, and discuss implications thereof. Using a sample of 13 seasons pre-central contracts (1987-1999 and 13 seasons post-central contracts (2000-2012, the results, from secondary analysis of England’s Test match scorecards from both sample periods, allowed investigation of team performance and stability. To gain a greater understanding of how central contracts impacted on the England Test side, eight interviews were also organised with key stakeholders in English cricket. The results showed that both the stability and performance of the England Test side improved considerably in the sample period post-central contracts (2000-2012 with a much greater consistency of selection (fewer changes per match alongside an improvement in England’s on-field performance (better win ratio and points per match. The paper identifies two key challenges facing the current player management system in England from domestic and external sources. Resumen En 1999 El Consejo de Cricket en Inglaterra y Gales (ECB – England and Wales Cricket Board decidió implementar contratos centrales para la dirección de jugadores de élite, con el fin de darle control sobre el grupo de jugadores que representan el equipo nacional de Inglaterra de Test cricket. El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el impacto que este cambio ha tenido sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket y considerar sus implicaciones. Tras emplear una muestra de 13 temporadas antes de la firma de los contratos centrales (entre 1987 y 1999 y otras 13 temporadas después de su implementación (entre 2000 y 2012, los

  2. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  3. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  4. The 5th Umpire: Automating Cricket's Edge Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The game of cricket and the use of technology in the sport have grown rapidly over the past decade. However, technology-based systems introduced to adjudicate decisions such as run outs, stumpings, boundary infringements and close catches are still prone to human error, and thus their acceptance has not been fully embraced by cricketing administrators. In particular, technology is not employed for bat-pad decisions. Although the snickometer may assist in adjudicating such decisions it depends heavily on human interpretation. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of Wavelets in developing an edgedetection adjudication system for the game of cricket. Artificial Intelligence (AI tools, namely Neural Networks, will be employed to automate this edge detection process. Live audio samples of ball-on-bat and ball-on-pad events from a cricket match will be recorded. DSP analysis, feature extraction and neural network classification will then be employed on these samples. Results will show the ability of the neural network to differentiate between these key events. This is crucial to developing a fully automated edge detection system.

  5. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects. PMID:26013128

  6. Aggressive behavior of the white-eye mutant crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakura, Midori; Watanabe, Takayuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior of white-eye mutant crickets was investigated and compared with that of wild-type crickets. In the dark, wild-type pairs performed long-lasting fights with significantly higher aggressive levels compared to those in the light. In contrast, fights between two white-eye mutants were not significantly different with those between two wild-type crickets both in duration and the aggressive levels. Ethograms of aggressive behavior showed that the mutants could show typical seque...

  7. AN EXAMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF INDIA'S PERFORMANCE IN ONE-DAY CRICKET INTERNATIONALS ON THE INDIAN STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Mishra; Russell Smyth

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Indian cricket team's performance in one day international cricket matches on returns on the Indian stock market. The main conclusion of the study is that there exists an asymmetric relationship between the performance of the Indian cricket team and stock returns on the Indian stock market. While a win by the Indian cricket team has no statistically significant upward impact on stock market returns, a loss generates a significant downward movement in the ...

  8. Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Michael St.J. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: michael.warne@csiro.au; Heemsbergen, Diane [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: diane.heemsbergen@csiro.au; McLaughlin, Mike [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA (Australia)], E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@csiro.au; Bell, Mike [Department of Primary Industries, Kingaroy, Qld 4610 (Australia)], E-mail: mike.bell@dpi.qld.gov.au; Broos, Kris [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: kris.broos@csiro.au; Whatmuff, Mark [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 4, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia)], E-mail: mark.whatmuff@csiro.au; Barry, Glenn [Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068 (Australia)], E-mail: glenn.barry@nrw.qld.gov.au; Nash, David [Department of Primary Industries, Ellinbank, Vic 3821 (Australia)], E-mail: david.nash@dpi.vic.gov.au; Pritchard, Deb [Curtin University of Technology, Muresk Institute, Northam WA 6401 (Australia)], E-mail: d.pritchard@curtin.edu.au; Penney, Nancy [Water Corporation of Western Australia, Leederville, WA 6001 (Australia)], E-mail: nancy.penney@watercorporation.com.au

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. - Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field.

  9. Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. - Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field

  10. Two steps to suicide in crickets harbouring hairworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, M.I.; Ponton, F.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The hairworm (Nematomorpha) Paragordius tricuspidatus has the ability to alter the behaviour of its terrestrial insect host (the cricket Nemobius sylvestris), making it jump into the water to reach its reproductive habitat. Because water is a limited and critical resource in the ecosystem, we pre...... suicidal rather than erratic behaviour. (C) 2008 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of a Filiform Mechanosensory Hair Socket of Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kanishka; Mian, Ahsan; Miller, John

    2016-08-01

    Filiform mechanosensory hairs of crickets are of great interest to engineers because of the hairs' highly sensitive response to low-velocity air-currents. In this study, we analyze the biomechanical properties of filiform hairs of the cercal sensory system of a common house cricket. The cercal sensory system consists of two antennalike appendages called cerci that are situated at the rear of the cricket's abdomen. Each cercus is covered with 500-750 flow sensitive filiform mechanosensory hairs. Each hair is embedded in a complex viscoelastic socket that acts as a spring and dashpot system and guides the movement of the hair. When a hair deflects due to the drag force induced on its length by a moving air-current, the spiking activity of the neuron that innervates the hair changes and the combined spiking activity of all hairs is extracted by the cercal sensory system. Filiform hairs have been experimentally studied by researchers, though the basis for the hairs' biomechanical characteristics is not fully understood. The socket structure has not been analyzed experimentally or theoretically from a mechanical standpoint, and the characterization that exists is mathematical in nature and only provides a very rudimentary approximation of the socket's spring nature. This study aims to understand and physically characterize the socket's behavior and interaction with the filiform hair by examining hypotheses about the hair and socket biomechanics. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was first created using confocal microscopy images of the hair and socket structure of the cricket, and then finite-element analyses (FEAs) based on the physical conditions that the insect experiences were simulated. The results show that the socket can act like a spring; however, it has two-tier rotational spring constants during pre- and postcontacts of iris and hair bulge due to its constitutive nonstandard geometric shapes. PMID:27322099

  12. A human pathogenic bacterial infection model using the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochi, Yuto; Miyashita, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Kohsuke; Mitsuyama, Masao; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-08-01

    Invertebrate animal species that can withstand temperatures as high as 37°C, the human body temperature, are limited. In the present study, we utilized the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, which lives in tropical and subtropical regions, as an animal model of human pathogenic bacterial infection. Injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus into the hemolymph killed crickets. Injected P. aeruginosa or S. aureus proliferated in the hemolymph until the cricket died. The ability of these pathogenic bacteria to kill the crickets was blocked by the administration of antibiotics. S. aureus gene-knockout mutants of virulence factors, including cvfA, agr and srtA, exhibited decreased killing ability compared with the parent strain. The dose at which 50% of crickets were killed by P. aeruginosa or S. aureus was not decreased at 37°C compared with that at 27°C. Injection of Listeria monocytogenes, which upregulates toxin expression at 37°C, killed crickets, and the dose at which 50% of crickets were killed was decreased at 37°C compared with that at 27°C. These findings suggest that the two-spotted cricket is a useful model animal for evaluating the virulence properties of various human pathogenic bacteria at variable temperature including 37°C. PMID:27377894

  13. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  14. A descriptive analysis of batting backlift techniques in cricket: Does the practice of elite cricketers follow the theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbhai, M Habib; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship that is coached from a young age is to play with a straight bat. Limited studies to date have examined whether top international batsmen use this traditionally described technique. Accordingly, we performed a descriptive, observational study of the backlift technique adopted by 65 of the most successful batsmen of all time, based on their career averages, strike rate and runs scored. The batsmen were divided into two groups depending on whether they played the game before or after 1954. Surprisingly, more than 70% of these successful batsmen did not adopt the traditionally taught technique. Instead, they adopted a more looped action in which the initial movement of the bat was in the direction of the slips, and in extreme cases it was either towards the gully/point region or to have the face of the bat directed towards the off-side. This suggests that traditionally taught batting coaching techniques may hinder, rather than enhance future cricketing performance. Since the vast majority of cricketers are not coached in this technique, this finding probably indicates that this looped technique is likely a contributing factor to effective batsmanship. PMID:26956380

  15. Endecous apterus: a new species of cave cricket from northeast Brazil, with comments on the use of subterranean habitats by Luzarinae crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Bolfarini, Márcio P; Nihei, Silvio S; De Mello, Francisco A G

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the first apterous species of Endecous Saussure (1878), collected in two caves at Ituaçu, Bahia State, Brazil. In Brazil, Endecous is the most widespread cricket in hypogean environments and its species can colonize caves and inhabit the entrance and the aphotic zones; Endecous species can also be found in the litter, rock gullies, crevices, burrows, and any natural cavities. The use of subterranean habitat by Endecous crickets and its related genera are discussed. PMID:24872041

  16. The response of European Daphnia magna Straus and Australian Daphnia carinata King to changes in geomagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Viacheslav V; Bolotovskaya, Irina V; Osipova, Elena A

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of lifelong exposure to reversed geomagnetic and zero geomagnetic fields (the latter means absence of geomagnetic field) on the life history of Daphnia carinata King from Australia and Daphnia magna Straus from Europe. Considerable deviation in the geomagnetic field from the usual strength, leads to a decrease in daphnia size and life span. Reduced brood sizes and increased body length of neonates are observed in D. magna exposed to unusual magnetic background. The most apparent effects are induced by zero geomagnetic field in both species of Daphnia. A delay in the first reproduction in zero geomagnetic field is observed only in D. magna. No adaptive maternal effects to reversed geomagnetic field are found in a line of D. magna maintained in these magnetic conditions for eight generations. Integrally, the responses of D. magna to unusual geomagnetic conditions are more extensive than that in D. carinata. We suggest that the mechanism of the effects of geomagnetic field reversal on Daphnia may be related to differences in the pattern of distribution of the particles that have a magnetic moment, or to moving charged organic molecules owing to a change in combined outcome and orientation of the geomagnetic field and Earth's gravitational field. The possibility of modulation of self-oscillating processes with changes in geomagnetic field is also discussed. PMID:23320498

  17. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CatherineLoudon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  18. Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary-Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary is a book that could be useful to sport tourism studies. It could be an excellent student’s handbook at universities with one condition to be added questions to the end of each chapter for personal study and homework. The cricket’s link to tourism could also be added with calls for case studies with different nations for university students. This book is a part of cricket’s route in this century.

  19. A history of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    Published claims in 1887-1903 that the mole cricket Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty) occurs in Puerto Rico all seem to be derived from a misidentification made by Agustín Stahl, a medical practitioner and collector of natural history objects, published in 1882. That species does not seem now to occur in Puerto Rico and almost certainly never did. However, the opportunity still exists for it to colonize by wind-assisted flight from islands to the southeast just as we believe did the mole cricke...

  20. An analysis of the efficiency of player performance at the 2011 Cricket World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Gweshe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In limited overs cricket, efficiency plays a significant role in team success. Batsmen especially are under pressure to score quickly rather than in large quantities because only 50 overs are available per innings. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA to assess the efficiency with which players at the 2011 Cricket World Cup converted inputs (balls faced or bowled into performance outputs. The effect that non-discretionary variables like the cricketing resources available to a player have on his efficiency is controlled for, allowing for a fairer assessment across players from different countries.

  1. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. PMID:25540256

  2. It’s Not [Just] Cricket: The Art and Politics of the Popular – Cultural Imperialism, ‘Sly Civility’ & Postcolonial Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashutosh Gowariker’s critically acclaimed Lagaan (2001, is a marvellous piece of cinematic troubling, which, via an astute use of allegory, reflects upon identity politics and power relations in both colonial and postcolonial contexts. Bringing two cornerstones of Indian popular culture together, namely cricket and Hindi formulae films, Gowariker produces an engagingly, affective alchemy of image and sound, which intervenes critically in the discourses of British colonial rule. This article’s intention is to demonstrate the mimetic devices inherent in Lagaan’s narrative, and how they mirror the regional resilience evident in the global success of both popular Indian cinema and the Indian performance of cricket. The sport of cricket and its role and effectiveness within a larger colonial project, is contextualized and reconsidered by tracing some resistant tangents in the sports evolution and performance in the Asia Pacific region. Making the most of the South Asian diaspora, which has exploited the networks and routes of the former British Empire, Indian popular cinema, likewise, serves to illustrate the point that local cultural dynamics can add their own nuances to global media flows. Interdisciplinary approaches are required to traverse within and between cultures, and to underscore the deep currents of contestation, as well as the radical and often surprising politics that characterise popular culture. In this respect, a range of scholars from different fields of study are consulted; Ashis Nandy, Arjun Appadurai, Chandrima Chakraborty and Homi Bhabha amongst them. Their voices will help to open up uncertainties in the conventional discourses, and to articulate some of the cultural politics and poetics at play in Lagaan specifically and the performance of cricket more generally.

  3. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L Volpov

    Full Text Available This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC, and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application.

  4. Dynamic Characterization of Cercal Mechanosensory Hairs of Crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Book

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous dynamic characterizations of the cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets have generally been limited to the first resonant frequency and associated deflection shape. A more complete description of the mechanical dynamics of these structures could be obtained by an experimental modal analysis. This paper describes a method by which a full experimental modal analysis, giving natural frequency, mode shape, and modal damping ratio, of these sense organs can be performed. Results of this analysis, employing an unmeasured moving-air excitation and non-contact vibration measurement with an output-only identification method are presented. Two distinct types of behaviour were observed, one of which was a good match for the behaviour expected based on the literature, and one of which was quite different. These two behaviours had distinct patterns of modal parameters. The method described in this paper has been shown to be able to estimate the modal parameters, including natural frequency, modal damping ratio, and normalized mode shape, for the first mode of cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets. The method could practically be extended to higher modes and a wide variety of other sound and vibration sense organs with the selection of appropriate excitation and specimen supports.

  5. An analysis of the efficiency of player performance at the 2011 Cricket World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    T Gweshe; I Durbach

    2013-01-01

    In limited overs cricket, efficiency plays a significant role in team success. Batsmen especially are under pressure to score quickly rather than in large quantities because only 50 overs are available per innings. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA) to assess the efficiency with which players at the 2011 Cricket World Cup converted inputs (balls faced or bowled) into performance outputs. The effect that non-discretionary ...

  6. Describing the business decision-making process for evaluating cricket sponsorship proposals / Alida Johanna Coetzee

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Alida Johanna

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing cricket unions today is getting adequate funding; on the other hand, one of the challenges facing businesses are the hundreds of unsolicited sponsorship proposals they receive annually. This study investigated the business decision-making process for selecting sponsorship proposals, specifically to contribute to the cricket unions’ understanding of the formal selection process that the sponsorship proposal goes through. The primary objectiv...

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION BETWEEN HOCKEY AND CRICKET PLAYERS OF BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mukti Singh Srinet,

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the sports achievement motivation between hockey and cricket players and also to find out the status of players in relation to sports achievement motivation. For purpose of the study forty (twenty hockey and twenty three cricket) were selected from Banaras Hindu University. Subjects’ sports achievement motivation was measured by inventory developed by M.L Kamlesh., Data was collected by administering questionnaire inter university camp. All the necessar...

  8. The Effect of Competitive Balance on the Demand for International Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Sacheti, Abhinav

    2006-01-01

    The issue of competitive balance and its effect on the attendance demand for sport has been covered extensively for many professional sports, but there is very little coverage of the effect of competitive balance on demand for international cricket, particularly in terms of long run competitive balance. This dissertation uses economic analysis to investigate the effect of long run competitive balance on attendance demand for international cricket, using attendance data for Test and one-day in...

  9. Linking Lincolnshire sport: the role of University women’s cricket in promoting women’s participation

    OpenAIRE

    Piller, Jonathan; Purdy, John; Smith, James; Cook, Kristian; Evans, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Patriarchal influences have been shown to create barriers to equity and inclusion in sports participation and governance (Rowe, D. (2004). Critical Reading: Sport, Culture and Media. Berkshire. McGraw Hill). Cricket is a sport in which patriarchal values still largely prevail. Despite the recent success of the women’s international cricket team, the Active People Survey (Sport England, 2012) shows that national participation rates have decreased in women’s cricket on a monthly basis (between ...

  10. The effect of diet quality and wing morph on male and female reproductive investment in a nuptial feeding ground cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Hall

    Full Text Available A common approach in the study of life-history trade-off evolution is to manipulate the nutrient content of diets during the life of an individual in order observe how the acquisition of resources influences the relationship between reproduction, lifespan and other life-history parameters such as dispersal. Here, we manipulate the quality of diet that replicate laboratory populations received as a thorough test of how diet quality influences the life-history trade-offs associated with reproductive investment in a nuptial feeding Australian ground cricket (Pteronemobius sp.. In this species, both males and females make significant contributions to the production of offspring, as males provide a nuptial gift by allowing females to chew on a modified tibial spur during copulation and feed directing on their haemolymph. Individuals also have two distinct wing morphs, a short-winged flightless morph and a long-winged morph that has the ability to disperse. By manipulating the quality of diet over seven generations, we found that the reproductive investment of males and females were affected differently by the diet quality treatment and wing morph of the individual. We discuss the broader implications of these findings including the differences in how males and females balance current and future reproductive effort in nuptial feeding insects, the changing nature of sexual selection when diets vary, and how the life-history trade-offs associated with the ability to disperse are expected to differ among populations.

  11. A MATHEMATICAL MODELLING APPROACH TO ONE-DAY CRICKET BATTING ORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Ovens1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While scoring strategies and player performance in cricket have been studied, there has been little published work about the influence of batting order with respect to One-Day cricket. We apply a mathematical modelling approach to compute efficiently the expected performance (runs distribution of a cricket batting order in an innings. Among other applications, our method enables one to solve for the probability of one team beating another or to find the optimal batting order for a set of 11 players. The influence of defence and bowling ability can be taken into account in a straightforward manner. In this presentation, we outline how we develop our Markov Chain approach to studying the progress of runs for a batting order of non- identical players along the lines of work in baseball modelling by Bukiet et al., 1997. We describe the issues that arise in applying such methods to cricket, discuss ideas for addressing these difficulties and note limitations on modelling batting order for One-Day cricket. By performing our analysis on a selected subset of the possible batting orders, we apply the model to quantify the influence of batting order in a game of One Day cricket using available real-world data for current players

  12. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author)

  13. Effect of toss and weather on County Cricket Championship outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David; Dorsey, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The principal competition in English professional cricket has become more competitive with the introduction of hierarchical divisions linked by promotion and relegation. Using regression analysis, we examine the effect on league points when teams suffer different degrees of weather disruption over the season and different amounts of luck in winning the toss for choice of first innings. The results are used to illustrate the sensitivity of championship, promotion, and relegation outcomes to such matters of chance and revised league tables are produced after applying adjustments to account for the influence of weather and toss. Policy recommendations are presented on how the influence of weather and toss might be lessened in future seasons. PMID:17852685

  14. Bactridine's effects on DUM cricket neurons under voltage clamp conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, P; Sevcik, C; Martínez, R; Castillo, C; D'Suze, G

    2012-12-01

    We describe the effects of six bactridines (150 nM) on cricket dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. The addition of bactridine 2 to DUM neurons induced a large current component with a reversal potential more negative than -30 mV, most evident at the end of the pulses. This current was completely suppressed when 1 μM amiloride was applied before adding the bactridines. Since the amiloride sensitive current is able to distort the aim of our study, i.e. the effect of bactridines on sodium channels, all experiments were done in the presence of 1 μM amiloride. Most bactridines induced voltage shifts of V(1/2) of the Boltzmann inactivation voltage dependency curves in the hyperpolarizing direction. Bactridines 1, 4 and 6 reduced Na current peak by 65, 80 and 24% of the control, respectively. The sodium conductance blockage by bactridines was voltage independent at potentials >20 mV. Bactridines effect on cricket DUM neurons does not correspond to neither α- nor β-toxins. Most bactridines shifted the inactivation curves in the hyperpolarizing direction without any effects on the activation m(∞)-like curves. Also bactridines differ from other NaScpTx in that they increased an amiloride-sensitive conductance in DUM neurons. Our result suggest that the α/β classification of sodium scorpion toxins is not all encompassing. The present work shows that bactridines target more than one site: insect voltage dependent Na channels and an amiloride-sensitive ionic pathway which is under study. PMID:23085555

  15. Wicket Fall Concept Mining From Cricket Video Using A-Priori Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Goyani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an algorithm to detect semantic concepts from cricket video. In our previous work, we have proposed key frame detection based approach for semantic event detection andclassification. The proposed scheme works in two parts. In first part a top-down event detection and classification is performed using hierarchical tree. In second part, higher level concept is identified by applying A-Priori algorithm. In part 1, key frames are identified based on Hue Histogram difference at level 1. At level 2, logo transitions classify the frames as real-time or replay. At level 3, we classify the real time frames as field view, pitch view or non field view based on thresholds like Dominant Soli PixelRation (DSPR and Dominant Grass Pixel Ration (DGPR. At level 4, we detect close up and crowd frames based upon edge detection. At level 5a, we classify the close up frames into player of team A,player of team B and umpire based upon skin colour and corresponding jersey colour. At level 5b, we classify the crowd frames into spectators, player’s gathering of team A or player’s gathering of team B. In part two, labels are associated with each frame event, which is used as input to A-Priori algorithm for concept mining. Results at the end of paper show the robustness of our approach.

  16. Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ratan Khuman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from five different colleges were requited for the study with purposive sampling. They were assigned into three different groups according to their types of sports, cricket n = 50, soccer n = 50, volleyball n = 50. The static and dynamic balance was assessed using flamingo balance test (FBT and star excursion balance test (SEBT in institutional based sports physiotherapy department. Results: Intra-group comparison for FBT and SEBT score shows no significance difference (P > 0.05. Multiple comparison of FBT and SEBT score between groups reveals significantly difference between cricket and soccer player (P = 0.000, between cricket and volleyball player (P = 0.000 and between soccer player and volleyball players (P = 0.000. FBT and SEBT score were significantly higher in soccer players than volleyball and cricketer were found to have the least score compared with soccer and volleyball players. Conclusion: There is significance difference in static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. The soccer players demonstrate higher balance than volleyball players and the volleyball players have a higher balance than that of cricketers both statically and dynamically.

