WorldWideScience

Sample records for australian community pharmacists

  1. Exploring current and potential roles of Australian community pharmacists in gout management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Allyce B; Nguyen, Amy D; Baysari, Melissa T; Kannangara, Diluk R W; McLachlan, Andrew J; Day, Richard O

    2018-05-09

    Gout is an increasingly prevalent form of inflammatory arthritis. Although effective treatments for gout exist, current management is suboptimal due to low medication adherence rates and treatments that are non-concordant with guidelines. Medications are the mainstay and most effective form of gout management. Thus, there is potential for community pharmacists to play an important primary health care role in gout management, however their current role and their potential to improve management of gout treatment is currently unclear. The purpose of the study is to explore the views of Australian pharmacists on their roles in gout management and to identify factors influencing their involvement in gout management. A convenience sample of community pharmacists were invited to participate using a snowballing recruitment strategy. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 pharmacists of varying age, gender and pharmacy experience. Interviews focused on pharmacists' experiences of managing gout, interactions with people living with gout and their perceived roles and responsibilities in gout management. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and independently analysed by two reviewers to identify themes. The main role of pharmacists reported in gout management was providing patient education. The greatest facilitator to pharmacists involvement in gout management was identified to be pharmacists' good understanding of gout and its management. Barriers to pharmacists involvement were identified to be difficulties in monitoring adherence to gout medications, low priority given to gout in the pharmacy compared to other chronic health conditions, and lack of specific training and/or continuing education in gout prevention and management. Pharmacists can expand their primary health care role in gout management, particularly in the area of ongoing provision of education to people living with gout and in monitoring medication adherence in patients. However, a

  2. Role of community pharmacists in asthma - Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, B; Krass, I; Smith, L; Bosnic-Anticevich, S; Armour, C

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade of coordinated research efforts, in various aspects of asthma care, has culminated in the implementation trial of the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS), a comprehensive disease management model.There has been research investigating asthma medication adherence through data mining, ways in which usual asthma care can be improved. Our research has focused on self-management education, inhaler technique interventions, spirometry trials, interprofessional models of care, and regional trials addressing the particular needs of rural communities. We have determined that inhaler technique education is a necessity and should be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. We have identified this effectiveness of health promotion and health education, conducted within and outside the confines of the pharmacy, in public for a and settings such as schools, and established that this outreach role is particularly well received and increases the opportunity for people with asthma to engage in their asthma management.Our research has identified that asthma patients have needs which pharmacists delivering specialized models of care, can address. There is a lot of evidence for the effectiveness of asthma care by pharmacists, the future must involve integration of this role into primary care.

  3. Role of community pharmacists in asthma – Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade of coordinated research efforts, in various aspects of asthma care, has culminated in the implementation trial of the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a comprehensive disease management model. There has been research investigating asthma medication adherence through data mining, ways in which usual asthma care can be improved. Our research has focused on self-management education, inhaler technique interventions, spirometry trials, interprofessional models of care, and regional trials addressing the particular needs of rural communities. We have determined that inhaler technique education is a necessity and should be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. We have identified this effectiveness of health promotion and health education, conducted within and outside the confines of the pharmacy, in public for a and settings such as schools, and established that this outreach role is particularly well received and increases the opportunity for people with asthma to engage in their asthma management. Our research has identified that asthma patients have needs which pharmacists delivering specialized models of care, can address. There is a lot of evidence for the effectiveness of asthma care by pharmacists, the future must involve integration of this role into primary care.

  4. Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Jon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to

  5. Challenges in the care of clients with established cardiovascular disease: lessons learned from Australian community pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni P Puspitasari

    Full Text Available As primary healthcare professionals, community pharmacists have both opportunity and potential to contribute to the prevention and progression of chronic diseases. Using cardiovascular disease (CVD as a case study, we explored factors that influence community pharmacists' everyday practice in this area. We also propose a model to best illustrate relationships between influencing factors and the scope of community pharmacy practice in the care of clients with established CVD.In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 community pharmacists in New South Wales, Australia. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim, and analysed using a "grounded-theory" approach.Our model shows that community pharmacists work within a complex system and their practice is influenced by interactions between three main domains: the "people" factors, including their own attitudes and beliefs as well as those of clients and doctors; the "environment" within and beyond the control of community pharmacy; and outcomes of their professional care. Despite the complexity of factors and interactions, our findings shed some light on the interrelationships between these various influences. The overarching obstacle to maximizing the community pharmacists' contribution is the lack of integration within health systems. However, achieving better integration of community pharmacists in primary care is a challenge since the systems of remuneration for healthcare professional services do not currently support this integration.Tackling chronic diseases such as CVD requires mobilization of all sources of support in the community through innovative policies which facilitate inter-professional collaboration and team care to achieve the best possible healthcare outcomes for society.

  6. Piloting the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care multidisciplinary team: an Australian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Box Margaret

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the home is the most common setting for the provision of palliative care in Australia, a common problem encountered here is the inability of patient/carers to manage medications, which can lead to misadventure and hospitalisation. This can be averted through detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs by a pharmacist; however, they are rarely included as members of the palliative care team. The aim of this study was to pilot a model of care that supports the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care team. A component of the study was to develop a cost-effective model for continuing the inclusion of a pharmacist within a community palliative care service. Methods The study was undertaken (February March 2009-June 2010 in three phases. Development (Phase 1 involved a literature review; scoping the pharmacist's role; creating tools for recording DRPs and interventions, a communication and education strategy, a care pathway and evidence based patient information. These were then implemented in Phase 2. Evaluation (Phase 3 of the impact of the pharmacist's role from the perspectives of team members was undertaken using an online survey and focus group. Impact on clinical outcomes was determined by the number of patients screened to assess their risk of medication misadventure, as well as the number of medication reviews and interventions performed to resolve DRPs. Results The pharmacist screened most patients (88.4%, 373/422 referred to the palliative care service to assess their risk of medication misadventure, and undertook 52 home visits. Medication reviews were commonly conducted at the majority of home visits (88%, 46/52, and a variety of DRPs (113 were detected at this point, the most common being "patient requests drug information" (25%, 28/113 and "condition not adequately treated" (22%, 25/113. The pharmacist made 120 recommendations in relation to her interventions. Fifty percent of online

  7. Will Australians pay for health care advice from a community pharmacist? A video vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Deepa; McManus, Alexandra; Emmerton, Lynne; Jiwa, Moyez

    2015-01-01

    Large proportion of Australians have access to pharmacists' health advice at no cost. The impact of a proposed co-payment levy for general practitioner (GP) consultation by Australian government is unclear. This raises an interesting question about consumers' perceived value of health-related consultations. This survey of representative sample of Western Australians explores the hypothesis that Australians are willing to pay for advanced model of pharmacy consultation. Two videos illustrating current-services and quality-enhanced-service (QES) incorporating systematic assessment of symptoms and referral to GP if necessary, were used. Participants viewed videos online and completed a willingness-to-pay (WTP) questionnaire about their perception and WTP for each service. Logistic regression and McNemar tests were used to identify WTP groups. Of the 175 respondents, one in nine (19/175, 11%) were willing to pay and (35/175) 20% might consider paying for advice at pharmacies as per current-practice. Almost one in four (49/175, 28%) were willing to pay and (47/175) 27% would consider paying for QES (McNemar Test P pay for consultation at pharmacies that offers more private, time-intensive experience with documented GP referral where required. Further research is warranted to test WTP with actual customers to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How physician and community pharmacist perceptions of the community pharmacist role in Australian primary care influence the quality of collaborative chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Allison; Pettigrew, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists (CPs) have been changing their role to focus on patient-centred services to improve the quality of chronic disease management (CDM) in primary care. However, CPs have not been readily included in collaborative CDM with other primary care professionals such as physicians. There is little understanding of the CP role change and whether it affects the utilisation of CPs in primary care collaborative CDM. To explore physician and CP perceptions of the CP's role in Australian primary care and how these perceptions may influence the quality of physician/CP CDM programmes. Data were collected from physicians and CPs using semi-structured interviews. A qualitative methodology utilising thematic analysis was employed during data analysis. Qualitative methodology trustworthiness techniques, negative case analysis and member checking were utilised to substantiate the resultant themes. A total of 22 physicians and 22 CPs were interviewed. Strong themes emerged regarding the participant perceptions of the CP's CDM role in primary care. The majority of interviewed physicians perceived that CPs did not have the appropriate CDM knowledge to complement physician knowledge to provide improved CDM compared with what they could provide on their own. Most of the interviewed CPs expressed a willingness and capability to undertake CDM; however, they were struggling to provide sustainable CDM in the business setting within which they function in the primary care environment. Role theory was selected as it provided the optimum explanation of the resultant themes. First, physician lack of confidence in the appropriateness of CP CDM knowledge causes physicians to be confused about the role CPs would undertake in a collaborative CDM that would benefit the physicians and their patients. Thus, by increasing physician awareness of CP CDM knowledge, physicians may see CPs as suitable CDM collaborators. Second, CPs are experiencing role conflict and stress in trying to change

  9. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  10. The roles of community pharmacists in cardiovascular disease prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence in the international literature forpharmacist involvement in the prevention and managementof cardiovascular disease (CVD conditions in primary care.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed thesignificant clinical benefits of pharmacist interventions for arange of CVD conditions and risk factors. Evidence generatedin research studies of Australian community pharmacistinvolvement in CVD prevention and management issummarised in this article.Commonwealth funding through the Community PharmacyAgreements has facilitated research to establish the feasibilityand effectiveness of new models of primary care involvingcommunity pharmacists. Australian community pharmacistshave been shown to effect positive clinical, humanistic andeconomic outcomes in patients with CVD conditions.Improvements in blood pressure, lipid levels, medicationadherence and CVD risk have been demonstrated usingdifferent study designs. Satisfaction for GPs, pharmacists andconsumers has also been reported. Perceived ‘turf’encroachment, expertise of the pharmacist, space, time andremuneration are challenges to the implementation of diseasemanagement services involving community pharmacists.

  11. Pharmacists' experience of conflict in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Gregory, Paul A M; Martin, J Craig

    2010-03-01

    Interpersonal conflict may be characterized as intellectual disagreement with emotional entanglement. While interpersonal conflict has been studied and described in different health care settings, there is little research that focuses on community pharmacists and the ways in which they experience conflict in professional practice. To describe and characterize the experience of interpersonal conflict within community pharmacy practice. A self-reporting narrative log was developed in which actively recruited pharmacists reported and reflected upon their day-to-day experiences of interpersonal conflict in professional practice. Focus groups of pharmacists were convened following data analysis to provide context and confirmation of identified themes. Based on this analysis, an explanatory model for interpersonal conflict in community pharmacy practice was generated. Participants were actively recruited from community pharmacy settings in the Toronto (Canada) area. A total of 41 community pharmacists participated. Interpersonal conflict in pharmacy practice is ubiquitous and results from diverse triggers. A conflict stance model was developed, based on the worldview and the communication style of the individual pharmacist. Specific conflict stances identified were: imposing, thwarting, settling, and avoiding. Further testing and refinement of this model is required. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical skill development for community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, D J; Murphy, C M; Carter, B L

    1996-09-01

    The importance of establishing clinical pharmacy services in the community cannot be understated in light of current challenges to the traditional dispensing role as the primary service of the community pharmacist. Advancements in automated dispensing technology and declining prescription fee reimbursement are rapidly forcing pharmacists to seek alternative sources of revenue. Providing pharmaceutical care is a viable option to increase customer loyalty job satisfaction, and reimbursement. To support the development of clinical services, academic institutions are forming partnerships with individual community practitioners to overcome perceived educational and training barriers. The authors describe the design and development of two unique clinical skill development programs at the University of Illinois at Chicago. This paper also outlines the patient focused services that the participants have established upon completing the training. These programs successfully enhanced participants' therapeutic knowledge base and facilitated development of the clinical skills necessary for direct patient care.

  13. Factors affecting pharmacists’ recommendation of complementary medicines – a qualitative pilot study of Australian pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culverhouse Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary medicines (CMs are widely used by the Australian public, and pharmacies are major suppliers of these medicines. The integration of CMs into pharmacy practice is well documented, but the behaviours of pharmacists in recommending CMs to customers are less well studied. This study reports on factors that influence whether or not pharmacists in Australia recommend CMs to their customers. Methods Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with twelve practicing pharmacists based in Brisbane, Australia. The qualitative data were analysed by thematic analysis. Results The primary driver of the recommendation of CMs was a desire to provide a health benefit to the customer. Other important drivers were an awareness of evidence of efficacy, customer feedback and pharmacy protocols to recommend a CM alongside a particular pharmaceutical medication. The primary barrier to the recommendation of CMs was safety concerns around patients on multiple medications or with complex health issues. Also, a lack of knowledge of CMs, a perceived lack of evidence or a lack of time to counsel patients were identified as barriers. There was a desire to see a greater integration of CM into formal pharmacy education. Additionally, the provision of good quality educational materials was seen as important to allow pharmacists to assess levels of evidence for CMs and educate them on their safe and appropriate use. Conclusions Pharmacists who frequently recommend CMs identify many potential benefits for patients and see it as an important part of providing a ‘healthcare solution’. To encourage the informed use of CMs in pharmacy there is a need for the development of accessible, quality resources on CMs. In addition, incorporation of CM education into pharmacy curricula would better prepare graduate pharmacists for community practice. Ultimately, such moves would contribute to the safe and effective use of CMs to the benefit of

  14. Community Pharmacist Attitudes on Medication Synchronization Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Witry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication synchronization is a service offered by an increasing number of community pharmacies that aligns refilling of a patient’s multiple medications. Purported benefits include increased adherence and improved dispensing efficiency. Objective: To assess community pharmacist agreement with a set of declarative statements about medication synchronization programs and to identify variation related to pharmacist characteristics. Methods: In 2015, a cross-sectional survey was mailed to 1,000 pharmacists from 5 Midwestern U.S. states using 4-contacts and an online option. Respondents used a 7-point Likert scale to agree or disagree with 5 statements about medication synchronization. Demographic and workplace characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. Multiple linear regression tested the relationship between pharmacist characteristics and a 4-item attitude composite. Results: There were 258 usable responses for a response rate of 28.8%. About half (45.0% reported their pharmacy offered medication synchronization. Most pharmacists (82.6% agreed this service has a positive impact on patient adherence but 57% agreed that a “significant change to workflow” was or would be required. Pharmacist agreement that the program provides financial benefits to the pharmacy was higher than agreement that the service provides more opportunities for patient interactions (p<0.001. In the multiple regression analysis, having a PharmD and working at a pharmacy offering Medication Therapy Management were associated with more positive scores on the medication synchronization benefits composite whereas working in a staff role (rather than a manager/owner was lower. No demographic predictors were significantly associated with agreeing that a significant change to workflow would be required for implementation. Conclusions: Pharmacists generally were positive about medication synchronization

  15. Pharmacists' social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers' view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.   Type: Idea Paper

  16. Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Care for Dyslipidemia Patients: Knowledge and Skills of Community Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Julie; Lamarre, Diane; Lussier, Marie-Therese; Vanier, Marie-Claude; Genest, Jacques; Blais, Lucie; Hudon, Eveline; Perreault, Sylvie; Berbiche, Djamal; Lalonde, Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In a physician-pharmacist collaborative-care (PPCC) intervention, community pharmacists were responsible for initiating lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy and adjusting the medication dosage. They attended a 1-day interactive workshop supported by a treatment protocol and clinical and communication tools. Afterwards, changes in…

  17. Pharmacists as immunizers: a survey of community pharmacists' willingness to administer adult immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas; Gorman Corsten, Erin; Kiberd, Mathew; Bowles, Susan; Isenor, Jennifer; Slayter, Kathryn; McNeil, Shelly

    2015-04-01

    Adult immunization rates worldwide fall below desired targets. Pharmacists are highly accessible healthcare providers with the potential to increase immunization rates among adults by administering vaccines in their practice setting. To determine the attitudes of community-based Canadian pharmacists with respect to expanding their scope of practice to include administration of immunizations. An internet-based survey was emailed to community pharmacists across Canada. The survey was piloted through focus groups for qualitative feedback, tested for content validity, and test-retest reliability prior to dissemination. There were 495 responses to the survey. The majority (88 %) agreed that pharmacists as immunizers would increase public access, improve rates (84 %), and be acceptable to the public (72 %). However, only 68 % agreed that pharmacists should be permitted to immunize. The majority of respondents (90 %) agreed that certification in vaccine administration should be required for pharmacists to administer vaccines. Pharmacists identified education, reimbursement, and negative interactions with other providers as barriers to pharmacists administering vaccines. Canadian pharmacists are willing to expand their scope of practice to include immunization. However, implementation requires professional development and certification in vaccine administration.

  18. Integration of Community Pharmacists in Transition of Care (TOC) Services: Current Trends and Pharmacist Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznikar, Elizabeth A; Kroehl, Miranda E; Perica, Katharine M; Thompson, Angela M; Trinkley, Katy E

    2017-01-01

    Barriers exist for patients transitioning from one health-care setting to another, or to home, and health-care systems are falling short of meeting patient needs during this time. Community pharmacist incorporation poses a solution to the current communication breakdown and high rates of medication errors during transitions of care (TOC). The purpose of this study was to determine community pharmacists' involvement in and perceptions of TOC services. Cross-sectional study using electronic surveys nationwide to pharmacists employed by a community pharmacy chain. Of 7236 pharmacists surveyed, 546 (7.5%) responded. Only 33 (6%) pharmacists reported their pharmacy participates in TOC services. Most pharmacists (81.5%) reported receiving discharge medication lists. The most common reported barrier to TOC participation is lack of electronic integration with surrounding hospitals (51.1%). Most pharmacists agreed that (1) it is valuable to receive discharge medication lists (83.3%), (2) receiving discharge medication lists is beneficial for patients' health (89.1%), (3) discharge medication list receipt improves medication safety (88.8%). Most pharmacists reported receiving discharge medication lists and reported discharge medication lists are beneficial, but less than half purposefully used medication lists. To close TOC gaps, health-care providers must collaborate to overcome barriers for successful TOC services.

  19. Assessment of the Involvement of the Community Pharmacist in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the involvement of the Community Pharmacists in the practice of pharmaceutical care in Benin City. Method: A structured pharmaceutical care questionnaire was administered to all Community Pharmacies with registered pharmacists in Benin City. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, standard ...

  20. Assessing the knowledge of asthma among community pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the knowledge of community pharmacists about asthma and its management. Methods: Seventy-six registered community pharmacists in. Edo State completed a structured questionnaire consisting of open and close ended questions which addressed issues relating to their knowledge of asthma

  1. Medication adherence beliefs of U.S community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing attention on the role of community pharmacists in improving medication adherence. There is a need to better understand pharmacist attitudes and experiences related to this role. To assess community pharmacist perceptions of patient reasons for non-adherence, characterize the adherence beliefs of community pharmacists, and test if there are demographic predictors of pharmacists' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and role beliefs related to intervening on medication non-adherence. A cross-sectional survey was mailed using a 4-contact approach to 1000 pharmacists practicing in 5 Midwestern U.S. States. The survey included seven domains to address the study objectives. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic items, coefficient alphas tested the internal consistency of scales, and multiple regression was used to test the relationship between demographics and scale means. There were 261 usable responses giving a 29% response rate. Pharmacists perceived forgetting and instructions changing without a new prescription to be the most common reasons for late refills. A minority of pharmacists agreed that non-adherence involves a deliberate decision or that negative medication beliefs were common reasons for late refills. Pharmacists were confident, had positive outcome expectations, and positive role beliefs related to interacting with patients who have adherence issues. Barriers to adherence intervention included difficulties with follow-up and documentation. Also, over half of the pharmacists reported that discussing adherence makes patients defensive. Pharmacists had positive attitudes toward intervening on medication non-adherence although barriers to intervention are present. Pharmacists perceived non-intentional reasons for late refills to be more prevalent than intentional reasons. Pharmacists may benefit from additional non-adherence communication training and support targeted at identifying a broader range of non

  2. Evaluation of the Perception of Community Pharmacists Regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A qualitative study design was adopted. ... Conclusion: Community pharmacies in Pakistan currently face shortage of pharmacists. This has ... Compared to the developed world ... contact. All the interviews were conducted at the pharmacists' work-places. .... World Health Organization (WHO), Report of the health.

  3. Medicine use and safety while breastfeeding: investigating the perspectives of community pharmacists in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponti, Martine; Stewart, Kay; Amir, Lisa H; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2015-01-01

    Consumers and health professionals rely on community pharmacists for accurate information about the safety of medicines. Many breastfeeding women require medications, yet we know little about the advice provided to them by pharmacists in Australia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the perspectives of community pharmacists in Australia on medication use and safety in breastfeeding using a postal survey of a national random sample of 1166 community pharmacies in 2011. One hundred and seventy-six pharmacists responded (51% female). Of the 52% of participants with children, many (70%) had a total breastfeeding duration (self or partner) of 27 weeks or more. The majority (92%) were confident about supplying or counselling on medication during breastfeeding. The most commonly used resources were drug company information, Australian Medicines Handbook and the Royal Women's Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Medicine Guide. Most (80%) believed the available information to be adequate and 86% thought it accessible. Over one-third were unaware that ibuprofen and metronidazole are compatible with breastfeeding. Most (80%) were able to name at least one medicine that may decrease milk supply. We found that community pharmacists discuss medicine use in lactation and are confident of their ability to do so; however, their knowledge may be variable.

  4. Community pharmacists' knowledge of diabetes management during Ramadan in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed E K; Chewning, Betty

    2014-12-01

    Although Muslim diabetic patients may be aware of their religious exemption from fasting, many still fast and adjust their medication regimens accordingly. Pharmacists have a significant potential to identify and prevent harm from medication misuse in Ramadan. This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge regarding management of diabetes during Ramadan. It also explores pharmacists' willingness to attend a 1 day workshop on medication regimen adjustment during Ramadan. Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered survey was conducted among a random sample of community pharmacists. The survey included three knowledge questions relevant to counseling diabetic patients during Ramadan. Questions covered the recommended timing and dosing for metformin and insulin as well as the safe blood glucose range required for diabetic patients to safely continue their fast. Using logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' willingness to attend a workshop on the adjustment of medication regimens during Ramadan. Content analysis was used to analyze pharmacists' answers to the question concerning what they would like the workshop to cover. Pharmacists' aggregate scores for all three diabetes management knowledge questions and pharmacists' willingness to attend a workshop on the adjustment of medication regimens during Ramadan. Ninety three percent of the 298 approached pharmacists agreed to participate. Forty three pharmacists (15.9%) did not know the correct answer to any question, 118(43.7%) 24 answered one correctly, 86 (31.9%) answered two correctly and only 23 (8.5%) answered all 25 three correctly. Confidence in therapeutic knowledge regarding medication regimen 26 adjustment during Ramadan was not associated with the pharmacists' knowledge of diabetes management during Ramadan. One hundred seventy five (63.6%) pharmacists wanted to attend a workshop on adjusting medication regimens

  5. Community Pharmacists' Perception of the Relevance of Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Community Pharmacists' Perception of the Relevance of. Drug Package Insert as Source of Drug Information in. Southwestern Nigeria. Kenechuckwu Diobi, Titilayo O Fakeye* and Rasaq Adisa. Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

  6. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Community pharmacists' perceptions of barriers to communication with migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Watson, Margaret C; Walker, Leighton; Denison, Alan; Vanes, Neil; Moffat, Mandy

    2012-06-01

    Effective communication by pharmacists is essential to ensure patient safety in terms of provision and use of medications by patients. Global migration trends mean community pharmacists increasingly encounter patients with a variety of first languages. The aim of this study was to explore community pharmacists' perceptions of communication barriers during the provision of care to A8 (nationals from central/Eastern European states) migrants. A qualitative face-to-face interview study of purposively sampled community pharmacists, North East Scotland. Participants (n = 14) identified a number of barriers to providing optimal care to A8 migrants including: communication (information gathering and giving); confidentiality when using family/friends as translators; the impact of patient healthcare expectations on communication and the length of the consultation; and frustration with the process of the consultation. Several barriers were specific to A8 migrants but most seemed pertinent to any group with limited English proficiency and reflect those found in studies of healthcare professionals caring for more traditional UK migrant populations. Further research is needed using objective outcome measures, such as consultation recordings, to measure the impact of these perceived barriers on pharmacist-patient consultations. Language and cultural barriers impact on the quality of pharmacist-patient communication and thus may have patient safety and pharmacist training implications. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Community pharmacists, Internet and social media: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Natalia; Shepherd, Marv

    2014-01-01

    Use of social media and Internet for health information sharing is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. Research on professional use of social media by community pharmacists is limited. 1) To determine the extent to which Texas (U.S. state) independent community pharmacists use text messaging, email, Facebook, Twitter, and/or other information technology for professional communication with patients and health care professionals and identify the perceptions of Texas independent community pharmacists toward such usage; 2) to determine the extent to which Texas independent community pharmacists develop and employ their pharmacy websites to provide drug information and patient care services. A 25-item survey with questions addressing the objectives of the study as well as basic demographic questions (gender, age, and type of pharmacy degree) was mailed to a random sample of 1196 independent community pharmacists in Texas in January 2012. The study response rate was 23.7%, with 284 usable questionnaires returned. The majority of respondents reported that Internet access is available at their pharmacies (98% (278)), and 91% (258) are familiar with the term 'social media'. To communicate with health care professionals, 56% (n = 160) of respondents use email, 34% (n = 97) use text messages and 5% (n = 14) use Facebook. To communicate with patients, 36% (n = 102) of respondents use email, 30% (n = 86) use text messages and 7% (n = 19) use Facebook. The perceptions of pharmacists who communicate with patients using electronic tools about information related to drug therapy once a month or more frequently were more positive than those of pharmacists who never or hardly ever communicate with patients via electronic tools about drug therapy (P social media for professional pharmacist's communications and perceptions toward the use of social media in patient-pharmacist communications among independent community pharmacists in

  9. Canadian community pharmacists' use of digital health technologies in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.

  10. WHAT MOTIVATES POLISH COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TO PURSUIT OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska-Stroschein, Magdalena; Kurczewska, Urszula; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing importance of the advisory role for physicians and patients played by the pharmacist over the last decade, it seems appropriate to evaluate if and why pharmacists are interested in postgraduate medical education. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess such motives, with special interest to Polish community pharmacists. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample of participants of community pharmacist specialization programs and it was analyzed in relation to participants of other postgraduate courses. They were asked to rank their motives on a Likert-like scale and the underlying dimensions for study motives were identified using exploratory and confirmatory techniques. The reasons for taking specialization for community pharmacists were similar as compared to participants of other postgraduate studies. However, the autotelic factor was not so strong and the crucial reason was that such postgraduate training was required to be promoted in work. Basing on Polish results, we propose the division of motives into three groups - autotelic, instrumental and coincidental. The validated self-administered questionnaire based on this division displayed acceptable construct validity and internal consistency, and therefore can be proposed as an example tool to assess the particular motives and expectations of potential postgraduate students and employees in the pharmaceutical job market. The promotion of postgraduate education among pharmacists can improve the quality of pharmaceutical service.

  11. Cancer awareness among community pharmacist: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Kofi Boamah; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Bonsu, Adwoa Bemah

    2018-03-16

    The WHO recognises that community pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare professionals to the general public. Most patients regularly visit community pharmacies for health information and also seek advice from pharmacists with respect to signs and symptoms of cancer. As readily accessible health care professionals, community pharmacists are also in the best position to include cancer-screening initiatives into their practice. Pharmacists are therefore in a good position to raise awareness when they counsel people who buy over-the-counter medication for the control of possible cancer-related symptoms. The aim of this review was to critically appraise evidence gathered from studies that; (1) explore or assess knowledge of community pharmacist on signs and symptoms of cancer, (2) explore or assess knowledge of community pharmacist on cancer screening. EMBASE (ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) and MEDLINE (EBSCOhost) were systematically searched for studies conducted between 2005 to July 2017. Studies that focused on knowledge of community pharmacist in cancer screening, signs and symptoms were included. A total of 1538 articles were identified from the search, of which 4 out of the 28 potentially relevant abstracts were included in the review. Findings of the selected studies revealed lack of sufficient knowledge on breast cancer screening, signs and symptoms. Both studies attributed knowledge limitation as the cause of reason for the key findings of their studies. The selected studies focused largely on breast cancer, which hinder the generalizability and transferability of the findings. Hence there is a need for more studies to be conducted in this area to draw a better conclusion.

  12. Barriers and Facilitators of Partner Treatment of Chlamydia: A Qualitative Investigation with Prescribers and Community Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently-notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Effective and timely partner treatment of chlamydia is essential to reduce overall prevalence and the burden of infection. Currently in most of Australia, the only avenue for partner treatment of chlamydia (“standard partner therapy” is a tedious, and often inconvenient, process. The barriers and facilitators of standard partner therapy, and newer models of accelerated partner therapy (APT, need to be identified in the Australian setting. Additionally, the potential role of community pharmacists need to be explored. Semi-structured interview guides for two key stakeholder groups (prescribers and pharmacists were developed and piloted. Eleven prescribers (general practitioners, sexual health clinicians and nurse practitioners and twelve pharmacists practicing in the Perth metropolitan region were interviewed. Key reported barriers to standard partner therapy were lack of or delayed chlamydia testing. Key facilitators included ability to test and educate sexual partner. Key barriers for APT included prescribers’ legal responsibility and potential for medication-related adverse effects. Healthcare provider consultation and chlamydia testing were seen as potential facilitators of APT. Pharmacists were receptive to the idea of expanding their role in chlamydia treatment, however, barriers to privacy must be overcome in order to be acceptable to prescribers and pharmacists.