  17. Ion and water balance in Gryllus crickets during the first twelve hours of cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marteaux, Lauren E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-06-01

    Insects lose ion and water balance during chilling, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are based on patterns of ion and water balance observed in the later stages of cold exposure (12 or more hours). Here we quantified the distribution of ions and water in the hemolymph, muscle, and gut in adult Gryllus field crickets during the first 12h of cold exposure to test mechanistic hypotheses about why homeostasis is lost in the cold, and how chill-tolerant insects might maintain homeostasis to lower temperatures. Unlike in later chill coma, hemolymph [Na(+)] and Na(+) content in the first few hours of chilling actually increased. Patterns of Na(+) balance suggest that Na(+) migrates from the tissues to the gut lumen via the hemolymph. Imbalance of [K(+)] progressed gradually over 12h and could not explain chill coma onset (a finding consistent with recent studies), nor did it predict survival or injury following 48h of chilling. Gryllus veletis avoided shifts in muscle and hemolymph ion content better than Gryllus pennsylvanicus (which is less chill-tolerant), however neither species defended water, [Na(+)], or [K(+)] balance during the first 12h of chilling. Gryllus veletis better maintained balance of Na(+) content and may therefore have greater tissue resistance to ion leak during cold exposure, which could partially explain faster chill coma recovery for that species. PMID:27039031

  18. Comparing pre- and post-copulatory mate competition using social network analysis in wild crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David N.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection results from variation in success at multiple stages in the mating process, including competition before and after mating. The relationship between these forms of competition, such as whether they trade-off or reinforce one another, influences the role of sexual selection in evolution. However, the relationship between these 2 forms of competition is rarely quantified in the wild. We used video cameras to observe competition among male field crickets and their matings in the wild. We characterized pre- and post-copulatory competition as 2 networks of competing individuals. Social network analysis then allowed us to determine 1) the effectiveness of precopulatory competition for avoiding postcopulatory competition, 2) the potential for divergent mating strategies, and 3) whether increased postcopulatory competition reduces the apparent reproductive benefits of male promiscuity. We found 1) limited effectiveness of precopulatory competition for avoiding postcopulatory competition; 2) males do not specifically engage in only 1 type of competition; and 3) promiscuous individuals tend to mate with each other, which will tend to reduce variance in reproductive success in the population and highlights the trade-off inherent in mate guarding. Our results provide novel insights into the works of sexual competition in the wild. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the utility of using network analyses to study competitive interactions, even in species lacking obvious social structure. PMID:27174599

  19. Prior mating success can affect allocation towards future sexual signaling in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Chiswell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fitness is often correlated with the expression level of a sexually selected trait. However, sexually selected traits are costly to express such that investment in their expression should be optimised to maximize their overall fitness gains. Social interactions, in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings, may offer males one type of feedback allowing them to gauge how to allocate their resources towards sexual signaling. Here we tested whether adult male black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus modify the extent of their calling effort (the sexually selected trait in response to successful and unsuccessful matings with females. To examine the effect that mating interactions with females have on investment into sexual signaling, we monitored male calling effort after maturation and then provided males with a female at two points within their life, manipulating whether or not males were able to successfully mate each time. Our results demonstrate that males alter their investment towards sexual signaling in response to successful matings, but only if the experience occurs early in their life. Males that mated early decreased their calling effort sooner than males that were denied a mating. Our results demonstrate that social feedback in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings has the potential to alter the effort a male places towards sexual signaling.

  20. Effects of hedgerows on bats and bush crickets at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurélie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by the loss and fragmentation of habitats. The role of hedgerows in maintaining biodiversity is well established, but few studies have addressed the importance for biodiversity of the intrinsic characteristics of hedgerows and the quality of hedgerow networks along a spatial scale. We examined three quality indices providing information at different territorial levels: density in the landscape, structural diversity and wood production. We performed an acoustic survey in a grassland to estimate the species abundance and community composition of bats (9 taxa) and bush crickets (11 species). Using an approach based on species and traits, we assessed how hedgerow quality influenced the activity of these taxa at different spatial scales (from 50 to 1000 m) and focused on three types of traits: bush cricket mobility ability, bat foraging strategy and habitat specialization. In general, our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for bats and bush crickets, but the strength of the association between taxa and hedgerows varied substantially among the species and the spatial scales. Although it depends on the taxa, the production, density and structural diversity of hedgerows each had an overall positive effect. Our results suggested that these effects were generally more important at large scales. The scale effect of the production index is the best predictor of activity for bat and bush cricket taxa and traits. Our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for the ecology of bat and bush cricket communities and could be used to improve conservation management.

  1. Defining and Assessing Generic Competencies in Australian Universities: Ongoing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elaine; O'Neill, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss ongoing challenges in defining and assessing generic competencies in Australian universities. The paper begins with a discussion of factors that led to, and later fuelled, the focus on generic competencies in Australian higher education. Broad constructs that have underpinned research and practice in the field are then…

  2. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Beth L. Volpov; Andrew J. Hoskins; Battaile, Brian C.; Morgane Viviant; Wheatley, Kathryn E.; Greg Marshall; Kyler Abernathy; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, st...

  3. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...... be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research...

  4. "A man's game": cricket, war and masculinity, South Africa, 1899-1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    As practitioners of the imperial sport of the Victorian age, cricketers rallied whenever war descended upon England and its colonies. The South African War of 1899-1902 was no different. Adding to existing work on cricket's imperial development within South Africa, this study marks a significant contribution to research on the link between masculinity, war and sport during the Victorian era. A concept emerging from the English public schools of the mid- to late nineteenth century, the masculine ethos of sport and military honour had reached colonial South Africa by the outbreak of war in 1899. In its analysis of cricket and masculinity, this essay examines the events surrounding the war in South Africa and provides an example of the distinct relationship that existed between the military and the masculinity of sport and its organisation during this era. PMID:21280409

  5. A Taxonomic Review of the Sword-tailed Cricket Subfamily Trigonidiinae (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Gryllidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Korean population of the sword-tailed cricket subfamily Trigonidiinae is reviewed for the first time. Four members of the crickets are confirmed based on the examined material, those are Metioche japonica (Ichikawa, 2001, Svistella bifasciata (Shiraki, 1911, Homoeoxipha obliterata (Caudell, 1927 and Natula matsuurai Sugimoto, 2001, each of them belonging to a different genera. Among them, the former two are reconfirmed since earlier records, and latter two are newly recognized genera and species from the far southern provinces Jeollanam-do and Jeju-do Island in Korea. The type locality of both crickets is Japan, and are also only previously referred to in Japan, but their distributional ranges include neighboring South Korea. A key to the species, descriptions, photographs, figures, and oscillograms of male’s calling sounds are provided to aid their identification.

  6. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jepsen

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  7. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  8. Audio enabled information extraction system for cricket and hockey domains

    CERN Document Server

    Saraswathi, S; B., Sai Vamsi Krishna; S, Suresh Reddy

    2010-01-01

    The proposed system aims at the retrieval of the summarized information from the documents collected from web based search engine as per the user query related to cricket and hockey domain. The system is designed in a manner that it takes the voice commands as keywords for search. The parts of speech in the query are extracted using the natural language extractor for English. Based on the keywords the search is categorized into 2 types: - 1.Concept wise - information retrieved to the query is retrieved based on the keywords and the concept words related to it. The retrieved information is summarized using the probabilistic approach and weighted means algorithm.2.Keyword search - extracts the result relevant to the query from the highly ranked document retrieved from the search by the search engine. The relevant search results are retrieved and then keywords are used for summarizing part. During summarization it follows the weighted and probabilistic approaches in order to identify the data comparable to the k...

  9. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Epps

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung, a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap’s distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the

  10. Mormon Cricket Control in Utah's West Desert - Evaluation of Impacts of the Pesticide Diflubenzuron on Nontarget Arthropod Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Tim B.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Close, Rebecca N.

    2008-01-01

    Grasshopper and Mormon cricket (Orthoptera) populations periodically build to extremely high numbers and can cause significant economic damage in rangelands and agricultural fields of the Great Plains and Intermountain West. A variety of insecticides have been applied to control population outbreaks, with recent efforts directed at minimizing impacts to nontarget fauna in treated ecosystems. A relatively new insecticide for control of Orthoptera is diflubenzuron, which acts to inhibit chitin production, ultimately causing death during the molt following ingestion of the insecticide. All arthropods, including insects, mites, and crustaceans, use chitin to build their exoskeletons and will die if they are unable to produce it during the next molt. Diflubenzuron is not taxon specific - it affects all arthropods that ingest it, except adult insects, which do not molt. Consequently, application of this pesticide has the potential to significantly reduce not only target populations but all terrestrial and aquatic arthropods within treatment zones. Some research has been done in the Great Plains on the impact of diflubenzuron on nontarget arthropods in the context of grasshopper-control programs, but no work has been done in the Great Basin in Mormon cricket-control areas. This study was instigated in anticipation of the need for extensive control of Orthoptera outbreaks in Utah's west desert during 2005, and it was designed to sample terrestrial and aquatic arthropod communities in both treated and untreated zones. Three areas were sampled: Grouse Creek, Ibapah, and Vernon. High mortality of Mormon cricket eggs in the wet, cool spring of 2005 restricted the need to control Mormon crickets to Grouse Creek. Diflubenzuron was applied (aerial reduced agent-area treatment) in May 2005. Terrestrial and aquatic arthropod communities were sampled before and after application of diflubenzuron in the Grouse Creek area of northwestern Utah in May and June of 2005. In July 2005, U

  11. Some like it hot: the effects of climate change on reproduction, immune function and disease resistance in the cricket Gryllus texensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A; Lovett, Maggie M E

    2011-06-15

    In many parts of the world, climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of heat waves. How do heat waves impact short-lived poikilotherms such as insects? In the cricket, Gryllus texensis, 6 days of elevated temperatures (i.e. 7°C above the average field temperature and 5°C above their preferred temperature) resulted in increased egg laying, faster egg development and greater mass gain. The increased temperature also increased activity of phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like enzymes, two immune-related enzymes, and enhanced resistance to the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens. When given a sublethal S. marcescens infection, G. texensis maintained increased reproductive output at the elevated temperature (33°C). These data suggest that heat waves could result in more numerous, disease resistant, crickets. However, resistance to the Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus cereus was lower at temperatures above or below the average field temperature (26°C). A sublethal infection with B. cereus reduced egg laying at all temperatures and suppressed the increase in egg laying induced by higher temperatures. These results suggest that for some species-pathogen interactions, increased temperatures can induce trade-offs between reproduction and disease resistance. This result may partly explain why G. texensis prefers temperatures lower than those that produce maximal reproductive output and enhanced immune function. PMID:21613515

  12. Australian G20 Presidency

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei G. Sakharov; Andrei V. Shelepov; Elizaveta A. Safonkina; Mark R. Rakhmangulov

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Australian presidency took place against the backdrop of multiple challenges in both global economy and international politics, with Ukrainian crisis, Syrian conflict, Islamic State, and Ebola. Thus, despite being an economic forum, the G20 could not avoid addressing these issues, with discussions taking place during the bilateral meetings and on the sidelines of the forum. The article attempts to analyze the Australian G20 Presidency within a functional paradigm, assessing G20 perfo...

  13. The Australian Synchrotron Project - Update

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Australian Synchrotron - a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring is under construction at a site in the Metropolitan District of Melbourne. Building preparation started on a "green-field" site in September 2003 and staff moved in to their new offices in February 2005. Installation of the technical equipment started in April 2005 with all accelerator contracts expected to be completed before April 2006. Storage Ring commissioning with beam will start in June 2006, and project completion is scheduled for March 2007. In this paper we present an overview of the facility and discuss progress to date in meeting this very aggressive schedule.

  14. Jumping mechanisms and performance of pygmy mole crickets (Orthoptera, Tridactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M; Picker, M D

    2010-07-15

    Pygmy mole crickets live in burrows at the edge of water and jump powerfully to avoid predators such as the larvae and adults of tiger beetles that inhabit the same microhabitat. Adults are 5-6 mm long and weigh 8 mg. The hind legs are dominated by enormous femora containing the jumping muscles and are 131% longer than the body. The ratio of leg lengths is: 1:2.1:4.5 (front:middle:hind, respectively). The hind tarsi are reduced and their role is supplanted by two pairs of tibial spurs that can rotate through 180 deg. During horizontal walking the hind legs are normally held off the ground. Jumps are propelled by extension of the hind tibiae about the femora at angular velocities of 68,000 deg s(-1) in 2.2 ms, as revealed by images captured at rates of 5000 s(-1). The two hind legs usually move together but can move asynchronously, and many jumps are propelled by just one hind leg. The take-off angle is steep and once airborne the body rotates backwards about its transverse axis (pitch) at rates of 100 Hz or higher. The take-off velocity, used to define the best jumps, can reach 5.4 m s(-1), propelling the insect to heights of 700 mm and distances of 1420 mm with an acceleration of 306 g. The head and pronotum are jerked rapidly as the body is accelerated. Jumping on average uses 116 microJ of energy, requires a power output of 50 mW and exerts a force of 20 mN. In jumps powered by one hind leg the figures are about 40% less. PMID:20581268

  15. Sickness behaviour in the cricket Gryllus texensis: Comparison with animals across phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ken; Fairn, Evan; Adamo, Shelley A

    2016-07-01

    Immune activation alters behaviour (i.e. sickness behaviour) in animals across phyla and is thought to aid recovery from infection. Hypotheses regarding the adaptive function of different sickness behaviours (e.g. decreased movement and appetite) include the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. These hypotheses were originally developed for mammals (e.g. Hart, 1988), however similar sickness behaviours are also observed in insects (e.g., crickets). We predicted that immune-challenged crickets (Gryllus texensis) would reduce feeding, grooming, and locomotion as well as increase shelter use, consistent with the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. We found evidence of illness-induced anorexia in adult and juvenile crickets, consistent with previous research (Adamo et al., 2010), but contrary to expectations, we found an increase in grooming, and no evidence that crickets decreased locomotion or increased shelter use in response to immune challenge. Therefore, our results do not support the energy conservation or predator avoidance hypotheses. The difference in sickness behaviour between insects and mammals is probably due, in part, to the lack of physiological fever in insects. We hypothesize that the lack of physiological fever reduces the need for energy conservation, decreasing the benefits of some sickness behaviours such as increased shelter use. These results, taken together with others in the literature, suggest that ectotherms and endotherms may differ significantly in the selective forces leading to the evolution of most sickness behaviours. PMID:27189926

  16. Immune Challenge and Pre- and Post-copulatory Female Choice in the Cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayton, Jean M.; Boeke, J. E. Kobus; Jennions, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade off between the expression of male sexual traits and the immune system. To test for this trade off, male crickets Teleogryllus commodus were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce an immune response and their subsequent pre- and post-copulato

  17. Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

  18. Ontogenetic changes in immunity and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects have innate immunity that may be weakened by resource allocation to growth. I measured enzymatic immunity, encapsulation response, and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets of known age. Although the concentrations of circulating spontaneous and total phenoloxidase (PO) incr...

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION BETWEEN HOCKEY AND CRICKET PLAYERS OF BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Singh Srinet,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the sports achievement motivation between hockey and cricket players and also to find out the status of players in relation to sports achievement motivation. For purpose of the study forty (twenty hockey and twenty three cricket were selected from Banaras Hindu University. Subjects’ sports achievement motivation was measured by inventory developed by M.L Kamlesh., Data was collected by administering questionnaire inter university camp. All the necessary instructions were given to students and were convinced to answer the entire question honestly. To find out the difference independent t-test was used at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that there is no significant difference between hockey and cricket players in relation to sports achievement motivation as calculated t (1.95 was less than tabulated t value (2.02 at 0.05 level of significance. Age and similar environmental factor might have brought no significant difference between hockey and cricket players in relation to sports achievement motivation.

  20. Age- and density-dependent prophylaxis in the migratory Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of the increased potential for disease transmission, insects are predicted to show an increased constitutive immunity when crowded. Nymphal Mormon crickets were collected in Montana and reared in the laboratory either solitarily or at densities similar to that experienced by Mormon cric...

  1. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTsukamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  2. "In Loco Parentis"? Public-School Authority, Cricket and Manly Character, 1855-62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the responsibility for schoolboys' behaviour and character when in liminal spaces between home and school, in an historical account of the annual cricket matches in London between Eton, Harrow and Winchester in the late 1850s. The episode is situated in the context of the Clarendon Commission's discussions on school sports,…

  3. Management Communication for the New Millennium: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Harry T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses management communications in the general area of identity, and the Australian situation involving management communication scholarship, management communication education, and the future of the field in Australia. (NH)

  4. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games. PMID:27089630

  5. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650

  6. House crickets can accumulate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly from polyurethane foam common in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Michael O; Harvey, Ellen; Hale, Robert C

    2012-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are added at percent levels to many polymers and textiles abundant in human spaces and vehicles, wherein they have been long assumed to be tightly sequestered. However, the mgkg(-1) burdens recently detected in indoor dust testify to substantial releases. The bulk of released PBDEs remain in the terrestrial environment, yet comparatively little research focuses on this compartment. There, insects/arthropods, such as crickets, are the most abundant invertebrate organisms and facilitate the trophic transfer of contaminants by breaking down complex organic matter (including discarded polymers) and serving as food for other organisms. Our experiments revealed that house crickets (Acheta domesticus) provided uncontaminated food and free access to PUF containing Penta-BDE (8.7%drywt) for 28 d accumulated substantial PBDE body burdens. Crickets allowed to depurate gut contents exhibited whole body burdens of up to 13.4 mg kg(-1) lipid ΣPenta-BDE, 1000-fold higher than typically reported in humans. Non-depurated crickets and molted exoskeletons incurred even higher ΣPenta-BDE, up to 80.6 and 63.3 mg kg(-1) lipid, respectively. Congener patterns of whole crickets and molts resembled those of PUF and the commercial Penta-BDE formulation, DE-71, indicative of minimal discrimination or biotransformation. Accumulation factor (AF) calculations were hampered by uncertainties in determining actual PUF ingestion. However, estimated AFs were low, in the range of 10(-4)-10(-3), suggesting that polymer-PBDE interactions limited uptake. Nonetheless, results indicate that substantial PBDE burdens may be incurred by insects in contact with current-use and derelict treated polymers within human spaces and solid waste disposal sites (e.g. landfills, automotive dumps, etc.). Once ingested, even burdens not absorbed across the gut wall may be dispersed within proximate terrestrial food webs via the insect's movements and/or predation

  7. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  8. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650

  9. The anatomical pathways for antennal sensory information in the central nervous system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yoritsune, Atsushi; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Antennae are one of the major organs to detect chemo- and mechanosensory cue in crickets. Little is known how crickets process and integrate different modality of information in the brain. We thus used a number of different anatomical techniques to gain an understanding of the neural pathways extending from the antennal sensory neurons up to centers in the brain. We identified seven antennal sensory tracts (assigned as T1–7) utilizing anterograde dye filling from the antennal nerve. Tracts T1...

  10. "Aye, but It Were Wasted on Thee": Cricket, British Asians, Ethnic Identities, and the 'Magical Recovery of Community'

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    People in sport tend to possess rather jaded perceptions of its colour-blindness and thus, they are reluctant to confront the fact that, quite often racism is endemic. Yorkshire cricket in particular, has faced frequent accusations from minority ethnic communities of inveterate and institutionalised racism and territorial defensiveness. Drawing upon semi-structured interviews conducted with amateur white and British Asian cricketers, this paper examines the construction of regional identities...

  11. An Experimental Study into the Effects of Anxiety Reduction Techniques on State and Trait Anxiety in Cricket Batters.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Esme

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of state and trait anxiety and personality in an anxiety reducing intervention program. The anxiety reduction program consisted of effective goal setting, relaxation techniques and a gratitude diary was designed specifically to help those cricket players who suffered from anxiety. The subjects were male and female current members of the Edinburgh University Cricket Club who were separated into control and intervention groups using the results of the ...

  12. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  13. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  14. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  15. Structure and experiences of the Australian National Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed account is given of the history, structure and functions of the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO). Its nuclear materials accounting and control procedures and its research and development programs are discussed. Australia's physical protection policy and the ASO's role in this field are described. The Australian views on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials and the establishment of National Authorities such as the ASO are outlined

  16. Clavicular stress fracture in a cricket fast bowler: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Jeremy AF

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Whilst rare, stress fractures of the clavicle have been described in other sports. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a stress fracture of the clavicle occurring in a cricket fast bowler. Case presentation A 23-year-old professional cricket fast bowler presented with activity related shoulder pain. Imaging demonstrated a stress fracture of the lateral third of the clavicle. This healed with rest and rehabilitation allowing a full return to professional sport. Conclusion This injury is treated with activity modification and technique adaptation. In a professional sportsman, this needs to be recognised early so that return to play can be as quick as possible.

  17. A FACTOR ANALYSIS APPROACH IN PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF T - 20 CRICKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Reliability and Statistical Studies; ISSN (Print: 0974-8024, (Online:2229-5666Vol.6, Issue 1 (2013: 69-76A FACTOR ANALYSIS APPROACH IN PERFORMANCEANALYSIS OF T-20 CRICKETSujeet Kumar SharmaDepartment of Operations Management and Business Statistics, CEPS,Sultan Qaboos University, OmanEmail:drsujeet@squ.edu.om(Received October 03, 2012AbstractThis paper investigates the systematic covariation among various dimensions pertainingtobatting and bowling capabilities of T20 cricket usingtheadvancedstatistical technique offactor analysis.Thereal dataset of 85 batsmen and 85 bowlershas been consideredfrom IndianPremier League (IPL 2012for analysis purpose.The findings of this study show that battingcapability dominates over bowling capability.This conclusion coincides with the general opinionof several cricketing enthusiasts and experts; however till date, there is no research study, to thebest of the author’s knowledge that provides statistical evidence to support this notion.

  18. What’s in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wielsch, Natalie; Wilkinson, Paul A.; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Svatoš, Aleš; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Hunt, John; David G Heckel

    2015-01-01

    Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and sta...

  19. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiene Maria Jesus

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i freshly processed (control; preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii 15 and (iii 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv 15 and (v 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi 15 and (vii 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%, C(% and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls. We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  20. WICKET FALL CONCEPT MINING FROM CRICKET VIDEO USING A-PRIORI ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Goyani; Shreyash Dutta; Gunvatsinh Gohil; Sapan Naik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm to detect semantic concepts from cricket video. In our previous work, we have proposed key frame detection based approach for semantic event detection and classification. The proposed scheme works in two parts. In first part a top-down event detection and classification is performed using hierarchical tree. In second part, higher level concept is identified by applying A-Priori algorithm. In part 1, key frames are identified based on Hue Histogram differ...

  1. The benefits and limitations of using cricket as a sport for development tool in Samoa

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Khoo; Nico Schulenkorf; Daryl Adair

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid ag...

  2. Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players

    OpenAIRE

    P Ratan Khuman; Thongam Kamlesh; Lourembam Surbala

    2014-01-01

    Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from fiv...

  3. STOCHASTIC DOMINANCE AND ANALYSIS OF ODI BATTING PERFORMANCE: THE INDIAN CRICKET TEAM, 1989-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Damodaran

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall team performance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of 'not out' scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the 'not-out' scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the 'not out' innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the 'utility' of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less. However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored. This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman, the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal

  4. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Jane Epps; Menninger, Holly L.; Nathan LaSala; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relativ...

  5. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets. PMID:26390400

  6. Lumbar spinal loading during bowling in cricket: a kinetic analysis using a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxin; Ma, Ye; Liu, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate two types of cricket bowling techniques by comparing the lumbar spinal loading using a musculoskeletal modelling approach. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under two cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds while simultaneously forcing their navel down towards their thighs starting just prior to ball release (max-trunk condition). A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model comprised of the pelvis, sacrum, lumbar vertebrae and torso segments, which enabled the motion of the individual lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal, frontal and coronal planes to be actuated by 210 muscle-tendon units, was used to simulate spinal loading based on the recorded kinematic data. The maximal lumbar spine compressive force is 4.89 ± 0.88BW for the max condition and 4.58 ± 0.54BW for the max-trunk condition. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two techniques in trunk moments and lumbar spine forces. This indicates that the max-trunk technique may not increase lower back injury risks. The method proposed in this study could be served as a tool to evaluate lower back injury risks for cricket bowling as well as other throwing activities. PMID:26343905

  7. Characterization of a new iridovirus isolated from crickets and investigations on the host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleespies; Tidona; Darai

    1999-01-01

    Typical signs of an iridovirus infection were observed in two species of fatally diseased crickets, Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). The infection was manifested by hypertrophy and bluish iridescence of the affected fat body cells. Electron microscope investigations led to the identification of a new iridovirus, which was termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV). In negatively stained preparations the size of the icosahedral virus particles ranged from 151 nm (side-side) to 167 nm (apex-apex). Assembly of virions occurred in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied fat body cells, where they often accumulated in paracrystalline arrays. Genetic analyses of purified viral DNA using a variety of restriction enzymes revealed that CrIV is distinct from all other known iridoviruses that have been isolated from insects and reported so far. In host range studies it was shown that CrIV can be transmitted perorally to other orthopteran species, causing characteristic symptoms and fatal disease. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae), which represents one of the most important pest insects in developing countries, as well as the cockroaches Blattella germanica L. and Blatta orientalis L. (both Orthoptera, Blattidae). Consequently, the isolation and characterization of this new cricket iridovirus is of particular interest in view of its possible use in biological or integrated control. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9878293

  8. Effects of Serotonergic and Opioidergic Drugs on Escape Behaviors and Social Status of Male Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonova, V. E.; Schürmann, F.-W.; Sakharov, D. A.