  13. A needs assessment of community pharmacists for pharmacist specialization in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Derek; Penm, Jonathan; MacKinnon, Neil; Smith, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Pharmacists are increasingly providing specialized services. However, no process exists for specialist certification in Canada. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which Canadian community pharmacists support the development of a certification system for specialization. This study utilized a cross-sectional online survey of licensed Canadian pharmacists identified through the member databases of national and regional pharmacy associations. A questionnaire was developed (in French and English) and distributed via email, on behalf of the researchers, by multiple pharmacy organizations in January 2015. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to identify which sub-groups of respondents supported the creation of a certification system and which supported mandatory certification. A total of 770 responses were received. Many respondents were practising specialists (30.0%, 205/683) and the most commonly reported specialty areas were diabetes, smoking cessation and geriatrics. Almost 85% (n = 653/770) supported creation of a Canadian certification process and 68.5% (n = 447/653) felt certification should be mandatory. Respondents believed that the primary benefit of a certification system was greater public confidence in pharmacist specialist skills. They also felt that the most important factor in the development of the system is to create national definitions for specialty practice. The main barrier was the lack of reimbursement for specialty services in Canada. The majority of Canadian community pharmacist respondents support the creation of a certification process for pharmacist specialization. Future study is required to confirm this finding in a larger sample and to determine the optimal model and the financial feasibility of a national system in Canada. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Optimizing care transitions: the role of the community pharmacist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody, Karleen T; McCartney, Elizabeth; Sen, Sanchita; Duenas, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Transitions of care (TOC) refer to the movement of patients across institutions, among providers, between different levels of care, and to and from home. Medication errors that occur during TOC have the potential to result in medical complications that are serious for the patient and costly to the health care system. Positive outcomes have been demonstrated when pharmacists are involved in providing TOC services, including reducing preventable adverse drug reactions, medication-related problems, and rehospitalizations, as well as improving the discharge process. This review explores TOC models involving community pharmacy practice, the current impact of pharmacist interventions in TOC, and patient satisfaction with TOC services provided by community pharmacists. Common barriers and potential solutions to TOC services provided in the community pharmacy, such as patient identification, information gathering, standardization of services, administrative support, reimbursement, and time restraints, are also discussed. PMID:29354539

  15. Community pharmacists and Colleges of Pharmacy: the Ohio partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Marc A; Mauro, Vincent F; Cable, Gerald L; Rudnicki, Barbara M; Wall, Andrea L; Murphy, Christine C; Makarich, Joseph A; Kahaleh, Abir A

    2005-01-01

    To develop pharmacist practice standards, pharmacy preceptor standards, and objectives for students completing advanced practice community pharmacy rotations. Ohio. Pharmacy schools and community pharmacies that serve as advanced practice rotation sites. Developed standards for preceptors and objectives for student experiences. Focus groups that included both community pharmacists and pharmacy faculty collaborated on defining key standards for advanced community pharmacy rotations. Not applicable. Three main documents were produced in this initiative, and these are provided as appendices to this article. Professional and patient care guidelines for preceptors define minimum standards for these role models. Expectations of pharmacists as preceptors provide insights for managing this student-teacher relationship, which is fundamentally different from the more common employer-employee and coworker relationships found in pharmacies of all types. Objectives for student experiences during advanced practice community pharmacy rotations present core expectations in clinical, dispensing, patient education, wellness, and drug information areas. Through this collaboration, Ohio colleges of pharmacy developed a partnership with practitioners in community settings that should enhance the Ohio experiential educational program for student pharmacists. Use of the established guidelines will help educators and practitioners achieve their shared vision for advanced practice community pharmacy rotations and promote high-quality patient care.

  16. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  17. Expressing and negotiating face in community pharmacist-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Muna S; Spiers, Judith A; Guirguis, Lisa M

    2017-11-01

    A collaborative patient-pharmacist interaction is fundamental to greater patient satisfaction with pharmacy care and improved medication adherence. Effective pharmacist-patient communication occurs when both pharmacist and patient are able to successfully attend to not only the typical tasks and goals of the interaction but also basic face needs that underlie all social interaction; autonomy, competence or esteem, and fellowship. Addressing face needs occurs through conventional and strategic communication strategies that respond to the emerging needs throughout an interaction. Pharmacist-patient interactions are not just about transfer of information and medications. Both parties assess the situation, the others' intentions within the context of their own goals and this influences how they choose to act throughout the interaction. Face-work Theory provides a framework to understand these interaction processes in pharmacist-patient communication. The aim of this study was to determine face needs, threats and the strategic communication strategies used to address these within community pharmacist-patient interactions. This exploratory descriptive study drew upon principles of ethology to first describe naturally occurring behaviour and then to interpret this behaviour within the context of Face-work theory. Twenty-five audio-recorded community pharmacist-patient interactions were collected and analyzed. The average length of these interactions was 3:67 min with a range of 0.39 s-9:35 min. Multiple face needs for both pharmacist and patient were evident in most interactions. Autonomy, competence and fellowship face needs were negotiated in the following contexts: participative relationships, concordant role expectations, sensitive topics, and negotiating expertise and knowledge. Competence face needs for both parties were the most dominant need found in negotiating role expectations. The most common communication strategies used to support face were solidarity

  18. Correlates of Prescription Opioid Legitimacy Judgments Among Community Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Flippin, Heather; Hagy, Elizabeth J; Pack, Robert P

    2016-05-11

    Community pharmacists are legally required to evaluate and confirm the legitimacy of prescription opioids (POs) prior to dispensing. Yet, previous research has indicated community pharmacists perceive nearly 50% of dispensed POs to be issued lacking a legitimate medical purpose. To analyze correlates of PO legitimacy judgments across pharmacist and pharmacy setting characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 2000 Tennessee pharmacists was conducted during October and November of 2012. Community pharmacists' self-reported attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors specific to PO legitimacy were elicited. Step-wise multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to model correlates of PO legitimacy across low, moderate and high PO legitimacy estimations. Being female, practicing in a chain or independent practice setting, fear of employer disciplinary action if PO legitimacy is questioned, and self-confidence in one's ability to detect PO abuse increased the odds of low (vs. high) PO legitimacy estimation (p legitimacy estimation (p legitimacy judgments. Distinct correlates were noted across low and moderate as compared to high estimations of PO legitimacy. Legitimacy judgments can inform theoretical exploration of PO dispensing behaviors and inform intervention development targeted at reducing and preventing prescription drug abuse.

  19. Health promotion and education activities of community pharmacists in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Abdelmoneim; Abahussain, Eman

    2010-04-01

    To investigate self-reported practice of pharmacists regarding health promotion and education activities, explore the barriers that may limit their involvement in health promotion and education, and identify their willingness to participate in continuing education programs related to health education. Community pharmacies in Kuwait. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a pre-tested questionnaire on a sample of 223 community pharmacists. The extent of the pharmacists' involvement in counselling patients about health promotion and education topics, their preparation to counsel patients in health promotion and education topics, and their perceived success in changing the patients' health behaviour. The response rate was 92%. Information on medication use was the most frequent reason for consumers seeking community pharmacists' advice. The majority of respondents believed that behaviour related to the proper use of drugs was very important. There was less agreement on the importance of other health behaviours. Respondents indicated they were involved in counselling patients on health behaviours related to use of drugs as prescribed/directed, weight management, medicine contents and side effects, diet modification and stress reduction, but were less involved in counselling on other health behaviours. Respondents' perception of themselves as "most prepared" to counsel patients closely reflected their involvement. Pharmacists reported high levels of success in helping patients to achieve improvements in using their drugs properly compared to low levels in changing patients' personal health behaviours. The majority of respondents believed that pharmacists had a responsibility for counselling consumers on health behaviours (97%, 95% CI 95-99%), and indicated their willingness to learn more about health promotion (84%, 78-88%). Lack of pharmacists' time was reported by about 58% of respondents as the major barrier limiting pharmacists' provision of health

  20. A survey of the views and capabilities of community pharmacists in Western Australia regarding the rescheduling of selected oral antibiotics in a framework of pharmacist prescribing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Sinkala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Antibiotic misuse in the community contributes to antimicrobial resistance. One way to address this may be by better utilizing community pharmacists’ skills in antibiotic prescribing. The aims of this study were to examine the level of support for “down-scheduling” selected antibiotics and to evaluate factors determining the appropriateness of community pharmacist prescribing for a limited range of infections, including their decision to refer to a doctor. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including graded case vignette scenarios simulating real practice, were sent to Western Australian community pharmacists. In addition to descriptive statistics and chi-square testing, a General Estimating Equation (GEE was used to identify factors associated with appropriateness of therapy and the decision to refer, for each of the seven vignettes. Results Of the 240 pharmacists surveyed, 90 (37.5% responded, yielding 630 responses to seven different case vignettes. There was more than 60% respondent support for expanded prescribing (rescheduling of commonly prescribed antibiotics. Overall 426/630 (67.6% chose to treat the patient while the remaining 204/630 (32.4% referred the patient to a doctor. Of those electing to treat, 380/426 (89.2% opted to use oral antibiotics, with 293/380 (77.2% treating with an appropriate selection and regimen. The GEE model indicated that pharmacists were more likely to prescribe inappropriately for conditions such as otitis media (p = 0.0060 and urinary tract infection in pregnancy (p < 0.0001 compared to more complex conditions. Over 80% of all pharmacists would refer the patient to a doctor following no improvement within 3 days, or within 24 h in the case of community acquired pneumonia. It was more common for younger pharmacists to refer the patient to a doctor (p = 0.0165. Discussion This study adds further insight into community pharmacy/pharmacist characteristics associated with

  1. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study was to exam......OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study....... These reviews had been self-selected by pharmacists and submitted as part of the reaccreditation process to the primary body responsible for accrediting Australian pharmacists to perform medication reviews. The drug-related problems identified in each review were classified by type and drugs involved. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: The number and nature of drug-related problems identified in pharmacist-conducted medication reviews. RESULTS: There were 1,038 drug-related problems identified in 234 medication reviews (mean 4.6 (+/-2.2) problems per review). The number of problems was higher (4.9 +/- 2.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 2...

  2. Supporting self management of type 2 diabetes: is there a role for the community pharmacist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhippayom T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Teerapon Dhippayom,1 Ines Krass21Pharmaceutical Care Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Evidence supports the efficacy of pharmacy services in type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, little is known about consumer perspectives on the role of community pharmacists in diabetes care. The objectives of this study were to identify potential unmet needs and explore preferences for pharmacist-delivered support for T2D.Methods: A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted in Sydney, Australia. Patients with T2D who were members of the Australian Diabetes Council in Sydney, Australia, were recruited through a survey on medication use in T2D. Five focus groups with a total of 32 consumers with T2D were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed.Results: The key themes were 1 the experiences of diabetes services received, 2 the potential to deliver self-management services, and 3 the suggested role of pharmacist in supporting diabetes management. Gaps in understanding and some degree of nonadherence to self-management signaled a potential for self-management support delivered by pharmacists. However, consumers still perceive that the main role of pharmacists in diabetes care centers on drug management services, with some enhancements to support adherence and continuity of supply. Barriers to diabetes care services included time constraints and a perceived lack of interest by pharmacists.Conclusion: Given the unmet needs in diabetes self-management, opportunities exist for pharmacists to be involved in diabetes care. The challenge is for pharmacists to upgrade their diabetes knowledge and skills, organize their workflow, and become proactive in delivering diabetes care support.Keywords: diabetes care, community pharmacy, community pharmacist, self-management, preference

  3. Direct-to-consumer advertising: Australian pharmacists' experiences with non-prescription medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, Betty; Kwong, Kenelm

    2010-02-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of over-the-counter or prescribed medicines is a highly controversial issue relating to public health care. Advocates highlight the advantages of DTCA in terms of patient awareness and autonomy. Opponents voice concerns about safety and patients' best interests. The views of physicians and consumers about DTCA have been widely investigated. There has been little research, however, in relation to pharmacists' experiences with DTCA and the impact of DTCA on pharmacy practice. The aim of this study was therefore to explore pharmacists' perceptions of DTCA in Australia and its impact on pharmacy practice. A semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted with a purposive convenience sample of retail pharmacists in Sydney, Australia. Interviews were recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and continued until data saturation. Emerging themes were extracted and analysed according to the grounded theory approach. Pharmacists participating in this study reported concern about potential harm to patient health and well-being as a result of the influence of DTCA. DTCA was seen to impede pharmacists in the discharge of their fundamental ethical responsibilities, leading to a strong sense of disempowerment. Pharmacists' gate-keeping role was challenged by DTCA encouraging consumers to self-medicate and inducing a range of drug-seeking behaviours. Although pharmacists acknowledged that DTCA may have a role in promoting patient autonomy, in practice DTCA compromised their role in safeguarding consumers from inappropriate use of medicines. This study highlighted that the impact of DTCA is not restricted to prescription medicines, but extended also to over-the-counter, pharmacist-only and other pharmacy-related products. Pharmacists perceived that DTCA disempowered them, compromising their role in safeguarding the community from inappropriate medicine use.

  4. The changing roles of pharmacists in hospital and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.freehosting.net. Editorial. The changing roles of pharmacists in hospital and community pharmacy practice in Nigeria. The profession and practice of pharmacy did not start in Nigeria as a well defined health care area of specialization as it is today. Rather, pharmaceutical training was borne.

  5. Identification of Counterfeit Drugs by Community Pharmacists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The problem of fake and counterfeit drugs is real and constitutes a major threat to the health and safety of the Nigerian population. A descriptive study was carried out to assess the methods of identification of counterfeit drugs by community pharmacists in Lagos State. Methods: The research instrument was a ...

  6. Building the Case: Changing Consumer Perceptions of the Value of Expanded Community Pharmacist Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckowych, Kathryn; Smith, Marie; Spiggle, Susan; Stevens, Andrew; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    The role of the community pharmacist has traditionally been a medication dispenser; however, community pharmacists' responsibilities must expand to include more direct patient care services in order to transform primary care practice. Use case-based scenarios to (1) determine factors that contribute to positive and negative consumer perceptions of expanded community pharmacist patient care roles, (2) identify facilitators and barriers that contribute to consumer perceptions of the value of expanded community pharmacist patient care services, and (3) develop a successful approach and strategies for increasing consumer advocacy for the value of expanded community pharmacist patient care services. Two consumer focus groups used scenario-based guided discussions and Likert scale questionnaires to elicit consumer reactions, facilitators, and barriers to expanded community pharmacist services. Convenience, timeliness, and accessibility were common positive reactions across all 3 scenarios. Team approach to care and trust were viewed as major facilitators. Participant concerns included uncertainty about pharmacist training and qualifications, privacy, pharmacists' limited bandwidth to accept new tasks, and potential increased patient costs. Common barriers to service uptake included a lack of insurance payment and physician preference to provide the services. Consumer unfamiliarity with non-traditional community pharmacist services is likely an influencer of consumers' hesitancy to utilize such services; therefore, an opportunity exists to engage consumers and advocacy organizations in supporting expanded community pharmacist roles. This study can inform consumers, advocates, community pharmacists, primary care providers, and community-based organizations on methods to shape consumer perceptions on the value of community pharmacist expanded services.

  7. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kapur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and
    interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy.
    Key findings: A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of
    which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It is observed that 46.7% consumers came for prescription
    medicines, 23.4% for over the counter medicines. Close to general physicians’ clinics and proximity to home
    were most important reasons given for visiting particular pharmacy. Majority of the consumers (n=56, 72.7%
    rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only 1(1.3% rated it as not useful at all and 2 (2.6%
    consumers did not respond. Among consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that pharmacist has a good balance
    between health and business matter and 35.7% were in opinion that pharmacist is more concerned with making
    money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist is also interested in the health of his/her customers. The pharmacists
    were ranked at the top with 28(36.4% by the consumers and favoured pharmacy as the most convenient
    place to get advice about staying healthy.
    Conclusion: Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that pharmacist is concerned with the
    health of the consumers, though he/she is also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware
    about the difference between pharmacist and doctor, most of them consider

  8. Utilization of simulated patients to assess diabetes and asthma counseling practices among community pharmacists in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravattil, Bridget; Kheir, Nadir; Yousif, Adil

    2017-08-01

    Background Patient counseling is one of the most important services a pharmacist can provide to patients. Studies have shown that counseling provided by pharmacists may prevent medication related problems and improve adherence to medication therapy. Objective To explore counseling practices among community pharmacists using simulated patients and to determine if patient, pharmacist, and pharmacy characteristics influence the counseling provided by community pharmacists. Setting Private community pharmacies within Qatar. Method This is a randomized, cross sectional study where simulated patients visited community pharmacies and presented the pharmacist with a new prescription or requested a refill for either a diabetes or asthma medication. Pharmacists completed a questionnaire at the end of the simulated interaction, which was utilized to determine if patient, pharmacist, or pharmacy characteristics had any influence on the counseling provided to patients. A scoring system was devised to assess the pharmacist's counseling practices. Main outcome measure To evaluate the type of information provided by community pharmacists to the simulated patient regarding diabetes and asthma. Results One hundred and twenty-nine pharmacists were enrolled in the study. Eighty one percent of pharmacists had a score master of pharmacy degree provided significantly better counseling (f = 3.261; p = 0.042). Many pharmacists (65%) provided hypoglycemia management to patients, however, 63% referred the patient to the physician when the patient experienced hypoglycemia from inappropriate medication administration. Only 2 (7%) pharmacists correctly counseled the patient on all 8 inhaler administration steps. Majority of pharmacists (50%) educated on the role of the rescue and controller therapy in asthma, however, 33% referred the patient to the physician when the patient inquired about controller therapy use. Conclusion Patient counseling was substandard with the majority of community

  9. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-11-10

    To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked 'aid in stop smoking' as the most important (56%), with 'cheaper alternative' (43%) and 'social/recreational use' (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as 'e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic' were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community pharmacists look forward to regulations so to conduct their duties in a

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  11. A grounded exploration of the dimensions of managerial capability: A preliminary study of top Australian pharmacist owner-managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Australian community pharmacies are experiencing challenges, including government prescription pricing reform and a dramatically increasing competitive environment. Enacting appropriate responsive actions requires capable pharmacy managers. 'Capability' implies managing effectively in the present, but with unknown or emerging contexts and with new problems. A conceptual understanding of managerial capability as practiced by pharmacist owner-managers is unavailable in the literature. This research aimed to address the question: How can we understand managerial capability in relation to effective community pharmacy management? The study's objective was to develop preliminary theoretical departure points for continuing research responding to the research question. The objective was approached by exploring how 5 top Australian pharmacy owner-managers accomplish the management of their businesses in a changing business environment. Qualitative research methods were employed to develop a social process perspective of how the managers enact their management practices. In-depth semi-structured life-world interviews were undertaken as the major method of data collection. Interview text thematic analysis was carried out identifying rich conceptual properties and dimensions, which 'dimensionalized' 3 key integrated categories. The findings show how the managers are immersed in their business, managerial and personal practices in a holistic and relational manner. Managerial processes, reported through three conceptual categories, their properties and dimensions, reveal the highly situational nature of the reality the managers were experiencing, including their need to express their personal/professional identity. The properties and dimensions of the category 'learning generatively' in particular, reveal how the pharmacy owner-managers shape their business activities and their emerging context as time passes. The preliminary interpretive view of managerial capability describes

  12. Asthma disease management-Australian pharmacists' interventions improve patients' asthma knowledge and this is sustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Bandana; LeMay, Kate; Emmerton, Lynne; Krass, Ines; Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Deborah; Armour, Carol

    2011-06-01

    To assess any improvements in knowledge of asthma patients after a tailored education program delivered by pharmacists and measure the sustainability of any improvements. To ascertain patients' perceptions about any changes in their knowledge. Ninety-six specially trained pharmacists recruited patients based on their risk of poor asthma control. A tailored intervention was delivered to patients based on individual needs and goals, and was conducted at three or four time points over six months. Asthma knowledge was assessed at the beginning and end of the service, and six and 12 months after it had ended. Patients' perceptions of the impact of the service on their knowledge were explored qualitatively in interviews. The 96 pharmacists recruited 570 patients, 398 (70%) finished. Asthma knowledge significantly improved as a result of the service (7.65 ± 2.36, n=561, to 8.78 ± 2.14, n=393). This improvement was retained for at least 12 months after the service. Patients reported how the knowledge and skills gained had led to a change in the way they managed their asthma. Improvements in knowledge are achievable and sustainable if pharmacists used targeted educational interventions. Pharmacist educational interventions are an efficient way to improve asthma knowledge in the community. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Community pharmacists in England's opinions on skill mix and delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Emma; Bullock, Alison; Allan, Margaret; Hodson, Karen

    2017-12-06

    Following the 2005 contractual framework amendment, the expanding role of community pharmacy team members required a shift in entrenched views on roles and duties. This study aimed to report on community pharmacists' opinions on skill mix and explore how they can be addressed so that skill mix may be optimised. An invitation to complete an online questionnaire was distributed via email, marked for the attention of the lead pharmacist. Following a low response, a paper-based questionnaire was sent to all community pharmacies in England (n = 11,816). Questions elicited data about the respondent, the pharmacy (including staffing profile) and opinions on skill mix. A total of 1154 returns were received, representing a 10% response rate. Of these, most were pharmacy chains (76%; n = 877), with 5-9 staff (54%; n = 600); commonly open 40-49 hours (42%; n = 487), dispensing <6000 prescriptions per week (41%, n = 533). From 26 statements on skill mix, three factors were identified by principal-components factor analysis: 'working well', 'feeling the pressure' and 'open to development'. Characteristics associated with 'working well': pharmacy owners, single businesses, with pharmacy technician(s), dispensing fewer prescriptions and open shorter hours. Characteristics associated with 'feeling the pressure': pharmacy chains, open longer hours, large numbers of prescriptions and relief pharmacists. Characteristics associated with 'open to development': recently qualified, second pharmacists, working longer hours, chains and dispensing lower numbers of prescriptions. Although limited by a low response, results suggest being in a position to influence (more experienced, business owners) may be associated with more positive opinions. Further training (including about legalities and leadership) could contribute to optimising skill mix in community pharmacies. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    OpenAIRE

    P Kapur; M Aqil; M S Alam; S Karim; Himanshu Sharma; P Jinda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during ...

  15. Ethical, religious and factual beliefs about the supply of emergency hormonal contraception by UK community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Bissell, Paul; Wingfield, Joy

    2008-01-01

    Community pharmacists' role in the sale and supply of emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) represents an opportunity to increase EHC availability and utilise pharmacists' expertise but little is known about pharmacists' attendant ethical concerns. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with 23 UK pharmacists to explore their views and ethical concerns about EHC. Dispensing EHC was ethically acceptable for almost all pharmacists but beliefs about selling EHC revealed three categories: pharmacists who sold EHC, respected women's autonomy and peers' conscientious objection but feared the consequences of limited EHC availability; contingently selling pharmacists who believed doctors should be first choice for EHC supply but who occasionally supplied and were influenced by women's ages, affluence and genuineness; non-selling pharmacists who believed EHC was abortion and who found selling EHC distressing and ethically problematic. Terminological/factual misunderstandings about EHC were common and discussing ethical issues was difficult for most pharmacists. Religion informed non-selling pharmacists' ethical decisions but other pharmacists prioritised professional responsibilities over their religion. Pharmacists' ethical views on EHC and the influence of religion varied and, together with some pharmacists' reliance upon non-clinical factors, led to a potentially variable supply, which may threaten the prompt availability of EHC. Misunderstandings about EHC perpetuated lay beliefs and potentially threatened correct advice. The influence of subordination and non-selling pharmacists' dispensing EHC may also lead to variable supply and confusion amongst women. Training is needed to address both factual/terminological misunderstandings about EHC and to develop pharmacists' ethical understanding and responsibility.

  16. Assessment of the Knowledge of Community Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    2Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Administration, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. NIGERIA. Abstract. Purpose: The study was carried out to assess the knowledge of community ... indicating an urgent need for intensive training in order to render better services to .... of the opinion that the National Agency for Food.

  17. The raison d'etre for the community pharmacy and the community pharmacist in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim...... of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who...... are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks...

  18. What do Australian consumers, pharmacists and prescribers think about documenting indications on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels?: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garada, Mona; McLachlan, Andrew J; Schiff, Gordon D; Lehnbom, Elin C

    2017-11-15

    Documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels is not standard practice in Australia. However, previous studies that have focused on the content and design of dispensed medicines labels, have suggested including the indication as a safety measure. The aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of Australian consumers, pharmacists and prescribers on documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and mock-up of dispensed medicines labels were designed for participants. Consumers (n = 19) and pharmacists (n = 7) were recruited by convenience sample at community pharmacies in Sydney (Australia) and prescribers (n = 8), including two medical students, were recruited through snowballing. Thirty-four participants were interviewed. Most participants agreed that documenting the indication would be beneficial especially for patients who are forgetful or take multiple medications. Participants also believed it would improve consumers' medication understanding and adherence. Prescribers and pharmacists believed it could help reduce prescribing and dispensing errors by matching the drug/dosage to the correct indication. Prescribers refrained from documenting the indication to protect patients' privacy; however, most patients did not consider documenting the indication as a breach of privacy. Prescribers raised concerns about the extra time to include indications on prescriptions and best language to document indications, using plain language as opposed to medical terminology. All interviewed stakeholders identified numerous benefits of documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels. Whether these potential benefits can be realized remains unknown and addressing prescribers' concern regarding the time involved in documenting the indication on prescriptions remains a challenge for vendors of electronic medication management systems.

  19. What do Australian consumers, pharmacists and prescribers think about documenting indications on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels?: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Garada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels is not standard practice in Australia. However, previous studies that have focused on the content and design of dispensed medicines labels, have suggested including the indication as a safety measure. The aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of Australian consumers, pharmacists and prescribers on documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted and mock-up of dispensed medicines labels were designed for participants. Consumers (n = 19 and pharmacists (n = 7 were recruited by convenience sample at community pharmacies in Sydney (Australia and prescribers (n = 8, including two medical students, were recruited through snowballing. Results Thirty-four participants were interviewed. Most participants agreed that documenting the indication would be beneficial especially for patients who are forgetful or take multiple medications. Participants also believed it would improve consumers’ medication understanding and adherence. Prescribers and pharmacists believed it could help reduce prescribing and dispensing errors by matching the drug/dosage to the correct indication. Prescribers refrained from documenting the indication to protect patients’ privacy; however, most patients did not consider documenting the indication as a breach of privacy. Prescribers raised concerns about the extra time to include indications on prescriptions and best language to document indications, using plain language as opposed to medical terminology. Conclusions All interviewed stakeholders identified numerous benefits of documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels. Whether these potential benefits can be realized remains unknown and addressing prescribers’ concern regarding the time involved in documenting the indication on prescriptions

  20. An audit of adherence to heart failure guidelines in an Australian hospital: A pharmacist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Viviane; Danninger, Melanie; Wang, Wei; Khalil, Hanan

    2017-12-01

    The Australian National Heart Foundation Guidelines have been developed to guide clinicians on how to best manage chronic heart failure (CHF) patients according to the current best available evidence. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the proportion of patients prescribed evidence-based therapy (EBT) for CHF on discharge at this Australian metropolitan hospital and factors affecting its prescribing. The secondary aims are to examine the proportion of patients prescribed EBT on discharge on cardiac wards compared to medical wards and to explore the role of the pharmacist in the management of these patients. A retrospective audit of patients' medical notes who were admitted consecutively for CHF management was conducted over 6 months to examine their management. The results showed at discharge, a total of 52% of patients were discharged on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, 49% were discharged on β-blockers, 15% were on Aldosterone receptor antagonists, 90% were discharged on diuretics, and 29% were discharged on Digoxin. The main determinants of prescribing EBT on discharge were the presence of prescribing contraindications and patients' comorbidities. Patients discharged from cardiac wards were more likely to be prescribed EBT than if discharged on medical wards. Furthermore, in the subset of the cohort who was reviewed by a pharmacist during admission, a higher percentage of patients were discharged on EBT compared with those who did not have a pharmaceutical input. This study highlighted existing gaps between the National CHF Guidelines and clinical prescribing practice in this hospital. Patients who were discharged from cardiac wards were more likely to be prescribed medications concordant with the guidelines, and there is further opportunity for pharmacists to assist in closing gaps in prescribing practice by the promotion of adherence to these guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Pharmacist and physician perspectives on diabetes service delivery within community pharmacies in Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Yosi; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeffery

    2016-05-01

    To explore perspectives of physicians and pharmacists on diabetes service delivery within community pharmacies in Indonesia. In depth interviews were conducted with 10 physicians and 10 community pharmacists in Surabaya, Indonesia, using a semi-structured interview guide. Nvivo version 9 was used to facilitate thematic content analysis to identify barriers/facilitators for community pharmacists to provide diabetes services. The identified themes indicating barriers/facilitators for diabetes service delivery within Indonesian community pharmacies included: (1) pharmacist factors - i.e. positive views (facilitator) and perceived lack of competence (barrier); (2) pharmacist-physician relationships - i.e. physicians' lack of support and accessibility (barriers); (3) pharmacist-patient relationships - i.e. perceived patients' lack of support and accessibility (barriers); (4) pharmacy environment - i.e. business orientation (barrier), lack of staff and poor pharmacist availability (barriers), and availability of supporting resources, such as counselling areas/rooms, procedures/protocols and IT systems for labelling and patient records (facilitators); and (5) external environment - i.e. a health system to support pharmacist roles, remuneration, marketing and professional assistance (facilitators). Issues related to the pharmacist-physician-patient relationships, pharmacy environment and external environment need to be addressed before Indonesian community pharmacists can provide additional pharmacy services for type 2 diabetes patients. Collaboration between the Government, Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia (Indonesian Pharmacists Association) and Ikatan Dokter Indonesia (Indonesian Medical Association) is required to improve the pharmacy professional environment and facilities. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Community pharmacists as educators in Danish residential facilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Pultz, Kirsten; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    To explore experiences with engaging community pharmacists in educational programmes on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities for the disabled. A secondary analysis of data from two Danish intervention studies where community pharmacists were engaged in educational programmes. Data included 10 semi-structured interviews with staff, five semi-structured interviews and three open-ended questionnaires with residential facility managers, and five open-ended questionnaires to community pharmacists. Data were thematically coded to identify key points pertaining to the themes 'pharmacists as educators' and 'perceived effects of engaging pharmacists in competence development'. As educators, pharmacists were successful as medicines experts. Some pharmacists experienced pedagogical challenges. Previous teaching experience and obtained knowledge of the local residential facility before teaching often provided sufficient pedagogical skills and tailored teaching to local needs. Effects of engaging community pharmacists included in most instances improved cooperation between residential facilities and community pharmacies through a trustful relationship and improved dialogue about the residents' medication. Other effects included a perception of improved patient safety, teaching skills and branding of the pharmacy. Community pharmacists provide a resource to engage in educational programmes on medication handling in residential facilities, which may facilitate improved cooperation between community pharmacies and residential facilities. However, development of pedagogical competences and understandings of local settings are prerequisites for facilities and pharmacists to experience the programmes as successful. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. A qualitative study of English community pharmacists' experiences of providing lifestyle advice to patients with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Kirsty; Pattison, Helen; Langley, Chris; Powell, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Background - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression is modifiable through lifestyle behaviors. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to facilitate self-management of cardiovascular health however research shows varied pharmacist engagement in providing lifestyle advice. Objective - This study explored community pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of providing lifestyle advice to patients with CVD. Methods - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pharmacists (1 superm...

  4. What is a Pharmacist: Opinions of Pharmacy Department Academics and Community Pharmacists on Competences Required for Pharmacy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; de Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education), and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it), on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist. PMID:28970385

  5. What is a Pharmacist: Opinions of Pharmacy Department Academics and Community Pharmacists on Competences Required for Pharmacy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education, and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it, on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents < 40 and > 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist.

  6. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halila GC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0 for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05. Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product's efficacy (97% and adverse effects (62.3% were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence

  7. Exploring an increased role for Australian community pharmacy in mental health professional service delivery: evaluation of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2016-12-01

    Australian general practitioners primarily treat mental health problems by prescribing medication dispensed by community pharmacists. Pharmacists therefore have regular interactions with mental health consumers and carers. This narrative review explored the potential role of community pharmacy in mental health services. Medline, CINAHL, ProQuest, Emerald, PsycINFO, Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and IPA were utilised. The Cochrane Library as well as grey literature and "lay" search engines such as GoogleScholar were also searched. Four systematic reviews and ten community pharmacy randomised controlled trials were identified. Various relevant reviews outlining the impact of community pharmacy based disease state or medicines management services were also identified. International studies involving professional service interventions for mental health consumers could be contextualised for the Australian setting. Australian studies of pharmacy professional services for chronic physical health conditions provided further guidance for the expansion of community pharmacy mental health professional services.