    We examined the effects of selective serotonin depletion and opioid ligands on social rank and related escape behavior of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Establishment of social rank in a pair of males affected their escape reactions. Losers showed a lower and dominants a higher percentage of jumps in response to tactile cercal stimulation than before a fight. The serotonin-depleting drug α-methyltryptophan (AMTP) caused an activation of the escape reactivity in socially naive crickets. AMTP-treated animals also showed a lower ability to become dominants. With an initial 51.6+/-3.6% of wins in the AMTP group, the percentage decreased to 26+/-1.6% on day 5 after injection. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone affected fight and escape similarly as AMTP. In contrast to naloxone, the opioid agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin decreased escape responsiveness to cercal stimulation in naive and subordinate crickets. We suggest that serotonergic and opioid systems are involved in the dominance induced depression of escape behavior.

  9. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  10. The Australian synchrotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron to be built at Monash University, is a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring. It is scheduled to be fully operational in 2007. In this paper we describe the accelerator systems that lie at the heart of the facility, and describe the spectral characteristics of the 'light' - ranging from infra-red to hard x-rays - that will be provided from bend magnets, undulators, and wigglers

  11. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  12. Homelessness, Social Work, Social Policy and the Print Media in Australian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Zufferey, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Homelessness is a significant social problem worldwide. This paper describes an Australian study that examined print media representations of homelessness and social work, social policy and social work responses to homelessness in three Australian cities. The research included a content analysis of seven Australian newspapers and semi-structured interviews with 39 social workers employed in the field of homelessness in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. The detailed results of these studies have...

  13. The behavioural effects of predator-induced stress responses in the cricket (Gryllus texensis): the upside of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Mosher, Brianna

    2013-12-15

    Predator-induced stress responses are thought to reduce an animal's risk of being eaten. Therefore, these stress responses should enhance anti-predator behaviour. We found that individual insects (the cricket Gryllus texensis) show reliable behavioural responses (i.e. behavioural types) in a plus-shaped maze. An individual's behaviour in the plus maze remained consistent for at least 1/2 of its adult life. However, after exposure to a model predator, both male and female crickets showed a reduced period of immobility and an increased amount of time spent under shelter compared with controls. These changes could be mimicked by injections of the insect stress neurohormone octopamine. These behavioural changes probably aid crickets in evading predators. Exposure to a model predator increased the ability of crickets to escape a live predator (a bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps). An injection of octopamine had the same effect, showing that stress hormones can reduce predation. Using crickets to study the fitness consequences of predator-induced stress responses will help integrate ecological and biomedical concepts of 'stress'. PMID:24307711

  14. Loss of safety in numbers and a novel driver of mass migration: radiotelemetry reveals heavy wasp predation on a band of Mormon crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B; Lorch, Patrick D

    2016-05-01

    Coordinated movement of animals is a spectacular phenomenon that has received much attention. Experimental studies of Mormon crickets and locust nymphs have demonstrated that collective motion can arise from cannibalism that compensates for nutritional deficiencies arising from group living. Grouping into migratory bands confers protection from predators. By radiotracking migrating, Mormon crickets released over 3 days, we found that specialized, parasitoid digger wasps (Sphecidae) respond numerically and prey heavily on aggregated Mormon crickets leading to loss of safety in numbers. Palmodes laeviventris paralysed and buried 42% of tagged females and 8% of the males on the final day of tracking. Risk of wasps and Mormon crickets hatching on the same site is high and may drive nymphal emigration. A preference to provision offspring with adult female Mormon crickets can be explained by their greater fat content and larger size compared with males, improving survival of wasps during diapause. PMID:27293791

  15. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  16. NPT review conference: Australian statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains the text of statement delivered by the leader of the Australian delegation to the Second Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in Geneva on August 14, 1980. An outline is given of Australian policy regarding nuclear weapons proliferation

  17. The association between four citation metrics and peer rankings of research influence of Australian researchers in six fields of public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Elizabeth Derrick

    Full Text Available Doubt about the relevance, appropriateness and transparency of peer review has promoted the use of citation metrics as a viable adjunct or alternative in the assessment of research impact. It is also commonly acknowledged that research metrics will not replace peer review unless they are shown to correspond with the assessment of peers. This paper evaluates the relationship between researchers' influence as evaluated by their peers and various citation metrics representing different aspects of research output in 6 fields of public health in Australia. For four fields, the results showed a modest positive correlation between different research metrics and peer assessments of research influence. However, for two fields, tobacco and injury, negative or no correlations were found. This suggests a peer understanding of research influence within these fields differed from visibility in the mainstream, peer-reviewed scientific literature. This research therefore recommends the use of both peer review and metrics in a combined approach in assessing research influence. Future research evaluation frameworks intent on incorporating metrics should first analyse each field closely to determine what measures of research influence are valued highly by members of that research community. This will aid the development of comprehensive and relevant frameworks with which to fairly and transparently distribute research funds or approve promotion applications.

  18. Game of Organizing International Cricket: Co-Existence of Country-Line and Club-Line Games

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Satya Prasanna

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an economic model of interaction between cricket boards, players and international club-line games sponsors like ICL or IPL. It attempts to capture the inherent conflict between such games and country-line games traditionally organized by cricket boards. It identifies the nature of various trade offs facing these ?players? in the game and examines the effects of market-size changes on the composition of players, the scale of country-line and club-line games and the welfare ...

  19. The Relationship Between Morphological Symmetry and Immune Response in Wild-Caught Adult Bush-Crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Berggren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite interest in the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry (FA, immune response and ecological factors in insects, little data are available from wild populations. In this study we measured FA and immune response in 370 wild-caught male bush-crickets, Metrioptera roeseli, from 20 experimentally introduced populations in southern-central Sweden. Individuals with more-symmetric wings had a higher immune response as measured by the cellular encapsulation of a surgically-implanted nylon monofilament. However, we found no relationship between measures of FA in other organs (i.e. tibia and maxillary palp and immune response, suggesting that this pattern may reflect differing selection pressures.

  20. Outlook for the Australian coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shortage of bituminous coal is now being witnessed on the world market, which stems from an increase in demand for it. The prices for bituminous coal, which have been increasing since 1988, will continue to rise in 1990. World coal production in 1989/1990 has been estimated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources at 3,370 million tons, which is 50 million tons more than in the preceding year. Australian experts predict a doubling in world demand for coal by 2025. Many Australian coal mining companies, counting on the increased demand in the future, are taking measures to consolidate production and strengthen their financial base in order to accelerate development of new fields or expand production at existing mines. It is expected that the highest rates of growth in demand will be for power coal. Because of increased world production of steel the demand for coking coal will also rise, but the rates of growth will be much lower than for power coal

  1. The Association Between Internal and External Measures of Training Load in Batsmen and Medium-Fast Bowlers During Net-Based Cricket Training.

    OpenAIRE

    Vickery, Will; Dascombe, Ben; Duffield, Rob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To examine the relationship between session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) and measures of internal and external training load (TL) within cricket batsmen and medium-fast bowlers during net-based training sessions. METHODS The internal (heart rate), external (movement demands, Player Load™) and technical (cricket-specific skills) loads of thirty, male cricket players (age: 21.2 ± 3.8 y, height: 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 79.0 ± 8.7 kg) were determined from net-based cr...

  2. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System),...

  3. Immediate Protein Dietary Effects on Movement and the Generalised Immunocompetence of Migrating Mormon Crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Mormon crickets form large migratory bands that march over rangeland in the western United States seeking salt and protein. Immune defense is particularly relevant to survival in migratory bands, but little is known about the role of nutrition in insect immunocompetence. We hypothesized that imm...

  4. Participation of segmentary octopaminergic neurons in modulation of processes of sensomotor integration in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitin, SO; Lapitskii, VP

    2000-01-01

    The impulse responses of dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUMN) of the prothoracic ganglion of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to acoustic and tactile sensory stimuli were studied. It has been established that among these cells there are mono- and bimodal neurons, some of them with the background imp

  5. Aeromechanics of the Spider Cricket Jump: How to Jump 60+ Times Your Body Length and Still Land on Your Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emily; Deshler, Nicolas; Gorman, David; Neves, Catarina; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flapping, gliding, running, crawling and swimming have all been studied extensively in the past and have served as a source of inspiration for engineering designs. In the current project, we explore a mode of locomotion that straddles ground and air: jumping. The subject of our study is among the most proficient of long-jumpers in Nature: the spider cricket of the family Rhaphidophoridae, which can jump more than 60 times its body length. Despite jumping this immense distance, these crickets usually land on their feet, indicating an ability to control their posture during ``flight.'' We employ high-speed videogrammetry, to examine the jumps and to track the crickets' posture and appendage orientation throughout their jumps. Simple aerodynamic models are developed to predict the aerodynamic forces and moment on the crickets during `flight`. The analysis shows that these wingless insects employ carefully controlled and coordinated positioning of the limbs during flight so as to increase jump distance and to stabilize body posture during flight. The principles distilled from this study could serve as an inspiration for small jumping robots that can traverse complex terrains.

  6. Quantifying elbow extension and elbow hyperextension in cricket bowling: a case study of Jenny Gunn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2012-05-01

    In this study a method for determining elbow extension and elbow abduction for a cricket bowling delivery was developed and assessed for Jenny Gunn who has hypermobility in both elbows and whose bowling action has been repeatedly queried by umpires. Bowling is a dynamic activity which is assessed visually in real time in a cricket match by an umpire. When the legality of a bowler's action is questioned by an umpire a quantitative analysis is undertaken using a marker based motion analysis system. This method of quantifying elbow extension should agree with a visual assessment of when the arm is "straight" and should minimise the effects of marker movement. A set of six markers on the bowling arm were used to calculate elbow angles. Differences of up to 1° for elbow extension and up to 2° for elbow abduction were found when angles calculated from the marker set for static straight arm trials were compared with measurements taken by a chartered sports physiotherapist. In addition comparison of elbow extension angles at ball release calculated from the markers during bowling trials with those measured from high speed video also showed good agreement with mean differences of 0°±2°. PMID:22548307

  7. The effect of a flexed elbow on bowling speed in cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Robert; Ferdinands, René

    2003-01-01

    The laws of bowling in cricket state 'a ball is fairly delivered in respect of the arm if, once the bowler's arm has reached the level of the shoulder in the delivery swing, the elbow joint is not straightened partially or completely from that point until the ball has left the hand'. Recently two prominent bowlers, under suspicion for transgressing this law, suggested that they are not 'throwing' but due to an elbow deformity are forced to bowl with a bent bowling arm. This study examined whether such bowlers can produce an additional contribution to wrist/ball release speed by internal rotation of the upper arm. The kinematics of a bowling arm were calculated using a simple two-link model (upper arm and forearm). Using reported internal rotation speeds of the upper arm from baseball and waterpolo, and bowling arm kinematics from cricket, the change in wrist speed was calculated as a function of effective arm length, and wrist distance from the internal rotation axis. A significant increase in wrist speed was noted. This suggests that bowlers who can maintain a fixed elbow flexion during delivery can produce distinctly greater wrist/ball speeds by using upper arm internal rotation. PMID:14658246

  8. [Ultrastructural organization of the auditory nerves of Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris crickets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlogorskaia, I D

    1980-01-01

    Electron microscopic observations have been made on transverse sections of the auditory (tympanal) nerve of the crickets at various levels from the tympanal ganglion (close to the ganglion, 150, 250, 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 mu from the latter). In the vicinity of the ganglion, axons of the auditory receptors are separated from each other by the processes of Schwann cells. Beginning from the level of 150-250 mu, the axons are subdivided and form, with the help of collaterals, a subreceptor plexus which is similar to that found in the auditory system of the locust. Collaterals of an axon pass to the adjacent axons and deeply penetrate into the latter loosing their Schwann sheath, so that axonal membranes form a direct contact. At the site of these contacts, intracellular cleft is equal to 50-80 A. No synaptic vesicles were found in the region of the plexus. At the level of 3,000 mu, the auditory axons again attain a roundlike form and become completely isolated from each other by the processes of Schwann cells. It is suggested that in the region of the subreceptor plexus, electrotonic interaction between the receptors of the crickets takes place, as it is common in the auditory sistem of insects. PMID:7405445

  9. The benefits and limitations of using cricket as a sport for development tool in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Khoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid agencies, or a combination of both. The present paper, by focusing on a cricket for development (CFD program in Samoa, aims to explore outcomes and limitations associated with the use of sport as a community engagement tool. The paper pursues that goal by examining the activities of relevant sport and government organisations, and – most crucially – it interviews key stakeholders involved in the CFD process in Samoa. In short, the prime purpose of this paper is to identify and interpret – from the perspective of locals – whether the CFD program has brought benefits to Samoan communities, and the challenges and limitations they see thus far. This is important because, to date, there has been an absence of qualitative inquiry into the efficacy of sport for development (SFD programs in Samoa, and very limited research in a Pacific Islands context.

  10. Future climate change spells catastrophe for Blanchard’s cricket frog, Acris blanchardi (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. McCallum

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may be one of the greatest environmental catastrophes encountered by modern human civilization. The potential influence of this global disaster on wildlife populations is subject to question. I interpolated how seasonal variation in weather patterns influences growth and reproduction in the Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris blanchardi. Then I extrapolated the influence of future climate conditions on these life history characteristics using fuzzy regression. Fuzzy regression was an accurate predictor of growth and reproduction based on the climate conditions present from 1900–2007. It predicted that the climate projections expected for Arkansas by 2100 could reduce total reproductive investment in the Blanchard’s cricket frog by 33–94%. If these results reflect responses by other poikilotherms, climate change could induce major population declines in many species. Because poikilotherms represent the vast majority of vertebrates and significant ecosystem components, it is imperative that we implement strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and circumvent this possible catastrophe.

  11. Social Network Analysis as a tool to analyze interaction of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the far reaching applications of network methods for understanding interaction within members of sport teams. Although a popular sport in the erstwhile English colonies, cricket has not received much attention from scientific community even though there is no dearth of statistics. This paper presents a network based approach to analyze the interaction of batsmen and bowlers in International cricket matches. First we consider the network of interaction between bowlers and batsmen. If two batsmen faced the same bowler they are connected by an unweighted link. Similarly if two bowlers bowled to the same batsman, they are connected. In this way a network of batsmen and bowlers is generated. We determine the exact values of clustering coefficient, average degree, average shortest path length of the networks and compare them with the Erd\\text{\\"{o}}s-R\\text{\\'{e}}nyi model and the configuration model. We also study an alternate version of the network in which two batsmen are connected if they a...

  12. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold G

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song. PMID:26941647

  13. Acoustic evolution in crickets: need for phylogenetic study and a reappraisal of signal effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Desutter-Grandcolas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cricket stridulums and calls are highly stereotyped, except those with greatly modified tegmina and/or vena-tion, or ''unusual'' frequency, duration and/or intensity. This acoustic diversity remained unsuspected until recently, and current models of acoustic evolution in crickets erroneously consider this clade homogeneous for acoustic features. The few phylogenetic studies analyzing acoustic evolution in crickets demonstrated that acoustic behavior could be particularly labile in some clades. The ensuing pattern for cricket evolution is consequently extremely complex. We argue that: (1 phylogeny should always be considered when analyzing acoustic evolution, whatever characters are considered (signals, stridulums or behaviors. Consequently, future studies should be devoted to entire clades, and not consider isolated taxa; character and character state definitions should allow significant reconstructions of character evolutionary transformations; and homologies should be carefully defined for all characters, including behavior. (2 The factors responsible for song effectiveness should be reconsidered and hypotheses on their potential influence on signal evolution tested jointly by phylogenies (for example, to assess correlated transformations of acoustic and ecological features, and population studies (for example, to correlate call range and population structure, or test the predation risk associated with a signal structure. Better understanding these points should help clarifying acoustic evolution in crickets.Os aparelhos estridulatórios e os chamados dos grilos são altamente estereotipados, exceto aqueles com áreas e/ou venação tegminais fortemente modificadas ou com freqüência, duração e/ou intensidade fora do ''normal''. Esta diversidade acústica ficou insuspeita até recentemente, e os modelos correntes de evolução acústica em grilos consideram erroneamente este clado como homogêneo para as características acústicas. Os

  14. Vibratory interneurons in the non-hearing cave cricket indicate evolutionary origin of sound processing elements in Ensifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritih, Natasa; Stumpner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Tympanal hearing organs in the front tibiae of ensiferan insects supposedly evolved from vibration-sensitive tibial organs (TO), like those in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae). If this is true, one expects to find interneurons in the cave cricket that are homologous to auditory neurons from hearing Ensifera. Therefore, we examined the central projections of the foreleg TO of the cave cricket, as well as morphology and response properties of interneurons responding to foreleg vibration. Sensory axons of the TO adjoined to the "tympanal nerve" terminate in the equivalent portion of the ring tract neuropile in the prothoracic ganglion as corresponding receptors of crickets and weta. We found nine putatively homologous elements to sound- and/or vibration-sensitive interneurons of Ensifera--one local neuron (unpaired median, DUM), three T-fibres (TN), three descending (DN) and two ascending neurons (AN). Presumable first-order interneurons arborising in the ring tract correspond to a local auditory DUM cell of bush crickets and to TN1, DN1 and AN2 of various Ensifera, respectively. Homologues of some prominent auditory cells, the "omega" neuron(s) and the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), however, were not found. We conclude that (a) T. neglectus interneurons are morphologically primitive with respect to those of hearing taxa, (b) significant changes in the dendritic structure/synaptic connectivity have taken place during the evolution of the most specialised first-order auditory interneurons of Ensifera, (c) the data do not contradict independent evolution of hearing in Grylloidea and Tettigonoidea. Other interneurons appear morpho-physiologically conserved across hearing and non-hearing species, possibly as a part of a multimodal "alert" system. PMID:18835145

  15. An Australian Sense of Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Burney

    2009-01-01

    Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.

  16. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    STEWART, D.

    2004-01-01

    Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the be...

  17. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  18. Prospects for Australian uranium exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the focus of this paper is Australian uranium exports, the status of other energy minerals is also discussed briefly. The size of its uranium resources has given Australia the opportunity to become a major exporter; however, it is estimated that any major long-term expansion of uranium production hinges on favourable market conditions and on major changes in the Australian government's policy towards the industry. 4 tabs., ill

  19. Nuclear geophysiology: Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock introduced the term 'geophysiology' to describe the holistic study of the Earth systems. By analogy with medicine, and the corresponding field of nuclear medicine, 'nuclear geophysiology' describes the application of nuclear techniques to Earth system science. Injections of radioisotopes into the Earth's systems occur naturally and continuously, while artificial radionuclides have been injected at times as a result of human activities. Here, we provide some examples of Australian investigations into the physiology of the Earth derived from the study of these isotopes. (author)

  20. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  1. Loss of safety in numbers and a novel driver of mass migration: Radiotelemetry reveals heavy predation on a band of Mormon crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated movement of animals is a spectacular phenomenon that has received much attention. Experimental studies of Mormon crickets and locust nymphs have demonstrated that collective motion can arise from cannibalism that compensates for nutritional deficiencies arising from group living. Groupin...

  2. Diet Drives the Collective Migrations and Affects the Immunity of Mormon Crickets and Locusts: A Comparison of These Potential Superspreaders of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B

    2016-08-01

    Differential transmission of disease among individuals within a population or among species in a community can result in superspreaders, relatively rare individuals responsible for a large proportion of transmission events. Migrating Mormon crickets and nymphal locusts readily engage in cannibalistic attacks and necrophagy. Typically multiple individuals consume a cadaver, which fosters the spread of disease. Cannibalistic attacks result in aligned, coordinated movement of individuals in massive bands that march daily for weeks at a time. Coordinated movement reduces contact frequency, which not only reduces cannibalism but the risk of disease transmission. When crowded, Mormon crickets and locusts elevate their constitutive immunity, which further reduces the risk of disease transmission. Bands of Mormon crickets show a variety of macronutrient dietary deficiencies that determine whether they will be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria or fungi. In some migratory bands, Mormon crickets seek carbohydrates and have less anti-bacterial activity. A lipid transport protein that functions in both fuelling migration and anti-bacterial activity may cause a trade-off between the two activities when carbohydrates are limited. In other migratory bands, Mormon crickets prefer protein over carbohydrates, indicating protein-deficiency. In these bands, the generalized immunity of Mormon crickets, measured as phenoloxidase, is compromised, and the insects are more susceptible to Beauveria bassiana fungal infection. In locusts, a high protein diet resulted in greater susceptibility to another entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum, whereas in Mormon crickets, both phenoloxidase titers and immunity to M acridum increased with adult age. Color changes associated with death by either of these fungi diminishes cannibalism, but bands may cull infected or encounter cadavers too quickly to effectively reduce fungal transmission. As long as the insects show no signs of infection

  3. Crickets Are Not a Free Lunch: Protein Capture from Scalable Organic Side-Streams via High-Density Populations of Acheta domesticus

    OpenAIRE

    Mark E Lundy; Parrella, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and...

  4. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro-Sato Matsumoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

  5. Newly identified allatostatin Bs and their receptor in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-06-01

    A cDNA encoding allatostatin Bs (ASTBs) containing the W(X)6W motif was identified using a database generated by a next generation sequencer (NGS) in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. The contig sequence revealed the presence of five novel putative ASTBs (GbASTBs) in addition to GbASTBs previously identified in G. bimaculatus. MALDI-TOF MS analyses revealed the presence of these novel and previously identified GbASTBs with three missing GbASTBs. We also identified a cDNA encoding G. bimaculatus GbASTB receptor (GbASTBR) in the NGS data. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this receptor was highly conserved with other insect ASTBRs, including the sex peptide receptor of Drosophila melanogaster. Calcium imaging analyses indicated that the GbASTBR heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells exhibited responses to all identified GbASTBs at a concentration range of 10(-10)-10(-5)M. PMID:27018343

  6. Anomalous Diffusion and Long-range Correlations in the Score Evolution of the Game of Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, H V; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the scores of the second most popular sport in world: the game of cricket. By analyzing the scores event-by-event of more than two thousand matches, we point out that the score dynamics is an anomalous diffusive process. Our analysis reveals that the variance of the process is described by a power-law dependence with a super-diffusive exponent, that the scores are statistically self-similar following a universal Gaussian distribution, and that there are long-range correlations in the score evolution. We employ a generalized Langevin equation with a power-law correlated noise that describe all the empirical findings very well. These observations suggest that competition among agents may be a mechanism leading to anomalous diffusion and long-range correlation.