  8. Provision of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Filipa A; Scullin, Claire; Al-Taani, Ghaith

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Pharmaceutical care involves patient-centred pharmacist activity to improve medicines management by patients. The implementation of this service in a comprehensive manner, however, requires considerable organisation and effort, and indeed, it is often not fully...... implemented in care settings. The main objective was to assess how pharmaceutical care provision within community pharmacy has evolved over time in Europe. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of community pharmacies, using a modified version of the Behavioural Pharmaceutical Care Scale (BPCS......) was conducted in late 2012/early 2013 within 16 European countries and compared with an earlier assessment conducted in 2006. RESULTS: The provision of comprehensive pharmaceutical care has slightly improved in all European countries that participated in both editions of this survey (n = 8) with progress being...

  9. Exploring community pharmacists' experiences of surveying patients for drug utilization research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Bergman, Ulrika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    pharmacists. This study is part of a validation of that data acquisition method. Objectives (1) To explore the experiences of the pharmacists involved, (2) to explore a random or systematic exclusion of eligible patients by the pharmacists, and (3) to find areas of improvement to the applied method...... of surveying. Setting 72 Swedish community pharmacies, distributed all over the country. Method (a) A questionnaire was distributed to approximately 400 dispensing pharmacists at the pharmacies conducting the patient surveys; (b) semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with 19 pharmacists at 12...... of the pharmacies. Main outcome measure Proportions of pharmacists reporting positive and negative experiences of structured survey interviews, the nature of their experiences, proportion of pharmacists reporting to avoid survey interviews and reasons for doing so, and suggested areas of improvement. Results...

  10. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  11. Optimizing identification and management of COPD patients - reviewing the role of the community pharmacist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Thys; van Boven, Job F. M.; Maguire, Terence; Goyal, Pankaj; Altman, Pablo

    The aim of this paper was to propose key steps for community pharmacist integration into a patient care pathway for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. A literature search was conducted to identify publications focusing on the role of the community pharmacist in identification

  12. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n =

  13. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54%

  14. Pharmacists in primary care. Determinants of the care-providing function of Dutch community pharmacists in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijrers, P.E.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Sijbrandij, J.; Janknegt, R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of the care-providing function of the community pharmacists (CPs) to explain variations in professional practice. SETTING: The Netherlands 2001. PARTICIPANTS: 328 CPs. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. Questionnaires were used to

  15. Barriers and facilitators of medication reconciliation processes for recently discharged patients from community pharmacists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelty, Korey A; Chewning, Betty; Wise, Meg; Kind, Amy; Roberts, Tonya; Kreling, David

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a vital part in reconciling medications for patients transitioning from hospital to community care, yet their roles have not been fully examined in the extant literature. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine the barriers and facilitators community pharmacists face when reconciling medications for recently discharged patients; and 2) identify pharmacists' preferred content and modes of information transfer regarding updated medication information for recently discharged patients. Community pharmacists were purposively and conveniently sampled from the Wisconsin (U.S. state) pharmacist-based research network, Pharmacy Practice Enhancement and Action Research Link (PEARL Rx). Community pharmacists were interviewed face-to-face, and transcriptions from audio recordings were analyzed using directed content analysis. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) guided the development of questions for the semi-structured interviews. Interviewed community pharmacists (N = 10) described the medication reconciliation process to be difficult and time-consuming for recently discharged patients. In the context of the TPB, more barriers than facilitators of reconciling medications were revealed. Themes were categorized as organizational and individual-level themes. Major organizational-level factors affecting the medication reconciliation process included: pharmacy resources, discharge communication, and hospital resources. Major individual-level factors affecting the medication reconciliation process included: pharmacists' perceived responsibility, relationships, patient perception of pharmacist, and patient characteristics. Interviewed pharmacists consistently responded that several pieces of information items would be helpful when reconciling medications for recently discharged patients, including the hospital medication discharge list and stop-orders for discontinued medications. The TPB was useful for identifying barriers and facilitators of

  16. Pharmacist home visits: A 1-year experience from a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Scott V; Passafiume, Sarah N; Kufel, Wesley D; Comerford, Patrick; Trzewieczynski, Dean P; Andrus, Kenneth; Brody, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    To provide experience on the methods and costs for delivering a large-scale community pharmacist home visit service. Independent urban community pharmacy, Buffalo, NY. Mobile Pharmacy Solutions provides traditional community pharmacy walk-in service and a suite of clinically oriented services, including outbound adherence calls linked to home delivery, payment planning, medication refill synchronization, adherence packaging, and pharmacist home visits. Pharmacist daily staffing included three dispensing pharmacists, one residency-trained pharmacist, and two postgraduate year 1 community pharmacy residents. A large-scale community pharmacy home visit service delivered over a 1-year period. Pharmacist time and cost to administer the home visit service as well as home visit request sources and description of patient demographics. A total of 172 visits were conducted (137 initial, 35 follow-up). Patients who received a home visit averaged 9.8 ± 5.2 medications and 3.0 ± 1.6 chronic disease states. On average, a home visit required 2.0 ± 0.8 hours, which included travel time. The percentages of visits completed by pharmacists and residents were 60% and 40%, respectively. The amounts of time to complete a visit were similar. Average home visit cost including pharmacist time and travel was $119 ($147 for a pharmacist, $77 for a resident). In this community pharmacy-based home visit service, costs are an important factor, with each pharmacist visit requiring 2 hours to complete. This experience provides a blueprint and real-world perspective for community pharmacies endeavoring to implement a home visit service and sets a foundation for future prospective trials to evaluate the impact of the service on important indicators of health and cost. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaka Ogbogu

    Full Text Available Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs. The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied.Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15 open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies.The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68% recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84% recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31% recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we

  18. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Necyk, Candace

    Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we found some

  19. [A Questionnaire Survey on Cooperation between Community Pharmacies and Hospitals in Outpatient Chemotherapy-Comparison of Roles of Pharmacists in Community Pharmacy and Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masaaki; Ishii, Masakazu; Nagano, Miku; Kiuchi, Yuji; Iwamoto, Sanju

    2018-01-01

     Previous reports suggested that sharing outpatient information during chemotherapy is very important for managing pharmaceutical usage between community pharmacies and hospitals. We herein examined using a questionnaire survey whether pharmaceutical management for outpatient chemotherapy is desired by community and hospital pharmacists. The response rates were 44.3% (133/300) for pharmacists in community pharmacies and 53.7% (161/300) for pharmacists in hospitals. Prescriptions for outpatients during chemotherapy were issued at 88.2% of the hospitals. Currently, 28.9% of hospital pharmacists rarely provide pharmaceutical care, such as patient guidance and adverse effect monitoring, for outpatients receiving oral chemotherapy. Furthermore, whereas 93.7% of hospital pharmacists conducted prescription audits based on the chemotherapy regimen, audits were only performed by 14.8% of community pharmacists. Thus, outpatients, particularly those on oral regimens, were unable to receive safe pharmaceutical care during chemotherapy. Community pharmacists suggested that hospital pharmacists should use "medication notebooks" and disclose prescription information when providing clinical information to community pharmacists. They also suggested sending clinical information to hospital pharmacists by fax. On the other hand, hospital pharmacists suggested the use of "medication notebooks" and electronic medical records when providing clinical information to community pharmacists. In addition, they suggested for community pharmacists to use electronic medical records when providing clinical information to hospital pharmacists. As there may be differences in opinion between community and hospital pharmacists, mutual preliminary communication is important for successful outpatient chemotherapy.

  20. Impact on medication use and adherence of Australian pharmacists' diabetes care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines; Taylor, Susan J; Smith, Carlene; Armour, Carol L

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of a specialized service implemented in community pharmacies for patients with type 2 diabetes on medication use and medication-related problems. Parallel group, multisite, control versus intervention, repeated measures design, with three different regions in New South Wales, Australia, used as intervention regions, then matched with control regions as much as possible. After initial training, pharmacists followed a clinical protocol for more than 9 months, with patient contact approximately monthly. Each patient received an adherence assessment at the beginning and end of the study, adherence support, and a medication review as part of the intervention. Risk of nonadherence using Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ) scores and changes to medication regimen. Compared with 82 control patients, 106 intervention patients with similar demographic and clinical characteristics had significantly improved self-reported nonadherence as reflected in total BMQ scores after 9 months. The mean (+/-SD) number of medications prescribed at follow-up in intervention participants decreased significantly, from 8.2+/-3.0 to 7.7+/-2.7. No reduction was observed among the control patients (7.6+/-2.4 and 7.3+/-2.4). The overall prevalence of changes to the regimen was also significantly higher in the intervention group (51%) compared with controls (40%). Community pharmacists trained in medication review and using protocols in collaboration with providers improved adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes, reduced problems patients had in accessing their medications, and recommended medication regimen changes that improved outcomes.

  1. Community pharmacist attitudes towards collaboration with general practitioners: development and validation of a measure and a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Connie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community Pharmacists and General Practitioners (GPs are increasingly being encouraged to adopt more collaborative approaches to health care delivery as collaboration in primary care has been shown to be effective in improving patient outcomes. However, little is known about pharmacist attitudes towards collaborating with their GP counterparts and variables that influence this interprofessional collaboration. This study aims to develop and validate 1 an instrument to measure pharmacist attitudes towards collaboration with GPs and 2 a model that illustrates how pharmacist attitudes (and other variables influence collaborative behaviour with GPs. Methods A questionnaire containing the newly developed “Attitudes Towards Collaboration Instrument for Pharmacists” (ATCI-P and a previously validated behavioural measure “Frequency of Interprofessional Collaboration Instrument for Pharmacists” (FICI-P was administered to a sample of 1215 Australian pharmacists. The ATCI-P was developed based on existing literature and qualitative interviews with GPs and community pharmacists. Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the structure of the ATCI-P and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to assess the internal consistency of the instrument. Structural equation modelling was used to determine how pharmacist attitudes (as measured by the ATCI-P and other variables, influence collaborative behaviour (as measured by the FICI-P. Results Four hundred and ninety-two surveys were completed and returned for a response rate of 40%. Principal Component Analysis revealed the ATCI-P consisted of two factors: ‘interactional determinants’ and ‘practitioner determinants’, both with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .90 and .93 respectively. The model demonstrated adequate fit (χ2/df = 1.89, CFI = .955, RMSEA = .062, 90% CI [.049-.074] and illustrated that ‘interactional determinants’ was

  2. Community pharmacists' prescription intervention practices--exploring variations in practice in Norwegian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, Ingunn; Horn, Anne Marie; Ekedahl, Anders; Granas, Anne Gerd

    2010-03-01

    Evidence suggests that prescription intervention frequencies have been found to vary as much as 10-fold among Norwegian pharmacies and among pharmacists within the same pharmacy. To explore community pharmacists' perceptions of how their prescription intervention practices were influenced by their working environment, their technological resources, the physical and social structures of the pharmacies, their relations with colleagues, and to the individual pharmacist's professional skills. Two focus groups consisting of 14 community pharmacists in total, from urban and rural areas in Norway, discussed their working procedures and professional judgments related to prescription interventions. Organizational theories were used as theoretical and analytical frameworks in the study. A framework based on Leavitt's organizational model was to structure our interview guide. The study units were the statements of the individual pharmacists. Recurrent themes were identified and condensed. Two processes describing variations in the dispensing workflow including prescription interventions were derived--an active dispensing process extracting information about the patient's medication from several sources and a fast dispensing process focusing mainly on the information available on the prescription. Both workflow processes were used in the same pharmacies and by the same pharmacist but on different occasions. A pharmacy layout allowing interactions between pharmacist and patients and a convenient organization of technology, layout, pharmacist-patient and pharmacist-coworker transactions at the workplace was essential for detecting and solving prescription problems. Pharmacists limited their contact with general practitioners when they considered the problem a formality and/or when they knew the answers themselves. The combined use of dispensing software and the Internet was a driving force toward more independent and cognitively advanced prescription interventions

  3. A qualitative study on community pharmacists' decision-making process when making a diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoulou, Vassiliki; Summerfield, Paul; Rutter, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Self-care policies are increasingly directing patients to seek advice from community pharmacists. This means pharmacists need to have sound diagnostic decision-making skills to enable them to recognise a variety of conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the process by which pharmacists manage patient signs and symptoms and to explore their use of decision-making for diagnostic purposes. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with community pharmacists working in England, between August 2013 and November 2014. Pharmacists were asked to share their experiences on how they performed patient consultations, and more specifically how they would approach a hypothetical headache scenario. As part of the interview, their sources of knowledge and experience were also explored. Framework analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes. Eight interviews were conducted with pharmacists who had a wide range of working practice, from 1 year through to 40 years of experience. The pharmacists' main motivations during consultations were product selection and risk minimisation. Their questioning approach and decision-making relied heavily on mnemonic methods. This led to poor quality information gathering-although pharmacists acknowledged they needed to "delve deeper" but were often unable to articulate how or why. Some pharmacists exhibited elements of clinical reasoning in their consultations, but this seemed, mostly, to be unconscious and subsequently applied inappropriately. Overall, pharmacists exhibited poor decision-making ability, and often decisions were based on personal belief and experiences rather than evidence. Community pharmacists relied heavily on mnemonic methods to manage patients' signs and symptoms with diagnosis-based decision-making being seldom employed. These findings suggest practicing pharmacists should receive more diagnostic training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Beliefs influencing community pharmacists' interventions with chronic kidney disease patients: A theory-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Bárcena, Patricia; Lalonde, Lyne; Lauzier, Sophie

    2018-04-06

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) are highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Community pharmacists are ideally positioned to manage these DRPs. However, little is known about the factors influencing their interventions with CKD patients. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this qualitative study sought to: (1) explore the behavioral beliefs (perceived advantages and disadvantages), normative beliefs (perceived expectations of significant others) and control beliefs (perceived barriers and facilitators) influencing community pharmacists' interventions related to identifying and managing DRPs in CKD; and (2) compare these beliefs among three DRPs prevalent in CKD patients. Community pharmacists in Quebec, Canada participated in face-to-face individual semi-structured interviews. The topic guide was based on the TPB. Three vignettes were presented to stimulate community pharmacists' thoughts about their interventions regarding: (1) the use of an inappropriate over-the-counter laxative; (2) prescriptions of anti-inflammatory medications; and (3) non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. Integral transcripts of audio recordings were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings on each of the three DRPs were systematically compared. Fifteen community pharmacists participated in the study. All expressed a positive attitude toward DRP management, mentioning advantages such as gaining the patient's loyalty as a client and avoiding CKD complications. Participants mentioned that patients and physicians generally approve their interventions, but the dynamics of these relationships may vary depending on the DRP. Common barriers in the management of the three DRPs were the pharmacists' limited time and heavy workloads. The pharmacists felt that the main disadvantage is that these interventions interrupt the workflow in the pharmacy. Community pharmacists hold positive views of their interventions in CKD. However, enhancing community pharmacists

  5. Collaboration between Hospital and Community Pharmacists to Improve Medication Management from Hospital to Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kristeller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to determine if a model for patient-centered care that integrates medication management between hospital and community pharmacists is feasible and can improve medication adherence. Design: This was a randomized, non-blinded, interventional study of 69 patients discharged from a hospital to home. Process measures include the number and type of medication-related discrepancies or problems identified, patient willingness to participate, the quality and quantity of interactions with community pharmacists, hospital readmissions, and medication adherence. Setting: A 214-bed acute care hospital in Northeastern Pennsylvania and seventeen regional community pharmacies. Patients: Enrolled patients were hospitalized with a primary or secondary diagnosis of heart failure or COPD, had a planned discharge to home, and agreed to speak to one of seventeen community pharmacists within the study network (i.e., a network community pharmacist following hospital discharge. Intervention: Information about a comprehensive medication review completed by the hospital pharmacist was communicated with the network community pharmacist to assist with providing medication therapy management following hospital discharge. Results: Of 180 patients eligible for the study, 111 declined to participate. Many patients were reluctant to talk to an additional pharmacist, however if the patient’s pharmacist was already within the network of 17 pharmacies, they usually agreed to participate. The study enrolled 35 patients in the intervention group and 34 in the control group. An average of 6 medication-related problems per patient were communicated to the patient’s network community pharmacist after discharge. In the treatment group, 44% of patients had at least one conversation with the network community pharmacist following hospital discharge. There was no difference in post-discharge adherence between the groups (Proportion of Days

  6. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important that pharmacists counsel patients about their prescribed medicines, as it leads to improved therapeutic outcome, increases compliance, and decreases confusion and insecurity. Studies have shown that the number of patients getting any pharmaceutical counseling varies...... greatly. Swedish pharmacists claim that the focus of the dialog with the patient has switched from pharmaceutical counseling to economy and regulations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the content and time disposition of the patient-pharmacist communication during dispensing...

  7. Patient safety problem identification and solution sharing among rural community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Kimberly A; Fuji, Kevin T; Faber, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    To implement a communication network for safety problem identification and solution sharing among rural community pharmacists and to report participating pharmacists' perceived value and impact of the network on patient safety after 1 year of implementation. Action research study. Rural community pharmacies in Nebraska from January 2010 to April 2011. Rural community pharmacists who voluntarily agreed to join the Pharmacists for Patient Safety Network in Nebraska. Pharmacists reported errors, near misses, and safety concerns through Web-based event reporting. A rapid feedback process was used to provide patient safety solutions to consider implementing across the network. Qualitative interviews were conducted 1 year after program implementation with participating pharmacists to assess use of the reporting system, value of the disseminated safety solutions, and perceived impact on patient safety in pharmacies. 30 of 38 pharmacists participating in the project completed the interviews. The communication network improved pharmacist awareness, promoted open discussion and knowledge sharing, contributed to practice vigilance, and led to incorporation of proactive safety prevention practices. Despite low participation in error and near-miss reporting, a dynamic communication network designed to rapidly disseminate evidence-based patient safety strategies to reduce risk was valued and effective at improving patient safety practices in rural community pharmacies.

  8. Community pharmacists' burnout levels and related factors: an example from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgan, Zeynep; Aslan, Dilek; Yegenoglu, Selen

    2011-02-01

    To determine community pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences as well as factors associated with burnout. Study was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, 251 pharmacists were randomly selected from 1,504 community pharmacists registered in Ankara Chamber of Pharmacists. A questionnaire including questions related to pharmacists' individual and professional characteristics and Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered. The data was collected between February 27 and May 25, 2007. Three Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales (emotional exhaustion-EE, depersonalization-D, and personal accomplishment-PA) scores. Pharmacists' mean emotional exhaustion score was found to be 16.84 (SD: 6.25), depersonalization score was 4 (Range: 0-14), and personal accomplishment score was 22 (Range: 9-32). Of the pharmacists, 1.2% had high level of EE, .8% had high level of D, and 71.3% had high level of inefficacy. Age, marital status, work experience, work contentment, workload, time pressure, stress, and satisfaction with customers were found to be related with pharmacists' burnout levels. It can be useful to monitor pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences periodically. Interventions on individual and organizational basis were needed to cope with burnout, respond to job demands, minimize the level of chronic stress, and increase work contentment and satisfaction.

  9. Evaluation of an Initiative for Fostering Provider-Pharmacist Team Management of Hypertension in Communities

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Doucette; Cailin Lickteig; Stevie Veach; Barry Carter; Barcey Levy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: 1) Conduct team building activities for provider-community pharmacist teams in small communities and 2) Determine the impact of the team approach on practitioner-reported consequences and 3) Identify obstacles to the team approach and ways to overcome them. Methods: Eleven provider-pharmacist teams were recruited in rural/micropolitan communities in Iowa. The teams participated in team building sessions facilitated by the project leaders, to discuss the team approach. Decisio...

  10. The Preparedness of Pharmacist in Community Setting to Cope with Globalization Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study to identify the preparedness of pharmacist in community pharmacies to cope with globalization impact was conducted in 2009. This cross-sectional study was done in DKI Jakarta, Bali and Maluku. Informants were purposively determined involving pharmacists from schools of pharmacy, Indonesian Pharmacist Association (IAI, community pharmacies, Provincial and District Health Offices, as well as comunity pharmacy owners. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews and observation using check-list in community pharmacy. Data were analyzed descriptively and qualitatively using triangulation method. Results of the study show that according to Health Offices and the Indonesian Pharmacist Association, pharmacists were not adequately prepared and pharmacists in stand alone community pharmacy are less prepared than those in a network or franchise pharmacy. Licensed pharmacists of network community pharmacy in the metropolis are going to prepare themselves to face the new patient-oriented paradigm and to meet the standard of pharmacy service, whereas stand-alone community pharmacy still prioritized fast service and lower drug price.

  11. Estimating problem drinking among community pharmacy customers: what did pharmacists think of the method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross

    2010-10-01

    Community pharmacists have successfully been involved in brief interventions in many areas of health, and also provide services to substance misusers. There has been recent interest in community pharmacists providing screening and brief interventions (SBI) to problem drinkers. The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring prevalence of risky drinking among community pharmacy customers and to explore acceptability of this method to participating pharmacists. Forty-three pharmacies (from 80 randomly selected) in New Zealand agreed to participate in data collection. On a set, single, randomly allocated day during one week, pharmacies handed out questionnaires about alcohol consumption, and views on pharmacists providing SBI, to their customers. At the end of the data collection period semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with participating pharmacists. Pharmacists were generally positive about the way the study was carried out, the support and materials they were provided with, and the ease of the data collection process. They reported few problems with customers and the majority of pharmacists would participate again. The method developed successfully collected data from customers and was acceptable to participating pharmacists. This method can be adapted to collecting data on prevalence of other behaviours or medical conditions and assessing customer views on services. © 2010 The Authors. IJPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  12. Pharmacists' Assessment of the Difficulty and Frequency of Ethical Issues Encountered in Community Pharmacy Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Savic, Mirko

    2017-05-23

    Researching ethical problems and their frequency could give us a complex picture and greater insight into the types of ethical issues that pharmacists face in providing health care. The overall aim of this study was to assess the pharmacist's perception of difficulty and frequency of selected ethical issues encountered by the community pharmacists in their everyday practice. A quantitative cross sectional multicenter study was performed using a validated survey instrument - Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy (EISP). The results of the analysis of 690 completely filled out instruments (response rate 78.49%) showed the difference between the ethical issues which always occurred ("A pharmacist is prevented from dispensing a medicine to the patient due to an administrative error in the prescription"), and the ones that pharmacists found most difficult ("A pharmacist dispenses a medicine he/she personally considers inadequate for the therapeutic treatment of the patient, in order to avoid any conflicts with the physician" and "A pharmacist is considering violating the rules and regulations in order to perform an act of humanity"). The majority of respondents (84.78%) were familiar with the Code of Ethics but the correlation between the familiarity and the perceived usefulness of the code in resolving problems in everyday practice was negative (ρ = -0.17, p ethical issues and their occurrence. Further empirical research is recommended in order to systematically identify the ethical issues faced by community pharmacists.

  13. Use of simulated patients to assess the clinical and communication skills of community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie C; Booth, Anneka; Jones, Bethan; Ramjeet, Sarah; Wong, Eva

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the quality and appropriateness of Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC) supply from community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in the southwest of England during 2007. Two simulated patient ('mystery shopper') scenarios to each participating pharmacy, one where the supply of EHC would be appropriate (scenario 1) and one where there was a drug interaction between EHC and St John's Wort, and the supply inappropriate (scenario 2). Pharmacy consultations were rated using criteria developed from two focus groups: one with pharmacist academics and one with female university students. Feedback to pharmacists to inform their continuing professional development was provided. Scores on rating scales encompassing the clinical and communication skills of the participating community pharmacists completed immediately after each mystery shopper visit. 40 pharmacist visits were completed: 21 for scenario 1 and 19 for scenario 2. Eighteen pharmacists were visited twice. Five pharmacists visited for scenario 2 supplied EHC against professional guidance, although other reference sources conflicted with this advice. Pharmacies which were part of the local PGD scheme scored higher overall in scenario 1 (P = 0.005) than those not part of the scheme. Overall the communication skills of pharmacists were rated highly although some pharmacists used jargon when explaining the interaction for scenario 2. Formatively assessing communication skills in an integrative manner alongside clinical skills has been identified as an important part of the medical consultation skills training and can be incorporated into the routine assessment and feedback of pharmacy over-the-counter medicines advice.

  14. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2014-04-01

    The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), ‘‘The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care’’, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyavia-Pomerania Province, and West Pomeranian Province). An online survey questionnaire addressed to 1,454 pharmacies. The participants were asked 8 questions,including a question addressed only to pharmacy managers and owners. Attitudes towards the right to conscientious objection for pharmacists. Ultimately, responses of 126 pharmacists (83 women, 43 men, average age-39 years of age) were taken into consideration. Most participants (92 %) have never refused to fill a prescription due to their beliefs; however, 15 % of participants state that if the conscience clause were legally sanctioned, they would exercise this right. Most participants(73 %) think that pharmacists should not have the right to conscientious objection. Almost half of participants who support implementation of the conscience clause would grant this right to pharmacists on a conditional basis, if the pharmacists were obliged to present other real options to the patient about obtaining a specific product. Pharmacists are rather reluctant to the idea of implementing the conscience clause, but despite a clear majority of its opponents, there seems to be a necessity for introducing such a regulation.

  15. Delivering health care through community pharmacies: are working conditions deterring female pharmacists' participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Day, Jennie; Hassell, Karen; Payne, Katherine

    2009-07-01

    Recent UK government policy has placed community pharmacists at the frontline of health care delivery in order to improve patient access. Community pharmacy has been beset by recruitment and retention problems which potentially threaten health service delivery. This is largely a consequence of an increased demand for pharmacists. Additionally, the proportion of female pharmacists in the profession has risen. Consequently, interrupted career patterns and part-time working practices have increased, shrinking the pool of available workers. This study aimed to examine the importance of factors influencing female community pharmacists' work patterns. Q methodology was used in a sample of 40 female UK-based community pharmacists. Nine distinct factors emerged from a factor analysis of Q sorts: fulfilled pharmacists; family first or pharmacy shelved; low stress altruist; permanent part-time employees; focused on free time and finances; pressurized modernizers; wandering wage slaves; overloaded and under resourced for the new contract; and pin money part-timers. Female community pharmacists often worked below their potential and part-time at a practitioner level in response to a combination of domestic commitments and intensifying work place pressures. Family-friendly flexible work environments, adequate staffing levels and improved management support, might be more effective in increasing workforce participation than enhanced salary levels in this group of workers.

  16. Exploring community pharmacists' views on generic medicines: a nationwide study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chee Ping; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the Malaysian community pharmacists' views on generic medicines. A sample of 1419 Malaysian community pharmacies with resident pharmacists. A cross-sectional nationwide survey using a self-completed mailing questionnaire. Pharmacists' views on generic medicines including issues surrounding efficacy, safety, quality and bioequivalence. Responses were received from 219 pharmacies (response rate 15.4%). Only 50.2% of the surveyed pharmacists agreed that all products that are approved as generic equivalents can be considered therapeutically equivalent with the innovator medicines. Around 76% of respondents indicated that generic substitution of narrow therapeutic index medicines is inappropriate. The majority of the pharmacists understood that a generic medicine must contain the same amount of active ingredient (84.5%) and must be in the same dosage form as the innovator brand (71.7%). About 21% of respondents though that generic medicines are of inferior quality compared to innovator medicines. Most of the pharmacists (61.6%) disagreed that generic medicines produce more side-effects than innovator brand. Pharmacists graduated from Malaysian universities, twinning program and overseas universities were not differed significantly in their views on generic medicines. Additionally, the respondents appeared to have difficulty in ascertaining the bioequivalent status of the marketed generic products in Malaysia. The Malaysian pharmacists' have lack of information and/or trust in the generic manufacturing and/or approval system in Malaysia. This issue should be addressed by pharmacy educators and relevant government agencies.

  17. Knowledge and attitude of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzghabaee, A.M.; Zolfaghari, B.; Ebrahimabadi, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of a cohort of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care indexes and drug therapy in female epileptic patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran (2011) and one hundred and twenty two community pharmacists were randomly selected using clustering method for sampling. A self-administered questionnaire which was originally made by a clinical pharmacy focus group was used. This questionnaire had 10 true/false questions for knowledge assessing (Spearman-Brown coefficient, 0.65) and 19 attitude statements (with Likert scale) about the intention of pharmacists for providing pharmaceutical care for epileptic females (Croanbach's alpha, 0.802). Face and content validity for both parts of the questionnaire were performed before the study. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between pharmacists' knowledge on pharmaceutical care for epileptic females and the time elapsed from their graduation date. Considering the minimum passing score of 5, 85% of pharmacists did not have enough knowledge. The range of pharmacists' attitude scores was 35 to 64 and its mean was 46.09. Regarding the minimum passing score of 45, 63.3% of pharmacists had positive attitude to AEDs in epileptic females. Conclusion: It seems that the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females is a missing part of Pharmacy education. It is highly recommended to pay special attention to this topic in continuing education programs for Iranian pharmacists. (author)

  18. Community Pharmacists' Perspectives of a Decision Aid for Managing Type 2 Diabetes in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweel, Lee; Gionfriddo, Michael R; MacCallum, Lori; Dolovich, Lisa; Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S

    2017-12-01

    Decision aids are tools designed to help patients make choices about their health care. We explored pharmacists' perceptions of an evidence-based diabetes decision aid developed by the Mayo Clinic, Diabetes Medication Choice (DMC). Using DMC as a reference, we aimed to explore pharmacists' perspectives on decision aids, their place in a community pharmacy setting and the implementing of a decision aid, such as DMC, in Ontario. We used semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of community pharmacists from Ontario. We applied a thematic analysis to the data. We conducted 16 interviews with pharmacists, of whom 9 were certified diabetes educators, and 10 were female. Three themes emerged from the data: pharmacists' knowledge and awareness of decision aids; pharmacists' perceptions of the DMC decision aids, and implementation of the DMC decision aids in Ontario pharmacies. Participants discussed their limited experience with and training in the use of decision aids. Although many participants agreed that the DMC decision aids may contribute to patient-centred care, all agreed that significant changes were needed to be made to implement this tool in practice. Pharmacists felt that the use of decision aids in community pharmacies in Ontario may improve patient-centred care. Modifications, however, are needed to improve the applicability to their context and fit into their workflow. Empirical data concerning the impact of decision aids in community pharmacy is needed. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacists toward professional ethics and ethical dilemmas in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković Rodríguez, Jadranka; Juričić, Živka

    2018-05-01

    Formal training in pharmacy ethics is relatively new in Croatia, and the professional code of ethics is more than 20 years old. Very little is known about how practicing pharmacists implement ethical considerations and relevant professional guidelines in their work. This study aimed to provide the first description of the perceptions and attitudes of Croatian community pharmacists toward ethics in pharmacy practice, how often they face certain ethical dilemmas and how they resolve them. A cross-sectional survey of 252 community pharmacists, including community pharmacists and pre-licensing trainees, was conducted in Zagreb, Croatia. This group accounts for 18% of licensed pharmacists in Croatia. The survey questions included four sections: general sociodemographic information, multiple-choice questions, pre-defined ethical scenarios, and ethical scenarios filled in by respondents. More than half of pharmacists (62.7%) face ethical dilemmas in everyday work. Nearly all (94.4%) are familiar with the current professional code of ethics in Croatia, but only 47.6% think that the code reflects the changes that the pharmacy profession faces today. Most pharmacists (83.3%) solve ethical dilemmas on their own, while nearly the same proportion (75.4%) think that they are not adequately trained to deal with ethical dilemmas. The pre-defined ethical scenarios experienced by the largest proportion of pharmacists are being asked to dispense a drug to someone other than the patient (93.3%), an unnecessary over-the-counter medicine (84.3%), a generic medicine clinically equivalent to the prescribed one (79.4%), or hormonal contraception over the counter (70.4%). The results demonstrate a need to improve formal pharmacy ethics education and training in how to assess ethical issues and make appropriate decisions, which implies the need for stronger collaboration between pharmacists and their professional association. Our results also highlight an urgent need to revise and update the

  20. Changing relationships: attitudes and opinions of general practitioners and pharmacists regarding the role of the community pharmacist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijrers, P.E.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Sijbrandij, J.; Janknegt, R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relationship between general practitioners and pharmacists. AIM: To explore similarities and differences in opinions between general practitioners and pharmacists about the pharmacist's role. To identify factors which determine the attitude of the general practitioner towards the role of

  1. Perceptions of pharmacists and patients on information provision and their influence on patient satisfaction in Japanese community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Hiroko; Abe, Takeru; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-12-01

    The provision of information is now considered a major area in pharmacist-patient interactions. However, few reports have simultaneously evaluated patient and pharmacist perceptions with regard to the pharmacist's information provision. The aims were to clarify the perceptions of pharmacists and patients regarding information provision and the level of influence of those perceptions on patient satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey with respect to information provision was conducted for patients and pharmacists in community pharmacies in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. In total, 407 patient-pharmacist pairs were included in a t-test and multilevel analysis. The levels of patient perception regarding information provision were significantly higher than the levels of pharmacist perception in all variables. The pharmacists' perceived level of information provision concerning medication effects had a negative and significant association with patient satisfaction, while the patients' perceived level of information provision by the pharmacist had a positive and significant association with patient satisfaction. Higher patient expectations regarding the level of information provision concerning medication side effects and older age of the pharmacist were adversely related to patient satisfaction. Both pharmacist and patient perceptions of the information provision by pharmacists personalized to the patient had positive associations with patient satisfaction. Pharmacist perceptions related to the information provision were not associated with patient satisfaction. The present study highlights accurate information provision, building good patient-pharmacist relationships, and improving pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Assessment of the Attitude of Community Pharmacists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... behaviour of pharmacists and pharmacy ... purchasing anything, the simulated patients ..... predicting the guideline compliant supply (or non-.