  7. Water metabolism in Australian marsupials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies are discussed in which tritiated water (TOH) has been used to investigate water metabolism in Australian marsupials, particularly arid-zone species. Equilibration of injected TOH in large kangaroos was slower than in smaller marsupials and similar to that in ruminants and camels, presumably because of the high gut water space of all large forestomach fermenters. Loss of TOH in urine, faeces and insensible water during equilibration was also similar to that in ruminants. Total body water (TBW) was similar whether estimated by equilibration or extrapolation. TBW of small marsupial species (16 g to 6.5 kg body weight) was usually in the range found for small eutherian mammals (56 to 68% of body weight). However, in the larger kangaroos TBW ranged from 73 to 78% of body weight, possibly due to the low body fat content and the high ratio of gut contents to total body weight of kangaroos. In general, the water turnover rate of marsupials is about 30% below that of eutherians; this has been related to their lower metabolic rate. Nevertheless, significant differences in water turnover have been found between some species. It has been suggested that there may be a correlation between the water turnover rates measured under ad libitum water availability and the aridity of the animal's habitat. However, this is not always so; differences in behaviour and in the water content of the natural diet explain why some marsupials with high ad libitum water turnovers can survive in desert environments. The physiological state of the animals (e.g. lactation) has also been shown to affect water turnover, both in the laboratory and in the field. (author)

  8. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  9. Terminal investment in the gustatory appeal of nuptial food gifts in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, K R; Hunt, J; Rapkin, J; Sadd, B M; Sakaluk, S K

    2015-10-01

    Investment in current versus future reproduction represents a prominent trade-off in life-history theory and is likely dependent on an individual's life expectancy. The terminal investment hypothesis posits that a reduction in residual reproductive value (i.e. potential for future offspring) will result in increased investment in current reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus), when cued to their impending mortality, should increase their reproductive effort by altering the composition of their nuptial food gifts (i.e. spermatophylaxes) to increase their gustatory appeal to females. Using a repeated-measures design, we analysed the amino acid composition of spermatophylaxes derived from males both before and after injection of either a saline control or a solution of heat-killed bacteria. The latter, although nonpathogenic, represents an immune challenge that may signal an impending survival threat. One principal component explaining amino acid variation in spermatophylaxes, characterized by a high loading to histidine, was significantly lower in immune-challenged versus control males. The relevance of this difference for the gustatory appeal of gifts to females was assessed by mapping spermatophylax composition onto a fitness surface derived in an earlier study identifying the amino acid composition of spermatophylaxes preferred by females. We found that immune-challenged males maintained the level of attractiveness of their gifts post-treatment, whereas control males produced significantly less attractive gifts post-injection. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that cues of a survival-threatening infection stimulate terminal investment in male decorated crickets with respect to the gustatory appeal of their nuptial food gifts. PMID:26201649

  10. Releasing stimuli and aggression in crickets: octopamine promotes escalation and maintenance but not initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eRillich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines have widespread effects on numerous behaviors, but their natural functions are often unclear. We investigated the role of octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline, on initiation and maintenance of aggression in male crickets of different social status. The key-releasing stimulus for aggression is antennal fencing between males, a behavior occurring naturally on initial contact. We show that mechanical antennal stimulation (AS alone is sufficient to initiate an aggressive response (mandible threat display. The efficacy of AS was augmented in winners of a previous fight, but unaffected in losers. The efficacy of AS was not, however, influenced by OA receptor (OAR agonists or antagonists, regardless of social status. Additional experiments indicate that the efficacy of AS is also not influenced by dopamine (DA or serotonin (5HT. In addition to initiating an aggressive response, prior AS enhanced aggression exhibited in subsequent fights, whereby AS with a male antenna was now necessary, indicating a role for male contact pheromones. This priming effect of male-AS on subsequent aggression was dependent on OA since it was blocked by OAR-antagonists, and enhanced by OAR-agonists. Together our data reveal that neither OA, DA nor 5HT are required for initiating aggression in crickets, nor do these amines influence the efficacy of the natural releasing stimulus to initiate aggression. OA’s natural function is restricted to promoting escalation and maintenance of aggression once initiated, and this can be invoked by numerous experiences, including prior contact with a male antenna as shown here.

  11. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system. PMID:20533362

  12. Roles of aminergic neurons in formation and recall of associative memory in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the study of roles of octopaminergic (OA-ergic and dopaminergic (DA-ergic signaling in insect classical conditioning, focusing on our studies on crickets. Studies on olfactory learning in honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that OA-ergic and DA-ergic neurons convey reinforcing signals of appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US and aversive US, respectively. Our work suggested that this is applicable to olfactory, visual pattern and color learning in crickets, indicating that this feature is ubiquitous in learning of various sensory stimuli. We also showed that aversive memory decayed much faster than did appetitive memory, and we proposed that this feature is common in insects and humans. Our study also suggested that activation of OA- or DA-ergic neurons is needed for appetitive or aversive memory recall, respectively. To account for this finding, we proposed a model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are strengthened by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus (CS to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing CS to OA- or DA-ergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive US, respectively. The former is called stimulus-response (S-R connection and the latter is called stimulus-stimulus (S-S connection by theorists studying classical conditioning in vertebrates. Results of our studies using a second-order conditioning procedure supported our model. We propose that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of S-S connection and its activation for memory recall, which are often called cognitive processes.

  13. Quantitative characterization of the filiform mechanosensory hair array on the cricket cercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is approximately 1 cm long, and is covered with 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement vectors, have been characterized semi-quantitatively in studies over the last 40 years, and have been shown to be very stereotypical across different animals in this species. Although the cercal sensory system has been the focus of many studies in the areas of neuroethology, development, biomechanics, sensory function and neural coding, there has not yet been a quantitative study of the functional morphology of the receptor array of this important model system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a quantitative characterization of the structural characteristics and functional morphology of the cercal filiform hair array. We demonstrate that the excitatory direction along each hair's movement plane can be identified by features of its socket that are visible at the light-microscopic level, and that the length of the hair associated with each socket can also be estimated accurately from a structural parameter of the socket. We characterize the length and directionality of all hairs on the basal half of a sample of three cerci, and present statistical analyses of the distributions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The inter-animal variation of several global organizational features is low, consistent with constraints imposed by functional effectiveness and/or developmental processes. Contrary to previous reports, however, we show that the filiform hairs are not re-identifiable in the strict sense.

  14. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  15. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  16. Juvenile pathogen exposure affects the presence of personality in adult field crickets

    OpenAIRE

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Niemelä, Petri T; Skog, Anu; Vainikka, Anssi; KORTET, Raine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever increasing interest in animal personalities, i.e., among-individual variation in behavior, there are still several gaps in our understanding of how experiences during ontogeny influence the expression of behavior in adulthood. Immune challenges during ontogeny have been proposed to drive feedback loops between investment in immune function and personality type. In this study we investigate the effects of an early immune challenge, in the form of an introduced bacterial pathog...

  17. Juvenile pathogen exposure affects the presence of personality in adult field crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas eDiRienzo; Niemelä, Petri T; Anu eSkog; Anssi eVainikka; Raine eKortet

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever increasing interest in animal personalities, i.e. among-individual variation in behavior, there are still several gaps in our understanding of how experiences during ontogeny influence the expression of behavior in adulthood. Immune challenges during ontogeny have been proposed to drive feedback loops between investment in immune function and personality type. In this study we investigate the effects of an early immune challenge, in the form of an introduced bacterial pathoge...

  18. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Pacheco; Bertram, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what woul...

  19. Male responses to conspecific advertisement signals in the field cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikweon Jang

    Full Text Available In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals.

  20. Male Responses to Conspecific Advertisement Signals in the Field Cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yikweon

    2011-01-01

    In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals. PMID:21283758

  1. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  2. Strategies for Washing Australian Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, W.L.A.; Swanson, A.R. [Downer EDI Engineering Projects Pty. Ltd. QCC, East Maitland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This article represents a distillation of QCC's experience over the last 20 years in developing coal-washing circuits to optimize coal recoveries for a wide range of Australian coals. The article will look at typical washabilities and product types to capture the general washing requirements. The major processing equipment will be reviewed as to their typical usage in the Australian context. From this background the processing circuits and strategies commonly used will be discussed for the relevant coal types, including hard coking coal, semi-hard coking coal, PCI, export thermal, and domestic thermal coal from the major producing regions in NSW and Queensland.

  3. Australian uranium and the election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international and national complexities of the situation in Australia over the question of mining of the country's large and rich uranium deposits are explored with especial reference to the pending general election. The present position is ironical since access to low cost uranium would give a welcome boost to the nuclear industry which is enthusiastically supported by the Australian prime minister and his colleagues yet the Australian government is unable to promote mining as rapidly as it would like because of the international commitments it has made to provide a justification for its policy. (U.K.)

  4. Future climate change spells catastrophe for Blanchard’s cricket frog, Acris blanchardi (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm L. McCallum

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may be one of the greatest environmental catastrophes encountered by modern human civilization. The potential influence of this global disaster on wildlife populations is subject to question. I interpolated how seasonal variation in weather patterns influences growth and reproduction in the Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris blanchardi). Then I extrapolated the influence of future climate conditions on these life history characteristics using fuzzy regression. Fuzzy regressi...

  5. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet. PMID:26886132

  6. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Choi, Man-Yeon; Oi, David H

    2013-07-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, cricket paste, and soybean oil adsorbed to defatted corn grit) effectively transmitted SINV-3 infections to S. invicta colonies. Correspondingly, viral infection was shown to be detrimental to colony health and productivity. By day 32, all ant colonies exposed to a single 24h pulse treatment of SINV-3 became infected with the virus regardless of the bait formulation. However, the SINV-3 sugar and cricket bait-treated colonies became infected more rapidly than the oil-treated colonies. Sugar and cricket-treated colonies exhibited significant declines in their brood ratings compared with the untreated control and oil bait-treated colonies. Measures of colony health and productivity evaluated at the end of the study (day 47) showed a number of differences among the bait treatments and the control group. Statistically significant and similar patterns were exhibited among treatments for the quantity of live workers (lower), live brood (lower), total colony weight (lower), worker mortality (higher), proportion larvae (lower), and queen weight (lower). Significant changes were also observed in the number of eggs laid by queens (lower) and the corresponding ovary rating in SINV-3-treated colonies. The study provides the first successful demonstration of SINV-3 as a potential biopesticide against fire ants. PMID:23602901

  7. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  8. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  9. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  10. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    Rhone CC v CERN CC at Parc de Parilly, Lyon on Sunday 11th September 2011 CERN travelled to Lyon to play our old friends Rhone at their new ground in the pretty and busy Parilly Parc. With no traffic problems CERN were at the ground in good time and even had time for a pre game kick around before skipper Elvin won the toss and decided to bowl. Onions and Chaudhuri opened the bowling and were penalized by some strict wide calling from the Rhone umpires. Onions finally made the breakthrough with the help of a brilliant running catch from the athletic Price. Chaudhuri then picked up 2 more Rhone wickets in a fiery opening spell as CERN took control. Rhone then rallied and Shiva made 50 before S. Ahmed had him trapped LBW. Skipper Elvin then turned to McFayden and the evergreen I. Ahmed to try and wrestle control back and McFayden was unlucky not to have Bala caught behind when the only person who did not think he had edged it was the umpire! Price again took another stunning catch in the deep to give I. Ahmed ...

  11. Not cricket?

    OpenAIRE

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jo Lucassen; Remco van den Dool; Janine van Kalmthout

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Weinig over de schreef. For many Dutch people, sport is an enjoyable way of spending their leisure time. Many people are themselves active participants in sport or attend matches. Top-level matches attract a great deal of media attention. A smaller but no less enthusiastic group of people are active as volunteers for sports clubs. In most cases, being involved in sport is a pleasurable experience, but there are also less palatable sides. The television images of football viole...

  12. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    GICC v CERN CC at Bout-du-Monde on August 1st, 2010 On a beautiful summer’s day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Osborne and Chatoo opened the innings. Batting on a new GICC turf was made to look simple by Osborne and Chatoo hitting quick boundaries and sixes. Just when they looked like they were getting into a rhythm, Osborne mis-hit and was caught, bringing McNaught at the crease. The steady partnership for 30 runs was broken when Chatoo was caught by the wicket keeper for a quick fire 20. Captain Bolton was next. Bolton and McNaught then steadied the ship displaying good batting skills. After drinks McNaught reached his half century which included 6 fours and 2 sixes. Some good bowling by Suri got McNaught frustrated and eventually out for a good 57 runs. Bolton was next to go after a watchful 44 runs and a sore rib cage. Bolton’s departure gave way to the famous known-to-all CERN middle order collapse. The next 6 batsmen managed a mere 60 runs. CERN was all out in th...

  13. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Geneva XI Stars CC (Friendly) at CERN on July 25th, 2010 On a very sunny and pleasant day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Ahmed and Keigwin opened the innings, Keigwin departing early after offering a dolly catch. Wickets kept falling till Anand joined Ahmed. Both started building the CERN innings with brilliant hitting by Ahmed all around the ground. After the drinks break, Anand and Ahmed both got out with Ahmed on 74 runs (6 sixes and 7 fours) being the top scorer of CERN’s innings. Onions kept CERN’s innings ticking over until the end, scoring 35. CERN CC was eventually all out for 204 runs in the last over. A healthy lunch break with tables full of fruit, Aloo Parathas and sandwiches was served to both the teams. The response from XI Stars was explosive, with 60 runs on the board in just 6 overs. Bolton had to retire injured and stand-in captain Onions kept trying different options, changing bowlers to try to control the game but nothing succeeded and ...

  14. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Cossonay CC at CERN on Sunday, August 22nd, 2010   On a hot sunny August afternoon, CERN entertained Cossonay in a friendly match at CERN. Skipper Elvin won the toss and elected to bat, thus ignoring groundsman Osborne’s suggestion to bat second due to residual dew dampening the outfield. CERN started and were fortunate not to lose a wicket in the opening couple of overs, however this luck would soon run out as Osborne, going for a typical lofted drive was well caught at mid-on. CERN soon found themselves in trouble at 30-4 after 9 overs, but the introduction of Ahmed would demonstrate that boundary scoring was possible as he powered his way to 54, ably helped by Elvin (25), before informing his partner he was tired, and a shot that looked to be bound for another 6 was caught at wide long on from the last ball of the over. Crook (14) would then face the next delivery, and in typical fashion, he told his new partner S. Kumar that there was plenty of time and that the big shots ...

  15. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC vs SWISS COLTS on Sunday 31st July 2011 Swiss Colts were the visitors for CERN’s final league outing of the season. On a fine summer’s day, visiting captain George won the toss and elected to bat. Opening bowlers Campbell and D’Mello took an early wicket apiece as the Colts slumped to 3-2. George and Greenhalgh led a recovery with some aggressive shots before Paul snared them both, Crook holding onto a fine catch on the boundary. Ahmed then shed the wicketkeeping gloves and destroyed the remainder of the batting order with a fine spell, taking 5 wickets at a personal cost of only 4 runs. Swiss Colts finished on 103 all out. CERN openers Bolton and Osborne then reached 54 without loss when Bolton was run out, D’Mello and Phillips soon following as CERN reached 61 for 3. After Osborne was dismissed by Gaillet, Campbell saw CERN safely home to a 6 wicket victory. Special mention should be made of the wicket keeping prowess of Heggie. Rarely can a visiting kee...

  16. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition at Prevessin on 28.8.2011 Fourteen players turned out for this knock-out competition, which first took place 20 years ago. In each game, 2 overs are bowled by each player. Players under 18, and those over 50, benefit from one extra run per year of age difference up to a maximum of 10 runs. Two previous winners, Elvin and Ahmed, had the luck of the draw and had byes in the first round, with Ahmed sure to bat second in each round. The first round saw a shock result, young Irsalan Ahmed, 8 years old and benefitting from 10 extra runs, beating Muzaffar, dismissing him twice in consecutive balls (each dismissal costs 6 runs). In the second round, new boy Chaudhuri beat Elvin and Ahmed beat Onions (with 10 extra runs). Other games went as expected. Chaudhuri and Ahmed both won their semi-finals to meet in the 3 over final. Chaudhuri started well but then a drive to mid-on was brilliantly caught one-handed by Muzaffar to turn the match in Ahmed’s favour, especia...

  17. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC – Bellingham Tour 2011 – 2nd / 3rd July vs Trafford Solicitors CC The annual pilgrimage to Bellingham was met with unusually fine weather and a strong assembly of pilgrims to compete with the Mancunian legal team and co-defendants. On day 1 CERN won the toss and put the opposition in. The Trafford left-handed opener Horsford was missed off a sharp return catch and he went on to make 82 on his tour debut for Trafford, who eventually reached a total of 200. Elvin (95) and John Osborne (52) in a third wicket stand of 120 put CERN in control but when Elvin’s innings ended, shortly followed by Osborne, CERN rapidly collapsed and were all out for 195, thus losing by 5 runs. On day 2 Trafford won the toss and elected to bat first. The story of the Trafford innings was once more written with the bat of Horsford, who had scored 70 not out by the end of the innings out of a total of 152. The CERN reply after lunch never really got started. No batsman until Wall at No.5 got ...

  18. Modelling the distribution of the invasive Roesel’s bush-cricket (Metrioptera roeselii in a fragmented landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Preuss

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of conservation strategies to mitigate the impact of invasive species requires knowledge of the species ecology and distribution. This is, however, often lacking as collecting biological data may be both time-consuming and resource intensive. Species distribution models can offer a solution to this dilemma by analysing the species-environment relationship with help of Geographic information systems (GIS. In this study, we model the distribution of the non-native bush-cricket Metrioptera roeselii in the agricultural landscape in mid-Sweden where the species has been rapidly expanding in its range since the 1990s. We extract ecologically relevant landscape variables from Swedish CORINE land-cover maps and use species presence-absence data from large-scale surveys to construct a species distribution model (SDM. The aim of the study is to increase the knowledge of the species range expansion pattern by examining how its distribution is affected by landscape composition and structure, and to evaluate SDM performance at two different spatial scales. We found that models including data on a scale of 1 × 1 km were able to explain more of the variation in species distribution than those on the local scale (10 m buffer on each side of surveyed road. The amount of grassland in the landscape, estimated from the area of arable land, pasture and rural settlements, was a good predictor of the presence of the species on both scales. The measurements of landscape structure – linear elements and fragmentation - gave ambivalent results which differed from previous small scaled studies on species dispersal behaviour and occupancy patterns. The models had good predictive ability and showed that areas dominated by agricultural fields and their associated grassland edges have a high probability being colonised by the species. Our study identified important landscape variables that explain the distribution of M. roeselii in Mid-Sweden that may also

  19. Biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for all species and subspecies of Australian bird

    OpenAIRE

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Duursma, Daisy E.; Ehmke, Glenn; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Stewart, Alistair; Szabo, Judit K.; Weston, Michael A; Bennett, Simon; Crowley, Gabriel M.; Drynan, David; Dutson, Guy; Fitzherbert, Kate; Donald C Franklin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a dataset of biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for every species and subspecies of Australian bird, 2056 taxa or populations in total. Version 1 contains 230 fields grouped under the following headings: Taxonomy & nomenclature, Phylogeny, Australian population status, Conservation status, Legal status, Distribution, Morphology, Habitat, Food, Behaviour, Breeding, Mobility and Climate metrics. It is envisaged that the dataset will be updated periodically w...

  20. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  1. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  2. How safe is Australian Radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many incidents and near-incidents are known to occur in Australian radiation oncology departments. The vast majority of incidents are minor in nature; however a small percentage represent major threats to good patient care, administrative structures and public confidence. A small but regular number of incidents result in ad-hoc local and/or State committees of inquiry or Tort actions and inevitably have substantial personal and departmental repercussions. Apart from some local databases on treatment delivery incidents maintained by radiation therapists, no systematic data collection or analysis of treatment incidents exists for radiation oncology in Australia. This paper argues the case for a prospective, systematic approach to the recording and analysis of treatment-related incidents and near incidents. Major barriers to such a scheme, including fear of litigation, misuse of information and lack of understanding on the nature of an incident are discussed. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  3. Research Output of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Abbot; Hristos Doucouliagos

    2003-01-01

    Research plays an important role in underpinning a country’s economic and social life. Universities are at the centre of the research and human capital generating process. The aim of this paper is to explore the links between research output, research income, academic and non-academic labour and some of the characteristics of Australian universities. The results indicate that research income, academic staff and post-graduates are all positively associated with research output. There are notic...

  4. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  5. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Mark E; Parrella, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (pacid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and the crude fat (CF) content (y=N/ADF+CF) explaining most of the variability between feed treatments (p = 0.02; R2 = 0.96). In addition, for populations of crickets that were able to survive to a harvestable size, the feed conversion ratios measured were higher (less efficient) than those reported from studies conducted at smaller scales and lower population densities. Compared to the industrial-scale production of chickens, crickets fed a poultry feed diet showed little improvement in protein conversion efficiency, a key metric in determining the ecological footprint of grain-based livestock protein. Crickets fed the solid filtrate from food waste processed at an industrial scale via enzymatic digestion were able to reach a harvestable size and achieve feed and protein efficiencies similar to that of chickens. However, crickets fed minimally-processed, municipal-scale food waste and diets composed largely of straw experienced >99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production. PMID:25875026

  6. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    OpenAIRE

    Richard White

    2012-01-01

    Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fadin...

  7. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  8. Time for National Renewal: Australian adult literacy and numeracy as ‘foundation skills’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Black

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Those working in the field of adult literacy and numeracy are currently anticipating changes in the near future as the federal government has flagged the development of a National Foundation Skills Strategy (Australian Government 2010. ‘Foundation skills’ is a term that has recently been suggested as a way of simplifying discussions about literacy and numeracy (Perkins 2009:8, and it has gained traction in various Australian national policy environments (e.g. Gillard 2009, Council of Australian Governments [COAG] Reform Council 2009, Australian Government 2010. Foundation skills appears to encapsulate adult language, literacy and numeracy, and more broadly, it may also include so-called employability skills such as communication and teamwork (Roberts and Wignall 2010:1. In this paper, our main focus is on the adult literacy and numeracy dimensions of what is needed in the policy renewal.

  9. The effect of marker placement around the elbow on calculated elbow extension during bowling in cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The elbow extension angle during bowling in cricket may be calculated from the positions of markers attached around the shoulder, elbow and wrist using an automated laboratory-based motion analysis system. The effects of two elbow-marker sets were compared. In the first, a pair of markers was placed medially and laterally close to the condyles while in the second a triad of markers was placed on the back of the upper arm close to the elbow. The root mean square (RMS) difference in elbow extension angle between the two methods at four key instants was 8° for 12 fast bowlers and 4° for 12 spin bowlers. When evaluated against video estimates of the elbow extension angle for the fast bowlers, the elbow extension angle calculated using the pair method had an RMS error of 2° while the triad method had an RMS error of 8°. The corresponding errors for the spin bowlers were 3° and 5°, respectively. It is thought that the greater errors associated with the triad is a consequence of soft tissue movement in this dynamic activity. This is consistent with the finding of greater error for the fast bowlers compared with the spin bowlers. PMID:25682835

  10. Divergence in male cricket song and female preference functions in three allopatric sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences. PMID:27026021

  11. A new species of ant-loving cricket from Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalling, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of ant-loving cricket, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on individuals collected on the Balearic island of Mallorca, Spain. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 was the host ant species. The habitat was evergreen oak forest. The holotype specimen was deposited in the collection of the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève. The species is closely related to Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] and belongs to the subgenus Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de grillo mirmecófilo, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., procedente de la isla de Mallorca (islas Baleares, España. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 es la especie hospedadora y su hábitat es el bosque perenne de roble. El holotipo se ha depositado en la colección del Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Ginebra. La nueva especie está estrechamente relacionada con Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] y pertenece al subgénero Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.