  3. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  4. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsen, Johan; Bauwens, Marc; Bernheim, Jan; Stichele, Robert Vander; Deliens, Luc

    2005-03-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n = 359). Most of the pharmacists who responded felt that patients have the right to end their own life (73%), and that under certain conditions physicians may assist the patient in dying (euthanasia: 84%; physician-assisted suicide: 61%). Under the prevailing restrictive legislation, a quarter of the pharmacists were willing to dispense lethal drugs for euthanasia versus 86% if it were legalized, but only after being well informed by the physician. The respondents-favour guidelines for pharmacists drafted by their own professional organizations (95%), and enforced by legislation (90%) to ensure careful end-of-life practice. Over the last two years, 7.3% of the responding pharmacists have received a medical prescription for lethal drugs and 6.4% have actually dispensed them. So we can conclude that community pharmacists in East Flanders were not adverse to physician-assisted death, but their cooperation in dispensing lethal drugs was conditional on clinical information about the specific case and on protection by laws and professional guidelines.

  5. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), “The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care”, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. Objective To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Setting Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyav...

  6. Insights From the Defining Issues Test on Moral Reasoning Competencies Development in Community Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Cicely; Thoma, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Objective. To investigate whether a profession-specific educational intervention affected the development of moral reasoning competencies in community pharmacists, as measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). Methods. This research used a repeated measures pre-post educational intervention design as a quasi-randomized, controlled, crossover study to evaluate changes in the moral reasoning scores of 27 volunteer community pharmacists in Ireland. Results. Changes in pharmacists' moral reasoning competencies development, as reported by P-Scores and N2-Scores, were found to be significant. In addition, interaction effects were observed between developmental scores on the DIT2 and whether participants were determined to be consolidated in their reasoning pre- and post-engagement with the educational intervention. Conclusion. Short profession-specific educational interventions have the potential to positively affect the development of moral reasoning competencies of community pharmacists.

  7. Knowledge and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease by managing community pharmacists: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerafa, Natalie; Scerri, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Background Managing community pharmacists can play a leading role in supporting community dwelling individuals with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Objective The main purpose of this study was to assess knowledge of managing community pharmacists towards Alzheimer's disease and its pharmacological management. Setting Community pharmacies in the Maltese islands. Method A nationwide survey was conducted with full-time managing community pharmacists in possession of a tertiary education degree in pharmacy studies. The level of knowledge was investigated using the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale and the Alzheimer's Disease Pharmacotherapy Measure. Participants were also asked to rate a number of statements related to disease management. Results Maltese managing community pharmacists (57 % response rate) had inadequate knowledge on risk factors, caregiving issues and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease. Age and number of years working in a community pharmacy setting were found to be negatively correlated with increased knowledge. Conclusion The findings highlight the need of providing training and continued educational support to managing community pharmacists in order to provide quality advice to individuals with dementia and their caregivers in the community.

  8. Assessing the relationship between pharmacists' job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling at community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta

    2016-04-01

    Community pharmacies have an increasing role in self-medication and community health is dependent on the quality of counselling services provided to patients. Some studies show that pharmacists' job satisfaction affects their work quality; other studies found that higher involvement in clinical services increases pharmacists' job satisfaction. To test the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling practice at community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in Lithuania. A convenience sample (n = 305) of community pharmacists participated in the cross-sectional survey where they expressed satisfaction with job and reported on their over-the-counter counselling behaviour on self-report scales. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling approach was employed for data analysis. The strength of the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service. A bidirectional relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service was found. In addition, job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling quality depended on pharmacists' age. Organizations were recommended to create a counselling friendly environment that would increase pharmacists' job satisfaction and, in return, counselling quality. Also, additional motivation of the retired pharmacists, as well as development of counselling skills of the younger pharmacy workforce, were seen as a means to improve both organizational climate and counselling quality over the counter.

  9. Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists towards Antimicrobial Stewardship in the State of Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Zaidi, Syed Tabish Razi; Dhingra, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March–April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Results A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8%) believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%). Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%), a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2%) rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p 10 years) held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05). Conclusion The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and

  10. Identifying medication-related needs of HIV patients: foundation for community pharmacist-based services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardlee Kauffman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients living with HIV/AIDS have complex medication regimens. Pharmacists within community pharmacy settings can have a role managing patients living with HIV/AIDS. Patients' perspectives surrounding implementation about community pharmacist-based services is needed as limited information is available. Objective: To identify medication-related needs of HIV-infected patients who receive prescriptions from a community pharmacy. To determine patient perspectives and knowledge of community pharmacist-based services. Methods: A qualitative research study involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews with patients was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: HIV positive men and women at least 18 years of age who receive care at a HIV clinic, currently take medication(s and use a community pharmacy for all prescription fills. Patients were recruited from one urban and one rural health center. Patients answered questions about their perceptions and knowledge about the role and value of pharmacy services and completed a demographic survey. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and were analyzed using principles of Grounded Theory. Results: Twenty-nine interviews were conducted: 15 participants from the urban site and 14 from the rural site. Five main themes emerged including: patients experience ongoing and varying medication-related needs; patients desire a pharmacist who is caring, knowledgeable and integrated with health care providers; patients expect ready access to drug therapy; patients value an individualized patient encounter, and patients need to be informed that a pharmacist-service exists. Conclusion: Patients with HIV value individualized and personal encounters with pharmacists at time intervals that are convenient for the patient. Patients felt that a one-on-one encounter with a pharmacist would be most valuable when initiating or modifying medication therapy. These patient perspectives can be useful for

  11. Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists towards Antimicrobial Stewardship in the State of Selangor, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    Full Text Available Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship.A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March-April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data.A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8% believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%. Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%, a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2% rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p 10 years held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05.The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and improve their perception and

  12. Community pharmacist perception and attitude toward ethical issues at community pharmacy setting in central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arifi, Mohamed N

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the community pharmacist perceptions and attitudes toward ethical issues at community pharmacy setting in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative survey of community pharmacists was conducted and the survey questions were pre-tested by a pharmacist with extensive experience in ethical issues. Based on the result of a pilot study the questionnaire was used with some modifications and the final questionnaire was sent to the participants by handing over in person, mail or Email. 45.7% Often discuss ethical issues with their patients, while only 2.1% never discuss it. 40.6% often record the ethical concern whereas only 1.9% of them never do so. 31.5% reported that patients initiate ethical issues. 28.3% of the pharmacists initiate the discussion. The barriers that limit discussing ethical issues with their patients were lack of time due to other obligations assigned to the community pharmacist (69.2%), lack of reliable resources (10.7%), not interested in the subject (10.1%), lack of knowledge on ethical issues (4.8%), and other reasons (5.3%). Recourses are books (37.7%), internet web sites (31.1%), and brochures (26.8%). Only a minority of respondents had access to computer databases (15.8%) and other resources (1.3%). Most perceived ethical problems were: being asked for hormonal contraception, dispensing a drug for unreported indication (69.2%), dispensing dose of medicine for a child that is outside the SNF limits (68.9%), unwanted professional behavior about controlled drugs (66.6%), a colleague insisting on unethical behavior (65.0%), a colleague has done something unethical for the first time (64.7%), suspecting that a child is being abused (63.3%) prescribing on private scripts for suspected medications of possible abuse (60.7%) and terminally ill patient asks for a diagnosis or prognosis (52.9%). The findings of this study assured the need of Saudi health authorities to implement a code of ethics

  13. Delegation: a solution to the workload problem? Observations and interviews with community pharmacists in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Victoria M; Corlett, Sarah A; Rodgers, Ruth M

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to describe how pharmacists utilise and perceive delegation in the community setting. Non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of community pharmacists working in Kent between July and October 2011. Content analysis was undertaken to determine key themes and the point of theme saturation informed sample size. Findings from observations were also compared against those from interviews. Observations and interviews were undertaken with 11 pharmacists. Observations showed that delegation occurred in four different forms: assumed, active, partial and reverse. It was also employed to varying extents within the different pharmacies. Interviews revealed mixed views on delegation. Some pharmacists presented positive attitudes towards delegation while others were concerned about maintaining accountability for delegated tasks, particularly in terms of accuracy checking of dispensed medication. Other pharmacists noted the ability to delegate was not a skill they found inherently easy. Comparison of observation and interview data highlighted discrepancies between tasks pharmacists perceived they delegated and what they actually delegated. Effective delegation can potentially promote better management of workload to provide pharmacists with additional time to spend on cognitive pharmaceutical services. To do this, pharmacists' reluctance to delegate must be addressed. Lack of insight into own practice might be helped by self-reflection and feedback from staff. Also, a greater understanding of legal accountability in the context of delegation needs to be achieved. Finally, delegation is not just dependent on pharmacists, but also on support staff; ensuring staff are empowered and equipped to take on delegated roles is essential. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Pharmacy in transition: A work sampling study of community pharmacists using smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Jeroen M; Geljon, Jurjen G; Belitser, Svetlana V; Frederix, Geert W J; Hövels, Anke M; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2018-03-09

    The nature of community pharmacy is changing, shifting from the preparation and distribution of medicines to the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS); however, often the provision of traditional services leaves little time for innovative services. This study investigated the time community pharmacists spend on the tasks and activities of daily practice and to what extent they are able to implement CPS-related services in daily practice. Self-reporting work sampling was used to register the activities of community pharmacists. A smartphone application, designed specifically for this purpose, alerted participants to register their current activity five times per working day for 6 weeks. Participants also completed an online survey about baseline characteristics. Ninety-one Dutch community pharmacists provided work-sampling data (7848 registered activities). Overall, 51.5% of their time was spent on professional activities, 35.4% on semi-professional activities, and 13.1% on non-professional activities. The proportion of time devoted to CPS decreased during the workweek, whereas the time spent on traditional task increased. This study shows it is feasible to collect work-sampling data using smartphone technology. Community pharmacists spent almost half of their time on semi-professional and non-professional activities, activities that could be delegated to other staff members. In practice, the transition to CPS is hampered by competing traditional tasks, which prevents community pharmacists from profiling themselves as pharmaceutical experts in daily practice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Patients' willingness to pay for cognitive pharmacist services in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakić, Dragana; Stević, Ivana; Odalović, Marina; Vezmar-Kovačević, Sandra; Tadić, Ivana

    2017-10-31

    To determine the general population willingness to pay for cognitive pharmacist service in community pharmacy, describe the behavior of participants regarding health care issues, and evaluate correlation between participants' sociodemographic characteristics or attitudes and their willingness to pay. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among general population visiting community pharmacies. The participants were asked about receiving cognitive pharmacist services to identify and resolve potential medication therapy problems after the initiation of a new medicine to optimize health outcomes of the patients. A univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze associations between different variables and willingness to pay for pharmacy service. Of 444 respondents, 167 (38%) reported that they were willing to pay for a medication management service provided in the community pharmacy. Univariate analysis showed significant association between the willingness to pay for pharmacist-provided service and respondents' socio-demographic factors, health-related characteristics, and behavior, dilemmas, or need for certain pharmacist-provided service. The logistic regression model was statistically significant (χ2=4.599, Ppay for cognitive pharmacist services, which has not been fully recognized within the health care system. In future, pharmacists should focus on practical implementation of the service and models of funding.

  16. Measuring outcomes of a pharmacist-run travel health clinic located in an independent community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karl M; Dai, Chih-Wei; Garner, Brian; Law, Anandi V

    To describe the acceptance and refusal rates of travel-related vaccine and medication recommendations in a pharmacist-run travel health clinic, to evaluate the change in patient understanding of travel-related issues, to determine patient satisfaction with this clinic, and to determine factors influencing both patient acceptance and satisfaction. Southern California (Claremont) between July 2007 and October 2008. Hendricks Pharmacy is an independently owned community pharmacy that is part of the Good Neighbor Pharmacy Provider Network. The pharmacy offers a range of services including home delivery, compounding, and blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol screenings. Comprehensive pharmacist-run travel health clinic. Patient acceptance and refusal rates of pharmacist-made recommendations, changes in patient understanding of travel-related issues resulting from pharmacist counseling, and patient satisfaction with this travel health clinic. In a sample of 283 patients, overall patient acceptance of pharmacist-made recommendations was 84.7%. The primary reason for patient refusal of a recommendation was self-perceived low risk for infection. A subsample of patients (n = 82) completing a patient satisfaction survey found that 96% were satisfied with their overall visit. Patient satisfaction with the clinic and pharmacist services was correlated with overall patient acceptance. The high rate of patient acceptance and satisfaction with this clinic supports adoption of pharmacists as nontraditional providers of travel health services.

  17. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne M; Smith, Lorraine; LeMay, Kate S; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K; Burton, Deborah L; Stewart, Kay; Armour, Carol L

    2012-06-18

    The role of community pharmacists in disease state management has been mooted for some years. Despite a number of trials of disease state management services, there is scant literature into the engagement of, and with, pharmacists in such trials. This paper reports pharmacists' feedback as providers of a Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS), a trial coordinated across four academic research centres in Australia in 2009. We also propose recommendations for optimal involvement of pharmacists in academic research. Feedback about the pharmacists' experiences was sought via their participation in either a focus group or telephone interview (for those unable to attend their scheduled focus group) at one of three time points. A semi-structured interview guide focused discussion on the pharmacists' training to provide the asthma service, their interactions with health professionals and patients as per the service protocol, and the future for this type of service. Focus groups were facilitated by two researchers, and the individual interviews were shared between three researchers, with data transcribed verbatim and analysed manually. Of 93 pharmacists who provided the PAMS, 25 were involved in a focus group and seven via telephone interview. All pharmacists approached agreed to provide feedback. In general, the pharmacists engaged with both the service and research components, and embraced their roles as innovators in the trial of a new service. Some experienced challenges in the recruitment of patients into the service and the amount of research-related documentation, and collaborative patient-centred relationships with GPs require further attention. Specific service components, such as the spirometry, were well received by the pharmacists and their patients. Professional rewards included satisfaction from their enhanced practice, and pharmacists largely envisaged a future for the service. The PAMS provided pharmacists an opportunity to become involved in an

  18. Interventions performed by community pharmacists in one Canadian province: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephanie W; Bishop, Lisa D; Conway, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Interventions made by pharmacists to resolve issues when filling a prescription ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of medication therapy for patients. The purpose of this study was to provide a current estimate of the number and types of interventions performed by community pharmacists during processing of prescriptions. This baseline data will provide insight into the factors influencing current practice and areas where pharmacists can redefine and expand their role. A cross-sectional study of community pharmacist interventions was completed. Participants included third-year pharmacy students and their pharmacist preceptor as a data collection team. The team identified all interventions on prescriptions during the hours worked together over a 7-day consecutive period. Full ethics approval was obtained. Nine student-pharmacist pairs submitted data from nine pharmacies in rural (n = 3) and urban (n = 6) centers. A total of 125 interventions were documented for 106 patients, with a mean intervention rate of 2.8%. The patients were 48% male, were mostly ≥18 years of age (94%), and 86% had either public or private insurance. Over three-quarters of the interventions (77%) were on new prescriptions. The top four types of problems requiring intervention were related to prescription insurance coverage (18%), drug product not available (16%), dosage too low (16%), and missing prescription information (15%). The prescriber was contacted for 69% of the interventions. Seventy-two percent of prescriptions were changed and by the end of the data collection period, 89% of the problems were resolved. Community pharmacists are impacting the care of patients by identifying and resolving problems with prescriptions. Many of the issues identified in this study were related to correcting administrative or technical issues, potentially limiting the time pharmacists can spend on patient-focused activities.

  19. Role of community pharmacists in the prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Kombian, Samuel B

    2013-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors and its prevalence is alarmingly high in Kuwait, affecting nearly one third of the adult population. There is lack of information about the role of community pharmacists in the care of patients with the metabolic syndrome. To assess the awareness and opinions of community pharmacists about the metabolic syndrome and identify the services they provide for identification, management and monitoring of patients with the metabolic syndrome. Community pharmacies in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on a randomly selected sample of 225 community pharmacists. Data were collected via face-to-face structured interview of the pharmacists using a pre-tested questionnaire. Pharmacists' knowledge and views on the metabolic syndrome, monitoring services provided, self-reported practices and perceived effectiveness of the various management interventions for the metabolic syndrome. The response rate was 97.8 %. Nine pharmacists claimed to know about the metabolic syndrome, but only one pharmacist could identify the condition correctly. After being given a definition of the metabolic syndrome, 67.7 % of respondents strongly agreed that its prevalence was rising in Kuwait. Nearly two thirds of respondents reported providing height and weight measurement service while 82.7 and 59.5 % of pharmacies provided blood pressure and blood glucose measurements, respectively. Waist circumference and lipid profile measurements were the least provided services (1.8 %). Respondents claimed to be involved in counseling patients on lifestyle modifications including increased exercise (98.1 %) and weight reduction through diet (96.9 %). Most pharmacists were involved in encouraging patients' adherence with prescribed treatments (98.6 %) and perceived these as the most effective intervention for the management of the metabolic syndrome (95.0 %). Respondents were less involved in monitoring patients' response

  20. The role of a community pharmacist in diabetes education | Berg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pharmacist is one of few medical professionals in the world to whom a patient or anyone else can go for a consultation or advice without an appointment. They are easily accessed and knowledgeable about a myriad of aspects concerning patients and their medication. It is thus of the utmost importance to take these skills ...

  1. Antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection by community pharmacists: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jill L; Mullen, Alexander B; Thomson, David A M; Johnstone, Christopher; Galbraith, Susan J; Bryson, Scott M; McGovern, Elizabeth M

    2013-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common conditions seen in female patients within primary care. Community pharmacists are familiar with symptomatic UTI management and supplying trimethoprim under patient group direction (PGD) for moderate-to-severe uncomplicated UTIs could improve patient access to treatment. To compare the care pathway of patients with UTI symptoms attending GP services with those receiving management, including trimethoprim supply under PGD, via community pharmacies. Prospective, cross-sectional, mixed methods approach in 10 community pharmacies within NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. Pharmacies invited a purposive sample of female patients to participate. Pharmacists had the option of supplying trimethoprim under PGD to patients with moderate-to-severe infection meeting the PGD inclusion criteria. Data from patient (questionnaires and semi-structured telephone interviews) and pharmacist (questionnaires and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews) were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Data were recorded on 153 patients, 97 presenting with GP prescriptions and 56 presenting directly in the pharmacy with symptoms suggestive of UTI, of whom 41 received trimethoprim via PGD and 15 received symptomatic management. Both GP adherence to local infection management guidelines and pharmacist application of PGD inclusion/exclusion criteria required improvement. There was demand and support, from patients and pharmacists, for access to antibiotic treatments for UTIs, without prescription, through community pharmacies. Operating within PGD controls, antibiotic treatments for UTIs could be provided via community pharmacy to improve patient access to treatment which may also maintain antibiotic stewardship and reduce GP workload.

  2. Pharmacist and Technician Perceptions of Tech-Check-Tech in Community Pharmacy Practice Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Timothy P; Adams, Alex J

    2018-04-01

    Tech-check-tech (TCT) is a practice model in which pharmacy technicians with advanced training can perform final verification of prescriptions that have been previously reviewed for appropriateness by a pharmacist. Few states have adopted TCT in part because of the common view that this model is controversial among members of the profession. This article aims to summarize the existing research on pharmacist and technician perceptions of community pharmacy-based TCT. A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE (January 1990 to August 2016) and Google Scholar (January 1990 to August 2016) using the terms "tech* and check," "tech-check-tech," "checking technician," and "accuracy checking tech*." Of the 7 studies identified we found general agreement among both pharmacists and technicians that TCT in community pharmacy settings can be safely performed. This agreement persisted in studies of theoretical TCT models and in studies assessing participants in actual community-based TCT models. Pharmacists who had previously worked with a checking technician were generally more favorable toward TCT. Both pharmacists and technicians in community pharmacy settings generally perceived TCT to be safe, in both theoretical surveys and in surveys following actual TCT demonstration projects. These perceptions of safety align well with the actual outcomes achieved from community pharmacy TCT studies.

  3. Qualitative insights into job satisfaction and dissatisfaction with management among community and hospital pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane; Ashcroft, Darren; Hassell, Karen

    2011-09-01

    Job satisfaction research in pharmacy has predominantly been investigated using quantitative measures that have generally overlooked satisfaction with management. This article explores pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of management and examines the implications for job satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 11 community and 15 hospital pharmacists in the North West of England (n=26). The interview schedule was composed of broad questions relating to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, allowing for the exploration of original themes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered into NVivo8. Template analysis was used to develop a hierarchical list of codes representing themes and the relationships between themes. Dissatisfaction with management emerged as a dominant aspect of pharmacists' job dissatisfaction. Of the 26 pharmacists interviewed, 24 commented on their dissatisfaction with management, whereas only 8 participants commented on positive experiences. Both hospital and community pharmacists expressed dissatisfaction with their line management, and how the organizations they worked for were managed. Findings suggest that satisfaction with management is an important and significant contributor to job satisfaction overall. It would appear that pharmacists' job satisfaction is compromised by poor line management, lack of recognition, and support from management, which may lead to an increase in turnover and a reduction in job satisfaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A scoping review of weight bias by community pharmacists towards people with obesity and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrea L; Gardner, David M

    2016-07-01

    Community pharmacists are accessible health care professionals who are increasingly offering weight management programs. People living with serious mental illness have markedly higher rates of obesity and associated illness outcomes than the general population, providing pharmacists who are interested in offering weight management services with an identifiable patient subgroup with increased health needs. Issues with stigma within obesity and mental illness care are prevalent and can lead to inequities and reduced quality of care. We conducted a scoping review to map and characterize the available information from published and grey literature sources regarding community pharmacists and weight bias towards obese people with lived experience of mental illness. A staged approach to the scoping review was used. Six articles and 6 websites were abstracted after we removed duplicates and applied our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The published studies that we found indicated that pharmacists and pharmacy students do demonstrate implicit and explicit weight bias. Very limited research is available regarding weight bias in pharmacists and stigma towards people with obesity, and we found no information on these phenomena relating to people with lived experience of mental illness. Investigations are needed to characterize the extent and nature of anti-fat bias and attitudes by pharmacists and the consequences of these attitudes for patient care.

  5. A qualitative study of community pharmacists' opinions on the provision of osteoporosis disease state management services in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik, Jah; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Emmerton, Lynne

    2016-08-30

    Osteoporosis has significant impact on healthcare costs and quality of life. Amongst the models for collaborative disease state management services published internationally, there is sparse evidence regarding the role of community pharmacists in the provision of osteoporosis care. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore community pharmacists' opinions (including the barriers and facilitators) and scope of osteoporosis disease state management services by community pharmacists in Malaysia, informing a vision for developing these services. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups discussions were conducted with community pharmacists from October 2013 to July 2014. Three trained researchers interviewed the participants. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed thematically using an interpretative description approach. Nineteen community pharmacists with 1-23 years of experience were recruited (in depth interviews: n = 9; focus group discussions: n = 10). These participants reflected on their experience with osteoporosis-related enquiries, which included medication counseling, bone density screening and referral of at-risk patients. Key barriers were the lack of numerous factors: public awareness of osteoporosis, accurate osteoporosis screening tools for community pharmacists, pharmacists' knowledge on osteoporosis disease and medications, time to counsel patients about bone health, collaboration between pharmacists and doctors, and support from the government and professional body. The pharmacists wanted more continuing education on osteoporosis, osteoporosis awareness campaigns, a simple, unbiased osteoporosis education material, and inter-professional collaboration practices with doctors, and pharmacists' reimbursement for osteoporosis care. The involvement of community pharmacists in the provision of osteoporosis disease state management was minimal. Only ad-hoc counseling on osteoporosis prevention was

  6. Smoking cessation counseling in Qatar: community pharmacists' attitudes, role perceptions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al Nakeeb, Reem Raad; Al-Qudah, Raja'a Ali

    2012-08-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem in Qatar. The potential for community pharmacists to offer smoking cessation counseling in this country can be high. To determine the current smoking cessation practices of community pharmacists in Qatar, to examine their attitudes about tobacco use and smoking cessation, to evaluate their perceptions about performing professional roles with respect to smoking cessation and to assess their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling in the pharmacy setting in Qatar. Community pharmacies in Qatar. The objectives were addressed in a cross sectional survey of community pharmacists in Qatar from June 2010 to October 2010. A phone call was made to all community pharmacists in Qatar (318 pharmacists) inviting them to participate. Consenting pharmacists anonymously completed the survey either online or as paper using fax. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) Version 18. Qatar community pharmacists' smoking cessation practices, their attitudes toward tobacco use, smoking cessation and smoking cessation counseling and their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling. Over 5 months, we collected 127 surveys (40 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents reported that they always or most of the time asked their patients if they smoke. When the patients' smoking status was identified, advising quitting and assessing readiness to quit were always or most of the time performed by 66 and 52 % of respondents respectively. Only 15 % always or most of the time arranged follow-up with smokers and 22 % always or most of the time made smoking cessation referrals. Most respondents (>80 %) agreed that smoking could cause adverse health effects and that smoking cessation could decrease the risk of these effects. In addition, the majority (>80 %) believed that smoking cessation counseling was an important activity and was an efficient use of their time. The top two perceived barriers for smoking

  7. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    previously. In order to improve the public health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health. PMID:21777456

  8. Public health in community pharmacy: a systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2011-07-21

    health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health.

  9. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    conducted nearly 10 years previously. In order to improve the public health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health.

  10. Development of Clinical Pharmacy in Switzerland: Involvement of Community Pharmacists in Care for Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.

  11. Medication safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among community pharmacists in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Aline; Hallit, Souheil; Ramia, Elsy; Salameh, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of a national post-marketing surveillance program depends directly on the active participation of all health professionals. There is no current comprehensive and active pharmacovigilance program available in Lebanon. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Lebanon with respect to potential pharmacovigilance and adverse-drug-reaction reporting in Lebanon. A cross-sectional descriptive study, using a self-administered KAP questionnaire and conducted between March and July 2016, included 1857 pharmacists practicing in community settings. Statistical analysis included χ 2 test for dichotomous or multinomial qualitative variables, and Wilcoxon test for quantitative variables with non-homogeneous variances or non-normal distribution. The majority of responders had good knowledge concerning the concept and purpose of pharmacovigilance as well as adverse drug reactions (how to report these/the importance of reporting adverse events/the definition of an adverse event and pharmacovigilance). Concerning community pharmacists' attitudes and practice towards pharmacovigilance, the majority described having a positive attitude towards their role in adverse drug reaction reporting and this activity was even seen as one of their core duties. The questionnaire revealed a lack of practice and training regarding pharmacovigilance. Nonetheless, the pharmacists agreed on the Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon and the Ministry of Health's role in promoting this practice and helping them be more involved in reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The pharmacists thought that they are well positioned regarding patient-safety practice in their pharmacies and the results were not statistically different between pharmacy employers and employees. Lebanese pharmacists have the required knowledge and positive attitude to start reporting ADRs, were aware of ADRs occurring with various medicines post-marketing, yet were currently not

  12. Differences in career paths and attributes of pharmacists completing a community pharmacy residency program (CPRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Ulbrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine any differences in career paths and career attributes of pharmacists who have completed a PGY1 community pharmacy residency program (CPRP as compared to those that have not completed a PGY1 CPRP. Methods: A web-based survey evaluating various aspects of community pharmacists' careers was distributed to 274 CPRP graduates in addition to a random sample of 7,376 community pharmacists. The survey contained 32 questions evaluating various career attributes. Questions that assessed level of agreement were on a 6-point Likert-type Scale (1=strongly disagree; 6=strongly agree. Results: A total of 353 participants completed the survey, with 224 indicating that they had not completed a CPRP. Pharmacists who completed a CPRP responded that they spend significantly more time on patient care services, teaching, and research, and spend less time dispensing medications compared to those that have not completed a CPRP. Compared to those that did not complete a CPRP, CPRP graduates were less likely to agree that current level of workload negatively impacts job performance, motivation to work, job satisfaction, mental/emotional health, and physical health. Conclusion: Pharmacists completing a CPRP noted significant differences in their current employment and job responsibilities. Additional expansion and education regarding the importance of CPRPs should be considered.   Type: Original Research

  13. Characteristics valued by the pharmacy practice community when hiring a recently graduated pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David C; Nuffer, Wesley; Brown, Kristen

    2012-11-12

    To determine those characteristics that are most valued by members of the pharmacy practice community when hiring a new pharmacist. A survey instrument describing 20 characteristics that a pharmacy graduate may possess was created and sent to pharmacists licensed in Colorado. Respondents were asked to select and prioritize the top 5 characteristics considered most important in hiring a new graduate pharmacist. Responses were segregated by practice (retail vs. institutional) and/or by pharmacist role (manager vs. staff). Three hundred eighteen survey instruments were received. Having good/strong communication skills was the characteristic ranked highest by all groups. Professional behavior and being adaptable were also ranked highly. The characteristics of using the literature and punctuality ranked low overall. Differences were identified in how the groups valued some characteristics. Characteristics preferred in a new pharmacist varied depending on practice site and the managerial responsibilities of the potential employer. Some characteristics, such as communication skills and professional behavior, were considered of high value by all pharmacist groups.

  14. Needs analysis for educating community pharmacists to interface with prehospital stroke chain of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denetclaw, Tina Harrach; Cefalu, Patricia; Manila, Louis L; Panagotacos, John J

    2014-02-01

    Awareness of the American Heart Association's Stroke Chain of Survival, and willingness to learn and share this information with the public, was assessed for community pharmacists practicing near a primary stroke center. Twenty-three community pharmacies local to a primary stroke center were identified and surveyed. The surveyor showed each pharmacist a flier with a mnemonic for assessing stroke symptoms, briefly explained steps in the Stroke Chain of Survival, and noted if the pharmacist was available, listened to the entire presentation, read the information on the flier, agreed to post the flier, and if the pharmacist made any comments. The surveyor also assessed whether the Stroke Chain of Survival was new information to each pharmacist. All subjects read the information on the flier. Twenty-two (95.7%) listened to the entire presentation, and 23 (100%) were willing to post the flier. Two (11%) indicated that the parent company does not allow public posting of noncorporate information but agreed to post the flier internally. Twenty-one (91%) expressed appreciation for receiving the information. Seventeen (74%) indicated that the Stroke Chain of Survival was new information to them, 14 (61%) spontaneously remarked on the importance of the information, and 4 (17%) asked for additional information. Community pharmacists surveyed were willing to interface with the prehospital phase of the Stroke Chain of Survival; nearly 75% of them required education to do so. Community pharmacies are potentially a venue for educating the public on the Stroke Chain of Survival. It may be necessary to approach community pharmacy corporate leadership to partner with such efforts. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Practical strategies and perceptions from community pharmacists following their experiences with conducting pharmacy practice research: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Campbell, Natasha K J; Chhina, Harpreet; Galo, Jessica S; Marra, Carlo

    2017-10-26

    While prior research identified barriers to conducting research in community pharmacies, there remains a need to better understand facilitators to ensure successful collaborations between academic researchers and pharmacists. Our objective was to determine the experiences and perspectives of community pharmacists who have recently conducted a pharmacy practice-based research study to gain in-depth understanding of challenges as well as facilitators and identify strategies and solutions. We conducted a qualitative study involving one-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews with community pharmacists following the completion of a practice-based research study in their pharmacies. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive content analysis involving open coding, creating categories and abstraction into final themes. Eleven pharmacists participated in the qualitative interviews. We identified six major themes including: (1) barriers (e.g. time constraints); (2) facilitators (e.g. ideal pharmacy layout); (3) support and resources from academic researchers (e.g. helpfulness of training, easy-to-use study materials); (4) pharmacist-initiated strategies for conducting research (beyond prior suggestions from researchers); (5) suggestions for future pharmacy practice research; and (6) motivation for conducting pharmacy practice research. These findings informed practical strategies targeted at academic researchers and pharmacists, respectively, to facilitate the conduct of research in community pharmacists across various stages of the research process. Our study adds to better understanding of community pharmacists' perspectives on conducting research and identifies practical solutions that can be readily implemented by academic researchers and pharmacists participating in research. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. How do community pharmacists make decisions? Results of an exploratory qualitative study in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Paul A M; Whyte, Brenna; Austin, Zubin

    2016-03-01

    As the complexity of pharmacy practice increases, pharmacists are required to make more decisions under ambiguous or information-deficient conditions. There is scant literature examining how pharmacists make decisions and what factors or values influence their choices. The objective of this exploratory research was to characterize decision-making patterns in the clinical setting of community pharmacists in Ontario. The think-aloud decision-making method was used for this study. Community pharmacists with 3 or more years' experience were presented with 2 clinical case studies dealing with challenging situations and were asked to verbally reason through their decision-making process while being probed by an interviewer for clarification, justification and further explication. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a protocol analysis method. A total of 12 pharmacists participated in this study. Participants experienced cognitive dissonance in attempting to reconcile their desire for a clear and confrontation-free conclusion to the case discussion and the reality of the challenge presented within each case. Strategies for resolving this cognitive dissonance included strong emphasis on the educational (rather than decision-making) role of the pharmacist, the value of strong interpersonal relationships as a way to avoid conflict and achieve desired outcomes, the desire to seek external advice or defer to others' authority to avoid making a decision and the use of strict interpretations of rules to avoid ambiguity and contextual interpretation. This research was neither representative nor generalizable but was indicative of patterns of decisional avoidance and fear of assuming responsibility for outcomes that warrant further investigation. The think-aloud method functioned effectively in this context and provided insights into pharmacists' decision-making patterns in the clinical setting. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:90-98.

  17. Perception of community pharmacists toward their current professional role in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayes, Ibrahim Khalid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula R

    2015-07-01

    The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study was to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed toward business than patients. They almost dispense all categories of medicines over-the-counter without the need of prescriptions. However, a new trend of pharmacists in Dubai is to provide enhanced pharmacy services such as consultation to patients upon request.

  18. A qualitative exploration of opinions on the community pharmacists' role amongst the general public in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Cowley, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    To understand members of the public's opinions and experiences of pharmacy services. This exploratory study employed qualitative methods. Five focus groups were conducted with 26 members of the public resident in Scotland in March 2010. The groups comprised those perceived to be users and non-users of community pharmacy. A topic guide was developed to prompt discussion. Each focus group was recorded, transcribed, anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. Participants made positive comments about pharmacy services although many preferred to see a general practitioner (GP). Participants discussed using pharmacies for convenience, often because they were unable to access GPs. Pharmacists were perceived principally to be suppliers of medicine, although there was some recognition of roles in dealing with minor ailments and providing advice. For those with serious and long-standing health matters GPs were usually the professional of choice for most health needs. Community pharmacy was seen to offer incomplete services which did not co-ordinate well with other primary-care services. The pharmacy environment and retail setting were not considered to be ideal for private healthcare consultations. This study suggests that despite recent initiatives to extend the role of community pharmacists many members of the general public continue to prefer a GP-led service. Importantly GPs inspire public confidence as well as offering comprehensive services and private consultation facilities. Improved communication and information sharing between community pharmacists and general practice could support community pharmacist-role expansion. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  20. Challenges in the management of chronic noncommunicable diseases by Indonesian community pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Hanni P.; Aslani, Parisa; Krass, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We explored factors influencing Indonesian primary care pharmacists’ practice in chronic noncommunicable disease management and proposed a model illustrating relationships among factors. Methods: We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with pharmacists working in community health centers (Puskesmas, n=5) and community pharmacies (apotek, n=15) in East Java Province. We interviewed participating pharmacists using Bahasa Indonesia to explore facilitators and barriers to their practice in chronic disease management. We audiorecorded all interviews, transcribed ad verbatim, translated into English and analyzed the data using an approach informed by “grounded-theory”. Results: We extracted five emergent themes/factors: pharmacists’ attitudes, Puskesmas/apotek environment, pharmacy education, pharmacy professional associations, and the government. Respondents believed that primary care pharmacists have limited roles in chronic disease management. An unfavourable working environment and perceptions of pharmacists’ inadequate knowledge and skills were reported by many as barriers to pharmacy practice. Limited professional standards, guidelines, leadership and government regulations coupled with low expectations of pharmacists among patients and doctors also contributed to their lack of involvement in chronic disease management. We present the interplay of these factors in our model. Conclusion: Pharmacists’ attitudes, knowledge, skills and their working environment appeared to influence pharmacists’ contribution in chronic disease management. To develop pharmacists’ involvement in chronic disease management, support from pharmacy educators, pharmacy owners, professional associations, the government and other stakeholders is required. Our findings highlight a need for systematic coordination between pharmacists and stakeholders to improve primary care pharmacists’ practice in Indonesia to achieve continuity of care. PMID:26445618

  1. A qualitative study of English community pharmacists' experiences of providing lifestyle advice to patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kirsty; Pattison, Helen; Langley, Chris; Powell, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression is modifiable through lifestyle behaviors. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to facilitate self-management of cardiovascular health however research shows varied pharmacist engagement in providing lifestyle advice. This study explored community pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of providing lifestyle advice to patients with CVD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pharmacists (1 supermarket; 7 multiple; 7 independent) recruited through multiple methods from community pharmacies across the Midlands, England. A thematic analysis was conducted using a Framework approach. Pharmacists categorized patients according to their perceptions of the patients' ability to benefit from advice. Many barriers to providing lifestyle advice were identified. Confidence to provide lifestyle advice varied, with pharmacists most comfortable providing lifestyle advice in conjunction with conversations about medicines. Some pharmacists felt lifestyle advice was an integral part of their role whilst others questioned whether pharmacists should give lifestyle advice at all, particularly when receiving no remuneration for doing so. Pharmacists viewed providing lifestyle advice as important but identified many barriers to doing so. Lifestyle advice provision was influenced by pharmacists' perceptions of patients. Professional identity and associated role conflict appeared to underpin many of the barriers to pharmacists providing lifestyle advice. Pharmacists may benefit from enhanced training to: increase their confidence to provide lifestyle advice; integrate lifestyle advice with regular pharmaceutical practice and challenge their perceptions of some patients' receptiveness to lifestyle advice and behavior change. Changes to the way UK pharmacists are remunerated may increase the provision of lifestyle advice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pattern of adverse drug reactions reported by the community pharmacists in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaian S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacovigilance program in Nepal is less than a decade old, and is hospital centered. This study highlights the findings of a community based pharmacovigilance program involving the community pharmacists. Objectives: To collect the demographic details of the patients experiencing adverse drug reactions (ADR reported by the community pharmacists; to identify the common drugs causing the ADRs, the common types of ADRs; and to carry out the causality, severity and preventability assessments of the reported ADRs. Methods: The baseline Knowledge-Attitude-Practices (KAP of 116 community pharmacists from Pokhara valley towards drug safety was evaluated using a validated (Cronbach alpha=0.61 KAP questionnaire having 20 questions [(knowledge 11, attitude 5 and practice 4 maximum possible score 40]. Thirty community pharmacists with high scores were selected for three training sessions, each session lasting for one to two hours, covering the basic knowledge required for the community pharmacists for ADR reporting. Pharmacist from the regional pharmacovigilance center visited the trained community pharmacists every alternate day and collected the filled ADR reporting forms. Results: Altogether 71 ADRs, from 71 patients (37 males were reported. Antibiotics/ antibacterials caused 42% (n=37 of the total ADRs followed by non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [25% (n=22]. Ibuprofen/paracetamol combination accounted for ten ADRs. The most common type of ADR was itching [17.2 % (n=20, followed by generalized edema [8.6 % (n=10]. In order to manage the ADRs, the patients needed medical treatment in 69% (n=49 of the cases. Over two third (69% of the ADRs had a ‘possible’ association with the suspected drugs and a high percentage (70.4% were of ‘mild (level 2’ type. Nearly two third [64.7 % (n=46] of the ADRs were ‘definitely preventable’. Conclusion: The common class of drugs known to cause ADRs was antibacterial/ antibiotics. Ibuprofen

  3. Isoniazid Completion Rates for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among College Students Managed by a Community Pharmacist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karl; Goad, Jeffery; Wu, Joanne; Johnson, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors' objective was to document 9-month and previously recommended 6-month treatment completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a pharmacist-managed LTBI clinic in a community pharmacy on a college campus, and to describe patient characteristics. Participants: Participants were university students diagnosed with…

  4. Knowledge of folic acid and counseling practices among Ohio community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues CR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine knowledge of folic acid use for neural tube defect (NTD prevention and counseling practices among community pharmacists registered in Ohio.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n=500 of community pharmacists registered with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy and practicing in Ohio. A survey previously used by researchers to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among samples of other healthcare provider groups in the United States was adapted with permission for this study. The final tool consisted of 28 questions evaluating the knowledge, counseling practices, and demographics of respondents. The cover letter did not reveal the emphasis on folic acid, and surveys were completed anonymously. The university institutional review board deemed the study exempt.Results: Of the 122 pharmacists who completed the survey, 116 (95.1% knew that folic acid prevents some birth defects. Twenty-eight (22.9% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss multivitamins with women of childbearing potential, and 19 (15.6% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss folic acid supplements. Some gaps in knowledge specific to folic acid were revealed. While 63.1% of pharmacists selected the recommended dose of folic acid intake for most women of childbearing potential, 13.1% could identify the dose recommended for women who have had a previous NTD-affected pregnancy. Respondents identified continuing education programs, pharmacy journals/magazines, and the Internet as preferred avenues to obtain additional information about folic acid and NTD.Conclusion: This study represents the first systematic evaluation of folic acid knowledge and counseling practices among a sample of pharmacists in the United States. As highly accessible healthcare professionals, community pharmacists can fulfill a vital public health role by counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid intake. Educational

  5. Pharmacists' perspectives of the current status of pediatric asthma management in the U.S. community pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaro, Amanda; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Kraus, Kathleen; Farris, Karen B; Shah, Smita; Armour, Carol; Patel, Minal R

    2017-08-01

    Objective To explore community pharmacists' continuing education, counseling and communication practices, attitudes and barriers in relation to pediatric asthma management. Setting Community pharmacies in Michigan, United States. Methods Between July and September 2015 a convenience sample of community pharmacists was recruited from southeastern Michigan and asked to complete a structured, self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire elucidated information on 4 general domains relating to pharmacists' pediatric asthma management including: (1) guidelines and continuing education (CE); (2) counseling and medicines; (3) communication and self-management practices; (4) attitudes and barriers to practice. Regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors towards pharmacists' confidence/frequency of use of communication/counseling strategies. Main outcome measure Confidence in counseling skills around asthma. Results 105 pharmacists completed the study questionnaire. Fifty-four percent of pharmacists reported participating in asthma related CE in the past year. Over 70% of pharmacists reported confidence in general communication skills, while a lower portion reported confidence in engaging in higher order self-management activities that involved tailoring the regimen (58%), decision-making (50%) and setting short-term (47%) and long-term goals (47%) with the patient and caregiver for managing asthma at home. Pharmacists who reported greater use of recommended communication/self-management strategies were more likely to report confidence in implementing these communication/self-management strategies when counseling caregivers and children with asthma [Beta (B) Estimate 0.58 SE (0.08), p management strategies. Conclusion A pharmacists' confidence may influence their ability to implement recommended self-management counseling strategies. This study showed that community pharmacists are confident in general communication. However pharmacists are reporting lower

  6. The Raison D’être for the Community Pharmacy and the Community Pharmacist in Sweden: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Wisell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization. This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector.

  7. The Raison D’être for the Community Pharmacy and the Community Pharmacist in Sweden: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisell, Kristin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector. PMID:28970376

  8. Giving “Best Advice”: Proposing a Framework of Community Pharmacist Professional Judgement Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicely Roche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacy is often portrayed as a marriage of professional and business roles in a commercial domain, thereby creating a need for, and value in, pursuing the development of professional competencies for use in the community pharmacy business. In context, professional judgement is the application of knowledge, skills and attitudes (competencies which, when applied to situations where there is no one or obvious right or wrong way to proceed, gives a patient a better likelihood of a favourable outcome than if a lay-person had made the decision. The challenge for community pharmacists is that professional judgement formation is influenced by professional, commercial and personal criteria with inherent interconnected challenges. In community pharmacy practice in the Republic of Ireland (ROI, this challenge is compounded by the fact that advice is normally provided in an environment where the pharmacist provides professional advice “for free” and then may offer to sell the patient a product or service based on that advice, an activity which amounts to a commercial transaction. While there is currently no evidence to confirm whether or not these professional judgement influences are resolved successfully, their very existence poses a risk that their resolution “in the wrong way” could compromise patient outcomes or professional standing following the delivery of pharmacy services. It is therefore apparent that a community pharmacist requires skills in identifying and analysing professional/commercial/personal influences in order to appreciate the criteria which may affect both parties’ (patient and pharmacist decision making. By contemplating the interaction between the pharmacist’s professional competencies and the individual influences on that pharmacist, we can consider the enhancement of professional competencies that underpin the “best” advice being offered to the patient, regardless of whether that advice is offered in

  9. A Community Standard: Equivalency of Healthcare in Australian Immigration Detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    The Australian government has long maintained that the standard of healthcare provided in its immigration detention centres is broadly comparable with health services available within the Australian community. Drawing on the literature from prison healthcare, this article examines (1) whether the principle of equivalency is being applied in Australian immigration detention and (2) whether this standard of care is achievable given Australia's current policies. This article argues that the principle of equivalency is not being applied and that this standard of health and healthcare will remain unachievable in Australian immigration detention without significant reform. Alternate approaches to addressing the well documented issues related to health and healthcare in Australian immigration detention are discussed.

  10. Interventions performed by community pharmacists in one Canadian province: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SW

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie W Young, Lisa D Bishop, Amy ConwaySchool of Pharmacy, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, CanadaPurpose: Interventions made by pharmacists to resolve issues when filling a prescription ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of medication therapy for patients. The purpose of this study was to provide a current estimate of the number and types of interventions performed by community pharmacists during processing of prescriptions. This baseline data will provide insight into the factors influencing current practice and areas where pharmacists can redefine and expand their role.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study of community pharmacist interventions was completed. Participants included third-year pharmacy students and their pharmacist preceptor as a data collection team. The team identified all interventions on prescriptions during the hours worked together over a 7-day consecutive period. Full ethics approval was obtained.Results: Nine student–pharmacist pairs submitted data from nine pharmacies in rural (n = 3 and urban (n = 6 centers. A total of 125 interventions were documented for 106 patients, with a mean intervention rate of 2.8%. The patients were 48% male, were mostly ≥18 years of age (94%, and 86% had either public or private insurance. Over three-quarters of the interventions (77% were on new prescriptions. The top four types of problems requiring intervention were related to prescription insurance coverage (18%, drug product not available (16%, dosage too low (16%, and missing prescription information (15%. The prescriber was contacted for 69% of the interventions. Seventy-two percent of prescriptions were changed and by the end of the data collection period, 89% of the problems were resolved.Conclusion: Community pharmacists are impacting the care of patients by identifying and resolving problems with prescriptions. Many of the issues identified in this study were related

  11. Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure moral distress in community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Jayne L; Gallagher, Cathal T

    2017-02-01

    Background Pharmacists work within a highly-regulated occupational sphere, and are bound by strict legal frameworks and codes of professional conduct. This regulatory environment creates the potential for moral distress to occur due to the limitations it places on acting in congruence with moral judgements. Very little research regarding this phenomenon has been undertaken in pharmacy: thus, prominent research gaps have arisen for the development of a robust tool to measure and quantify moral distress experienced in the profession. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure moral distress in community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacies in the United Kingdom. Method This study adopted a three-phase exploratory sequential mixed-method design. Three semi-structured focus groups were then conducted to allow pharmacists to identify and explore scenarios that cause moral distress. Each of the identified scenarios were developed into a statement, which was paired with twin seven-point Likert scales to measure the frequency and intensity of the distress, respectively. Content validity, reliability, and construct validity were all tested, and the questionnaire was refined. Main outcome measure The successful development of the valid instrument for use in the United Kingdom. Results This research has led to the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure moral distress in community pharmacists in the UK. The questionnaire has already been distributed to a large sample of community pharmacists. Conclusion Results from this distribution will be used to inform the formulation of coping strategies for dealing with moral distress.

  12. A survey for assessment of the role of pharmacist in community pharmacy services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To assess the role of a pharmacist in a community setting and the consumer′s perception in the National Capital Region. Setting : The study was conducted in the National Capital Region of India during the year 2003 - 2004. Materials and Methods : Four pharmacies were selected for this study, which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy-seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy. Results : A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It was observed that 46.7% of the consumers came for prescription medicines and 23.4% for over-the-counter medicines. Close to the general physicians′ clinics and proximity to home were the most important reasons given for visiting a particular pharmacy. A majority of the consumers (n = 56, 72.7% rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only one (1.3% rated it as not useful at all and two (2.6% consumers did not respond. Among the consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that the pharmacist had a good balance between health and business matters, 35.7% were of the opinion that the pharmacist was more concerned with making money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist was also interested in the health of his / her customers. The pharmacists were ranked at the top by 28 (36.4% consumers, and favored pharmacy as the most convenient place to get advice about staying healthy. Conclusion : Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that a pharmacist is concerned with the health of the consumers, although he / she was also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware about the difference between a pharmacist and a doctor, most of them considered the pharmacist to be a doctor and this was the main problem in concluding that the pharmacy was the

  13. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton Lynne M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of community pharmacists in disease state management has been mooted for some years. Despite a number of trials of disease state management services, there is scant literature into the engagement of, and with, pharmacists in such trials. This paper reports pharmacists’ feedback as providers of a Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a trial coordinated across four academic research centres in Australia in 2009. We also propose recommendations for optimal involvement of pharmacists in academic research. Methods Feedback about the pharmacists’ experiences was sought via their participation in either a focus group or telephone interview (for those unable to attend their scheduled focus group at one of three time points. A semi-structured interview guide focused discussion on the pharmacists’ training to provide the asthma service, their interactions with health professionals and patients as per the service protocol, and the future for this type of service. Focus groups were facilitated by two researchers, and the individual interviews were shared between three researchers, with data transcribed verbatim and analysed manually. Results Of 93 pharmacists who provided the PAMS, 25 were involved in a focus group and seven via telephone interview. All pharmacists approached agreed to provide feedback. In general, the pharmacists engaged with both the service and research components, and embraced their roles as innovators in the trial of a new service. Some experienced challenges in the recruitment of patients into the service and the amount of research-related documentation, and collaborative patient-centred relationships with GPs require further attention. Specific service components, such as the spirometry, were well received by the pharmacists and their patients. Professional rewards included satisfaction from their enhanced practice, and pharmacists largely envisaged a future for the service. Conclusions The

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Pharmacist Intervention in Patients with Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial (PRODEFAR Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio-Valera, M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Fernandez, A.; Penarrubia-Maria, M.; March, M.; Trave, P.; Bellon, J.A.; Serrano-Blanco, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Non-adherence to antidepressants generates higher costs for the treatment of depression. Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist's interventions aimed at improving adherence to antidepressants. The study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist

  15. Do no harm: the role of community pharmacists in regulating public access to prescription drugs in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnassi, Anas

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacists have a crucial role to ensure regulated public access to prescription drugs. The study aimed to investigate the views of community pharmacists practising in Saudi Arabia on their role in the unauthorised supply of prescription drugs, consider the possible contributory factors and report pharmacists' suggested strategies to regulate supply. One hundred community pharmacists were invited to participate in an interview-based survey, including questions on demographic characteristics, and the unauthorised supply of prescription drugs. Descriptive statistics were conducted, and associations between categorical responses tested; a P value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Responses to open questions were analysed thematically. In Saudi Arabia, there is widespread unregulated supply of prescription drugs; pharmacists are under pressure from patients to provide prescription drugs for a wide range of clinical conditions. There are safety and appropriateness concerns when drugs are provided based on patient demand rather than clinical need. Pharmacists do not maintain patient records with information on drugs supplied and associated actions. While most pharmacists supply prescription drugs without the necessary prescriber authorisation, they also this may jeopardise patients safety. While we have many concerns about this practice its present form, we believe pharmacists should have certain prescribing privileges within their areas of competence. A legal framework is needed to guarantee proper pharmacists' training, support, mentorship and access to the tools required to provide safe pharmacy practice. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Are community pharmacists equipped to ensure the safe use of oral anticancer therapy in the community setting? Results of a cross-country survey of community pharmacists in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rick; Edwards, Scott; Whelan, Maria; Edwards, Jonathan; Dranitsaris, George

    2014-02-01

    Oral anticancer agents offer significant benefits over parenteral anticancer therapy in terms of patient convenience and reduced intrusiveness. Oral anticancer agents give many cancer patients freedom from numerous hospital visits, allowing them to obtain their medications from their local community pharmacy. However, a major concern with increased use of oral anticancer agents is shift of responsibility in ensuring the proper use of anticancer agents from the hospital/clinical oncology team to the patient/caregiver and other healthcare providers such as the community pharmacists who may not be appropriately trained for this. This study assessed the readiness of community pharmacists across Canada to play this increased role with respect to oral anticancer agents. Using a structured electronic mailing strategy, a standardized survey was mailed to practicing pharmacists in five provinces where community pharmacists were dispensing the majority of oral anticancer agents. In addition to collecting basic demographic and their practice setting, the survey assessed the pharmacists' knowledge regarding cancer therapy and oral anticancer agents in particular, their education needs and access to resources on oral anticancer agents, the quality of prescriptions for oral anticancer agents received by them in terms of the required elements, their role in patient education, and steps to enhance patient and personal safety. There were 352 responses to the survey. Only 13.6% of respondents felt that they had received adequate oncology education at the undergraduate level and approximately 19% had attended a continuing education event related to oncology in the past 2 years. Only 24% of the pharmacists who responded were familiar with the common doses of oral anticancer agents and only 9% felt comfortable educating patients on these medications. A substantial portion of community pharmacists in Canada lack a solid understanding of oral anticancer agents and thus are poorly

  17. Evaluation of an Initiative for Fostering Provider-Pharmacist Team Management of Hypertension in Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Doucette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 Conduct team building activities for provider-community pharmacist teams in small communities and 2 Determine the impact of the team approach on practitioner-reported consequences and 3 Identify obstacles to the team approach and ways to overcome them. Methods: Eleven provider-pharmacist teams were recruited in rural/micropolitan communities in Iowa. The teams participated in team building sessions facilitated by the project leaders, to discuss the team approach. Decisions included patient identification, practitioner roles, and communications. Most pharmacists conducted blood pressure (BP checks in the pharmacy and assessed the anti-hypertensive medications. If the BP was not at goal, the pharmacist worked with the patient and provider to make improvements. Teams followed their strategies for 3-5 months. Data were collected from pharmacy logs and on-line surveys of team members before and after the team period. Results: Using a multi-case approach, 4 cases were classified as Worked-Well, 5 as Limited-Success, and 2 as No-Team-Care. The Worked-Well teams provided an average of 26.5 BP visits per team, while the Limited-Success teams averaged 6.8 BP visits. The Worked-Well teams established and used a system to support the team approach. The Limited-Success teams either didn't fully establish their team system, or used it sparingly. The No-Team-Care cases did not provide any team care. Conclusions: Factors supporting success were: positive provider-pharmacist relations, established team system, commitment to team care, and patient willingness to participate. While this program had some success, potential improvements were identified: more follow-up after the team building session, additional patient materials, and guidance for practice changes.   Type: Case Study

  18. Cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention in patients with depression: a randomized controlled trial (PRODEFAR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to antidepressants generates higher costs for the treatment of depression. Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist's interventions aimed at improving adherence to antidepressants. The study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention in comparison with usual care in depressed patients initiating treatment with antidepressants in primary care.Patients were recruited by general practitioners and randomized to community pharmacist intervention (87 that received an educational intervention and usual care (92. Adherence to antidepressants, clinical symptoms, Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs, use of healthcare services and productivity losses were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months.There were no significant differences between groups in costs or effects. From a societal perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for the community pharmacist intervention compared with usual care was €1,866 for extra adherent patient and €9,872 per extra QALY. In terms of remission of depressive symptoms, the usual care dominated the community pharmacist intervention. If willingness to pay (WTP is €30,000 per extra adherent patient, remission of symptoms or QALYs, the probability of the community pharmacist intervention being cost-effective was 0.71, 0.46 and 0.75, respectively (societal perspective. From a healthcare perspective, the probability of the community pharmacist intervention being cost-effective in terms of adherence, QALYs and remission was of 0.71, 0.76 and 0.46, respectively, if WTP is €30,000.A brief community pharmacist intervention addressed to depressed patients initiating antidepressant treatment showed a probability of being cost-effective of 0.71 and 0.75 in terms of improvement of adherence and QALYs, respectively, when compared to usual care. Regular implementation of the community pharmacist intervention is not recommended.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  19. Medication reviews led by community pharmacists in Switzerland: a qualitative survey to evaluate barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niquille A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1 To evaluate the participation rate and identify the practical barriers to implementing a community pharmacist-led medication review service in francophone Switzerland and, 2 To assess the effectiveness of external support.Methods: A qualitative survey was undertaken to identify barriers to patient inclusion and medication review delivery in daily practice among all contactable independent pharmacists working in francophone Switzerland (n=78 who were members of a virtual chain (pharmacieplus, regardless of their participation in a simultaneous cross-sectional study. This study analyzed the dissemination of a medication review service including a prescription and drug utilization review with access to clinical data, a patient interview and a pharmaceutical report to the physicians. In addition, we observed an exploratory and external coaching for pharmacists that we launched seven months after the beginning of the cross-sectional study. Results: Poor motivation on the part of pharmacists and difficulties communicating with physicians and patients were the primary obstacles identified. Lack of time and lack of self-confidence in administering the medication review process were the most commonly perceived practical barriers to the implementation of the new service. The main facilitators to overcome these issues may be well-planned workflow organization techniques, strengthened by an adequate remuneration scheme and a comprehensive and practice-based training course that includes skill-building in pharmacotherapy and communication. External support may partially compensate for a weak organizational framework.Conclusions: To facilitate the implementation of a medication review service, a strong local networking with physicians, an effective workflow management and a practice- and communications-focused training for pharmacists and their teams seem key elements required. External support can be useful to help some pharmacists improve their

  20. [Outcomes after a 2-year pharmaceutical care program for patients taking vitamin K antagonist therapy? Community pharmacist's perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongaret, C; Lepage, C; Aubert, L; Lestrille, A; Slimano, F

    2018-03-01

    Since 2013 French community pharmacist are involved in pharmaceutical care program (PCP) for patients treated with vitamin K antagonist (VKA). While PCPs are now extending to other patient populations, we aimed to evaluate pharmacists' perception after 2-years implementation and leading of PCP. A prospective investigational survey from 1st August to 31st December, 2015 from 400 community pharmacies in Champagne-Ardenne Region. Survey focuses on 3 points: first about implementation and leading of PCP; secondly about patient's population description; finally on the global perception by CP about new tasks. Among n=47, 72% of pharmacists performed VKA PCP. Almost all received appropriate training (96%). Remuneration appears to be insufficient given the time spent for 73%. Ninety-five percent met patient's refusal mainly because of interest lacking or time lacking (54% and 22%, respectively). Pharmacists reported 3 main lacks of knowledges of patients: drugs, which increase drug-drug interaction risk (28%), VKA overdose effects (27%) and VKA-food interactions (23%). Overall view of pharmacist for PCP appears to be positive (81%) in part because of improvement of pharmacist-patient relationship perception for 66%. Community pharmacists' perception for PCP for patients treated by VKA is broadly positive. However, organizational or economic constraints can lead to a decreasing adherence by pharmacists to PCPs. A global issue about amount of compensation and communications campaigns to patients and others health professionals will be useful in order to reinforced PCP implementation and leading taxonomy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Integrating Medication Therapy Management (MTM Services Provided by Community Pharmacists into a Community-Based Accountable Care Organization (ACO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Isetts

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: As the U.S. healthcare system evolves from fee-for-service financing to global population-based payments designed to be accountable for both quality and total cost of care, the effective and safe use of medications is gaining increased importance. The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of integrating medication therapy management (MTM services provided by community pharmacists into the clinical care teams and the health information technology (HIT infrastructure for Minnesota Medicaid recipients of a 12-county community-based accountable care organization (ACO. (2 Methods: The continuous quality improvement evaluation methodology employed in this project was the context + mechanism = outcome (CMO model to account for the fact that programs only work insofar as they introduce promising ideas, solutions and opportunities in the appropriate social and cultural contexts. Collaborations between a 12-county ACO and 15 community pharmacies in Southwest Minnesota served as the social context for this feasibility study of MTM referrals to community pharmacists. (3 Results: All 15 community pharmacy sites were integrated into the HIT infrastructure through Direct Secure Messaging, and there were 32 recipients who received MTM services subsequent to referrals from the ACO at 5 of the 15 community pharmacies over a 1-year implementation phase. (4 Conclusion: At the conclusion of this project, an effective electronic communication and MTM referral system was activated, and consideration was given to community pharmacists providing MTM in future ACO shared savings agreements.