  12. Signal diversification in Oecanthus tree crickets is shaped by energetic, morphometric, and acoustic trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, L B; Ayres, M P; Cowdery, C P; Costello, R A

    2015-06-01

    Physiology, physics, and ecological interactions can generate trade-offs within species, but may also shape divergence among species. We tested whether signal divergence in Oecanthus tree crickets is shaped by acoustic, energetic, and behavioral trade-offs. We found that species with faster pulse rates, produced by opening and closing wings up to twice as many times per second, did not have higher metabolic costs of calling. The relatively constant energetic cost across species is explained by trade-offs between the duration and repetition rate of acoustic signals-species with fewer stridulatory teeth closed their wings more frequently such that the number of teeth struck per second of calling and the resulting duty cycle were relatively constant across species. Further trade-offs were evident in relationships between signals and body size. Calling was relatively inexpensive for small males, permitting them to call for much of the night, but at low amplitude. Large males produced much louder calls, reaching up to four times more area, but the energetic costs increased substantially with increasing size and the time spent calling dropped to only 20% of the night. These trade-offs indicate that the trait combinations that arise in these species represent a limited subset of conceivable trait combinations. PMID:25903317

  13. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae. PMID:20569136

  14. Male Armaments and Reproductive Behavior in “Nutcracker” Camel Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae, Pristoceuthophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P. Conroy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of many species possess striking weaponry used in intrasexual competition for access to females. Until recently, there were no known cases of male weaponry being used against females in sexual coercion. However, in the camel cricket, Pristoceuthophilus marmoratus, males use modified hind legs to fight with each other and also to trap females and force them to copulate. To determine whether hind leg armaments serve similar fighting and mating functions in morphologically similar congeners, we performed a comparative survey of armament use in intra- and inter-sexual interactions in four additional species of Pristoceuthophilus (P. arizonae and three undescribed species: P. ‘Huachuca summer,’ P. ‘Madera’ and P. ‘Mt. Pinos’. Intrasexual leg fighting occurred in all species for which trials were performed, and hints of sexual coercion occurred in two species (P. ‘Huachuca summer’ and P. ‘Mt. Pinos’, suggesting additional cases of a uniquely dual-purpose armament. These findings suggest an evolutionary exaptation of hind leg armaments in this genus, wherein an intrasexual fighting weapon took on a secondary function of sexual coercion.

  15. Temporal Regulation of Distinct Internal Ribosome Entry Sites of the Dicistroviridae Cricket Paralysis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Anthony; Bonderoff, Jennifer M; Spriggs, Ruth V; Tammpere, Erik; Kerr, Craig H; Jackson, Thomas J; Willis, Anne E; Jan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry is a key mechanism for viral protein synthesis in a subset of RNA viruses. Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), a member of Dicistroviridae, has a positive-sense single strand RNA genome that contains two internal ribosome entry sites (IRES), a 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) and intergenic region (IGR) IRES, that direct translation of open reading frames (ORF) encoding the viral non-structural and structural proteins, respectively. The regulation of and the significance of the CrPV IRESs during infection are not fully understood. In this study, using a series of biochemical assays including radioactive-pulse labelling, reporter RNA assays and ribosome profiling, we demonstrate that while 5'UTR IRES translational activity is constant throughout infection, IGR IRES translation is delayed and then stimulated two to three hours post infection. The delay in IGR IRES translation is not affected by inhibiting global translation prematurely via treatment with Pateamine A. Using a CrPV replicon that uncouples viral translation and replication, we show that the increase in IGR IRES translation is dependent on expression of non-structural proteins and is greatly stimulated when replication is active. Temporal regulation by distinct IRESs within the CrPV genome is an effective viral strategy to ensure optimal timing and expression of viral proteins to facilitate infection. PMID:26797630

  16. Quantification of dendritic and axonal growth after injury to the auditory system of the adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HadleyWilsonHorch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite and axon growth and branching during development are regulated by a complex set of intracellular and external signals. However, the cues that maintain or influence adult neuronal morphology are less well understood. Injury and deafferentation tend to have negative effects on adult nervous systems. An interesting example of injury-induced compensatory growth is seen in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. After unilateral loss of an ear in the adult cricket, auditory neurons within the central nervous system sprout to compensate for the injury. Specifically, after being deafferented, ascending neurons (AN-1 and AN-2 send dendrites across the midline of the prothoracic ganglion where they receive input from auditory afferents that project through the contralateral auditory nerve (N5. Deafferentation also triggers contralateral N5 axonal growth. In this study, we quantified AN dendritic and N5 axonal growth at 30 hours, as well as at 3, 5, 7, 14 and 20 days after deafferentation in adult crickets. Significant differences in the rates of dendritic growth between males and females were noted. In females, dendritic growth rates were non-linear; a rapid burst of dendritic extension in the first few days was followed by a plateau reached at 3 days after deafferentation. In males, however, dendritic growth rates were linear, with dendrites growing steadily over time and reaching lengths, on average, twice as long as in females. On the other hand, rates of N5 axonal growth showed no significant sexual dimorphism and were linear. Within each animal, the growth rates of dendrites and axons were not correlated, indicating that independent factors likely influence dendritic and axonal growth in response to injury in this system. Our findings provide a basis for future study of the cellular features that allow differing dendrite and axon growth patterns as well as sexually dimorphic dendritic growth in response to deafferentation.

  17. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaokoYoshinaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs, first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata, fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution can not be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a

  18. Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Anthropometric Variables among Four International Cricket Teams Competed in ACC Premier League Malaysia 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Mondam, Rahul Shaik, Jalaj Jalaja Prakash, Jeffrey Low Fook, Sirisha Nekkanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Chronic musculoskeletal injuries are more common in cricket players. Acute problems may be due to trauma or injuries during sporting. The musculoskeletal system includes muscles, joints, bones, cartilage, ligaments, fascia, nerves and other associated soft tissues. Whatever the mode of injury, it causes pain, movement restriction, muscle weakness, and ultimately loss of functions. Anthropometric variables of each player in cricket will also influence the occurrence of problems. The current study focused on identifying the most common site involved in musculoskeletal problems and to explore possible variations in anthropometric characteristics. Methodology: This study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where Asian Cricket Council Premier League 2014 was conducted. Permission to approach the players was taken from the council members and all the players were assured that the information collected from them will be kept confidential and all were explained about the objective study. Modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to the players and instructions were given about how to fill the questionnaire. Their anthropometric characteristics, experience and time of training sessions were collected by a blinded assessor. Results: Player's height (p = 0.003, weight (p = 0.050, experience (p = 0.001 and practicing hours per week (0.002 were analyzed. There is a statistically significant difference in these characteristics was observed. Occurrence of acute troubles (within 7 days of upper back and elbow region were found different in four teams with a P value of 0.007 and 0.022 respectively. Persistence of neck, shoulder and lower back troubles in the last one year has a significant difference between the groups with a P value of 0.014, 0.003 and 0.021 respectively. Conclusion: This study can conclude that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries is more in cricket. Especially shoulder, neck, lower

  19. Unidad didáctica para el laboratorio de Cinemática apoyada en Handy Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    González Jáuregui, Abel Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Se muestra el diseño y desarrollo de una unidad didáctica basada en Handy Cricket, aplicada a las prácticas de laboratoriode cinemática. Se estructuró un conjunto de guías de laboratorio coherente con ejercicios clásicos de movimiento rectilíneo de uno y dos objetos móviles. Se evidenció, a partir de pruebas pre y post intervención pedagógica, el afianzamiento de los conceptos:sistema de referencia, posición, desplazamiento, dirección de movimiento, rapidez, velocidad y acel...

  20. Multiple differences in calling songs and other traits between solitary and gregarious Mormon crickets from allopatric mtDNA clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey William V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In acoustic species, traits such as male calling song are likely to diverge quickly between allopatric populations due to sexual selection, and divergence in parameters such as carrier frequency, chirp structure, and other important song characters can influence sexual isolation. Here we make use of two forms of Mormon crickets to examine differences in a broad suite of traits that have the potential to influence speciation via sexual isolation. Mormon crickets in "gregarious" populations aggregate into dense migratory bands, and females are the sexually competitive sex (sex-role reversal. There is also a non-outbreak "solitary" form. These two forms are largely but not perfectly correlated with a significant mtDNA subdivision within the species that is thought to have arisen in allopatry. Combined information about multiple, independently evolving traits, such as morphology and structural and behavioural differences in calling song, provides greater resolution of the overall differences between these allopatric populations, and allows us to assess their stage of divergence. We test two predictions, first that the forms differ in song and second that gregarious males are more reluctant to sing than solitary males due to sex role reversal. We also tested for a difference in the relationship between the size of the forewing resonator, the mirror, and carrier frequency, as most models of sound production in crickets indicate that mirror size should predict carrier frequency. Results Multivariate analyses showed that solitary and gregarious individuals from different populations representing the two mtDNA clades had almost non-overlapping distributions based on multiple song and morphological measurements. Carrier frequency differed between the two, and gregarious males were more reluctant to sing overall. Mirror size predicted carrier frequency; however, the relationship between mirror size and surface area varied between

  1. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  2. Recent developments in the Australian housing market

    OpenAIRE

    James Bond

    2003-01-01

    Housing plays an important role in Australia’s economic growth and in the welfare of Australians. This article examines developments in the Australian housing market over recent years. It argues that investors have played an increasingly important role in the housing market for both detached houses and apartments.

  3. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  4. A global history of Australian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brett M

    2011-01-01

    Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in a variety of climates and ecological conditions. Five non-biological factors largely determined the success of these attempts to grow Australian trees: the abundance or paucity of natural forests, state power, the amount of scientific research directed to planting Australian trees, the cost of labor, and the ability to utilize hardwood timbers and bark. This paper compares the use of Australian trees in Australia, India, and South Africa to demonstrate that biology was not the determining factor in the long-term success of many Australian genera and species. PMID:20665086

  5. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  6. FoR Codes Pendulum: Publishing Choices within Australian Research Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn; Genoni, Paul; Haddow, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study that considered the impacts of journal ranking and Fields of Research codes on the publishing decisions of Australian authors. The study also considered the level of alignment between authors' allocation of Fields of Research codes and the codes assigned to the journals in which they were published.…

  7. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects in Australian and New Zealand Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato; Lake, David; Phillips, Rob; Lowe, Kate; Cummings, Rick; Miller, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The Le@rning Federation, an agency funded by Australian and New Zealand governments, initiated a Field Review project as the start of a long-term research study to evaluate the impact, application and effectiveness of the online digital content developed according to the learning object model. In terms of content, the pilot Field Review found that…

  8. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  9. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  10. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  11. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  12. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  13. What's in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Pauchet

    Full Text Available Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and starts to eat it while sperm from the ampulla are evacuated into the female reproductive tract. When the female has finished consuming the spermatophylax, she detaches the ampulla and terminates sperm transfer. Hence, one simple function of the spermatophylax is to ensure complete sperm transfer by distracting the female from prematurely removing the ampulla. However, the majority of orally active components of the spermatophylax itself and their subsequent effects on female behavior have not been identified. Here, we report the first analysis of the proteome of the G. sigillatus spermatophylax and the transcriptome of the male accessory glands that make these proteins. The accessory gland transcriptome was assembled into 17,691 transcripts whilst about 30 proteins were detected within the mature spermatophylax itself. Of these 30 proteins, 18 were encoded by accessory gland encoded messages. Most spermatophylax proteins show no similarity to proteins with known biological functions and are therefore largely novel. A spermatophylax protein shows similarity to protease inhibitors suggesting that it may protect the biologically active components from digestion within the gut of the female recipient. Another protein shares similarity with previously characterized insect polypeptide growth factors suggesting that it may play a role in altering female reproductive physiology concurrent with fertilization. Characterization of the spermatophylax proteome provides the

  14. What's in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wielsch, Natalie; Wilkinson, Paul A; Sakaluk, Scott K; Svatoš, Aleš; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Hunt, John; Heckel, David G

    2015-01-01

    Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and starts to eat it while sperm from the ampulla are evacuated into the female reproductive tract. When the female has finished consuming the spermatophylax, she detaches the ampulla and terminates sperm transfer. Hence, one simple function of the spermatophylax is to ensure complete sperm transfer by distracting the female from prematurely removing the ampulla. However, the majority of orally active components of the spermatophylax itself and their subsequent effects on female behavior have not been identified. Here, we report the first analysis of the proteome of the G. sigillatus spermatophylax and the transcriptome of the male accessory glands that make these proteins. The accessory gland transcriptome was assembled into 17,691 transcripts whilst about 30 proteins were detected within the mature spermatophylax itself. Of these 30 proteins, 18 were encoded by accessory gland encoded messages. Most spermatophylax proteins show no similarity to proteins with known biological functions and are therefore largely novel. A spermatophylax protein shows similarity to protease inhibitors suggesting that it may protect the biologically active components from digestion within the gut of the female recipient. Another protein shares similarity with previously characterized insect polypeptide growth factors suggesting that it may play a role in altering female reproductive physiology concurrent with fertilization. Characterization of the spermatophylax proteome provides the first step in

  15. Molecular evolution of the pDo500 satellite DNA family in Dolichopoda cave crickets (Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbordoni Valerio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding satellite DNA (satDNA usually has a high turn-over rate frequently leading to species specific patterns. However, some satDNA families evolve more slowly and can be found in several related species. Here, we analyzed the mode of evolution of the pDo500 satDNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets. In addition, we discuss the potential of slowly evolving satDNAs as phylogenetic markers. Results We sequenced 199 genomic or PCR amplified satDNA repeats of the pDo500 family from 12 Dolichopoda species. For the 38 populations under study, 39 pDo500 consensus sequences were deduced. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony, and Maximum Likelihood approaches yielded largely congruent tree topologies. The vast majority of pDo500 sequences grouped according to species designation. Scatter plots and statistical tests revealed a significant correlation between genetic distances for satDNA and mitochondrial DNA. Sliding window analyses showed species specific patterns of variable and conserved regions. The evolutionary rate of the pDo500 satDNA was estimated to be 1.63-1.78% per lineage per million years. Conclusions The pDo500 satDNA evolves gradually at a rate that is only slightly faster than previously published rates of insect mitochondrial COI sequences. The pDo500 phylogeny was basically congruent with the previously published mtDNA phylogenies. Accordingly, the slowly evolving pDo500 satDNA family is indeed informative as a phylogenetic marker.

  16. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC2, EC5, and EC95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  17. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  18. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  19. The Australian SKA Pathfinder: First Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a precursor and technology demonstrator for the Square Kilometre Array.A specialist wide-field survey instrument, ASKAP compises 36 x 12m dish antennas with a maximum separation of 6km. The array operates in the frequency range 700 - 1800 MHz and has an instantaneous bandwidth of 300 MHz. Each dish is mounted with a 'phased array feed', a radio receiver that dramatically enhances the telescope's field-of-view from 1 to 30 square degrees. ASKAP is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory, Australia's core site for the SKA.Ten Science Survey Projects have been established by teams of more than 600 astronomers from around the world. Astronomical research topics tackled by these teams include galaxy evolution, cosmic magnetism, the history of gas in galaxies and cosmology. A program of ASKAP Early Science will commence in late 2015. The 6-antenna Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) is currently being used by the commissioning team and at the time of writing has produced its first scientific discovery paper.In this talk, hear the ASKAP Project Scientist report some of the exciting new capabilities demonstrated by ASKAP and learn about the first scientific discoveries made by the commissioning and early science team.

  20. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Natural soundscape has always constituted a reference in cognitive and emotional processes. The imitation of natural sounds contributed to the origin of the verbal language, which has been then subjected to an even more refined process of abstraction throughout history. The musical language also evolved along the same path of imitation. Among the many sonic elements of a natural environment, the stridulation of crickets is one of the most consistent for its timbre, articulation, diffusion and intrinsic emotional power. More than 900 species of crickets, in fact, have been described. They can be found in all parts of the world with the exception of cold regions at latitudes higher than 55° North and South. Among the many species we're working on (Order Orthoptera and Suborder Ensifera), we refer here of a comparison between the morphology of the acoustic emission systems and the corresponding waveforms/spectral patterns of sound in three widespread species from central Italy: Gryllus Bimaculatus, Acheta Domesticus (Gryllidae), and Ruspolia Nitidula (Conocephalidae). The samples of the acoustic apparatus of the target individuals, stored in ethanol, were observed under a Field Emission Gun Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope (FEG-ESEM, Quanta 200, FEI, The Netherlands). The use of this type of microscope allowed to analyze the samples without any kind of manipulation (dehydration and/or metallization), while maintaining the morphological features of the fragile acoustic apparatus. The observations were made with different sensors (SE: secondary-electron sensor and BSE: backscattered-electron sensor), and performed at low-medium vacuum with energies varying from c.ca 10 to 30kV. Male individuals have an acoustic apparatus consisting in two cuticular structures (tegmina) positioned above wings, while both male and females have receiving organs (tympanum) in forelegs. Stridulation mechanism is produced when the file and the scraper (plectrum) scrub one another

  1. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  2. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  3. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  4. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  6. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    OpenAIRE

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  7. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  8. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  9. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  10. Spin-bowling in cricket re-visited: model trajectories for various spin-vector angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we investigate, via the calculation of model trajectories appropriate to slow bowling in cricket, the effects on the flight path of the ball before pitching due to changes in the angle of the spin-vector. This was accomplished by allowing the spin-vector to vary in three ways. Firstly, from off-spin, where the spin-vector points horizontally and directly down the pitch, to top-spin where it points horizontally towards the off-side of the pitch. Secondly, from off-spin to side-spin where, for side-spin, the spin-vector points vertically upwards. Thirdly, where the spin-vector points horizontally and at 45° to the pitch (in the general direction of ‘point’, as viewed by the bowler), and is varied towards the vertical, while maintaining the 45° angle in the horizontal plane. It is found that, as is well known, top-spin causes the ball to dip in flight, side-spin causes the ball to move side-ways in flight and, perhaps most importantly, off-spin can cause the ball to drift to the off-side of the pitch late in its flight as it begins to fall. At a more subtle level it is found that, if the total spin is kept constant and a small amount of top-spin is added to the ball at the expense of some off-spin, there is little change in the side-ways drift. However, a considerable reduction in the length at which the ball pitches occurs, ∼25 cm, an amount that batsmen can ignore at their peril. On the other hand, a small amount of side-spin introduced to a top-spin delivery does not alter the point of pitching significantly, but produces a considerable amount of side-ways drift, ∼10 cm or more. For pure side-spin the side-ways drift is up to ∼30 cm. When a side-spin component is added to the spin of a ball bowled with a mixture of off-spin and top-spin in equal proportions, significant movement occurs in both the side-ways direction and in the point of pitching, of the order of a few tens of centimetres.

  11. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  12. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  13. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  14. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  15. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    George Athanasopoulos; Rob J Hyndman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  16. Ownership of Australian Equities and Corporate Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Black; Joshua Kirkwood

    2010-01-01

    Australian financial and non-financial companies tap capital markets – particularly equity and bond markets – to source funds from households, foreign investors and domestic institutional investors. Foreign investors supply around half of these funds, with institutional investors providing most of the remainder; households’ direct holdings are comparatively modest. During the financial crisis, foreign investors’ appetite for Australian assets remained strong, underpinned by the streng...

  17. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  18. The Changing Political Economy of Australian Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins

    1994-01-01

    The Australian labour market is undergoing fundamental change, following economic restructuring and industrial relations and vocational education reform. This article outlines the recent evidence relating to unequal outcomes for immigrants from non English-speaking background and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian labour market. It then argues that, rather than meritocratic, these outcomes are partially the result of racial discrimination. The paper then considers the so...

  19. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  20. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  1. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  2. Educational Research: The State of Sweden and the Australian 2.2 World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss Lindblad, Rita; Lindblad, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Current tendencies in educational research in Sweden are presented and compared to Australia. We here refer to; organization of research, research allocation, publication patterns, and assessments of research qualities. Different trajectories of educational research were identified, where Australian research was organized as a field of study,…

  3. Learning Objects and Engagement of Students in Australian and New Zealand Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kate; Lee, Libby; Schibeci, Renato; Cummings, Rick; Phillips, Rob; Lake, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a completed field study that examined the usability and effectiveness of learning objects designed for Australian and New Zealand primary and secondary schools. It focuses on student engagement by observing the ways students interacted with learning objects and by listening to what they said about them. Questions that guided…

  4. Seismic and mechanical anisotropy and the past and present deformation of the Australian lithosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Frederik J.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2003-01-01

    We interpret the three-dimensional seismic wave-speed structure of the Australian upper mantle by comparing its azimuthal anisotropy to estimates of past and present lithospheric deformation. We infer the fossil strain field from the orientation of gravity anomalies relative to topography, bypassing

  5. A Taxonomic Study on the Burrowing Cricket Genus Velarifictorus with Morphologically Resembled Genus Lepidogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877 is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not recorded Velarifictorus ornatus (Shiraki, 1911 is newly recognized from South Korea. Relating to the genus Velarifictorus, the resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 and its species Lepidogryllus siamensis (Chopard, 1961 com. & stat. nov. is studied and compared with Velarifictorus members. A key, descriptions, tables, photographs, figures, oscillograms and spectrograms of calling sounds are provided to aid identification between the four similar species.

  6. Measurements of the diet in two species of Troglophilus Krauss, 1879 cave crickets from Italian subterranean habitats (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Di Russo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of two populations of cave crickets, Troglophilus cavicola from Veneto, northern Italy and Troglophilus andreinii from Apulia, southern Italy, were studied by analyzing faecal and gut contents. The results obtained document different food preferences in these two species. In the Troglophilus cavicola population arthropod remains were dominant in the diet, whereas in the T. andreinii population vegetables (green and fibres were the more abundant food category. Furthermore, study of the overlap of food resource exploitation among age and sex sub-samples seems to indicate a separation of diet among the young instars and other age classes of the populations. Differences in diet between males and females were observed only in the population of T. andreinii.

  7. Comparison of three types of full‐body compression garments on throwing and repeat‐sprint performance in cricket players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Portus, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of three types of full‐body compression garments (Skins, Adidas and Under Armour) on repeat‐sprint and throwing performance in cricket players. Methods Following familiarisation, 10 male cricket players performed four randomised exercise sessions (3 garments and a control). Each session involved a 30 min repeat‐sprint exercise protocol comprising 20 m sprints every minute, separated by submaximal exercise. Throwing tests included a pre‐exercise and a postexercise maximal distance test and accuracy throwing tests. During each session, measures of heart rate, skin temperature, change in body mass, rate of perceived exertion and perceived muscle soreness were recorded. Capillary blood samples were analysed before and after exercise for lactate, pH, O2 saturation and O2 partial pressure, and 24 h after exercise for creatine kinase (CK). Ratings of perceived muscle soreness were also obtained 24 h after exercise. Results No significant differences (p>0.05) were evident in repeat‐sprint performance (10 m, 20 m time or total submaximal distance covered) or throwing performance (maximum distance or accuracy). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in heart rate, body mass change or blood measures during exercise. Significant differences (p0.05). Conclusions No benefit was noted when wearing compression garments for repeat‐sprint or throwing performance; however, the use of the garments as a recovery tool, when worn after exercise, may be beneficial to reduce postexercise trauma and perceived muscle soreness. PMID:17341589

  8. Homelessness, Social Work, Social Policy and the Print Media in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness is a significant social problem worldwide. This paper describes an Australian study that examined print media representations of homelessness and social work, social policy and social work responses to homelessness in three Australian cities. The research included a content analysis of seven Australian newspapers and semi-structured interviews with 39 social workers employed in the field of homelessness in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. The detailed results of these studies have been published separately elsewhere. This paper reports on how discourses in the print media, social policy and social work practice co-exist in constructing homelessness as a particular social problem, influencing social work responses to homelessness. The research found that individualism is central to many dominant discourses evident in the print media, social policy and social work practice, and that social work is practiced within unequal power relations embedded in organisational contexts.