  2. Comparison of community and hospital pharmacists' attitudes and behaviors on medication error disclosure to the patient: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChungYun; Mazan, Jennifer L; Quiñones-Boex, Ana C

    To determine pharmacists' attitudes and behaviors on medication errors and their disclosure and to compare community and hospital pharmacists on such views. An online questionnaire was developed from previous studies on physicians' disclosure of errors. Questionnaire items included demographics, environment, personal experiences, and attitudes on medication errors and the disclosure process. An invitation to participate along with the link to the questionnaire was electronically distributed to members of two Illinois pharmacy associations. A follow-up reminder was sent 4 weeks after the original message. Data were collected for 3 months, and statistical analyses were performed with the use of IBM SPSS version 22.0. The overall response rate was 23.3% (n = 422). The average employed respondent was a 51-year-old white woman with a BS Pharmacy degree working in a hospital pharmacy as a clinical staff member. Regardless of practice settings, pharmacist respondents agreed that medication errors were inevitable and that a disclosure process is necessary. Respondents from community and hospital settings were further analyzed to assess any differences. Community pharmacist respondents were more likely to agree that medication errors were inevitable and that pharmacists should address the patient's emotions when disclosing an error. Community pharmacist respondents were also more likely to agree that the health care professional most closely involved with the error should disclose the error to the patient and thought that it was the pharmacists' responsibility to disclose the error. Hospital pharmacist respondents were more likely to agree that it was important to include all details in a disclosure process and more likely to disagree on putting a "positive spin" on the event. Regardless of practice setting, responding pharmacists generally agreed that errors should be disclosed to patients. There were, however, significant differences in their attitudes and behaviors

  3. Challenges in the management of chronic noncommunicable diseases by Indonesian community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspitasari HP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explored factors influencing Indonesian primary care pharmacists’ practice in chronic noncommunicable disease management and proposed a model illustrating relationships among factors. Methods: We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with pharmacists working in community health centers (Puskesmas, n=5 and community pharmacies (apotek, n=15 in East Java Province. We interviewed participating pharmacists using Bahasa Indonesia to explore facilitators and barriers to their practice in chronic disease management. We audiorecorded all interviews, transcribed ad verbatim, translated into English and analyzed the data using an approach informed by “grounded-theory”. Results: We extracted five emergent themes/factors: pharmacists’ attitudes, Puskesmas/apotek environment, pharmacy education, pharmacy professional associations, and the government. Respondents believed that primary care pharmacists have limited roles in chronic disease management. An unfavourable working environment and perceptions of pharmacists’ inadequate knowledge and skills were reported by many as barriers to pharmacy practice. Limited professional standards, guidelines, leadership and government regulations coupled with low expectations of pharmacists among patients and doctors also contributed to their lack of involvement in chronic disease management. We present the interplay of these factors in our model. Conclusion: Pharmacists’ attitudes, knowledge, skills and their working environment appeared to influence pharmacists’ contribution in chronic disease management. To develop pharmacists’ involvement in chronic disease management, support from pharmacy educators, pharmacy owners, professional associations, the government and other stakeholders is required. Our findings highlight a need for systematic coordination between pharmacists and stakeholders to improve primary care pharmacists’ practice in Indonesia to achieve continuity of care.

  4. Community Pharmacist-Provided Osteoporosis Screening and Education: Impact on Patient Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Brookhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact pharmacist-provided screening and education had on patient knowledge of osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted at 16 locations of a national supermarket chain pharmacy in the Richmond, Virginia area. Women 30 years and older with no history of osteoporosis were enrolled in the study. Patients self-selected into the study by agreeing to the bone density screening, pharmacist-provided education, and completion of a knowledge survey. Subjects were randomized to complete the osteoporosis-related knowledge survey either before (Group A or after (Group B the screening and education session. The survey was developed after guideline and literature evaluation and was pretested with a group of patients for content and clarity. The survey evaluated knowledge of osteoporosis, risk factors for the disease, appropriate age for testing, and preventive strategies. Groups A and B were compared using t-tests. Results: A total of 110 women were enrolled in the study. The mean (±SD age was 52.5 ± 13.1 years in Group A (n=52 and 52.7 ± 11.5 years in Group B (n=58. Knowledge scores were higher in the group who received pharmacist-provided education prior to completing the survey in each category (knowledge of the disease, risk factors, preventive strategies, and appropriate age for testing and overall (p<0.001. Conclusions: Community pharmacist-provided osteoporosis screening and education increased patient knowledge about osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Community pharmacist involvement with increasing patient knowledge may empower patients to engage in prevention strategies to improve bone mass.   Type: Original Research

  5. The integration of information and communication technology into community pharmacists practice in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Lluch, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The study aims to identify community pharmacists' (CPs) utilization of information and communication technology (ICT); to develop and characterize a typology of CPs' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies. An online survey of the 7649 members of the Pharmacist Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit modelling were undertaken. Multivariate analysis of the CPs' responses to the survey (648) revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (40.75%) represents those CPs who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is therefore referred to as 'integrated CPs'. The second profile (59.25%) represents those CPs who make less use of ICT and so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated CPs'. Statistical modelling was used to identify variables that were important in predisposing CPs to integrate ICT with their work. From the analysis it is evident that responses to questions relating to 'recommend patients going on line for health information'; 'patients discuss or share their Internet health information findings'; 'emphasis on the Internet for communication and dissemination' and 'Pharmacists Professional Association information' play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated CP'. The integration of ICT within CPs' practices cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how CPs are making use of ICT within their own practice, their organizational context and the nature of the pharmacists-client relationship.

  6. Knowledge of community pharmacists about the risks of medication use during pregnancy in central region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad Alrabiah

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Community Pharmacists are the most accessible health care providers who can help pregnant women with their medications use there are still gaps in knowledge where educational interventions are needed.

  7. Provision of travel medicine advice through community pharmacies: assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices of pharmacists in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nur Akmar; See, Yee Lian

    2016-10-01

    The risk for travel-related illnesses has increased with significant growth in international travel, but very few travellers seek travel advice. Community pharmacists can play a vital role in the provision of travel medicine advice due to their accessibility. This study aimed to assess travel medicine knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A self-administered KAP questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur identified from the list of licensed community pharmacists in Malaysia year 2014. Questionnaires were returned by 111 pharmacists of 143 distributed (response rate, 78%). Most of the respondents (82%) were not trained in travel medicine. Overall, mean knowledge score was 4.4 ( ± 1.7), indicating a moderate level of knowledge on a variety of travel-related health issues. Community pharmacists who graduated from foreign universities possessed significantly higher knowledge scores than did those who graduated locally (P pharmacy curricula, continuous pharmacy education or certified training may improve the quality of travel advice given and allow pharmacists to be recognised as a credible source of information on travel medicine. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. A survey for assessment of the role of pharmacist in community pharmacy services

    OpenAIRE

    H Sharma; D Jindal; M Aqil; M S Alam; S Karim; P Kapur

    2009-01-01

    Objective : To assess the role of a pharmacist in a community setting and the consumer′s perception in the National Capital Region. Setting : The study was conducted in the National Capital Region of India during the year 2003 - 2004. Materials and Methods : Four pharmacies were selected for this study, which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy-seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and interviewed just after they v...

  9. Informing the homeopathic practice for Turkish pharmacists: reviewing the example of Portuguese community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Arslan, Miray; Şar, Sevgi

    2017-05-01

    Alternative and complementary therapy systems, such as homeopathy, have long been used around the world. Since 1995 homeopathy has been officially recognized in Europe as a system of medicine or a medical specialty. Portuguese community pharmacists have long-standing experience with homeopathic products. By contrast, healthcare professionals in Turkey are less experienced with homeopathic practice although there is a new regulatory setting in place. There are a limited number of studies addressing pharmacists' role within the homeopathic system. To investigate the attitudes (knowledge, feelings and behaviour) of experienced Portuguese pharmacy practitioners who deal with homeopathy, and thus to inform Turkish pharmacy practice and policy on homeopathy-related success factors. A qualitative cross-sectional design was followed, using semi-structured and face-to-face individual interviews with purposively selected Portuguese pharmacists experienced with homeopathic medicines. Audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and the transcriptions imported into QSR NVivo v10 software for qualitative coding and analysis. Using a thematic content approach, the extracted codes were grouped and indexed by recurrent themes through a reflective procedure and constant comparison. Six general themes emerged, the most relevant being participants' feelings of gratitude for the ability to work in homeopathy; other themes were a helpful regulatory body, clear practice boundaries, scientific support and product quality assurance. Specialized homeopathic education was considered the most important factor for success. This was related to patients' positive perceptions and acceptance, suggesting an increase in public awareness through the pharmacy network. Portuguese pharmacists' attitudes towards their homeopathic practices highlighted the key elements for success in a field that is usually distant from traditional pharmaceutical education and practice. The present findings provide

  10. The use of non-prescription medicines during lactation: A qualitative study of community pharmacists' attitudes and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tin Fei; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Sherriff, Jillian; Tee, Lisa B G

    2018-05-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in the provision of non-prescription medicines. There is evidence that women self-medicate and use non-prescription medicines whilst breastfeeding. Studies have demonstrated that breastfeeding women are likely to seek advice from pharmacists, presenting a unique opportunity for pharmacists to provide on-going support of these women especially in relation to the appropriate use of non-prescription medicines. This study aimed to explore community pharmacists' attitudes and perspectives towards the use of non-prescription medicines during breastfeeding. This exploratory study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 30 community pharmacists in Western Australia, between July and September 2013. Transcribed data were analysed using descriptive and qualitative approaches. NVivo ® Version 10.0 was used to organise qualitative data and quotations to facilitate thematic analysis. Four major themes emerged. Despite the positive attitudes and favourable perceived knowledge level, participants often found themselves in a dilemma when required to make clinical recommendations especially in situations where there was a therapeutic need for treatment but clear guidelines or evidence to suggest safety of the medicines or treatment in lactation was absent. Despite the popularity of complementary medicines, participants felt more confident in providing advice in relation to conventional over complementary medicines. Whilst medication safety is within the field of expertise of pharmacists, the absence of information and safety data was seen as a major challenge and barrier to enable pharmacists to confidently provide evidence-based recommendations. This study has enhanced our understanding of the attitudes and perspectives of community pharmacists towards the use of non-prescription, including complementary medicines, during breastfeeding. Future studies are warranted to confirm the safety of commonly used or requested

  11. Care of the stroke patient-communication between the community pharmacist and prescribers in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimes, Tamasine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the perceptions that community pharmacists have of communication with prescribers in both primary and secondary care in Ireland, with respect to care of stroke patients. SETTING: Community pharmacies across Ireland, stratified into the four representative administrative regions. METHOD: Survey using a structured postal questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Perceptions of communication with prescribers based in primary and secondary care; pharmacy and pharmacy premises demographics. RESULTS: A response rate of 52% (n = 314) was achieved. Community pharmacists\\' perceptions of information provision from secondary care were low, the majority (83%) never received any information from the hospital, although they would welcome it. Communication with hospital based prescribers was considered by most (93%) to be poor. The majority (greater than 75%) of respondents expressed a desire for greater information provision concerning a stroke patient\\'s medication and diagnostic information. Pharmacists\\' perceptions of interaction with general practitioners were generally regarded as good (63%) although information provision in both directions between pharmacist and general practitioner could be improved. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicated that community pharmacists perceive that there is room for improvement in the communication between themselves and prescribers in the primary and secondary care settings, concerning the care of the stroke patient. This highlights the need for the development of formal communication channels between community pharmacists and other members of the healthcare team involved in the care of the stroke patient. However, the challenges of communicating patient information across healthcare sectors are recognized.

  12. A model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Beth A; Porter, Andrea L; Shawl, Lauren; Motl Moroney, Susannah E

    2012-06-18

    To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of an introductory pharmacy practice experience intended to redefine first-year student pharmacists' views on aging and medication use through their work with a healthy, community-based older-adult population. All students (N = 273) completed live skills training in an 8-hour boot camp provided during orientation week. Teams were assigned an independently living senior partner, completed 10 visits and reflections, and documented health-related information using an electronic portfolio (e-portfolio). As determined by pre- and post-experience survey instruments, students gained significant confidence in 7 skill areas related to communication, medication interviews, involving the partner in health care, and applying patient-care skills. Student reflections, in-class presentations, and e-portfolios documented that personal attitudes toward seniors changed over time. Senior partners enjoyed mentoring and interacting with students and many experienced health improvements as a result of the interaction. The model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults improved students' skills and fostered their connections to pharmacist roles and growth as person-centered providers.

  13. Community pharmacists' views of the use of oral rehydration salt in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunde, Olubukola; Williams, Veronika

    2018-06-01

    Background Oral rehydration salt (ORS) is an affordable and effective intervention for the management of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD), especially in children under 5 years. A knowledge/practice gap exists among community pharmacists (CPs) in Lagos, Nigeria, and in many low to middle income countries. This gap results in underutilization of ORS for diarrhoea management. Objective The objective was to explore CPs' views of the barriers and facilitators to the use of ORS in practice. Setting Community pharmacy practices, Lagos, Nigeria. Methods Qualitative methods were used to explore pharmacists' views. Recruitment of participants were mainly at zonal meetings. A total of ten CPs participated based on maximum variation and snowballing sampling. Semi-structured interviews conducted covered knowledge, experiences and contextual issues. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed and analysed using framework approach to thematic analysis. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' views of barriers and facilitators to the use of ORS. Results Barriers to the use of ORS include caregivers' expectation for an antimicrobial, which was often explicitly and specifically for metronidazole. Also, CPs seemed to doubt applicability of ORS alone, therefore, responded to caregivers' complaints about ORS, by dispensing metronidazole. These barriers appeared to have normalised metronidazole for AWD treatment in this setting. Current facilitators include the caregivers' improved awareness of ORS and access to primary health centers that often resulted in increased demand for ORS in pharmacies. Conclusion CPs' views showed that caregivers' expectations for an antimicrobial may be the main barrier to the use of ORS in their practices.

  14. Management of over-the-counter insomnia complaints in Australian community pharmacies: a standardized patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Krishneeta C; Nissen, Lisa M; Smith, Simon S; Kyle, Greg

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the current management of over-the-counter (OTC) insomnia complaints in Australian community pharmacies using standardized patient methodology. Trained standardized patients visited a sample of 100 randomly selected South East Queensland community pharmacies in June 2011. The standardized patients enacted two OTC insomnia scenarios: a direct product request (DPR) (n = 50) and a symptom-based request (SBR) (n = 50). Results of the interactions were documented immediately after each visit and evaluated using the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia's WHAT STOP GO protocol as a standard comparison. Of all DPRs, 30% were handled entirely by the pharmacist, 70% of staff enquired about specific symptoms and 28% investigated the cause of insomnia. No staff investigated the frequency of product use. The DPR scenario resulted in a 92% supply of the requested doxylamine product (Restavit). In the SBR scenario, 18% of requests were handled entirely by the pharmacist, 58% of staff enquired about specific symptoms and 44% investigated the cause of insomnia. Staff recommended medicated products (38%), or herbal (78%) or non-drug techniques (18%). Investigation into smoking and alcohol intake was not undertaken in DPR or SBR interactions, while questioning on caffeine intake was undertaken in 2 and 14% of cases respectively. There were no significant differences found in the handling of sleep requests by pharmacists compared to pharmacy assistants. The standardized patient methodology was a successful way to assess the community pharmacy counselling provided with OTC sleep requests and suboptimal staff responses were found when compared with recommended practice standards. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Analysis of pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services in community pharmacies over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mitchell J; Frank, Jessica; Wehring, Heidi; Newland, Brand; VonMuenster, Shannon; Kumbera, Patty; Halterman, Tom; Perry, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Although community pharmacists have historically been paid primarily for drug distribution and dispensing services, medication therapy management (MTM) services evolved in the 1990s as a means for pharmacists and other providers to assist physicians and patients in managing clinical, service, and cost outcomes of drug therapy. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA 2003) and the subsequent implementation of Medicare Part D in January 2006 for the more than 20 million Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the Part D benefit formalized MTM services for a subset of high-cost patients. Although Medicare Part D has provided a new opportunity for defining the value of pharmacist-provided MTM services in the health care system, few publications exist which quantify changes in the provision of pharmacist-provided MTM services over time. To (a) describe the changes over a 7-year period in the primary types of MTM services provided by community pharmacies that have contracted with drug plan sponsors through an MTM administrative services company, and (b) quantify potential MTM-related cost savings based on pharmacists' self-assessments of the likely effects of their interventions on health care utilization. Medication therapy management claims from a multistate MTM administrative services company were analyzed over the 7-year period from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2006. Data extracted from each MTM claim included patient demographics (e.g., age and gender), the drug and type that triggered the intervention (e.g., drug therapeutic class and therapy type as either acute, intermittent, or chronic), and specific information about the service provided (e.g., Reason, Action, Result, and Estimated Cost Avoidance [ECA]). ECA values are derived from average national health care utilization costs, which are applied to pharmacist self-assessment of the "reasonable and foreseeable" outcome of the intervention. ECA values are updated

  16. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. Methods A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n = 2291. Response rate was 54% (n = 1190. Factors related to the SC Guideline familiarity were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Almost half (47% of the respondents (n = 1190 were familiar with the SC Guideline and familiarity enhanced Guideline implementation. The familiarity was associated with the respondents' perceptions of their personal SC skills and knowledge (OR 3.8; of customers' value of counseling on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT (OR 3.3; and regular use of a pocket card supporting SC counseling (OR 3.0. Pharmacists' workplaces' characteristics, such as size and geographical location were not associated with familiarity. In addition to recommending NRT, the pharmacists familiar with the Guideline used more frequently other Guideline-based SC methods, such as recommended non-pharmacological SC aids, compared to unfamiliar respondents. Conclusions SC Guideline familiarity and implementation is crucial for community pharmacists' involvement in SC actions in addition to selling NRT products. Pharmacists can constitute a potential public health resource in SC easily accessible throughout the country.

  17. Impact of Pharmacists in a Community-Based Home Care Service: A Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walus, Ashley N; Woloschuk, Donna M M

    2017-01-01

    Historically, pharmacists have not been included on home care teams, despite the fact that home care patients frequently experience medication errors. Literature describing Canadian models of pharmacy practice in home care settings is limited. The optimal service delivery model and distribution of clinical activities for home care pharmacists remain unclear. The primary objective was to describe the impact of a pharmacist based at a community home care office and providing home visits, group education, and telephone consultations. The secondary objective was to determine the utility of acute care clinical pharmacy key performance indicators (cpKPIs) in guiding home care pharmacy services, in the absence of validated cpKPIs for ambulatory care. The Winnipeg Regional Health Authority hired a pharmacist to develop and implement the pilot program from May 2015 to July 2016. A referral form, consisting of consultation criteria used in primary care practices, was developed. The pharmacist also reviewed all patient intakes and all patients waiting in acute care facilities for initiation of home care services, with the goal of addressing issues before admission to the Home Care Program. A password-protected database was built for data collection and analysis, and the data are presented in aggregate. A total of 197 referrals, involving 184 patients, were received during the pilot program; of these, 62 were excluded from analysis. The majority of referrals (95 [70.4%]) were for targeted medication reviews, and 271 drug therapy problems were identified. Acceptance rates for the pharmacist's recommendations were 90.2% (74 of 82 recommendations) among home care staff and 47.0% (55 of 117 recommendations) among prescribers and patients. On average, 1.5 cpKPIs were identified for each referral. The pilot program demonstrated a need for enhanced access to clinical pharmacy services for home care patients, although the best model of service provision remains unclear. More research

  18. Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laliberté Marie-Claude

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3% eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%; screening for hypertension (81.8%, diabetes (76.0% and dyslipidemia (56.9%; and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%; however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively. The main barriers to the

  19. Stakeholder experiences with general practice pharmacist services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edwin C K; Stewart, Kay; Elliott, Rohan A; George, Johnson

    2013-09-11

    To explore general practice staff, pharmacist and patient experiences with pharmacist services in Australian general practice clinics within the Pharmacists in Practice Study. Qualitative study. Two general practice clinics in Melbourne, Australia, in which pharmacists provided medication reviews, patient and staff education, medicines information and quality assurance services over a 6-month period. Patients, practice staff and pharmacists. Semi-structured telephone interviews with patients, focus groups with practice staff and semi-structured interviews and periodic narrative reports with practice pharmacists. Data were analysed thematically and theoretical frameworks used to explain the findings. 34 participants were recruited: 18 patients, 14 practice staff (9 general practitioners, 4 practice nurses, 1 practice manager) and 2 practice pharmacists. Five main themes emerged: environment; professional relationships and integration; pharmacist attributes; staff and patient benefits and logistical challenges. Participants reported that colocation and the interdisciplinary environment of general practice enabled better communication and collaboration compared to traditional community and consultant pharmacy services. Participants felt that pharmacists needed to possess certain attributes to ensure successful integration, including being personable and proactive. Attitudinal, professional and logistical barriers were identified but were able to be overcome. The findings were explained using D'Amour's structuration model of collaboration and Roger's diffusion of innovation theory. This is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of general practice staff, pharmacists and patients on their interactions within the Australian general practice environment. Participants were receptive of colocated pharmacist services, and various barriers and facilitators to integration were identified. Future research should investigate the feasibility and sustainability of

  20. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Cross-Sectional Survey Assessing the Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asfaw Erku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Community pharmacists are key healthcare professionals for antimicrobial stewardship programs owing to their role in dispensing of antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to assess the perception and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship (AMS in Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by selecting pharmacy sites through stratified simple random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. Majority of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS program is vital for the improvement of patient care. Almost all of respondents agreed that pharmacists can play a prominent role in AMS and infection prevention (93.2%, median = 5; IQR = 2–5. However, only 26.5% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS should be practiced at community pharmacy level (median = 4, IQR = 1–3 and more than half of community pharmacists (59.9% often/always dispense antimicrobial without a prescription. Conclusion. The present study revealed positive perceptions and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Yet, some weak areas like integration of AMS program in community pharmacies, the significance of interprofessional involvement, and dispensing of antimicrobials without a valid prescription still need improvement.

  1. Older Chinese-Australian and Chinese community music engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sicong

    2017-01-01

    This research study will investigate community music engagement by both Chinese-Australians and Chinese older people at two different older people’s organizations with the aim of exploring the affects of music engagement on older people. The study seeks to explore cultural differences between Chinese-Australian older people and Chinese older people as they relate to their music engagement. The research contentions were that (1) active music engagement can enhance the quality of the life of ol...

  2. Thinking in Pharmacy Practice: A Study of Community Pharmacists' Clinical Reasoning in Medication Supply Using the Think-Aloud Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Hayley; Gilligan, Conor; Rasiah, Rohan; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Schneider, Jennifer

    2017-12-31

    Medication review and supply by pharmacists involves both cognitive and technical skills related to the safety and appropriateness of prescribed medicines. The cognitive ability of pharmacists to recall, synthesise and memorise information is a critical aspect of safe and optimal medicines use, yet few studies have investigated the clinical reasoning and decision-making processes pharmacists use when supplying prescribed medicines. The objective of this study was to examine the patterns and processes of pharmacists' clinical reasoning and to identify the information sources used, when making decisions about the safety and appropriateness of prescribed medicines. Ten community pharmacists participated in a simulation in which they were required to review a prescription and make decisions about the safety and appropriateness of supplying the prescribed medicines to the patient, whilst at the same time thinking aloud about the tasks required. Following the simulation each pharmacist was asked a series of questions to prompt retrospective thinking aloud using video-stimulated recall. The simulated consultation and retrospective interview were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. All of the pharmacists made a safe and appropriate supply of two prescribed medicines to the simulated patient. Qualitative analysis identified seven core thinking processes used during the supply process: considering prescription in context, retrieving information, identifying medication-related issues, processing information, collaborative planning, decision making and reflection; and align closely with other health professionals. The insights from this study have implications for enhancing awareness of decision making processes in pharmacy practice and informing teaching and assessment approaches in medication supply.

  3. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  4. Factors that motivate young pharmacists to work in rural communities in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzenberger, Peter; Popov, Sergey B; Ostermann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    A number of identified factors can influence clinicians' location of practice decisions; however, little is known about the location decisions of pharmacists. In general, males are more likely to work in rural and remote regions, and students with a rural background are more likely to work in rural communities after graduation. In the Ukraine, pharmaceutical health care is important because a patient's first visit is often to the pharmacy, rather than to a GP. This study sought to understand what motivates Ukraine pharmacy students to practice in rural areas. The first part of the study used a quantitative design with questionnaires based on Füglistaller's model for measuring the motivation of entrepreneurs, because working in a rural Ukraine pharmacy means, in most cases, operating a privately owned pharmacy. The second part was qualitative to verify these results. The students' motivation to work in rural areas after graduation depended on their sex and place of birth, but this was not decisive. More influential were the factors that motivate operating a privately owned pharmacy. Within the group that considered working in a privately owned pharmacy in a rural community, motivation was more intrinsic (eg enjoys helping people), while negative factors were more external (eg financial risk). Students from the National University of Pharmacy in Kharkiv comprise the majority of pharmacists in the Ukraine. They are interested in working in a rural area as long as opportunities align with their individual expectations. The two main factors found that would supply more young graduates to rural areas were: (1) improving rural living conditions; and (2) fostering the mental attitude required for operating a private pharmacy. In addition, decreasing related bureaucracy, and increasing financial and fiscal grants may enhance medical and pharmaceutical health care in rural communities of the Ukraine.Key words: graduate pharmacists, living conditions, motivation, privately

  5. Disruptive innovation in community pharmacy - Impact of automation on the pharmacist workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Jean; Jackson, John; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Wheeler, Amanda J

    Pharmacy workforce planning has been relatively static for many decades. However, like all industries, health care is exposed to potentially disruptive technological changes. Automated dispensing systems have been available to pharmacy for over a decade and have been applied to a range of repetitive technical processes which are at risk of error, including record keeping, item selection, labeling and dose packing. To date, most applications of this technology have been at the local level, such as hospital pharmacies or single-site community pharmacies. However, widespread implementation of a more centralized automated dispensing model, such as the 'hub and spoke' model currently being debated in the United Kingdom, could cause a 'technology shock,' delivering industry-wide efficiencies, improving medication accessibility and lowering costs to consumers and funding agencies. Some of pharmacists' historical roles may be made redundant, and new roles may be created, decoupling pharmacists to a certain extent from the dispensing and supply process. It may also create an additional opportunity for pharmacists to be acknowledged and renumerated for professional services that extend beyond the dispensary. Such a change would have significant implications for the organization and funding of community pharmacy services as well as pharmacy workforce planning. This paper discusses the prospect of centralized automated dispensing systems and how this may impact on the pharmacy workforce. It concludes that more work needs to be done in the realm of pharmacy workforce planning to ensure that the introduction of any new technology delivers optimal outcomes to consumers, insurers and the pharmacy workforce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacists' interventions on prescription problems in one French community pharmacy: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, A; Gervais, F; Mongaret, C; Slimano, F

    2018-03-16

    While many international studies widely describe pharmacists' interventions (PIs) on drug-related problems (DRP) in community pharmacies, in France, these activities are underreported. The aim of this study is to describe the PI rate, given as the number of interventions in among all prescriptions reviewed during the study period. This study was conducted in one French rural community pharmacy during a 7-month period. Age, sex, type of prescriber, type of problems, intervention and the outcome were prospectively recorded. PIs were prospectively formalized and classified using the validated tool from the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. In addition, all interventions were reviewed by an independent pharmacist. Among the 20,238 prescriptions, n=211 pharmacists' interventions on 159 prescriptions (0.79%) were performed. Prescriptions were ordered by general practitioners in 78.6%. The most common DRP were the improper prescription (30.8%), a drug or medical device not received by the patient (21.8%, all linked to drug shortages) or a dosage problem (18.9%). Antibiotics were the most common drugs involved in DRP (13.3%). The main PI were the drug switch/establishment of a therapeutic alternative (38.4%), dose adjustment (25.6%) and optimization of the dispensing/administration modalities (25.1%). The overall acceptance rate of PIs was 93.4%. We found a PI rate, as well as acceptance rate by prescribers, in the same range than as reported in studies performed in other countries. A consequent large part percentage of PIs can be classified as "administrative". This first prospective French study needs to be further supported by multi-site studies. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of hypertension in an Australian community pharmacy setting - patients' beliefs and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata V; LeMay, Kate S; Magin, Parker J; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L

    2017-08-01

    To explore patients' perspectives and experiences following a trial of a pharmacist-led service in hypertension management. A qualitative study comprising individual interviews was conducted. Patients of a community pharmacy, where a pharmacist-led hypertension management service had been trialled in selected metropolitan regions in Sydney (Australia), were recruited to the study. Emergent themes describing patients' experiences and perspectives on the service were elicited via thematic analysis (using manual inductive coding). Patients' (N = 18) experiences of the service were extremely positive, especially around pharmacists' monitoring of blood pressure and provision of advice about medication adherence. Patients' participation in the service was based on their trust in, and relationship with, their pharmacist. The perception of working in a 'team' was conveyed through the pharmacist's caring style of communication and the relaxed atmosphere of the community pharmacy. Patients felt that the community pharmacy was an obvious place for such a service because of their regular contact with the pharmacist, but was limited because the pharmacists were not able to prescribe medication. Patients were extremely positive about the role of, and their experience of, the pharmacy-based hypertension management service. Factors contributing to the patients' positive experiences provide important insights for community pharmacy practice. Good rapport with the pharmacist and a long-term relationship underpin patient engagement in such services. Restrictions on the pharmacists' scope of practice prevent their expertise, and the benefits of their accessibility as a primary point of contact, from being fully realised. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Implementation of a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies: Facilitators and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Fowler, Jane; Wheeler, Amanda J

    Community pharmacists are in an ideal position to promote and provide mental health medication management services. However, formalised or structured pharmacy services to support consumers with mental health conditions are scarce. Australian mental health consumers indicated a need for targeted community pharmacy mental health services which presented an opportunity to develop an intervention that were integrated with remunerated professional services. The study aimed to pilot a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies. Pharmacists worked in partnership with consumers, carers and mental health workers over three to six months to set and support achievement of individual goals related to medicines use, physical health and mental wellbeing. This paper provides a comparison of community pharmacies that successfully delivered the intervention with those that did not and identifies facilitators and challenges to service implementation. One hundred pharmacies opted to pilot the delivery of the intervention in three Australian states (Queensland, Western Australia and northern New South Wales). Of those, 55 successfully delivered the intervention (completers) whilst 45 were unsuccessful (non-completers). A mixed methods approach, including quantitative pharmacy surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews, was used to gather data from participating pharmacies. Following intervention development, 142 pharmacists and 21 pharmacy support staff attended training workshops, received resource kits and ongoing support from consumer and pharmacist mentors throughout intervention implementation. Baseline quantitative data was collected from each pharmacy on staff profile, volume of medicines dispensed, the range of professional services delivered and relationships with health professionals. At the completion of the study participants were invited to complete an online exit survey and take part in a semi-structured interview that

  9. Isoniazid completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection among college students managed by a community pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karl; Goad, Jeffery; Wu, Joanne; Johnson, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The authors' objective was to document 9-month and previously recommended 6-month treatment completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a pharmacist-managed LTBI clinic in a community pharmacy on a college campus, and to describe patient characteristics. Participants were university students diagnosed with LTBI. The authors conducted a retrospective review of pharmacy records from 2000 to 2006. Main outcome measures included 6-month and 9-month LTBI treatment completion rates, total isoniazid (INH) tablets taken, characteristics of completers versus noncompleters, average time to treatment completion, and reported adverse drug events. The 9-month completion rate was 59%, and the 6-month completion rate was 67%. Among those not completing treatment, 15.2% experienced fatigue and 2.2% experienced a rash (p=.04 and p=.03, respectively). LTBI clinics are a unique niche for community pharmacies and can provide individualized patient care to ensure LTBI treatment adherence, monitoring for disease progression, and safety of INH.