  9. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  10. Grasshoppers, crickets (Orthoptera and earwigs (Dermaptera of Tovačov gravel pit (central Moravia, Czech Republic: New locality for several thermophilous species in anthropogenic secondary habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnka Filip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of Orthoptera and earwigs was conducted in Tovačov gravel pit in 2014. We have recorded 18 species of Orthoptera and 3 species of earwigs. The most significant recorded species are Cepero’s ground-hopper (Tetrix ceperoi, pygmy mole cricket (Xya variegata, Italian tree cricket (Oecanthus pellucens and riparian earwig (Labidura riparia. Tovačov gravel pit poses the northernmost locality of T. ceperoi and X. variegata in the Czech Republic and the northernmost known locality in Moravia for O. pellucens. For the L. riparia, we present a founding from Tovačov together with another finding from Olomouc vicinity, which is currently the northernmost locality within Moravia. Our findings display recent spatial expansion of some thermophilous species. Moreover, we emphasize importance of (post-industrial areas as secondary habitats for specialised endangered species.

  11. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Lundy

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (p99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production.

  12. Introducing the Australian Uranium Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument

  13. The Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Shane; Robinson, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The 20-MW Australian Replacement Research Reactor represents possibly the greatest single research infrastructure investment in Australia's history. Construction of the facility has commenced, following award of the construction contract in July 2000, and the construction licence in April 2002. The project includes a large state-of-the-art liquid deuterium cold-neutron source and supermirror guides feeding a large modern guide hall, in which most of the instruments are placed. Alongside the guide hall, there is good provision of laboratory, office and space for support activities. While the facility has "space" for up to 18 instruments, the project has funding for an initial set of 8 instruments, which will be ready when the reactor is fully operational in July 2006. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere, and our goal is to be in the top 3 such facilities worldwide. Staff to lead the design effort and man these instruments have been hired on the international market from leading overseas facilities, and from within Australia, and 7 out of 8 instruments have been specified and costed. At present the instrumentation project carries 10contingency. An extensive dialogue has taken place with the domestic user community and our international peers, via various means including a series of workshops over the last 2 years covering all 8 instruments, emerging areas of application like biology and the earth sciences, and computing infrastructure for the instruments.

  14. LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS ON LIFE CYCLE STAGES OF ADELINA GRYLLI BUTAEVA 1996 (SPOROZOA, ADELEIDAE) FROM THE FAT BODY OF THE CRICKET GRYLLUS BIMACULATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, Yulia; Butaeva, Fatima; Dolgikh, Viacheslav

    1999-01-01

    Adelina grylli Butaeva, 1996 (Sporozoa, Adeleina) was described from crickets Grillus bimaculatus from Middle Asia (Ashhabad). The parasite infected the laboratory population of Gryllus bimaculatus. Zoites, dividing schizonts, macrogamonts, microgamonts and oocysts are studied in light and electron microscopes (EM). The infective stage is a sporulated oocyst with 4 20 sporocysts, each containing 2 sporozoites. Sporozoites, like other generations of zoites, display ultrastructure typical for t...

  15. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Venanzetti Federica; Johnsen Arild; Martinsen Lene; Bachmann Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH) ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Resul...

  16. “It’s Not [Just] Cricket: The Art and Politics of the Popular – Cultural Imperialism, ‘Sly Civility’ & Postcolonial Incorporation”

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Jones

    2013-01-01

    Ashutosh Gowariker’s critically acclaimed Lagaan (2001), is a marvellous piece of cinematic troubling, which, via an astute use of allegory, reflects upon identity politics and power relations in both colonial and postcolonial contexts. Bringing two cornerstones of Indian popular culture together, namely cricket and Hindi formulae films, Gow ariker produces an engagingly, affective alchemy of image and sound, which intervenes critically in the discourses of Br...

  17. Seasonality influences cuticle melanization and immune defense in a cricket: support for a temperature-dependent immune investment hypothesis in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorka, K. M. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Copeland, E. K. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Winterhalter, W. E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-07-18

    To improve thermoregulation in colder environments, insects are expected to darken their cuticles with melanin via the phenoloxidase cascade, a phenomenon predicted by the thermal melanin hypothesis. However, the phenoloxidase cascade also plays a significant role in insect immunity, leading to the additional hypothesis that the thermal environment indirectly shapes immune function via direct selection on cuticle color. Support for the latter hypothesis comes from the cricket Allonemobius socius, where cuticle darkness and immune-related phenoloxidase activity increase with latitude. However, thermal environments vary seasonally as well as geographically, suggesting that seasonal plasticity in immunity may also exist. Although seasonal fluctuations in vertebrate immune function are common (because of flux in breeding or resource abundance), seasonality in invertebrate immunity has not been widely explored. We addressed this possibility by rearing crickets in simulated summer and fall environments and assayed their cuticle color and immune function. Prior to estimating immunity, crickets were placed in a common environment to minimize metabolic rate differences. Individuals reared under fall-like conditions exhibited darker cuticles, greater phenoloxidase activity and greater resistance to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. These data support the hypothesis that changes in the thermal environment modify cuticle color, which indirectly shapes immune investment through pleiotropy. This hypothesis may represent a widespread mechanism governing immunity in numerous systems, considering that most insects operate in seasonally and geographically variable thermal environments.

  18. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  19. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists - an Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kreshnik Hoti; Jeffery Hughes; Bruce Sunderland

    2011-01-01

    Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professional practice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australian pharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-counter medications. This review aims to identify Australian studies involving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing. Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacist prescribing were identified and considered in the context of its implementation internationally. Australian studies have mainly focused on the attitudes of com...

  20. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  1. Defining Educational Research: A Perspective of/on Presidential Addresses and the Australian Association for Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Gale, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the definition of the field of educational research and the changing and developing role of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) in representing and constituting this field. The evidence for the argument is derived from AARE Presidential Addresses across its 40-year history. The paper documents…

  2. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  3. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  4. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  5. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  6. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  7. Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ANSTO Environment is playing a pioneering role in developing new methods for monitoring adherence to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. Working with the IAEA Department of Safeguards, new analytical procedures have been developed to assist with their environmental monitoring programme. Signatures of nuclear activities, in the form of trace amounts of radioisotopes in environmental samples, can be used to identify undeclared nuclear facilities or undeclared activities at declared facilities. At ANSTO we have developed the use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of 236U in environmental samples. 236U is a sensitive indicator of irradiated uranium. AMS is also used to detect the long- lived fission product 129I at extremely low levels. The presence of 129I can be a signature of reprocessing. ANSTO performs analyses of these radioisotopes as an accredited member of the IAEA Safeguards network of analytical laboratories. Australian soldiers on duty in the Gulf risk possible exposure to depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is the uranium that is left after most of the radioactive isotopes are removed for nuclear fuel. Due to its high density, it is the ideal material for use in armour-piercing ammunition and in armour for fighting vehicles. However, like any heavy metal, it is toxic in high doses. Depleted uranium enters the body through inhalation of the dust- like particles, ingestion of contaminated food or through wounds. At ANSTO, a sensitive analytical technique based on isotope dilution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect depleted uranium in urine samples. By addition of known quantities of 236U (isotope dilution) to the urine samples and measuring the relative abundances of different isotopes (236U, 235U and 238U) of uranium by ICP-MS, we are able to quantify (quantification limit of 20 ng/L) and distinguish between natural and depleted uranium. In Australia, there are legislative limits on the

  8. Hector - a new massively multiplexed IFS instrument for the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Julia J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Lawrence, Jon; Croom, Scott; Brown, David; Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Gillingham, Peter R.; Zhelem, Ross; Content, Robert; Saunders, Will; Staszak, Nicholas F.; van de Sande, Jesse; Couch, Warrick; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Tims, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Hector will be the new massively-multiplexed integral field spectroscopy (IFS) instrument for the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) in Australia and the next main dark-time instrument for the observatory. Based on the success of the SAMI instrument, which is undertaking a 3400-galaxy survey, the integral field unit (IFU) imaging fibre bundle (hexabundle) technology under-pinning SAMI is being improved to a new innovative design for Hector. The distribution of hexabundle angular sizes is matche...

  9. Australian clinical guidelines for radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Health Protection Committee oversees national health protection priorities in: communicable disease outbreaks; chemical, biological or radiological incidents; mass casualty incidents; and deployment of Australian health teams overseas. The Australian Clinical Guidelines for a Radiological Event to complement existing national guidelines on chemical agents, anthrax, and smallpox. Other prompts included the need to revise the ARPANSA Guidance Manual, Medical Management of Individuals Involved in Radiation Accidents, 2000, and the requirement for specific therapeutic information regarding the indications and use of radiological decorporation agents held as part of the National Medical Stockpile. Matters identified by clinicians requiring specific guidance included: basic understanding of radiation; an approach to dose assessment; specific thresholds for initiating decorporation and other therapy; the role of gastric lavage, as contemporary practice considers this ineffective for other toxicological indications. rationale for, and detailed description of pulmonary lavage; advice on prenatal exposure to radiation; protocols for biodosimetry and other laboratory analysis. The objective was to produce a plain language guidance document for Australian clinicians on the diagnosis and management of radiation injury. It was to be based on evaluation of existing Australian documents, a literature review and consultation of appropriate specialists. Content areas included human health effects of radiation, scenario-based risk assessment and risk management, pre-hospital and hospital systems of care, management of specific injury types, radionuclide pathophysiology and decorporation protocols, biodosimetry options, individual psychological support 'and public health information, and Australian responsibilities under the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network, of the World Health Organization. The range of resources utilised in preparing the

  10. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  11. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  12. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  13. Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchers, W. R.; Brooks, R.; Jennions, M.D; Tregenza, T; Dworkin, I.; Hunt, J.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders’ equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent work, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance ma...

  14. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  15. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  16. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  17. Bacteriophages from the forestomachs of Australian marsupials.

    OpenAIRE

    Klieve, A V

    1991-01-01

    Bacteriophages were observed in forestomach contents from three species of Australian macropodoid marsupials possessing a foregut fermentative digestion: the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), the eastern wallaroo (Macropus robustus robustus), and the rufous bettong (Aepyprymnus rufescens). Forty-six morphologically distinct phage types, representing the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae, were identified. The range of forms varied between host species. The greatest d...

  18. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  19. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  20. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  1. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means

  2. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  3. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  4. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  5. Wilson's disease in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D H; Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Patrick, M; Powell, L W

    1990-01-01

    Wilson's disease is due to a genetically determined defect inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most reported cases have been caucasoid. This report describes a case of Wilson's disease in an Australian Aboriginal girl, only the second such case reported. PMID:2129845

  6. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  7. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  8. Licensing of the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)'s Replacement Research Reactor has been submitted to a comprehensive licensing process of which peer review has been a fundamental part. Following Australian Regulation, an application for a site licence was the first step supported by an Environmental Impact Statement approved by The Minister for the Environment and Heritage, and a Reference Accident Analysis. After the site licence had been granted and the contract awarded to the Designer and Constructor, INVAP S.E:, a 2500 page Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was submitted by ANSTO to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), which conducted its review. ARPANSA requested that the PSAR be also reviewed by an experts mission from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The PSAR was also reviewed by the Argentine Regulatory Body, it was submitted to public examination in Australia and it was reviewed by international experts hired as consultants by several Australian organisations. A public forum was also held in Sydney. The Regulator, the applicant and the Designer-Constructor maintained constant interaction during the whole process, so that questions, comments and observations that arose from the review of the PSAR were fed back to the designers. This process allowed for a robust, safe design enriched by the results of the safety analysis and review process. (author)

  9. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in Australian…

  10. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  11. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  12. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  13. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  14. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  15. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  16. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  17. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  18. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  19. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  20. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  1. An investigation of viscous-mediated coupling of crickets cercal hair sensors using a scaled up model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagirisamy, Pasupathy S.; Jeronimidis, George; Le Moàl, Valerie

    2009-08-01

    Viscous coupling between filiform hair sensors of insects and arthropods has gained considerable interest recently. Study of viscous coupling between hairs at micro scale with current technologies is proving difficult and hence the hair system has been physically scaled up by a factor of 100. For instance, a typical filiform hair of 10 μm diameter and 1000 μm length has been physically scaled up to 1 mm in diameter and 100mm in length. At the base, a rotational spring with a bonded strain gauge provides the restoring force and measures the angle of deflection of the model hair. These model hairs were used in a glycerol-filled aquarium where the velocity of flow and the fluid properties were determined by imposing the Reynolds numbers compatible with biological system. Experiments have been conducted by varying the separation distance and the relative position between the moveable model hairs, of different lengths and between the movable and rigid hairs of different lengths for the steady velocity flow with Reynolds numbers of 0.02 and 0.05. In this study, the viscous coupling between hairs has been characterised. The effect of the distance from the physical boundaries, such as tank walls has also been quantified (wall effect). The purpose of this investigation is to provide relevant information for the design of MEMS systems mimicking the cricket's hair array.

  2. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ in the splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris Irish 1986 (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Schizodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-11-15

    The subgenual chordotonal organ complex in insects is modified in ensiferan taxa like Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae into hearing organs with specific sets of auditory receptors. Here, this sensory organ complex is documented in the nonhearing splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris. The tibial chordotonal organ consists of three parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the crista acustica homolog. The latter is an array of linearly organized neurons homologous to auditory receptors in the tibial hearing organs of Tettigoniidae. The tibial organ is structurally similar in all three leg pairs, with similar neuron numbers in the fore- and midleg, but lower numbers in the hindleg. The foreleg crista acustica homolog consists of 34±4 neurons, the highest number in an atympanate Ensiferan. Additionally, an accessory chordotonal organ with 15±5 neurons innervated by nerve 5B1 is present in the foreleg. The central projection of the tibial organreveals ipsilateral sensory terminals in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center with terminations close to the midline. As determined from extracellular recordings, the entire tibial organ is vibrosensitive. The organization of the tibial organ is compared to other ensiferan auditory and nonauditory tibial organs. Spatial orientation of neurons in the crista acustica homolog is not reminiscent of auditory structures, and the neuroanatomy is discussed with respect to stridulation behavior and the evolutionary origin of hearing in Ensifera. PMID:20886622

  3. Effects of shape variations on the energy metabolism of the sand cricket Gryllus firmus: a geometric morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F Nespolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiration and energy metabolism are key processes in animals, which are severely constrained by the design of physical structures, such as respiratory structures. Insects have very particular respiratory systems, based on gas diffusion across tracheae. Since the efficiency of the tracheal respiratory system is highly dependent on body shape, the pattern of morphological variation during ontogeny could have important metabolic consequences. We studied this problem combining through-flow respirometry and geometric morphometrics in 88 nymphs of the sand cricket, Gryllus firmus. After measuring production in each individual, we took digital photographs and defined eight landmarks for geometric morphometric analysis. The analysis suggested that ontogenic deformations were mostly related to enlargement of the abdomen, compared to thorax and head. We found that (controlling for body size metabolic variables and especially resting metabolism are positively correlated with a shape-component associated to an elongation of the abdomen. Our results are in agreement with the mechanics of tracheal ventilation in orthopterans, as gas circulation occurs by changes in abdominal pressures due to abdominal contractions and expansions along the longitudinal axis.

  4. Achilles tendon mechanical properties after both prolonged continuous running and prolonged intermittent shuttle running in cricket batting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Laurence; Dawson, Brian; Rubenson, Jonas

    2013-08-01

    Effects of prolonged running on Achilles tendon properties were assessed after a 60 min treadmill run and 140 min intermittent shuttle running (simulated cricket batting innings). Before and after exercise, 11 participants performed ramp-up plantar flexions to maximum-voluntary-contraction before gradual relaxation. Muscle-tendon-junction displacement was measured with ultrasonography. Tendon force was estimated using dynamometry and a musculoskeletal model. Gradients of the ramp-up force-displacement curves fitted between 0-40% and 50-90% of the preexercise maximal force determined stiffness in the low- and high-force-range, respectively. Hysteresis was determined using the ramp-up and relaxation force-displacement curves and elastic energy storage from the area under the ramp-up curve. In simulated batting, correlations between tendon properties and shuttle times were also assessed. After both protocols, Achilles tendon force decreased (4% to 5%, P elastic energy. In simulated batting, Achilles tendon force and stiffness were both correlated to mean turn and mean sprint times (r = -0.719 to -0.830, P < .050). Neither protocol resulted in fatigue-related changes in tendon properties, but higher tendon stiffness and plantar flexion force were related to faster turn and sprint times, possibly by improving force transmission and control of movement when decelerating and accelerating. PMID:22923384

  5. Female choice for male cuticular hydrocarbon profile in decorated crickets is not based on similarity to their own profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, S; Capodeanu-Nägler, A; Gershman, S N; Weddle, C B; Rapkin, J; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2015-12-01

    Indirect genetic benefits derived from female mate choice comprise additive (good genes) and nonadditive genetic benefits (genetic compatibility). Although good genes can be revealed by condition-dependent display traits, the mechanism by which compatibility alleles are detected is unclear because evaluation of the genetic similarity of a prospective mate requires the female to assess the genotype of the male and compare it to her own. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), lipids coating the exoskeleton of most insects, influence female mate choice in a number of species and offer a way for females to assess genetic similarity of prospective mates. Here, we determine whether female mate choice in decorated crickets is based on male CHCs and whether it is influenced by females' own CHC profiles. We used multivariate selection analysis to estimate the strength and form of selection acting on male CHCs through female mate choice, and employed different measures of multivariate dissimilarity to determine whether a female's preference for male CHCs is based on similarity to her own CHC profile. Female mating preferences were significantly influenced by CHC profiles of males. Male CHC attractiveness was not, however, contingent on the CHC profile of the choosing female, as certain male CHC phenotypes were equally attractive to most females, evidenced by significant linear and stabilizing selection gradients. These results suggest that additive genetic benefits, rather than nonadditive genetic benefits, accrue to female mate choice, in support of earlier work showing that CHC expression of males, but not females, is condition dependent. PMID:26301596

  6. Female monopolization and paternity assurance in South American crickets (Orthoptera, Grylloidea: mating plugs, extra claspers and forced copulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. de Mello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first three cases in which male crickets monopolize females by means of mating plugs. The origin of the plugs vary among the cases (i.e., they are not homologous. Female monogamy is assured by the permanent presence of the plug attached to their genitalia after first mating, while males are potentially polygamous. The presence of an additional clasping structure and the occurrence of forced copulation are also described.Este trabalho descreve os primeiros três casos em que grilos machos monopolizam suas fêmeas através de plugues de acasalamento. A origem dessas estruturas varia entre os casos (i.e., não há homologia entre as mesmas. A monogamia feminina é assegurada pela presença permanente do plugue de acasalamento aderido a sua genitália após a primeira cópula, enquanto que os machos são potencialmente poligâmicos. Descrevem-se ainda a presença de clásper adicional e a ocorrência de cópulas forçadas.

  7. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  8. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  9. Feeding and development of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, on Australian native plant species and implications for Australian biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathé, Anna A; Pilkington, Leigh J; Hoddle, Mark S; Spohr, Lorraine J; Daugherty, Matthew P; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    In any insect invasion the presence or absence of suitable food and oviposition hosts in the invaded range is a key factor determining establishment success. The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important insect vector of the xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes disease in numerous host plants including food and feedstock crops, ornamentals and weeds. Both the pathogen and the vector are native to the Americas and are considered to be highly invasive. Neither has been detected in Australia. Twelve Australian native plant species present in the USA were observed over two years for suitability as H. vitripennis feeding, oviposition and nymph development hosts. Hosts providing evidence of adult or nymph presence were Leptospermum laevigatum, Acacia cowleana, Eremophila divaricata, Eucalyptus wandoo, Hakea laurina, Melaleuca laterita and Swainsona galegifolia. An oviposition-suitability field study was conducted with citrus, a favoured oviposition host, as a positive control. Citrus and L. laevigatum, A. cowleana, B. ericifolia×B. spinulosa, C. pulchella, E. divaricata, E. wandoo, H. laurina, and S. galegifolia were found to be oviposition hosts. Egg parasitism by the mymarid parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi was observed on all Australian plants. A number of Australian plants that may facilitate H. vitripennis invasion have been identified and categorised as 'high risk' due to their ability to support all three life stages (egg, nymph and adult) of the insect in the field (L. laevigatum, A. cowleana, E. divaricata, H. laurina, and S. galegifolia). The implications of these host status and natural enemy research findings are discussed and placed in an Australian invasion context. PMID:24614821

  10. Early Australian Optical and Radio Observations of Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Peter; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wendt, Harry; 10.1071/AS09071

    2010-01-01

    The discoveries of the radio source Centaurus A and its optical counterpart NGC 5128 were important landmarks in the history of Australian astronomy. NGC 5128 was first observed in August 1826 by James Dunlop during a survey of southern objects at the Parramatta Observatory, west of the settlement at Sydney Cove. The observatory had been founded a few years earlier by Thomas Brisbane, the new governor of the British colony of New South Wales. Just over 120 years later, John Bolton, Gordon Stanley and Bruce Slee discovered the radio source Centaurus A at the Dover Heights field station in Sydney, operated by CSIRO's Radiophysics Laboratory (the forerunner of the Australia Telescope National Facility). This paper will describe this early historical work and summarise further studies of Centaurus A by other Radiophysics groups up to 1960.

  11. Neuronal organization of a fast-mediating cephalothoracic pathway for antennal-tactile information in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Schildberger, Klaus; Stevenson, Paul A

    2011-06-15

    Crickets use their long antennae as tactile sensors. Confronted with obstacles, conspecifics, or predators, antennal contacts trigger short-latency motor responses. To reveal the neuronal pathway underlying these antennal-guided locomotory reactions we identified descending interneurons that rapidly transmit antennal-tactile information from the head to the thorax in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Antennae were stimulated with forces approximating those of naturally occurring antennal contacts. Responding interneurons were individually identified by intracellular axon recordings in the pro-mesothoracic connective and subsequent tracer injection. Simultaneous with the intracellular recordings, the overall spike response in the neck connectives was recorded extracellularly to reveal the precise response-timing of each individual neuron within the collective multiunit response. Here we describe four descending brain neurons and two with the soma in the subesophageal ganglion. All antennal-touch elicited action potentials apparent in the neck connective recordings within 10 ms after antennal-contact are generated by these six interneurons. Their dendrites ramify in primary antennal-mechanosensory neuropils of the head ganglia. Each of them consistently generated action potentials in response to antennal touching and three of them responded also to different visual stimulation (light-off, movement). Their descending axons conduct action potentials with 3-5 m/s to the thoracic ganglia where they send off side branches in dorsal neuropils. Their physiological and anatomical properties qualify them as descending giant fibers in the cricket and suggest an involvement in evoking fast locomotory reactions. They form a fast-mediating cephalo-thoracic pathway for antennal-tactile information, whereas all other antennal-tactile interneurons had response latencies exceeding 40 ms. PMID:21452239

  12. Spectral Information System for Australian Spectroscopy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, L. A.; Ong, C.; Hueni, A.; Suarez, L.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.

    2013-12-01

    Inherently field spectroscopy involves the study of the interrelationships between the spectral characteristics of objects and their biophysical attributes in the field environment (Bauer et al., 1986; Milton, 1987). Spectroscopy measurements taken of vegetated surfaces provide spectral characteristics indicative of the status, composition and structure of the components measured. However, additional elements are present that add undesired effects to the overall signal such as the soil background or the viewing and illumination geometry (Suarez etal 2013). Further, the leaf spectrum is affected by several factors including leaf age, phenology, a highly variable range of stressors, any of which may be the actual focus of study, and additionally influenced by a range of environmental conditions. There is a critical need to use acquired spectra to infer vegetation function, understand phenological cycles, characterise biodiversity or as part of the process to assess biogeochemical processes. However the collection of leaf spectra during field campaigns is undertaken on a project basis, where a large number of spectra tend to be collected, yet the value and ability to share and confidently re-use such collections is often restricted. Often this is because the data are stored in disparate silos with little, if any, consistency in formatting and content, and most importantly, lack metadata to aid their discovery and re-use. These datasets have significant potential for vegetation scientists but also benefit the wider earth observation remote sensing and other earth science communities. In Australia this problem has been addressed by the adoption and enhancement of the existing SPECCHIO system (Hueni et al. 2009) as a suitable standard for spectral data exchange. As a spectral database, the system provides storage of spectra and associated metadata, retrieval of spectral data using metadata space queries, information on provenance, all of which facilitate repeatability of

  13. Effective Study Of S.a.q Training And Tempo Training On Agility And Resting Pulse Rate Among Junior Cricket Players

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mohanasundaram; G. VASANTHI

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of S.A.Q training and tempo training on agility and resting pulse rate among junior cricket players. Forty five subjects were selected from the Stansford International Higher Secondary School, Puducherry and their age ranged from 14 to 17 years. The subjects were equally divided into three groups with fifteen subjects in each group. The group I was treated with S.A.Q training group, Group II was treated with tempo training group and Group I...

  14. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998–1999 to 2008–2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI] were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture.Results: Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–7.1. Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03–2.1 and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.5 were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4–1.1. Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group.Conclusion: Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a

  15. Radio-telemetric evidence of migration in the gregarious but not the solitary morph of the Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Patrick D.; Gwynne, D. T.

    The Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, is one of just a few species of katydids (or bushcrickets, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) that, like migratory locusts, appear to have solitary and migratory morphs. Using radio telemetry we studied movements of individuals of two morphs of this flightless species. Individuals within each migratory band had similar rates of movements along similar directional headings whereas solitary individuals moved little and showed little evidence of directionality in movement. Our results also add to other recent radio-telemetry studies showing that flightless insects of 1-2g in mass can be tracked successfully using these methods.

  16. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  17. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  18. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  19. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  20. Accelerators for the Australian environment and heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian researchers have access to a variety of natural systems where records of the Earth's past environment have been stored. These archives include sediment cores, Antarctic ice, Tasmanian pine trees, rock surfaces, corals, etc. Each of these media contain information on past environmental conditions but the records must be carefully deciphered and compared with one-another. The AMS analysis of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides is essential for providing absolute time scales for these natural archives. Other analytical methods based on high-energy ion interactions are well suited to characterise environmental and archaeological samples with high sensitivity. The use of ANSTO's accelerators in research programs related to the environment in the Australian region is reviewed

  1. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  2. Examining the Average Citation Index of "Education in Rural Australia" (Now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John

    2013-01-01

    The journal "Education in Rural Australia" (now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education") has been in existence since 1991. During the Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) period, the journal maintained a B ranking, indicating that it was a quality journal within a specialised field. With the abolishment…

  3. What Do We Really Know about the Outcomes of Australian International Education? A Critical Review and Prospectus for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Denise; Smith, Wendy; Boey, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Australia has been a significant provider of international education in the Asia-Pacific region since 1950 with the inception of the Colombo Plan. Thus, graduates from these early days would by now be mature professionals in a variety of fields, with several decades of professional and academic attainment enabled by their Australian education. Yet…

  4. Progress with the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the new Australian Research Reactor, the replacement for the now 46 year old HIFAR research reactor, is approximately 80% completed. Construction of the reactor facility began in April 2002 at ANSTO's Lucas Heights site near Sydney and commissioning is still on track for late 2005. Some details of the progress of construction and licensing and an outline of ANSTO research related to the use of Zircaloy-4 in the core region and reflector vessel of the reactor are given. (author)

  5. FINANCIAL CONTROL IN AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT BUDGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2000-01-01

    With the arrival of accrual accounting and a performance budgeting system known as \\"accrual output budgeting\\", there have been huge changes in the mechanism of central financial control in the budget-dependent Australian public sector. This article outlines and evaluates these changes. The new parliamentary appropriations arrangements are discussed, as is the increased role played by non-appropriated departmental \\"own-source\\" funding. The commercialisation rationale of these changes is ou...

  6. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, th...

  7. The Australian Credit Default Swap Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Fabbro

    2011-01-01

    The Australian credit default swap (CDS) market has been increasingly used by financial institutions to trade and manage credit risk. As a result, there has been greater use of the market as a source of credit risk pricing information. Similarities between CDS and bonds allow pricing in the two markets to be compared. However, the CDS market has a greater tendency at times to be affected by poor liquidity, which complicates the interpretation of CDS pricing, particularly when there are large ...

  8. New Measures of Australian Corporate Credit Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Ivailo Arsov; Matthew Brooks; Mitch Kosev

    2013-01-01

    Australian corporations access bond markets both domestically and offshore. Despite this, there is a lack of publicly available data on bond market conditions faced by non-financial corporations (NFCs). This gap in the data is particularly apparent at longer maturities where the low level of bond issuance, especially in the domestic market, makes it difficult to gauge the long-term credit spreads faced by resident issuers. To address this lack of data, the article presents a method for estima...

  9. Financial Regulation and Australian Dollar Liquid Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Heath; Mark Manning

    2012-01-01

    Liquid assets with low credit and market risk have a number of uses in financial markets, such as providing collateral against short-term funding or credit exposures that arise between counterparties to financial transactions. This article examines the existing sources of demand for Australian dollar-denominated liquid assets. Given relatively low levels of government debt in Australia, demand for these assets has been increasing relative to supply for some time. A further increase in demand ...

  10. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Hearfield; Brian Dollery

    2009-01-01

    In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more...

  11. Inventories in the Australian business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This Economics Research Note examines inventories in the business cycle for Australia covering the period since the mid 1980s. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) defines inventories as all materials etc., work in progress and finished goods owned by a business, whether held at locations of the business or elsewhere. These items are usually held by businesses in anticipation of a product’s sale. Inventory investment is counted as an additional contribution to gross domestic product (...

  12. Profiling socially responsible investors: Australian evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Pérez-Gladish; Karen Benson; Robert Faff

    2012-01-01

    With the aid of an online survey, the purpose of this study is to examine financial preferences; social, environmental and ethical concerns; and socio-demographic characteristics of Australian socially responsible (SR) investors. The study advances knowledge of SR investors’ profiles and their motivations when making investment decisions. Based on a sample of 145 investors, our findings suggest that SR investors seek financial return as well as non-financial benefits. Social conscience and ...

  13. Accrual Financial Reporting and Australian Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2000-01-01

    Australian governments have recently moved from cash accounting to accrual accounting. In doing so they have made simultaneous use of two rival accrual accounting frameworks: AAS 31 and GFS. AAS 31 and GFS operating result measures differ significantly. To date, the AAS 31 framework has enjoyed primacy. This paper evaluates these two frameworks, and suggests that GFS is superior. Accrual accounting has been accompanied at the national government level by the introduction of a new key fiscal p...

  14. Assessing the Research Performance of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Worthington, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies new classifications of Australian universities based on their total and per-academic staff research outputs using the data for the period 1998-2002. We define research performance in terms of audited numbers of PhD completions, publications and grants (in accordance with rules established by the Department of Education, Science and Training). Our analysis indicates that (a) the highest achievers consists of the seven Group of Eight (Go8) universities; (b) the top-three...

  15. Ownership Structure and Corporate Performance: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Fishman; Gerard Gannon; Russell Vinning

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the relationship between ownership structure and corporate performance for fifty firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange during 2002-2003. The study initially tests a two equation model similar to that in the existing literature, but is distinguished from prior literature by subsequently reclassifying leverage. By categorising leverage as an endogenous variable, an examination of the relationship between ownership and performance is undertaken through ordinar...

  16. The Australian synchrotron - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises progress with the development of the Australian Synchrotron. The facility is based on the Boomerang Storage Ring which has a DBA structure with 14 superperiods. The design objective was to achieve a low emittance in a relatively compact circumference that had an excellent dynamic aperture and was obust with respect to potential construction aberrations. The potential suite of beamline and instrument stations is discussed and some examples are given

  17. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  18. Australian and Japanese Value Stereotypes: A two Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey N. Soutar; Richard Grainger; Pamela Hedges

    1999-01-01

    Australians and Japanese working in Australian and Japanese organizations in both countries were involved in a research project that estimated stereotypical views of national culture. Respondents rated the importance of cultural values in Australia and Japan using the List of Values (LOV) instrument. The results of a discriminant analysis suggested that potentially detrimental misunderstandings about their respective cultures may exist between Australians and Japanese engaged in mutual intern...

  19. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  20. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) is a joint venture between the Australian mining industry through the Australian Mineral Industries Research Association Ltd. (AMIRA) and three of the organizations working most actively in this area in Australia: CSIRO Minesite Rehabilitation Research Program; University of Queensland Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation; and Curtin University Mulga Research Centre. The ACMRR was established in July 1993 to provide a national framework to conduct Strategic Research into minesite rehabilitation. It is an industry led and funded initiative. The Goals of the Centre include: to conduct strategic research into minesite rehabilitation to provide sustainable environmental solutions which are acceptable to industry, government and the community; to be recognized as a center of excellence undertaking commissioned research on minesite rehabilitation in an independent and thorough manner; to provide scientific and technological foundations to facilitate industry and government in setting acceptable standards; to act as networking and communications focus; and to enhance education and training in minesite rehabilitation. Strategic Research Programs in: Water Systems--downstream surface and groundwater quality; Land--the long-term behavior and stability of constructed landforms; Ecosystems--the long-term sustainability of constructed landforms; Waste--the long-term treatment and disposal of waste products; will allow the ACMRR to achieve these goals through specific research projects in these areas, developed with industry sponsors. This paper will discuss their progress to date, research projects underway, and plans for the future

  1. Australian RRRP seismic design and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focuses on the structural design and qualification that has been carried out for the safety against seismic events at the Australian RRRP (Replacement Research Reactor Project). The RRRP is a 20 MW multi-purpose nuclear research reactor designed and constructed by INVAP from Argentina, for ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) in Sydney, Australia. On account of the site characteristics, the australian regulations and the engineering and design standards applicable to the project, the design requirements for the reactor included very stringent and clear guidelines that should be observed to ensure that appropriate levels of protection are provided against seismic events. Despite the fact of being a research reactor with a thermal power two orders of magnitude lower than that of nuclear power plants, the methodology used in the seismic qualification was based on the one used for NPPs instead of using simplified methods as suggested by the literature on research reactors. With this in mind, the regulatory and engineering frame was based on IAEA standards for power reactors and complementary guides for specific issues. The paper describes the Design Basis Ground Motion, Seismic Levels, Seismic Classification and the particular design criteria and qualification methods used for systems as: Civil, Mechanical, Process, Instrumentation and Control, Electrical, HVAC, etc. (authors)

  2. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  3. Curated exhibitions and Australian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine De Lorenzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Australian Art history in all it guises has tended to bypass the impact of contemporary curated exhibitions on shaping the discipline. Yet an examination of a cluster of key contemporary exhibitions from the early 1970s onwards reveals their significance for the history of art in Australia. They reflect institutional judgements behind the selection, research and display the work of artists as well as the reception of such work by the public, artists, art critics and art historians. This is especially so in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st, as the country underwent major cultural changes. This paper focuses on selected exhibitions of Australian art from 1968 to 2008 and indicates how exhibitions also constitute a major form of contemporary Australian art historiography. As this period coincides with a transformation in the way exhibitions were funded, it also begins to investigate the question of the long term impact of public funding of the arts.

  4. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  5. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  6. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennison, Linda

    2013-04-01

    (1990,) J Quirk (1998) and RE White (2012). In 1989 a motion was narrowly defeated to introduce a Fellows category of membership to the Society. In 2012 members attending the annual general meeting of the Society discussed the introduction of a Fellow category as an Award and members voted to continue discussion on this initiative. Federal Council initiated a Student Award in 1969 and over ensuing years a range of awards were initiated; JA Prescott Medal of Soil Science (1972), Australian Society of Soil Science Inc Publication Medal (1979), JK Taylor OBE Gold Medal in Soil Science (1984), CG Stephens PhD Award in Soil Science (2003), LJH Teakle Award (2010) along with the Society's conference presentation awards. Branches were busy during this time and hosted many activities including seminars, field trips and conferences for both members and those interested in soil science. By the early seventies several branches had conducted refresher courses and in 1974 the Society became incorporated. The Society hosted its first world congress, the 9th International Society of Soil Science Congress, in Adelaide in 1968 with 310 papers printed, 239 papers presented and 720 delegates. In contrast, 42 years later the 19th World Congress of Soil Science returned to Australia, where in Brisbane 1914 delegates from 68 countries were treated to 343 presentations, 1227 research posters, 8 keynote and 65 invited lead speakers. A commemorative stamp was produced for the first Congress and another stamp was created in 2007 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Society. Originally Society conferences were held every four years however this was reduced to, and still remains, at two year intervals. An inaugural joint conference of the New Zealand Society of Soil Science and the Australian Society of Soil Science Inc. was held in Rotorua in November 1986. This paved the way for the series of joint national conferences between the two societies, the first one of which was held in Melbourne

  7. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL) Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Orchard; John Orchard; Hugh Seward

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL) injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012), covering 162,683 player-ma...

  8. Solutions to the cocktail party problem in insects: selective filters, spatial release from masking and gain control in tropical crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne K D Schmidt

    Full Text Available Insects often communicate by sound in mixed species choruses; like humans and many vertebrates in crowded social environments they thus have to solve cocktail-party-like problems in order to ensure successful communication with conspecifics. This is even more a problem in species-rich environments like tropical rainforests, where background noise levels of up to 60 dB SPL have been measured.Using neurophysiological methods we investigated the effect of natural background noise (masker on signal detection thresholds in two tropical cricket species Paroecanthus podagrosus and Diatrypa sp., both in the laboratory and outdoors. We identified three 'bottom-up' mechanisms which contribute to an excellent neuronal representation of conspecific signals despite the masking background. First, the sharply tuned frequency selectivity of the receiver reduces the amount of masking energy around the species-specific calling song frequency. Laboratory experiments yielded an average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of -8 dB, when masker and signal were broadcast from the same side. Secondly, displacing the masker by 180° from the signal improved SNRs by further 6 to 9 dB, a phenomenon known as spatial release from masking. Surprisingly, experiments carried out directly in the nocturnal rainforest yielded SNRs of about -23 dB compared with those in the laboratory with the same masker, where SNRs reached only -14.5 and -16 dB in both species. Finally, a neuronal gain control mechanism enhances the contrast between the responses to signals and the masker, by inhibition of neuronal activity in interstimulus intervals.Thus, conventional speaker playbacks in the lab apparently do not properly reconstruct the masking noise situation in a spatially realistic manner, since under real world conditions multiple sound sources are spatially distributed in space. Our results also indicate that without knowledge of the receiver properties and the spatial release mechanisms the

  9. Humidity and seasonality drives body size patterns in males of the bush cricket Isophya rizeensis Sevgili, 2003 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlar, Selim S; Karacaoğlu, Cağaşan; Kuyucu, A Cem; Sağlam, Ismail K

    2014-04-01

    Two primary patterns of body size variation have been recorded in ectotherms in relation to latitudinal/altitudinal shifts. In some, body size increases with increasing latitude/altitude whereas, in others, body size decreases with increasing latitude/altitude. This clinal variation is generally assumed to be caused by local adaptation to environmental conditions however the selective variable(s) (temperature, humidity, diet quality, etc.) is still heavily debated. Here we investigate geographic variation in body size of dark and pale color morphs of males of the bush-cricket Isophya rizeensis collected from 15 locations along an elevation gradient ranging from 350 to 2 500 m. Using an information theoretical approach we evaluate the relative support of four different hypotheses (the temperature size rule, the moisture gradient hypothesis, the seasonal constraint hypothesis, and the primary productivity hypothesis) explaining body size variation along the altitudinal gradient. Body size variation in pale color morphs showed a curvilinear relationship with altitude while dark color morphs showed no variation in body size. Body size variation in pale color morphs was highly correlated with precipitation and temperature seasonality values thus giving strong support for the moisture gradient and seasonal constraint hypothesis. Our results reinforce the importance of gradients in humidity and seasonality over temperature in the creation of altitudinal body size clines and the role of selection for resistance to stress factors in the establishment of these clines. Whether a body size cline is observed or not might also depend on the phenotypic properties of the individuals, like coloration. PMID:23956203

  10. Superannuation: A Guide to the Field for Australian Economists

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    There is a worldwide effort to identify international best practice in retirement income provision. Legions of superannuation experts have stepped forward, from the ranks of accountants, actuaries, demographers, financial analysts, lawyer-- and economists. This paper seeks to compile disparate pieces of advice, distilled from recent research, which economists can usefully pass onto superannuation members, managers, trustees and policymakers. No prior knowledge of superannuation is assumed. Va...

  11. New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - Part 1: Methods and Australian temperate forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Walsh, C.; Smith, T. E. L.; Young, E. L.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Guérette, É.-A.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning releases trace gases and aerosol particles that significantly affect the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere. Australia contributes approximately 8% of gross global carbon emissions from biomass burning, yet there are few previous measurements of emissions from Australian forest fires available in the literature. This paper describes the results of field measurements of trace gases emitted during hazard reduction burns in Australian temperate forests using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a companion paper, similar techniques are used to characterise the emissions from hazard reduction burns in the savanna regions of the Northern Territory. Details of the experimental methods are explained, including both the measurement set-up and the analysis techniques employed. The advantages and disadvantages of different ways to estimate whole-fire emission factors are discussed and a measurement uncertainty budget is developed. Emission factors for Australian temperate forest fires are measured locally for the first time for many trace gases. Where ecosystem-relevant data are required, we recommend the following emission factors for Australian temperate forest fires (in grams of gas emitted per kilogram of dry fuel burned) which are our mean measured values: 1620 ± 160 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 120 ± 20 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 3.6 ± 1.1 g kg-1 of methane; 1.3 ± 0.3 g kg-1 of ethylene; 1.7 ± 0.4 g kg-1 of formaldehyde; 2.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1 of methanol; 3.8 ± 1.3 g kg-1 of acetic acid; 0.4 ± 0.2 g kg-1 of formic acid; 1.6 ± 0.6 g kg-1 of ammonia; 0.15 ± 0.09 g kg-1 of nitrous oxide and 0.5 ± 0.2 g kg-1 of ethane.

  12. Impacts of metformin and aspirin on life history features and longevity of crickets: trade-offs versus cost-free life extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Harvir; Lone, Asad; Aksenov, Vadim; Rollo, C David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impacts of aspirin and metformin on the life history of the cricket Acheta domesticus (growth rate, maturation time, mature body size, survivorship, and maximal longevity). Both drugs significantly increased survivorship and maximal life span. Maximal longevity was 136 days for controls, 188 days (138 % of controls) for metformin, and 194 days (143 % of controls) for aspirin. Metformin and aspirin in combination extended longevity to a lesser degree (163 days, 120 % of controls). Increases in general survivorship were even more pronounced, with low-dose aspirin yielding mean longevity 234 % of controls (i.e., health span). Metformin strongly reduced growth rates of both genders (aspirin only slightly reduced the growth rate of females and slightly increased that of males. Both drugs delayed maturation age relative to controls, but metformin had a much greater impact (>140 % of controls) than aspirin (~118 % of controls). Crickets maturing on low aspirin showed no evidence of a trade-off between maturation mass and life extension. Remarkably, by 100 days of age, aspirin-treated females were significantly larger than controls (largely reflecting egg complement). Unlike the reigning dietary restriction paradigm, low aspirin conformed to a paradigm of "eat more, live longer." In contrast, metformin-treated females were only ~67 % of the mass of controls. Our results suggest that hormetic agents like metformin may derive significant trade-offs with life extension, whereas health and longevity benefits may be obtained with less cost by agents like aspirin that regulate geroprotective pathways. PMID:25833406

  13. Supporting the Language and Learning Development of EAL Students in Australian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Moore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of learning advising in improving the educational outcomes of students for whom English is an additional language (EAL in Australian universities has received significant attention in recent years. A combination of research findings, governmental pressure and media scrutiny has provided renewed impetus for universities to address issues of language proficiency and academic literacy amongst the growing population of onshore international students for whom English is an additional language (EAL. In this paper, I discuss the role of academic language and learning advising in the Australian university context, including how this practice is influenced by a range of political, pedagogical and practical factors. In doing so, I draw on Carson and Mynard’s (2012 analysis of the aims, practices, skills, locations and discourses of advising in language learning to explore how the two fields might inform each other.

  14. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  15. Immigrant Australians and Education. A Review of Research. Australian Education Review Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew

    This review examines whether immigrant Australians are disadvantaged educationally or vocationally by the education they receive, and whether their educational experiences are of a high quality and relevant to their needs. First, data is provided on the patterns of post-war immigration, along with information about the changing attitudes of…

  16. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  17. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  18. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  19. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  20. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  1. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region. (author)

  2. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology (ASNT) was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region

  3. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  4. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  5. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  6. The Teaching of First Year Economics in Australian Universities*

    OpenAIRE

    Nilss Olekalns

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys current pedagogical practice in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics and microeconomics in Australian universities. Survey results are presented detailing lecturers’ approaches to their teaching over 2001 and other aspects of their teaching environment. A comparison of the content and methodology of the main textbooks used in Australian introductory economic courses is also presented.

  7. Casual Academic Staff in an Australian University: Marginalised and Excluded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Burgess, John; Connell, Julia; Groen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Australian workforce has become more casualised, with approximately one-quarter of the workforce in casual employment today. One of the highest users of casual employees is the higher education sector, where casual academics (referred to as sessionals in the Australian context) are estimated to account for 50% of the…

  8. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  9. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  10. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  11. The Myth of the World of Literature for Australian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Briefly reviews two South Australian Education Department curriculum documents that justify the teaching of literature and then argues that newly arrived immigrants and many Australian ethnic minority students are denied the experiences of literature as established in the rationale of the documents. (HOD)

  12. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  13. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  14. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  15. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  16. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  17. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  18. Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  19. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  20. Gender Still Matters in Australian Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Léonie J Rennie

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s, gender issues and a focus on girls’ and young women'sparticipation in SET was a significant issue in Australian education. Much has changed, however, with current policy paying scant attention to gender as an issue in SET. Léonie Rennie was a co-organiser of the Sixth International Gender and Science and Technology conference held in Australia and in this article presents her personal reflection on some of the changes and possiblereasons for the apparent lack of interest in gend...