  10. How to best manage time interaction with patients? Community pharmacist workload and service provision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, João; Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Lapão, Luís Velez

    Primary health care disease management models are rooted in multidisciplinary participation; however, implementation of services is lagging behind desires and predictions. Barriers like workload and lack of demand have been described. The aim of this research is to observe the workload and work patterns of Portuguese community pharmacists, and relate it with the demand of pharmaceutical services. A time-and-motion observational study was performed to describe community pharmacists' workload in a sample of four pharmacies in the metropolitan Lisbon area. A reference list of activities to be observed was developed by reviewing other studies of community pharmacy work. This study took place during a weekday's 8-h shift, focusing on pharmacists' activities. Data to be collected included the type and duration of the activity, who performed it and where. To estimate the demand of pharmaceutical care services, "thematic-patient scenarios" were developed. These scenarios were based on the defined daily dose and package size of the most consumed medicines in Portugal, combined with data obtained from the four pharmacies' information systems on the day the observational study took place. Between 67.0% and 81.8% of the registered activities were pharmacist-patient interactions. These interactions summed 158.44 min, with a mean duration of 3.98 min per interaction. On average, participant pharmacies' professionals handled 4.2 prescriptions and 0.9 over-the-counter (OTC) consultations per hour. About one third of the day was spent performing administrative and non-differentiated tasks. About 54.92 min were registered as free time, 50% of which were "micro pauses" with 1 min or less. The most dispensed therapeutic subgroup was antihypertensive drugs, while the dispensation of antidiabetics was characterized by a high number of packages sold per interaction. From the developed scenarios, one can estimate that a chronic patient may visit the pharmacy 4-9 times per year

  11. Know Your Numbers: Creation and implementation of a novel community health mobile application (app) by student pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michelle; Nguyen, Vi; Vishwanath, Soumya; Wolfe, Courtney; Patel, Sweta

    A free mobile application (app), Know Your Numbers (KYN), was developed by student pharmacists to assist underserved community members to track their health numbers. The study objectives included creating a health app, implementing a pilot program, and analyzing the frequency of app use and perceptions of community members toward their health numbers, pharmacists, and health apps. Student pharmacists recruited participants at the community clinics and health fairs organized in underserved communities of the Atlanta metropolitan area. This study used a pre- and post-survey study design to compare perceptions before and after use of a health app. Eligible participants completed a 22-item pre-survey that assessed understanding of their health numbers, previous health app use, and perceptions of pharmacists. Frequency of app use and change in perceptions of community members toward health numbers, pharmacists, and health apps before and after enrolling in KYN were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed rank tests for matched pre- and post-surveys. Thirty-three participants were enrolled for 56 days. African American participants (93.9%) earned less than $25,000 annually (56.7%). On average, participants had 3.98 interactions per week. Before using the mobile health app, 84.8% of users felt comfortable using a health app, but only 9% used one regularly. The post-survey response rate was 27.2% (n = 9). More participants agreed that a health app helped them to meet their health goals after the program (24.4% to 100%; P = 0.0006). More than 90% of participants agreed in both surveys that it is important to check their health numbers regularly and that they trust pharmacists to provide accurate information. KYN is a novel mobile tool that promotes chronic disease self-management and the profession of pharmacy. These findings support the benefits of mobile health app's usability and its ability to assist in achieving personal health goals

  12. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayes, Ibrahim K; Hassali, Mohamed A; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula R

    2015-01-01

    In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists' current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90) agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104) felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94) of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession's malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128) stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252) found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124) disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134) gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  13. The role of community pharmacists in screening and subsequent management of chronic respiratory diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima, Mariam; Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol L

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of community pharmacists in provision of screening with/without subsequent management of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and uncontrolled asthma. An extensive literature search using four databases (ie. Medline, PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and Scopus) with search terms pharmacy, screening, asthma or COPD was conducted. Searches were limited to the years 2003-2013, those in English and those reporting research with humans. Data retrieval, analysis and result presentation employed a scoping review method. Seventeen articles met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, of which fifteen studies were based on people with asthma and two were based on people with COPD. Only seven asthma studies and one COPD study involved screening followed by subsequent management. More than half of the people screened were found to be poorly controlled and up to 62% of people were identified at high risk for COPD by community pharmacists. The studies varied in the method and type of asthma control assessment/screening, the type of intervention provided and the outcomes measured. The limitations of the reviewed studies included varying definitions of asthma control, different study methodologies, and the lack of long-term follow-up. While many different methods were used for risk assessment and management services by the pharmacists, all the studies demonstrated that community pharmacists were capable of identifying people with poorly controlled asthma and undiagnosed COPD and providing them with suitable interventions. The literature review identified that community pharmacists can play an effective role in screening of people with poorly controlled asthma and undiagnosed COPD along with delivering management interventions. However, there is very little literature available on screening for these chronic respiratory conditions. Future research should focus on development of patient care

  14. The role of community pharmacists in screening and subsequent management of chronic respiratory diseases: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima, Mariam; Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol L.

    Objective The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of community pharmacists in provision of screening with/without subsequent management of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and uncontrolled asthma. Methods An extensive literature search using four databases (ie. Medline, PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and Scopus) with search terms pharmacy, screening, asthma or COPD was conducted. Searches were limited to the years 2003-2013, those in English and those reporting research with humans. Data retrieval, analysis and result presentation employed a scoping review method. Results Seventeen articles met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, of which fifteen studies were based on people with asthma and two were based on people with COPD. Only seven asthma studies and one COPD study involved screening followed by subsequent management. More than half of the people screened were found to be poorly controlled and up to 62% of people were identified at high risk for COPD by community pharmacists. The studies varied in the method and type of asthma control assessment/screening, the type of intervention provided and the outcomes measured. The limitations of the reviewed studies included varying definitions of asthma control, different study methodologies, and the lack of long-term follow-up. While many different methods were used for risk assessment and management services by the pharmacists, all the studies demonstrated that community pharmacists were capable of identifying people with poorly controlled asthma and undiagnosed COPD and providing them with suitable interventions. Conclusions The literature review identified that community pharmacists can play an effective role in screening of people with poorly controlled asthma and undiagnosed COPD along with delivering management interventions. However, there is very little literature available on screening for these chronic respiratory conditions. Future research should focus

  15. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists on pharmaceutical business performance in Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nmadu, Teresa M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. Objective: This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos. An adaptation of the Bernelli model and the expanded Katz (1974)/Herron (1990) Skill Typology Model was used to assess nine entrepreneurial skills - product, organizational, industry, networking, leadership, executive, entrepreneurial, marketing and money skills; while sales growth, net profit and stock growth were used to assess business performance. Frequency distribution of results was presented, with further analysis done with the Epi-Info software using the chi square test of association. Result: The results from this study showed that community pharmacies in Jos do possess requisite entrepreneurial skills, but to varying extents. Product skills ranked highest while money skills and entrepreneurial skills ranked least, portraying a need for skills enhancement in these areas. Business performance was suboptimal, being rated as average or poor by 56.6% of respondents. However, most respondents (90%) still assessed their businesses as profitable. Money skills had a significant impact on business performance (P=0.03) and stock growth (P=0.04); while stock growth was significantly affected by leadership skills (P=0.002) and entrepreneurial skills (0.02). Net profit was significantly affected by industry skills (P=0.008). Conclusions: Community pharmacy business is still a profitable business venture in Jos though business performance is sub optimal. The entrepreneurial skills set of a community pharmacist set has an impact on business

  16. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists on pharmaceutical business performance in Jos metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asieba, Iyeseun O; Nmadu, Teresa M

    2018-01-01

    Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos. An adaptation of the Bernelli model and the expanded Katz (1974)/Herron (1990) Skill Typology Model was used to assess nine entrepreneurial skills - product, organizational, industry, networking, leadership, executive, entrepreneurial, marketing and money skills; while sales growth, net profit and stock growth were used to assess business performance. Frequency distribution of results was presented, with further analysis done with the Epi-Info software using the chi square test of association. The results from this study showed that community pharmacies in Jos do possess requisite entrepreneurial skills, but to varying extents. Product skills ranked highest while money skills and entrepreneurial skills ranked least, portraying a need for skills enhancement in these areas. Business performance was suboptimal, being rated as average or poor by 56.6% of respondents. However, most respondents (90%) still assessed their businesses as profitable. Money skills had a significant impact on business performance (P=0.03) and stock growth (P=0.04); while stock growth was significantly affected by leadership skills (P=0.002) and entrepreneurial skills (0.02). Net profit was significantly affected by industry skills (P=0.008). Community pharmacy business is still a profitable business venture in Jos though business performance is sub optimal. The entrepreneurial skills set of a community pharmacist set has an impact on business performance with money skills, leadership skills and

  17. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists on pharmaceutical business performance in Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieba IO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. Objective: This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos. An adaptation of the Bernelli model and the expanded Katz (1974/Herron (1990 Skill Typology Model was used to assess nine entrepreneurial skills - product, organizational, industry, networking, leadership, executive, entrepreneurial, marketing and money skills; while sales growth, net profit and stock growth were used to assess business performance. Frequency distribution of results was presented, with further analysis done with the Epi-Info software using the chi square test of association. Result: The results from this study showed that community pharmacies in Jos do possess requisite entrepreneurial skills, but to varying extents. Product skills ranked highest while money skills and entrepreneurial skills ranked least, portraying a need for skills enhancement in these areas. Business performance was suboptimal, being rated as average or poor by 56.6% of respondents. However, most respondents (90% still assessed their businesses as profitable. Money skills had a significant impact on business performance (P=0.03 and stock growth (P=0.04; while stock growth was significantly affected by leadership skills (P=0.002 and entrepreneurial skills (0.02. Net profit was significantly affected by industry skills (P=0.008. Conclusions: Community pharmacy business is still a profitable business venture in Jos though business performance is sub optimal. The entrepreneurial skills set of a community pharmacist set has an impact on

  18. Is there a role for pharmacists in multidisciplinary health-care teams at community outreach events for the homeless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincent; Patounas, Marea; Dornbusch, Debbie; Tran, Hung; Watson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness is a significant public health problem. It is well-documented that people experiencing homelessness exhibit more serious illnesses and have poorer health than the general population. The provision of services and interventions by health-care professionals, including pharmacists, may make a simple yet important contribution to improved health outcomes in those experiencing homelessness, but evidence of roles and interventions is limited and variable. In Australia, the Queensland University of Technology Health Clinic connects with the homeless community by taking part in community outreach events. This paper provides details of one such event, as well as the roles, interventions and experiences of pharmacists. Participation and inclusion of pharmacists in a multidisciplinary health-care team approach at homeless outreach events should be supported and encouraged.

  19. A mixed methods investigation into the use of non-technical skills by community and hospital pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, A; Weidmann, A E

    2015-01-01

    Non-technical skills refer to the social and cognitive factors that may influence efficient and safe job performance. Non-technical skills are an important element of patient safety in a variety of health care disciplines, including surgery, anesthesia and nursing. However, the use of non-technical skills in pharmacy practice has not yet been fully assessed. To examine attitudes toward, and use of, non-technical skills by pharmacy personnel. A mixed methods approach was used: An attitude survey explored pharmacy personnel attitudes towards non-technical skills and inter-professional collaboration, with community and hospital pharmacy staff (n = 62). Qualitative interviews were then conducted using the critical incident technique, with community pharmacists (n = 11). The survey results demonstrated differences in the opinions of community and hospital pharmacists on three non-technical skill constructs: team structure, mutual support, and situation monitoring, with community pharmacists reporting significantly more positive attitudes about all three constructs. Both groups reported low levels of collaboration with primary care physicians. The interviews identified five non-technical skills as key elements of successful pharmacist performance from the interview transcripts: teamwork; leadership; task management; situation awareness; decision-making. The survey and interviews identified the non-technical skills that are important to pharmacists. This represents the first step towards the development of a behavioral rating system for training purposes that could potentially improve the non-technical skills of pharmacists and enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying Barriers and Facilitators at Affect Community Pharmacists' Ability to Engage Children in Medication Counseling: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S.; Schleiden, Loren J.; Carpenter, Delesha M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators that influence community pharmacists' ability to provide medication counseling to pediatric patients. METHODS Semistructured interviews (n = 16) were conducted with pharmacy staff at 3 community pharmacies in 2 Eastern states. The interview guide elicited pharmacy staff experiences interacting with children and their perceived barriers and facilitators to providing medication counseling. Transcripts were reviewed for accuracy and a codebook was developed for data analysis. NVivo 10 was used for content analysis and identifying relevant themes. RESULTS Ten pharmacists and 6 pharmacy technicians were interviewed. Most participants were female (69%), aged 30 to 49 years (56%), with ≥5 years of pharmacy practice experience. Eight themes emerged as barriers to pharmacists' engaging children in medication counseling, the most prevalent being the child's absence during medication pickup, the child appearing to be distracted or uninterested, and having an unconducive pharmacy environment. Pharmacy staff noted 7 common facilitators to engaging children, most importantly, availability of demonstrative and interactive devices/technology, pharmacist demeanor and communication approach, and having child-friendly educational materials. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that pharmacy personnel are rarely able to engage children in medication counseling because of the patient's absence during medication pickup; however, having child-friendly materials could facilitate interactions when the child is present. These findings can inform programs and interventions aimed at addressing the barriers pharmacists encounter while educating children about safe and appropriate use of medicines. PMID:29290741

  1. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists' gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). The quality of the pharmacists' consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement.

  2. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayes IK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90 agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104 felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94 of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128 stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252 found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124 disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134 gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  3. Injury prevention in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Clapham, Kathleen; Senserrick, Teresa; Lyford, Marilyn; Stevenson, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Injury prevention in Indigenous communities in Australia is a continuing national challenge, with Indigenous fatality rates due to injury three times higher than the general population. Suicide and transport are the leading causes of injury mortality, and assault, transport and falls the primary causes of injury morbidity. Addressing the complex range of injury problems in disadvantaged Indigenous communities requires considerable work in building or enhancing existing capacity of communities to address local safety issues. Poor data, lack of funding and absence of targeted programs are some of the issues that impede injury prevention activities. Traditional approaches to injury prevention can be used to highlight key areas of need, however adaptations are needed in keeping with Indigenous peoples' holistic approach to health, linked to land and linked to community in order to address the complex spiritual, emotional and social determinants of Indigenous injury.

  4. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    OpenAIRE

    Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched ...

  5. Community pharmacist intervention in depressed primary care patients (PRODEFAR study: randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travé Pere

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of depression, the most prevalent and costly mental disorder, needs to be improved. Non-concordance with clinical guidelines and non-adherence can limit the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of depression. Through pharmaceutical care, pharmacists can improve patients' compliance and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention developed to improve adherence and outcomes of primary care patients with depression. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial, with 6-month follow-up, comparing patients receiving a pharmaceutical care support programme in primary care with patients receiving usual care. The total sample comprises 194 patients (aged between 18 and 75 diagnosed with depressive disorder in a primary care health centre in the province of Barcelona (Spain. Subjects will be asked for written informed consent in order to participate in the study. Diagnosis will be confirmed using the SCID-I. The intervention consists of an educational programme focused on improving knowledge about medication, making patients aware of the importance of compliance, reducing stigma, reassuring patients about side-effects and stressing the importance of carrying out general practitioners' advice. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Main outcome measure is compliance with antidepressants. Secondary outcomes include; clinical severity of depression (PHQ-9, anxiety (STAI-S, health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D, satisfaction with the treatment received, side-effects, chronic physical conditions and socio-demographics. The use of healthcare and social care services will be assessed with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI. Discussion This trial will provide valuable information for health professionals and policy makers on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical

  6. Project Octo-Pills - A practice model engaging community pharmacists in the care of patients from a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kheng Yong; Chung, Wing Lam; Mamun, Kaysar; Chen, Li Li

    2017-10-13

    Even while pharmacy practice evolves to a more patient-centric mode of practice, local hospitals, due to high patient load as well as space and resource constraints, find it challenging to conduct thorough medication review and physical medication reconciliation for all patients. In light of this, optimizing the local current healthcare system to involve community pharmacists in the care of patients from public hospitals could potentially better cater to the healthcare needs of the older population. Due to easy accessibility, community pharmacies are often the first point of contact in the healthcare system. Project Octo-Pills aims to engage community pharmacists in the collaborative care of patients from a tertiary hospital, providing patients with quality medication reconciliation and review services from a more convenient location within their neighborhood. This paper describes the model for this pilot initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a clinical pharmacy model within an Australian home nursing service using co-creation and participatory action research: the Visiting Pharmacist (ViP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Rohan A; Lee, Cik Yin; Beanland, Christine; Goeman, Dianne P; Petrie, Neil; Petrie, Barbara; Vise, Felicity; Gray, June

    2017-11-03

    To develop a collaborative, person-centred model of clinical pharmacy support for community nurses and their medication management clients. Co-creation and participatory action research, based on reflection, data collection, interaction and feedback from participants and other stakeholders. A large, non-profit home nursing service in Melbourne, Australia. Older people referred to the home nursing service for medication management, their carers, community nurses, general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists, a multidisciplinary stakeholder reference group (including consumer representation) and the project team. Feedback and reflections from minutes, notes and transcripts from: project team meetings, clinical pharmacists' reflective diaries and interviews, meetings with community nurses, reference group meetings and interviews and focus groups with 27 older people, 18 carers, 53 nurses, 15 GPs and seven community pharmacists. The model was based on best practice medication management standards and designed to address key medication management issues raised by stakeholders. Pharmacist roles included direct client care and indirect care. Direct care included home visits, medication reconciliation, medication review, medication regimen simplification, preparation of medication lists for clients and nurses, liaison and information sharing with prescribers and pharmacies and patient/carer education. Indirect care included providing medicines information and education for nurses and assisting with review and implementation of organisational medication policies and procedures. The model allowed nurses to refer directly to the pharmacist, enabling timely resolution of medication issues. Direct care was provided to 84 older people over a 15-month implementation period. Ongoing feedback and consultation, in line with participatory action research principles, informed the development and refinement of the model and identification of enablers and challenges. A collaborative

  8. Counseling about turbuhaler technique: needs assessment and effective strategies for community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheti, Iman A; Reddel, Helen K; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z

    2005-05-01

    Optimal effects of asthma medications are dependent on correct inhaler technique. In a telephone survey, 77/87 patients reported that their Turbuhaler technique had not been checked by a health care professional. In a subsequent pilot study, 26 patients were randomized to receive one of 3 Turbuhaler counseling techniques, administered in the community pharmacy. Turbuhaler technique was scored before and 2 weeks after counseling (optimal technique = score 9/9). At baseline, 0/26 patients had optimal technique. After 2 weeks, optimal technique was achieved by 0/7 patients receiving standard verbal counseling (A), 2/8 receiving verbal counseling augmented with emphasis on Turbuhaler position during priming (B), and 7/9 receiving augmented verbal counseling plus physical demonstration (C) (Fisher's exact test for A vs C, p = 0.006). Satisfactory technique (4 essential steps correct) also improved (A: 3/8 to 4/7; B: 2/9 to 5/8; and C: 1/9 to 9/9 patients) (A vs C, p = 0.1). Counseling in Turbuhaler use represents an important opportunity for community pharmacists to improve asthma management, but physical demonstration appears to be an important component to effective Turbuhaler training for educating patients toward optimal Turbuhaler technique.

  9. [Evaluation of a Two-day Hospital On-site Training Program for Community Pharmacists: Approach to Facilitate Collaboration among Community Healthcare Professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Masaki; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Morii, Hiroaki; Hoshino, Nobuo; Okunuki, Yumi; Kanemoto, Kashie; Horie, Miya; Okamoto, Haruka; Yabuta, Naoki; Matsuda, Masashi; Kamiya, Takaki; Sudo, Masatomo; Masuda, Kyouko; Iwashita, Yuri; Matsuda, Kaori; Motooka, Yoshiko; Hira, Daiki; Morita, Shin-Ya; Terada, Tomohiro

    2018-01-01

     The importance of community-based care systems has increased due to the highly aging population and diversity of disease. To enhance the cooperation among healthcare professionals in community-based care systems, a two-day on-site training program for community pharmacists based on a multidisciplinary team approach was conducted at the Medical Science Hospital of Shiga University from April 2015 to March 2017. There were two professional courses in this training program: the palliative care course and nutrition support course. Both courses consisted of common pharmaceutical care training as follows: regional cooperation among healthcare professionals, pharmacist's clinical activities in the ward, pressure ulcer care, infection control, and aseptic technique for parenteral solutions. Each course was limited to 2 participants. A questionnaire was given to participants in the training program. Seventy-five pharmacists participated in the training and all of them answered the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, 86% of participants felt that 2 days was an appropriate term for the training program. Positive answers regarding the content of each program and overall satisfaction were given by 100% and 99% of the participants, respectively. In the categorical classification of free comments regarding the expected change in pharmacy practice after the training, both "support for patients under nutritional treatment" and "cooperation with other medical staff" were answered by 24 participants. These results suggested that the 2-day on-site training for community pharmacists facilitated cooperation among healthcare professionals in the community.

  10. How Do Pharmacists Assist Medicare Beneficiaries with Limited Income? A Cross-Sectional Study of Community Pharmacies in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Salisa C; Hastings, Tessa J; McFarland, Stuart J; Hohmann, Lindsey A; Hohmann, Natalie S

    2016-09-01

    Many Medicare beneficiaries have limited income and report problems paying for their medications. Programs are available to assist these low-income individuals. However, these programs are underused because of lack of general awareness and perceived complexity of program applications. To (a) determine the frequency of encounters by pharmacists with Medicare beneficiaries who cannot afford prescription drugs; (b) identify strategies that pharmacists use to assist Medicare beneficiaries who cannot afford prescription drugs; and (c) explore what pharmacists know about programs for Medicare beneficiaries with limited income. This study used a mixed-mode survey of 350 randomly sampled community pharmacies located in 32 counties in Alabama with a high proportion of Medicare beneficiaries who were potentially eligible for low-income subsidy programs. Measures included frequency of encounters by pharmacists with Medicare beneficiaries who could not afford their medications, strategies used to assist Medicare beneficiaries, and pharmacists' knowledge of programs for Medicare beneficiaries with limited income. Of 350 surveys sent, 12 were nondeliverable, and 151 were completed (response rate=44.6%). About 50% of respondents reported encountering Medicare beneficiaries who could not afford their medications at least weekly. Various strategies were reported, including refiling claims that were previously denied every day (40.7%), contacting insurance companies at least once per week (43.2%), and loaning medications at least 2-3 times per month (29.1%). Only 12.6% reported referring beneficiaries to the Aging and Disability Resource Centers (ADRCs) to assess eligibility for limited-income programs. When asked about programs for beneficiaries with limited income, the answers were predominantly "don't know for sure." Several strategies were used by pharmacists in an attempt to help limited-income Medicare beneficiaries obtain their medications. Lack of knowledge about financial

  11. A snapshot of pharmacist attitudes and behaviors surrounding the management of pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaro, Amanda; Shah, Smita; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the current status of pediatric asthma management in the Australian community pharmacy setting from the pharmacists' perspective. This research will allow us to identify training needs of community pharmacists. Pharmacists were recruited from the Sydney metropolitan region and asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire that elucidated information on four general domains relating to pediatric asthma management within community pharmacy. All data collected were analysed descriptively. Bivariate Pearson correlations were performed to determine whether interrelationships existed between specific domains. All 77 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Thirty-two percent had not completed any asthma related CPD in the past year and only 25% of pharmacists reported using the national asthma guidelines in practice. Just over half of the pharmacists (54%) reported that they provide device technique demonstrations for new inhaled medicines, and 35% of pharmacists reported that they check for written asthma self-management plan possession. Although 65% of pharmacists reported confidence in communication skills, most pharmacists were not confident in setting short-/long-term goals with the patient and carer for managing asthma at home. Pharmacists believed that they are just as effective as doctors in providing asthma counseling and education. Lack of time was identified as a significant barrier. We have identified a gap between guideline recommended practices and the self-reported practices of community pharmacists. Pharmacists need more appropriate continuing education programs that can translate into improved pediatric asthma self-management practices and thus improved asthma outcomes in children. This may require an alternative approach.

  12. Role of the community pharmacist in emergency contraception counseling and delivery in the United States: current trends and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafie S

    2017-03-01

    acetate in seven states. In addition to access with a prescription written by a pharmacist or other health care provider, levonorgestrel EC is available over-the-counter in pharmacies and grocery stores. Pharmacists play a critical role in access to EC in community pharmacies by ensuring product availability in the inventory, up-to-date knowledge, and comprehensive patient counseling. Looking to the future, there are opportunities to expand access to EC in pharmacies further by implementing legislation expanding the pharmacist scope of practice, ensuring third-party reimbursement for clinical services delivered by pharmacists, and including EC in pharmacy education and training. Keywords: pharmacist, community pharmacy, emergency contraception, levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, intrauterine device

  13. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist's Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Pozo, Antonio Sánchez; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-09-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently-or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  14. Use of simulated patients to evaluate combined oral contraceptive dispensing practices of community pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roque Obreli-Neto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive (COC use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs (with counseled audio recording visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21(® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg. The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients' medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2% agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional, and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., "do you smoke?" (n = 2 and "what is your age?" (n = 1. None of the CPs measured the patient's blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs, and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. CONCLUSION: The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure.

  15. Understanding food security issues in remote Western Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.

  16. The role of community pharmacists in screening and subsequent management of chronic respiratory diseases: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima, Mariam; Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of community pharmacists in provision of screening with/without subsequent management of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and uncontrolled asthma. Methods An extensive literature search using four databases (ie. Medline, PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and Scopus) with search terms pharmacy, screening, asthma or COPD was conducted. Searches were limited to the years 2003-2013, those in E...

  17. The impact of the internet on the practice of general practitioners and community pharmacists in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McCaw

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions Both professions used the internet regularly as a source of health-related information and both had to deal with 'internet-informed', (or sometimes misinformed patients. Community pharmacists were more likely to feel challenged by these patients and GPs sometimes had to deal with unnecessarily worried patients or patients with unrealistic expectations. Both professions will have to change working practices to accommodate the impact of the internet. This will have significant future training implications.

  18. Enhanced knowledge of spontaneous reporting with structured educational programs in Korean community pharmacists: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun Mi; Lee, Euni

    2017-05-30

    While spontaneous reporting (SR) is one of the important public health activities for community pharmacists to guard patients' safety, very few studies examined educational activities and its effects on knowledge about the SR system in Korea. This study described the association between knowledge of SR and educational activities targeting community pharmacists in Korea. Self-administered questionnaires were collected between September 1, 2014 and November 25, 2014. The questionnaires addressed sources of SR knowledge (structured educational programs, personal access to educational resources, and information by social network services) and knowledge about the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center designated for community pharmacists, the legal responsibility clause on the serious event reporting, and the reportable items. The association between the knowledge of SR and the educational activities was evaluated using analysis of variance or chi-squared tests. Overall, 766 questionnaires demonstrated that mean age and length of career in community pharmacies was 45.7 years and 15.9 years, respectively. A structured educational program was used in 63.1% of the participants followed by a personal access to educational resources (56.3%). An educational program offered by the Korean Pharmaceutical Association was the most frequently mentioned program (56.8%), and no regional disparity in the program between the metropolitan and rural areas was observed. Pharmacists who had personal access to educational resources identified SR knowledge contents less correctly than those who used a structured educational program or both (p education (p educational program was used alone or in combination with other educational methods. Knowledge on reportable items should be reinforced during the continuing education process.

  19. Hospital discharge: What are the problems, information needs and objectives of community pharmacists? A mixed method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brühwiler LD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: After hospital discharge, community pharmacists are often the first health care professionals the discharged patient encounters. They reconcile and dispense prescribed medicines and provide pharmaceutical care. Compared to the roles of general practitioners, the pharmacists’ needs to perform these tasks are not well known. Objective: This study aims to a Identify community pharmacists’ current problems and roles at hospital discharge, b Assess their information needs, specifically the availability and usefulness of information, and c Gain insight into pharmacists’ objectives and ideas for discharge optimisation. Methods: A focus group was conducted with a sample of six community pharmacists from different Swiss regions. Based on these qualitative results, a nationwide online-questionnaire was sent to 1348 Swiss pharmacies. Results: The focus group participants were concerned about their extensive workload with discharge prescriptions and about gaps in therapy. They emphasised the importance of more extensive information transfer. This applied especially to medication changes, unclear prescriptions, and information about a patient's care. Participants identified treatment continuity as a main objective when it comes to discharge optimisation. There were 194 questionnaires returned (response rate 14.4%. The majority of respondents reported to fulfil their role as defined by the Joint-FIP/WHO Guideline on Good Pharmacy Practice (rather badly. They reported many unavailable but useful information items, like therapy changes, allergies, specifications for “off-label” medication use or contact information. Information should be delivered in a structured way, but no clear preference for one particular transfer method was found. Pharmacists requested this information in order to improve treatment continuity and patient safety, and to be able to provide better pharmaceutical care services. Conclusion: Surveyed Swiss community

  20. The role of community pharmacists in screening and subsequent management of chronic respiratory diseases: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima, Mariam; Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of community pharmacists in provision of screening with/without subsequent management of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and uncontrolled asthma. Methods: An extensive literature search using four databases (ie. Medline, PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and Scopus) with search terms pharmacy, screening, asthma or COPD was conducted. Searches were limited to the years 2003-2013, those in...