  1. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  2. Revisiting the Occupational Aspirations and Destinations of Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ranbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from Australia lends support to the "Asian high achieving syndrome" in Chinese-Australian students and "self-deprivation syndrome" in Anglo-Australian students. Applying ethnographic case studies approach for doctoral thesis the author collected data on a longitudinal basis from homes and school of these students. All…

  3. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  4. The potential for an Australian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of uranium and its part upgrading to enriched uranium for export could be equivalent to 20-25 per cent of Australia's future export income from coal. Australia could be supplying 15,000 tonnes U/yr. and enrichment services of 2.5 million SWU/yr. by 2000. The principles of nuclear energy, nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle are described and the relationship between nuclear power and the requirements for uranium and the other steps in the fuel cycle is discussed. Estimates are given of the future world supply-demand balance for each step in the fuel cycle. A survey is made of world uranium resources and fuel cycle upgrading facilities. The costs of production and pricing are assessed in relation to the potential for an Australian industry. Comments are made on the possibility that Australia could provide the repository for both low-level radioactive waste from small countries and the bulk of the world's high level waste. The impact of a uranium industry on the Australian economy is discussed

  5. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  6. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program. PMID:26630501

  7. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Hoy, W E; Kincaid-Smith, P; Seymour, A E; Bertram, J F

    2000-09-01

    We have previously described the prevalence of glomerulomegaly in biopsy specimens from Australian Aborigines with renal disease, a phenomenon documented in a number of other indigenous populations. Many of the biopsy specimens showed variable degrees of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Correlations between glomerular size and FSGS have been described in various animal models, as well as studies of humans. The aim of this study is to determine whether a relation exists between glomerular volume and severity of FSGS in biopsy specimens from Australian Aboriginals in the Northern Territory and Aboriginal inhabitants of the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst Island and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia). Consecutive clinical biopsy specimens were obtained from 78 non-Tiwi and 72 Tiwi Aboriginals. Glomerular volume was estimated using the stereological method of Weibel and Gomez. FSGS was graded from 0 to 4; 0 indicates no sclerosis and 4 indicates severe sclerosis. A biphasic relationship between glomerular size and severity of FSGS was identified. As the severity of FSGS increased from grade 0 to grade 3, glomerular size also increased. For both populations studied, glomeruli scored as grades 1, 2, and 3 were approximately 50% (PAustralian Aborigines. PMID:10977779

  8. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  9. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  10. Neutron scattering science at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering science at ANSTO is integrated into a number of fields in the Australian scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor are well advanced. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. A brief overview will be presented of all the instruments presently available at ANSTO with emphasis on the SANS instrument. This will be followed by a description of the replacement research reactor and its instruments. (author)

  11. Neutron scattering science at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    Neutron scattering science at ANSTO is integrated into a number of fields in the Australian scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor are well advanced. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. A brief overview will be presented of all the instruments presently available at ANSTO with emphasis on the SANS instrument. This will be followed by a description of the replacement research reactor and its instruments. (author)

  12. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hassam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

  13. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  14. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m-3. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  16. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. ...

  17. Distinctive convergence in Australian floral colours seen through the eyes of Australian birds

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Martin; Stayton, C. Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a colour-space model of avian vision to assess whether a distinctive bird pollination syndrome exists for floral colour among Australian angiosperms. We also used a novel phylogenetically based method to assess whether such a syndrome represents a significant degree of convergent evolution. About half of the 80 species in our sample that attract nectarivorous birds had floral colours in a small, isolated region of colour space characterized by an emphasis on long-wavelength reflection...

  18. Platelet antigen allele frequencies in Australian aboriginal and Caucasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lester, S; Boettcher, B; McCluskey, J

    1997-11-01

    We have applied genotyping methods of PCR-SSOP and PCR-RFLP to three, bi-allelic platelet specific antigen systems HPA-1 (Pla), HPA-3 (Bak) and HPA-5 (Br). This combination of techniques offers flexibility for high volume or rapid typing. The phenotype and genotype frequencies of alleles from the three systems differ significantly between the Yuendumu Australian Aboriginals (Wailbri) and Australian Caucasians. The major differences are the very low frequencies of HPA-1b and HPA-3b in Yuendumu Aboriginals which are potentially relevant to platelet transfusion in patients of Australian Aboriginal descent. PMID:9423221

  19. An Empirical Analysis of Australian Gold Mining Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Dirk G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the exposure of Australian gold-mining firms to changes in the gold price, the stock market and the Australian dollar - US dollar exchange rate. The empirical analysis uses daily, weekly and monthly data of all gold-mining firms in the S&P/ASX All Ordinaries Gold Index for the period from January 1980 to December 2010 and finds that the average gold beta is 0.67 for gold denominated in US dollar and 0.38 for gold denominated in Australian dollars. The study also finds subst...

  20. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  1. Evolution of acoustic communication in crickets: phylogeny of Eneopterinae reveals an adaptive radiation involving high-frequency calling (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Eneopteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robillard Tony

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of dominant frequencies in songs of Eneopterinae crickets was studied with respect to phylogeny. Two characters are optimized on the tree: the first describes the frequency resulting from the vibration of the harp (Fda, and the second is due to the vibration of other tegminal areas (Fdb. Fda was found to be relatively stable through the subfamily. Its low ancestral state is replaced by a high Fda only once, resulting in high-frequency calling in [Cardiodactylus (Lebinthus-Agnotecous]. A high Fdb component is added to the low ancestral Fda in Eneoptera guyanensis, resulting in frequency modulation. The onset of high Fd in this first subclade is accompanied by a high cladogenesis rate, which supports a hypothesis of adaptive radiation for high frequencies. The effectiveness of high-frequency calling is discussed in relation to the species behavior ecology.

  2. 信任对板球团队冲突影响的实证研究%Effect of trust on cricket team conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 董传升; 王娇; 张麟寰; 徐向东

    2014-01-01

    Trust is a key factor to promote team performance as the basis and prerequisite of cooperation of team. In this paper,using the case analysis and questionnaire survey,an empirical research has been carried on shenyang sports college cricket team,the results show that trust has influence on the cricket team conflict,namely,the higher cognitive level of trust, the less team relationship conflict,the less task conflict. Relative to the more mature team,the higher the emotional level of trust,the less relationship conflict,but relative to the relationship conflict,task conflict is likely to increase.%信任是团队成员合作的基础和前提,对团队绩效的提升具有重要作用。运用案例分析法和问卷调查法对沈阳体育学院板球团队进行了实证研究,研究结果表明信任对板球团队冲突有影响,即认知信任水平越高,团队内关系冲突越少,任务冲突越少;相对于较成熟的团队,情感信任水平越高,关系冲突越少,但相对于关系冲突,任务冲突有可能会增加。

  3. Old Lineage on an Old Island: Pixibinthus, a New Cricket Genus Endemic to New Caledonia Shed Light on Gryllid Diversification in a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Anso

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused on the early colonization of New Caledonia by insects, after the re-emergence of the main island, 37 Myr ago. Here we investigate the mode and tempo of evolution of a new endemic cricket genus, Pixibinthus, recently discovered in southern New Caledonia. First we formally describe this new monotypic genus found exclusively in the open shrubby vegetation on metalliferous soils, named 'maquis minier', unique to New Caledonia. We then reconstruct a dated molecular phylogeny based on five mitochondrial and four nuclear loci in order to establish relationships of Pixibinthus within Eneopterinae crickets. Pixibinthus is recovered as thesister clade of the endemic genus Agnotecous, mostly rainforest-dwellers. Dating results show that the island colonization by their common ancestor occurred around 34.7 Myr, shortly after New Caledonia re-emergence. Pixibinthus and Agnotecous are then one of the oldest insect lineages documented so far for New Caledonia. This discovery highlights for the first time two clear-cut ecological specializations between sister clades, as Agnotecous is mainly found in rainforests with 19 species, whereas Pixibinthus is found in open habitats with a single documented species. The preference of Pixibinthus for open habitats and of Agnotecous for forest habitats nicely fits an acoustic specialization, either explained by differences in body size or in acoustic properties of their respective habitats. We hypothesize that landscape dynamics, linked to major past climatic events and recent change in fire regimes are possible causes for both present-day low diversity and rarity in genus Pixibinthus. The unique evolutionary history of this old New Caledonian lineage stresses the importance to increase our knowledge on the faunal biodiversity of 'maquis minier', in order to better understand the origin and past dynamics of New Caledonian biota.

  4. Old Lineage on an Old Island: Pixibinthus, a New Cricket Genus Endemic to New Caledonia Shed Light on Gryllid Diversification in a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anso, Jérémy; Barrabé, Laure; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Jourdan, Hervé; Grandcolas, Philippe; Dong, Jiajia; Robillard, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the early colonization of New Caledonia by insects, after the re-emergence of the main island, 37 Myr ago. Here we investigate the mode and tempo of evolution of a new endemic cricket genus, Pixibinthus, recently discovered in southern New Caledonia. First we formally describe this new monotypic genus found exclusively in the open shrubby vegetation on metalliferous soils, named 'maquis minier', unique to New Caledonia. We then reconstruct a dated molecular phylogeny based on five mitochondrial and four nuclear loci in order to establish relationships of Pixibinthus within Eneopterinae crickets. Pixibinthus is recovered as thesister clade of the endemic genus Agnotecous, mostly rainforest-dwellers. Dating results show that the island colonization by their common ancestor occurred around 34.7 Myr, shortly after New Caledonia re-emergence. Pixibinthus and Agnotecous are then one of the oldest insect lineages documented so far for New Caledonia. This discovery highlights for the first time two clear-cut ecological specializations between sister clades, as Agnotecous is mainly found in rainforests with 19 species, whereas Pixibinthus is found in open habitats with a single documented species. The preference of Pixibinthus for open habitats and of Agnotecous for forest habitats nicely fits an acoustic specialization, either explained by differences in body size or in acoustic properties of their respective habitats. We hypothesize that landscape dynamics, linked to major past climatic events and recent change in fire regimes are possible causes for both present-day low diversity and rarity in genus Pixibinthus. The unique evolutionary history of this old New Caledonian lineage stresses the importance to increase our knowledge on the faunal biodiversity of 'maquis minier', in order to better understand the origin and past dynamics of New Caledonian biota. PMID:27027632

  5. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venanzetti Federica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Results We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. Conclusions The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead.

  6. Market outlook for Australian uranium producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent improvements in the uranium market and political changes in Australia presented the uranium producers with their best opportunity in over 15 years. The removal of the well known 'three mines policy' by the current government has encouraged Australian producers to develop new development plans. With the expansion of the existing operations at Ranger and Olympic Dam, and the potential operations of Jabiluka, Kintyre, Koongara, Honeymoon and Beverley, Australia expects to increase annual production to 11630 t U3O8 by the end of the decade. It will then join Canada as a major supplier of uranium to the world's nuclear power utilities in the 21st century. Uranium exploration, which has been virtually nonexistent over the past 15 years, has once again been reactivated. This occurred because of the change in the Government, but also because the Aboriginal groups are once more allowing exploration on their land. (author)

  7. Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to produce effective implants, the materials used must be biocompatible. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material similar to the mineral component of teeth and bone which is often used for orbital implants and bone graft applications. HAp can be manufactured from corals via hydrothermal conversion. Coral is particularly useful as a starting material for hydroxyapatite production because of its porous nature. When a porous structure is used tissue ingrowth can occur readily and hence an excellent mechanical bond can be achieved. A large pore size and a high degree of pore interconnections are desirable implant properties. In the present paper a comparison of the properties of four different species of Australian coral has been made to determine the most favourable species to use as a starting material for hydrothermal conversion.

  8. The Australian RSI debate: stereotyping and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintner, J L

    1995-07-01

    The vehement scientific debate which took place in Australia in the 1980s over the epidemic of the chronic cervicobrachial pain syndrome known as repetition strain injury (RSI) was remarkable for the accompanying social commentary offered by many of the medical participants. This commentary was to have a profound effect on relationships between individual doctors and their patients with RSI. It reflected and reinforced the prevailing stereotypes within Australian society, not only of working women, but also of recipients of workers' compensation payments. On the other hand, some of the medical responses to the epidemic were severely criticized by social scientists who analysed the epidemic. In the process of such criticism, a number of stereotypes of doctors were also reinforced. PMID:7626774

  9. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  10. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  11. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science. PMID:25870041

  12. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  13. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  14. Commercialization of Australian advanced infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, John; Brown, Allen; Woods, William F.

    1995-09-01

    For several decades, the main thrust in infrared technology developments in Australia has been in two main sensor technologies: uncooled silicon chip printed bolometric sensors pioneered by DSTO's Kevin Liddiard, and precision engineered high quality Cadmium Mercury Telluride developed at DSTO under the guidance of Dr. Richard Hartley. In late 1993 a low cost infrared imaging device was developed at DSTO as a sensor for guided missiles. The combination of these three innovations made up a unique package that enabled Australian industry to break through the barriers of commercializing infrared technology. The privately owned company, R.J. Optronics Pty Ltd undertook the process of re-engineering a selection of these DSTO developments to be applicable to a wide range of infrared products. The first project was a novel infrared imager based on a Palmer scan (translated circle) mechanism. This device applies a spinning wedge and a single detector, it uses a video processor to convert the image into a standard rectangular format. Originally developed as an imaging seeker for a stand-off weapon, it is producing such high quality images at such a low cost that it is now also being adapted for a wide variety of other military and commercial applications. A technique for electronically stabilizing it has been developed which uses the inertial signals from co-mounted sensors to compensate for platform motions. This enables it to meet the requirements of aircraft, marine vessels and masthead sight applications without the use of gimbals. After tests on a three-axis motion table, several system configurations have now been successfully operated on a number of lightweight platforms, including a Cessna 172 and the Australian made Seabird Seeker aircraft.

  15. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  16. Nuclear techniques in Australian animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the production of domestic animals is frequently depressed by the climatic and ecological conditions. These negative effects can be overcome to a great extent by improved methods of animal and land management. In animal research, nuclear techniques are playing an important role in the study of different aspects of nutrition, metabolism, reproduction and health of domestic animals. In response to the need expressed by Member States for more information on these techniques, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA's Division of Technical Assistance organized a study tour to Australia, a country which has developed considerable expertise in agricultural and animal research. The purpose of the study tour was to enable veterinary and animal scientists and administrators from developing countries in Asia and the Far East to observe at first hand the ways in which animal production, particularly meat, milk and wool, can be increased in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fourteen senior scientists and research directors from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand) participated. The counterpart organizations in Australia were the Australian Development Assistance Agency (ADAA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The chief programmer and co-ordinator of the study tour was John E. Vercoe, officer-in-charge of CSIRO's Tropical Cattle Research Centre in Rockhampton, and a former IAEA staff member. The tour was financed by the United Nations Development Programme. The participants visited research facilities of universities, national and state laboratories and commercial cattle producers. The tour started at Sydney and proceeded north along the east coast of Australia to Townsville. On the way, major stops were made in Armidale, Grafton, Wollongbar, Brisbane and Rockhampton. In Rockhampton, a

  17. The Performance of Western Australian Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck

    2008-01-01

    <正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.

  18. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health. PMID:26650394

  19. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  20. Science with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP)

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Simon; Gupta, Neeraj

    2009-01-01

    The future of cm and m-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline the ASKAP project and summarise ...

  1. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  2. Diversity in Leadership: Australian women, past and present

    OpenAIRE

    Damousi, Joy; Rubenstein, Kim; Tomsic, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in Leadership: Australian women, past and present provides a new understanding of the historical and contemporary aspects of Indigenous and non-Indigenous women’s leadership in a range of local, national and international contexts.

  3. Match analysis and the physiological demands of Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Adrian J; Jenkins, David G

    2010-04-01

    Australian Football, the most popular football code in Australia, is a contact sport played by two teams of 18 players who contest play over four 20-minute quarters; the object of the game is to score the most points through goal kicking. Sixteen professional senior sides compete against each other in the Australian Football League (AFL) and, similar to other football codes, game demands at the elite level in the AFL have changed considerably in recent years. Early time-motion analysis studies highlighted the long periods of time players spent in low intensity activities (standing and walking). While recent studies utilizing global positioning systems (GPS) technology are somewhat in agreement with earlier findings, available evidence suggests that the game is getting faster. For example, 'playing on' after a mark (a feature of the game where players who catch the ball on the full from a kick longer than 15 m are awarded a free kick) is now much quicker. Indeed, rule changes in recent years have increased the flow and speed of the game; there has been a reduction in the time taken for umpires to restart play, and for players to kick-in (after the opposition kicks a behind) or take a set shot at goal. Nomadic players (a broad term for midfielders and ruckmen because they follow play over the entire playing field) cover slightly greater distances (12,310 m) than both forwards (11,920 m) and backs (11,880 m) in a game. Compared with players in other positions, midfielders are consistently found to spend the most time at higher intensities (running and sprint efforts with movement velocities > 4.44 m/sec), complete more high intensity efforts (approximately 98 per game), sustain them for longer and have shorter recovery periods between high intensity exercise bouts (approximately 90 seconds on average). 'Ruckmen' have similar but less intense running profiles, while forwards and backs generally have less game involvement but have a more intermittent running profile

  4. Nucleonic gauges in the Australian mining and exploration industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-line and in-situ nucleonic analysis systems have found widespread application in the Australian metalliferous mineral and coal industries. The rapid and reliable response of these systems has led to improved exploration and better control of mining and mineral processing. This paper reviews both types of nucleonic control system (on-line and in-situ) available in Australian exploration and mining market. (author)

  5. Aboriginal Placenames : Naming and re-naming the Australian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hercus, Luise; Koch, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases,...

  6. The World's First and Newest Organic Magazines are Australian

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2009-01-01

    Australia was an early adopter and advocate for organic farming. The world's first farming organisation to adopt "organic" into its title was the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (1944-1955). The Society published the Organic Farming DIgest, starting in April 1946. The Organic Farming Digest was the first "organic" agriculture journal in the world to be published by an association. The Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society and the Organic Farming Digest both predat...

  7. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Therese A. O'Sullivan; Trevor A. Mori; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H; Carole E. Parker; Vivian, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach...

  8. Shakespearean Girlhoods in Contemporary Australian Young Adult Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Hateley, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reads a selection of contemporary Australian young adult novels in order to consider their depiction of the meaning and significance of Shakespeare in the formation of young women’s subjectivity. In the competing tensions of patriarchal and postcolonial social values, these novels suggest that Australian girls may take up Shakespeare in order to further their emotional development and interpersonal relationships, or they may take up Shakespeare as an academic (‘professional’) exerc...

  9. Going Places: Praxis and Pedagogy in Australian Cultural Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Rey; Golnar Nabizadeh

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the pedagogical value of praxis in maintaining the relevance of cultural studies in the Australian academic environment. Following its highly politicised beginnings at the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, we consider whether traditional classroom practices are commensurate with the contemporary expectations of students and staff. As a working model of the current Australian university climate, we consider the discipline group of English and Cultural ...

  10. Raja Junankar, Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    DOUGLAS, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy is a compilation of academic articles written by P.N. Junankar and coauthors on the topic of immigration in Australia. From the effects of immigration on Australia’s economy to the Australian labor market environment immigrants encounter, this book addresses important questions regarding immigration that are relevant to any economy.Keywords. Australia, International migration, International economics.JEL. F00, F22,...

  11. Australian OTC Derivatives Markets: Insights from the BIS Semiannual Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Ahn; Mihovil Matic; Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia recently commenced surveying participants in Australian over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives markets as part of the Bank for International Settlements’ (BIS) semiannual global OTC derivatives survey. Australia’s contribution to the survey complements regulatory efforts to improve the resilience and transparency of Australia’s OTC derivatives markets. It also facilitates a higher frequency comparison of the Australian and foreign OTC derivatives markets. The survey ...

  12. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Woods John A; Katzenellenbogen Judith M; Davidson Patricia M; Thompson Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google ...

  13. Some Australian Evidence on the Consensual Approach to Poverty Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, P.; Bradbury, B.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates of poverty in Australia have relied exclusively on the Henderson poverty line, despite extensive criticism of its relevance to contemporary Australian conditions. This paper analyses data from Morgan Gallup Poll (MGP) surveys on the minimum income required by an Australian family of four to keep in health and live decently in order to assess community views on minimum income levels required in Australia. Analysis of how the average response to the MGP question has changed over the l...

  14. "A deep fragrance of academia": the Australian Tobacco Research Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, S; Carter, S.; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To review the history of the tobacco industry supported Australian Tobacco Research Foundation (ATRF)(1970–1994) for evidence of the industry's use of the Foundation to further its objectives that "more research was needed" on smoking and health and to promulgate the view that nicotine was not addictive. (2) To review efforts by public health advocates to discredit the ATRF as a public relations tool used by the Australian industry.

  15. Global Production Sharing in the Australian Automotive Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kishor Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on global production sharing by investigating the experience of the Australian automotive industry, which has experienced significant structural change following trade liberalisation. Our analysis indicates that the globalisation of the world economy, together with developments in transport and communication, has significantly increased the importance of the global production network in the Australian automotive industry, leading to a substantial rise ...

  16. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin Lyle; Dharmage Shyamali C; Dassanayake Jayantha; Sundararajan Vijaya; Payne Warren R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001) and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity ...

  17. Australian Power: Can renewable technologies change the dominant industry view?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynette Molyneaux; Craig Froome; Liam Wagner; John Foster

    2012-01-01

    With carbon dioxide the major contributor to anthropogenic climate change, being required to reduce the carbon emissions from burning coal for electricity presents a systemic shock to Australian power. The Australian government is committed to the development of its coal seam gas resources for export to lucrative world markets and to transition domestic power generation to greater resilience by moving away from a reliance on coal to lower-emissions intensive gas. Using a commercially availabl...

  18. Characteristics of single vehicle rollover fatalities in three Australian states

    OpenAIRE

    Frechede, Bertrand; McIntosh, Andrew S.; GRZEBIETA, Raphaël; BAMBACH, Michaël

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of 2000-2007 single vehicle rollover fatalities in three Australian states was carried out using data from the Australian National Coroners Information System. In this paper, successive selection criteria were applied to the initial dataset to analyse: - Occupant fatalities in single passenger car crashes (1743 cases), - Occupant fatalities in single passenger car rollovers (474 cases), overall, rollovers accounted for 35% of all occupant fatalities in a single vehicle transport ...

  19. How Big is the Speculative Component in Australian Share Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Black; Patricia Fraser; Nicolaas Groenewold

    2001-01-01

    Using 20 years of Australian quarterly data, this paper decomposes Australian share prices into their fundamental and speculative components. To do this we derive the fundamental share-price-output ratio and, hence, the fundamental share price from a resticted vector-autoregressive model relating the aggregate real share-price index to real output. Our estimates use different assumptions regarding shareholders required real rate of return. Our results imply that a significant speculative comp...

  20. The Australian Space Eye: studying the history of galaxy formation with a CubeSat

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Anthony; Mathers, Naomi; Pektovic, Michael; Griffin, Douglas; Barraclough, Simon; Benson, Craig; Dimitrijevic, Igor; Lambert, Andrew; Previte, Anthony; Bowen, John; Westerman, Solomon; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Reisenfeld, Sam; Lawrence, Jon; Zhelem, Ross; Colless, Matthew; Boyce, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Space Eye is a proposed astronomical telescope based on a 6U CubeSat platform. The Space Eye will exploit the low level of systematic errors achievable with a small space based telescope to enable high accuracy measurements of the optical extragalactic background light and low surface brightness emission around nearby galaxies. This project is also a demonstrator for several technologies with general applicability to astronomical observations from nanosatellites. Space Eye is based around a 90 mm aperture clear aperture all refractive telescope for broadband wide field imaging in the i and z bands.