  1. Community pharmacists providing emergency contraception give little advice about future contraceptive use: a mystery shopper study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, Anna; Manners, Rachel; Loudon, Joanna C; Muir, Aileen

    2010-12-01

    UK women increasingly prefer to attend a pharmacy for emergency contraception (EC) rather than a doctor. Most women who use EC do not conceive and remain at risk of pregnancy unless they start regular contraception. We undertook a study to evaluate the quality of service provision in community pharmacies in Lothian, Scotland, and to determine what advice is given about contraception after EC use. Mystery shopper study. EC was unobtainable from 5/40 pharmacies (12.5%), refused because of "contraindications" in 7 (17.5%) and offered in 28 (70%). Most pharmacists appeared nonjudgemental, over 75% asked appropriate questions about eligibility, and over 90% gave appropriate advice about use. EC was universally refused beyond 72 h after sex but universally provided when the date of the last menstrual period was uncertain. Ongoing contraception after EC use was discussed in only 32.5% of all pharmacies and only 43% of those issuing EC. The quality of consultations for EC in pharmacies is generally good but only a minority discuss ongoing contraception after EC use. The implications for contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy rates are worrying. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poluyi EO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1% of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%, Yoruba (50.2% or Igbo (40.3% ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%. A majority (90.1% of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8% were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4% and esophageal (68.9% cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%, bladder cancer (47.2%, peripheral vascular disease (35.8% and sudden death (31.1%. Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. A little over half of the respondents (53.8% were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%, in public places (79.2%, and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%. For

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community pharmacists on generic medicines in Palestine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraim, Naser Y; Al Taha, Tasneem A; Qawasmeh, Rawan F; Jarrar, Hiba N; Shtaya, Maram A N; Shayeb, Lama A; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2017-12-28

    Generic substitution in several countries has become a common practice. Besides, it is considered as a major cost minimizing strategy meant to contain pharmaceutical expenditure without compromising healthcare quality. However, the safety and quality issues of generic products are of top concerns of general practitioners and health work professionals. This study aimed to investigate community pharmacist's knowledge, attitudes and practices toward generic medicines in Palestine. This study was a cross-sectional observational study employing a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was of four main sections: demographic and practice details of the participants, knowledge, attitudes and the influencing factors related to selection and dispensing of generic medicines. A convenience sampling technique was implemented in this study in which the data collection form was distributed in West Bank- Palestine among a set of practicing pharmacists. Mann-Whitney-U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to comparison of different issues as appropriate. P-values of marketing approval of generics, while 87.4% of participants agreed that they should be given the right to substitute generics and the majority (62.3%) support generic substitution for brand name drugs in all cases when a generic is available The main two factors affect pharmacists' selection and dispensing of generic medicines are personal faith in the product (86.1%) and cost effectiveness of generic medicines (84.1%). Generic medicines substitution among pharmacists is widespread and prevalent. Our data found that participant pharmacists in Palestine had basic knowledge with regards to generic medicine. However, their knowledge score pertaining the technical and regulatory aspects of bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic parameters in particular was insufficient.

  4. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasello Anthony C

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use

  5. Which information on women's issues in epilepsy does a community pharmacist need to know? A Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and achieve consensus on a core list of important knowledge items that community pharmacists should know on women's issues in epilepsy. This was a consensual study using a modified Delphi technique. Knowledge items were collected from the literature and from nine key contacts who were interviewed on their views on what information community pharmacists should have on women's issues in epilepsy. More knowledge items were suggested by five researchers with interest in women's issues who were contacted to rate and comment on the knowledge items collected. Two iterative Delphi rounds were conducted among a panel of pharmacists (n=30) to achieve consensus on the knowledge items to be included in the core list. Ten panelists ranked the knowledge items by their importance using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Consensus was achieved to include 68 knowledge under 13 categories in the final core list. Items ranked by their importance were related to the following: teratogenicity (10.3%), effect of pregnancy on epilepsy (7.4%), preconception counseling (10.3%), bone health (5.9%), catamenial epilepsy (7.4%), menopause and hormonal replacement therapy (2.9%), contraception (14.7%), menstrual disorders and infertility (8.8%), eclampsia (2.9%), breastfeeding (4.4%), folic acid and vitamin K (5.9%), counseling on general issues (14.7%), and sexuality (4.4%). Using consensual knowledge lists might promote congruence in educating and/or training community pharmacists on women's issues in epilepsy. Future studies are needed to investigate if such lists can improve health services provided to women with epilepsy (WWE). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New Roles for Pharmacists in Community Mental Health Care: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1 the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2 the pharmacists’ role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3 barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists’ attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma.

  7. Treating asthma with a self-management model of illness behaviour in an Australian community pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Mitchell, Bernadette; Saini, Bandana; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol

    2007-04-01

    Asthma affects a considerable proportion of the population worldwide and presents a significant health problem in Australia. Given its chronic nature, effective asthma self-management approaches are important. However, despite research and interventions targeting its treatment, the management of asthma remains problematic. This study aimed to develop, from a theoretical basis, an asthma self-management model and implement it in an Australian community pharmacy setting in metropolitan Sydney, using a controlled, parallel-groups repeated-measures design. Trained pharmacists delivered a structured, step-wise, patient-focused asthma self-management program to adult participants over a 9-month period focusing on identification of asthma problems, goal setting and strategy development. Data on process- clinical- and psychosocial-outcome measures were gathered. Results showed that participants set an average of four new goals and six repeated goals over the course of the intervention. Most common goal-related themes included asthma triggers, asthma control and medications. An average of nine strategies per participant was developed to achieve the set goals. Common strategies involved visiting a medical practitioner for review of medications, improving adherence to medications and using medications before exercise. Clinical and psychosocial outcomes indicated significant improvements over time in asthma symptom control, asthma-related self-efficacy and quality of life, and negative affect. These results suggest that an asthma self-management model of illness behaviour has the potential to provide patients with a range of process skills for self-management, and deliver improvements in clinical and psychosocial indicators of asthma control. The results also indicate the capacity for the effective delivery of such an intervention by pharmacists in Australian community pharmacy settings.

  8. The influence of generic substitution on the content of patient-pharmacist communication in Swedish community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erika; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Ahmed, Ban; Ingman, Pontus; Kaae, Susanne; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between the length and content of patient-pharmacist communication in community pharmacies, and generic substitution. The study was conducted in six community pharmacies in Sweden. Non-participant observations with audio recordings and short structured interviews were conducted. Out of 32 pharmacists 29 agreed to participate (90.6%), as did 282 out of 407 patients (69.3%). Logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate odds ratio for occurrence of generic substitution. Linear regression (β-coefficients) was applied to test for differences in time spent on different categories. In encounters where generic substitution occurred more time (19.2 s) was spent on non-medical (for instance administrative or economical) issues (P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 4.8-33.6). However, the total time of the encounter was not significantly longer. The amount of time spent on non-medical issues increased with age of patient (age 60+: β, 33 s, P communicating on non-medical, but not on medical, issues. No extra time was spent on medical information for the groups normally overrepresented among those with low health literacy. This study suggests that pharmacists need to further embrace their role in promoting rational use of medicines, not least when generic substitution occurs. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. The use of think-aloud protocols to identify a decision-making process of community pharmacists aimed at improving CMS Star Ratings scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David L; Smith, Michael J; Draugalis, JoLaine R; Tolma, Eleni L; Keast, Shellie L; Wilson, Justin B

    2018-03-01

    The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) created the Star Rating system based on multiple measures that indicate the overall quality of health plans. Community pharmacists can impact certain Star Ratings measure scores through medication adherence and patient safety interventions. To explore methods, needs, and workflow issues of community pharmacists to improve CMS Star Ratings measures. Think-aloud protocols (TAPs) were conducted with active community retail pharmacists in Oklahoma. Each TAP was audio recorded and transcribed to documents for analysis. Analysts agreed on common themes, illuminated differences in findings, and saturation of the data gathered. Methods, needs, and workflow themes of community pharmacists associated with improving Star Ratings measures were compiled and organized to exhibit a decision-making process. Five TAPs were performed among three independent pharmacy owners, one multi-store owner, and one chain-store administrator. A thematically common 4-step process to monitor and improve CMS Star Ratings scores among participants was identified. To improve Star Ratings measures, pharmacists: 1) used technology to access scores, 2) analyzed data to strategically set goals, 3) assessed individual patient information for comprehensive assessment, and 4) decided on interventions to best impact Star Ratings scores. Participants also shared common needs, workflow issues, and benefits associated with methods used in improving Star Ratings. TAPs were useful in exploring processes of pharmacists who improve CMS Star Ratings scores. Pharmacists demonstrated and verbalized their methods, workflow issues, needs, and benefits related to performing the task. The themes and decision-making process identified to improving CMS Star Ratings scores will assist in the development of training and education programs for pharmacists in the community setting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. GPs' and community pharmacists' opinions on medication management at transitions of care in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Patrick; Carroll, Hailey; Grimes, Tamasine; Galvin, Rose; McDonnell, Ronan; Boland, Fiona; McDowell, Ronald; Hughes, Carmel; Fahey, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to survey GPs and community pharmacists (CPs) in Ireland regarding current practices of medication management, specifically medication reconciliation, communication between health care providers and medication errors as patients transition in care. A national cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically to 2364 GPs, 311 GP Registrars and 2382 CPs. Multivariable associations comparing GPs to CPs were generated and content analysis of free text responses was undertaken. There was an overall response rate of 17.7% (897 respondents-554 GPs/Registrars and 343 CPs). More than 90% of GPs and CPs were positive about the effects of medication reconciliation on medication safety and adherence. Sixty per cent of GPs reported having no formal system of medication reconciliation. Communication between GPs and CPs was identified as good/very good by >90% of GPs and CPs. The majority (>80%) of both groups could clearly recall prescribing errors, following a transition of care, they had witnessed in the previous 6 months. Free text content analysis corroborated the positive relationship between GPs and CPs, a frustration with secondary care communication, with many examples given of prescribing errors. While there is enthusiasm for the benefits of medication reconciliation there are limited formal structures in primary care to support it. Challenges in relation to systems that support inter-professional communication and reduce medication errors are features of the primary/secondary care transition. There is a need for an improved medication management system. Future research should focus on the identified barriers in implementing medication reconciliation and systems that can improve it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Impact of community pharmacists' interventions on asthma self-management care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Milena; Ćulafić, Milica; Jovanović, Marija; Vučićević, Katarina; Kovačević, Sandra Vezmar; Miljković, Branislava

    2018-06-01

    Asthma self-management is aimed to improve the quality and effectiveness of asthma care by supporting the patients to manage their illness by themselves. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-delivered counselling on patients knowledge and beliefs about the medicines, adherence level, and asthma control. A prospective intervention study was conducted in community pharmacies. A total of 90 patients completed the study. Four questionnaires were used: (1) Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ), (2) Knowledge of asthma and asthma medicine (KAM), (3) Asthma control test (ACT), and (4) 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale questionnaire (MMAS-8). Questionnaires were completed at baseline and 3 months later. Low level of adherence and poor asthma control were determined initially. Better asthma control was significantly associated with higher adherence level, lower concerns regarding the medication use, and knowledge of triggers. Statistically significant improvement was found after 3 months in patients knowledge of asthma and its medications, their attitude towards medications (decrease in harm, overuse and concern; increase in necessity score), asthma control score (increased from 19 to 20, p < 0.05) and level of adherence (MMAS-8 score decreased from 3 to 2 p < 0.05). Better asthma control was achieved in 60% of patients. Sixteen patients (18%) were transferred from poor to well-controlled asthma, implying no need for patients' referral to the doctor and no additional cost for the health system. Improved disease control could be a result of enhanced knowledge and understanding of the disease-medication relationship, improved inhalation technique, and support on patients' adherence. Acquired knowledge and skills, as well as improved attitude, empowered patients to take a more active part in asthma management. Education in further patients' follow-up should consider topics tailored to the patients' characteristics, needs, and prior

  12. Emergency supply of prescription-only medicines to patients by community pharmacists: a mixed methods evaluation incorporating patient, pharmacist and GP perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecroft, Charles W; Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J; Wilson, Sarah E; Ashcroft, Darren M; Mensah, Noah; Pickup, Graham B

    2015-07-10

    To evaluate and inform emergency supply of prescription-only medicines by community pharmacists (CPs), including how the service could form an integral component of established healthcare provision to maximise adherence. Mixed methods. 4 phases: prospective audit of emergency supply requests for prescribed medicines (October-November 2012 and April 2013); interviews with CPs (February-April 2013); follow-up interviews with patients (April-May 2013); interactive feedback sessions with general practice teams (October-November 2013). 22 community pharmacies and 6 general practices in Northwest England. 27 CPs with experience of dealing with requests for emergency supplies; 25 patients who received an emergency supply of a prescribed medicine; 58 staff at 6 general practices. Clinical audit in 22 pharmacies over two 4-week periods reported that 526 medicines were requested by 450 patients. Requests peaked over a bank holiday and around weekends. A significant number of supplies were made during practice opening hours. Most requests were for older patients and for medicines used in long-term conditions. Difficulty in renewing repeat medication (forgetting to order, or prescription delays) was the major reason for requests. The majority of medicines were 'loaned' in advance of a National Health Service (NHS) prescription. Interviews with CPs and patients indicated that continuous supply had a positive impact on medicines adherence, removing the need to access urgent care. General practice staff were surprised and concerned by the extent of emergency supply episodes. CPs regularly provide emergency supplies to patients who run out of their repeat medication, including during practice opening hours. This may aid adherence. There is currently no feedback loop, however, to general practice. Patient care and interprofessional communication may be better served by the introduction of a formally structured and funded NHS emergency supply service from community pharmacies, with

  13. Managing obesity in pharmacy: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Irene S I; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2010-12-01

    To explore pharmacists' opinions about the provision of weight management services in community pharmacy and their attitudes towards the establishment of an accredited training course in weight management in pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with practising pharmacists on site in various community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with twenty practising pharmacists were conducted. Of the twenty interviewed pharmacists, sixteen were involved in the provision of one or more pharmacy based weight management programs in their pharmacies. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the grounded theory approach. The data were thematically analysed to identify facilitators and perceived barriers to the provision of high quality services, and pharmacists' willingness to undertake training and accreditation. Participants clearly perceived a role for pharmacy in weight management. Key facilitators to provision of service were accessibility and the perception of pharmacists as trustworthy healthcare professionals. The pharmacists proposed collaboration with other healthcare professionals in order to provide a service incorporating diet, exercise and behavioural therapy. A program that was not-product-centred, and supported by ethical marketing was favoured. Appropriate training and accreditation were considered essential to assuring the quality of such services. Barriers to the provision of high quality services identified were: remuneration, pharmacy infrastructure, client demand and the current marketing of product-centred programs. Australian pharmacists believe there is a role for pharmacy in weight management, provided training in accredited programs is made available. A holistic, evidence-based, multi-disciplinary service model has been identified as ideal.

  14. What role could community pharmacists in Malaysia play in diabetes self-management education and support? The views of individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Lyn; Wong, Pei Se; Tan, Ming Yeong; Sheridan, Janie

    2018-04-01

    This study explored the experiences and views of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on their diabetes self-management and potential roles for community pharmacists in diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) in Malaysia. A qualitative study, using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews, was conducted with patients with T2D attending a primary care health clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed inductively. Fourteen participants with T2D were interviewed. Data were coded into five main themes: experience and perception of diabetes self-management, constraints of the current healthcare system, perception of the community pharmacist and community pharmacies, perceived roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care, and challenges in utilising community pharmacies to provide DSME/S. There were misconceptions about diabetes management that may be attributed to a lack of knowledge. Although participants described potential roles for community pharmacists in education, medication review and continuity of care, these roles were mostly non-clinically oriented. Participants were not confident about community pharmacists making recommendations and changes to the prescribed treatment regimens. While participants recognised the advantages of convenience of a community pharmacy-based diabetes care service, they raised concerns over the retail nature and the community pharmacy environment for providing such services. This study highlighted the need to improve the care provision for people with T2D. Participants with T2D identified potential, but limited roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care. Participants expressed concerns that need to be addressed if effective diabetes care is to be provided from community pharmacies in Malaysia. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Assessment of Pharmacists Workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Method: A national facility based census of the pharmacist workforce was conducted in Ethiopia. ... pharmacists practice in community, hospitals and other medical .... Higher proportion of female pharmacists than males were working .... Recognition they get for good work. 8 ..... pharmacists' empowerment and organizational.

  16. Risky drinking among community pharmacy customers in New Zealand and their attitudes towards pharmacist screening and brief interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Stewart, Joanna; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of risky drinking among customers in community pharmacies and to explore customer attitudes towards screening and brief intervention (SBI). Cross-sectional, anonymous survey, using random selection of community pharmacies in New Zealand to collect data using self-completion questionnaires and an opportunity to enter a prize draw. Participants were customers/patients attending the community pharmacy on a specific, randomly selected day (Monday to Friday) in one set week. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)-C using a cut-off score of 5 was used to measure risky drinking. Attitudes towards pharmacists engaging in SBI for risky drinkers were measured. 2384 completed customer/patient questionnaires from 43 participating pharmacies. Almost 84% ever drank alcohol and using a score of 5 or more as a cut-off, 30% of the sample would be considered as risky drinkers. Attitudes were generally positive to pharmacists undertaking SBI. Logistic regression with AUDIT-C positive or negative as the dependent variable found those taking medicines for mental health and liver disease being more likely to score negative on the AUDIT-C, and smokers and those purchasing hangover cures were more likely than average to have a positive AUDIT-C screen. This study indicates there is scope for community pharmacists to undertake SBI for risky drinking, and that customers find this to be acceptable. Targeted screening may well be useful, in particular for smokers. Further research is required to explore the effectiveness of SBI for risky drinkers in this setting. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Employing the nominal group technique to explore the views of pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women on community pharmacy weight management services and educational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate how pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel about community pharmacy involvement in weight management, and to identify what pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women want in weight management educational resources. Three homogenous and one heterogeneous nominal group (NG) sessions of up to 120-min duration were conducted with nine women, ten pharmacists and eight pharmacy assistants. The NG technique was used to conduct each session to determine the most important issues that should be considered surrounding community pharmacy weight management services and development of any educational resources. The heterogeneous NG session was used to finalise what women, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants want in educational resources. Overall, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women believe that pharmacy staff have an important role in the management of overweight and obesity because of their accessibility, trust and the availability of products in pharmacy. Regarding the most suitable healthcare professional(s) to treat overweight and obesity, the majority of participants believed that no one member of the healthcare team was most suitable and that overweight and obesity needs to be treated by a multidisciplinary team. The importance of having weight management educational resources for pharmacy staff and women that come from trustworthy resources without financial gain or commercialisation was also emphasised. Pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel that community pharmacies have a definite role to play in weight management. Pharmacy-specific weight management educational resources that are readily available to pharmacy staff and women are highly desirable. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D Leonhardt

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spec., revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia. Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association.

  19. Microbial Communities of Three Sympatric Australian Stingless Bee Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing – among other taxa – host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4–5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  20. Australian Football League concussion guidelines: what do community players think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801

  1. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  2. Child-Caregiver Interaction in Two Remote Indigenous Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eVaughan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As

  3. The influence of generic substitution on the content of patient-pharmacist communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Ahmed, Ban

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to study the relationship between the length and content of patient-pharmacist communication in community pharmacies, and generic substitution. METHODS: The study was conducted in six community pharmacies in Sweden. Non-participant observations with audio recordings...... for differences in time spent on different categories. KEY FINDINGS: In encounters where generic substitution occurred more time (19.2 s) was spent on non-medical (for instance administrative or economical) issues (P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 4.8-33.6). However, the total time of the encounter...... to those with only elementary school education. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of generic substitution was correlated with more time spent on communicating on non-medical, but not on medical, issues. No extra time was spent on medical information for the groups normally overrepresented among those with low health...

  4. Design of a trial to evaluate the impact of clinical pharmacists and community health promoters working with African-Americans and Latinos with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Ben S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and the lack of patients reaching recommended therapeutic goals, novel models of team-based care are emerging. These teams typically include a combination of physicians, nurses, case managers, pharmacists, and community-based peer health promoters (HPs. Recent evidence supports the role of pharmacists in diabetes management to improve glycemic control, as they offer expertise in medication management with the ability to collaboratively intensify therapy. However, few studies of pharmacy-based models of care have focused on low income, minority populations that are most in need of intervention. Alternatively, HP interventions have focused largely upon low income minority groups, addressing their unique psychosocial and environmental challenges in diabetes self-care. This study will evaluate the impact of HPs as a complement to pharmacist management in a randomized controlled trial. Methods/Design The primary aim of this randomized trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists and HPs on diabetes behaviors (including healthy eating, physical activity, and medication adherence, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. A total of 300 minority patients with uncontrolled diabetes from the University of Illinois Medical Center ambulatory network in Chicago will be randomized to either pharmacist management alone, or pharmacist management plus HP support. After one year, the pharmacist-only group will be intensified by the addition of HP support and maintenance will be assessed by phasing out HP support from the pharmacist plus HP group (crossover design. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, program and healthcare utilization data will be incorporated into cost and cost-effectiveness evaluations of pharmacist management with and without HP support. Discussion The study will evaluate an innovative, integrated

  5. Development and evaluation of an instrument to measure community pharmacists' self-efficacy beliefs about communicating with Spanish-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Henry N; Hwang, Monica J; Dilworth, Thomas J; Mott, David; Cox, Elizabeth D; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-12-01

    Hispanics are the largest growing population in the United States, and their use of prescription medications can be influenced by the education and counseling they receive from pharmacists. However, little is known about pharmacists' communication with patients who speak Spanish or factors that can influence such communication. The objective of the study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure pharmacists' self-efficacy in communicating with Spanish-speaking patients. An initial pool of 15 items developed from previous research and suggestions from communication experts and practicing pharmacists was subjected to cognitive interviewing. Nine retained items were administered to 1022 licensed pharmacists by mail survey. Summary statistics and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted. Retained factors were determined by the examination of eigenvalues and scree test results. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated to assess internal consistency. A total of 540 community pharmacists completed the survey. Item means ranged from 2.93±1.47 to 1.58±0.88 based on a 5-point scale (1: not at all confident to 5: extremely confident). EFA resulted in a 2-factor solution, accounting for 71% of the variance. The 2 factors consisted of health and drug information (alpha=0.92) and opening the encounter (alpha=0.75). The alpha for the overall scale was 0.88. The results provide evidence to support the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure pharmacists' self-efficacy beliefs about communicating with Spanish-speaking patients in community practice. Practitioners and researchers may use this instrument to inform pharmacy education, pharmacy practice improvement, and research efforts around communicating with Spanish-speaking clients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  7. A qualitative study exploring perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacists about extended pharmacy services in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Furqan K; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Khalid, Adnan; Saleem, Fahad; Aljadhey, Hisham; Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Bashaar, Mohammad

    2017-07-19

    In recent decades, community pharmacies reported a change of business model, whereby a shift from traditional services to the provision of extended roles was observed. However, such delivery of extended pharmacy services (EPS) is reported from the developed world, and there is scarcity of information from the developing nations. Within this context, the present study was aimed to explore knowledge, perception and attitude of community pharmacists (CPs) about EPS and their readiness and acceptance for practice change in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. A qualitative approach was used to gain an in-depth knowledge of the issues. By using a semi-structured interview guide, 12 CPs practicing in the city of Lahore, Pakistan were conveniently selected. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and were then analyzed for thematic contents by the standard content analysis framework. Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes. (1) Familiarity with EPS, (2) current practice of EPS, (3) training needed to provide EPS, (4) acceptance of EPS and (5) barriers toward EPS. Majority of the CPs were unaware of EPS and only a handful had the concept of extended services. Although majority of our study respondents were unaware of pharmaceutical care, they were ready to accept practice change if provided with the required skills and training. Lack of personal knowledge, poor public awareness, inadequate physician-pharmacist collaboration and deprived salary structures were reported as barriers towards the provision of EPS at the practice settings. Although the study reported poor awareness towards EPS, the findings indicated a number of key themes that can be used in establishing the concept of EPS in Pakistan. Over all, CPs reported a positive attitude toward practice change provided to the support and facilitation of health and community based agencies in Pakistan.

  8. Pharmacy diabetes care program: analysis of two screening methods for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, I; Mitchell, B; Clarke, P; Brillant, M; Dienaar, R; Hughes, J; Lau, P; Peterson, G; Stewart, K; Taylor, S; Wilkinson, J; Armour, C

    2007-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two methods of screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy. A random sample of 30 pharmacies were allocated into two groups: (i) tick test only (TTO); or (ii) sequential screening (SS) method. Both methods used the same initial risk assessment for type 2 diabetes. Subjects with one or more risk factors in the TTO group were offered a referral to their general practitioner (GP). Under the SS method, patients with risk factors were offered a capillary blood glucose test and those identified as being at risk referred to a GP. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these approaches was assessed. A total of 1286 people were screened over a period of 3 months. The rate of diagnosis of diabetes was significantly higher for SS compared with the TTO method (1.7% versus 0.2%; p=0.008). The SS method resulted in fewer referrals to the GP and a higher uptake of referrals than the TTO method and so was the more cost-effective screening method. SS is the superior method from a cost and efficacy perspective. It should be considered as the preferred option for screening by community based pharmacists in Australia.

  9. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  10. Community pharmacists' evaluation of potentially inappropriate prescribing in older community-dwelling patients with polypharmacy: observational research based on the GheOP³S tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommelein, Eline; Mehuys, Els; Van Tongelen, Inge; Petrovic, Mirko; Somers, Annemie; Colin, Pieter; Demarche, Sophie; Van Hees, Thierry; Christiaens, Thierry; Boussery, Koen

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to (i) determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in community-dwelling older polypharmacy patients using the Ghent Older People's Prescriptions community-Pharmacy Screening (GheOP³S) tool, (ii) identify the items that account for the highest proportion of PIP and (iii) identify the patient variables that may influence the occurrence of PIP. Additionally, pharmacist-physician contacts emerging from PIP screening with the GheOP³S tool and feasibility of the GheOP³S tool in daily practice were evaluated. A prospective observational study was carried out between December 2013 and July 2014 in 204 community pharmacies in Belgium. Patients were eligible if they were (i) ≥70 years, (ii) community-dwelling, (iii) using ≥5 chronic drugs, (iv) a regular visitor of the pharmacy and (v) understanding Dutch or French. Community pharmacists used a structured interview to obtain demographic data and medication use and subsequently screened for PIP using the GheOP³S tool. A Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between different covariates and the number of PIP. In 987 (97%) of 1016 included patients, 3721 PIP items were detected (median of 3 per patient; inter quartile range: 2-5). Most frequently involved with PIP are drugs for the central nervous system such as hypnosedatives, antipsychotics and antidepressants. Risk factors for a higher PIP prevalence appeared to be a higher number of drugs (30% extra PIPs per 5 extra drugs), female gender (20% extra PIPs), higher body mass index (BMI, 20% extra PIPs per 10-unit increase in BMI) and poorer functional status (30% extra PIPs with 6-point increase). The feasibility of the GheOP³S tool was acceptable although digitalization of the tool would improve implementation. Despite detecting at least one PIP in 987 patients, only 39 physicians were contacted by the community pharmacists to discuss the items. A high prevalence of PIP in community

  11. The survey for pharmacist in community pharmacy concerning the usefullness of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in self-medication and the state of sales of products for ORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuko; Harada, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness as one of the tools for self-medication of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), recommended as a safe and effective therapy for mild to moderate dehydration, was surveyed by questionnaire for pharmacists in community pharmacies. ORT products were sold in 112 pharmacies (61%), and the common product was OS-1(®). Approximately 50% of sellers answered that they had no particular difficulty in explaining ORT. Percentage to answer "hard to describe" is significantly higher in pharmacists who believe there is a need to consider underlying health conditions of customers or patients when implementing ORT. Around 77% of pharmacists considered ORT to be useful in patients as a method of self-medication. A significant number of pharmacists selling ORT products depends on the consultation from customers or patients and provide advice to them confirming that ORT was useful. From these results, it was suggested that further information concerning ORT, such as its use in patients with chronic disorders or signs for completion, and the initiative of pharmacists to participate are necessary for spread the efficacy of ORT for self-medication in patients.

  12. Community participation and mental health during retirement in community sample of Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Sarah C; Berry, Helen L

    2011-03-01

    This study considered whether community participation during later adulthood is more strongly associated with mental health during retirement than it is while in employment; i.e. in the absence of paid work. Participants were 322 men and 311 women aged 45 years and older, who were part of a random sample of an Australian coastal community. The frequency of participation across 14 types of community-based activities was assessed. Overall mental health was measured on a 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Linear regression models tested the multivariate associations between distress and community participation, and whether this association differed for retired and working people. Retirees did not participate in their communities more than working people. The association between community participation and psychological distress did not differ by retirement status when people of all ages were considered together; however, stronger associations between several activities and (less) distress were found for retirees compared to their working peers in a younger cohort (aged 45 to 54). This cohort coincides with the average age of transition to retirement in Australia. These findings offer some support for the view that community participation may assist in managing the mental health implications of the transition from work to retirement.

  13. Investigating the relationship between the practice of pharmaceutical care, construed external image, organizational identification, and job turnover intention of community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jessica L; Gaither, Caroline A

    2007-12-01

    Pharmacy employers are being challenged to recruit and retain qualified employees. Our study hypothesized that pharmacists who practice pharmaceutical care have an attractive construed external image (how employees think outsiders view their organization), which strengthens their organizational identification (perceptions of oneness with or belongingness to the organization) and decreases job turnover intention (thoughts of quitting/searching for another job). A 7-page questionnaire was mailed to the homes of a random sample of 759 licensed pharmacists practicing in the United States. Participants had the option of returning the completed survey via postal mail or a Web site. The study variables were measured with previously validated scales. Structural equation modeling with latent variables evaluated the hypothesized relationships. Several demographic variables were included. Responses were received from 252 subjects (33%); 121 were community pharmacists. As hypothesized, organizational identification and job turnover intention were significantly related (B=-0.24) as well as construed external image and organizational identification (B=0.41). The practice of pharmaceutical care and construed external image were not significantly correlated (B=0.10). Although not hypothesized, construed external image was directly related to job turnover intention (B=-0.25). The effects of the practice of pharmaceutical care on job turnover intention were mediated through organizational identification. Position had significant effects. One additional benefit to the practice of pharmaceutical care may be strengthened organizational identification. Pharmacists' perception of the image of their employer may increase organizational identification and decrease job turnover intention. An understanding of the organizational identification of pharmacists would be useful in decreasing job turnover intention. Given the current demand for pharmacists, this is a worthwhile endeavor. Future

  14. A systematic review in select countries of the role of the pharmacist in consultations and sales of non-prescription medicines in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eikenhorst, Linda; Salema, Nde-Eshimuni; Anderson, Claire

    Much has been studied in regard to non-prescription medicines (NPMs), but the impact of greater emphasis toward patient self-selection of such agents is still not well understood, and evidence in the literature might be equivocal. The aim was to examine whether or not pharmacist interventions are important in the sale of NPMs and to summarize the evidence of pharmacists' contribution in maintaining patient safety and improving the quality of consultations involving NPMs. Seven online databases were searched to identify the literature on studies conducted within the UK and in countries comparable to the UK reporting on consultations and selling of NPMs published between 1980 and 2013. All study designs except for quantitative surveys were eligible for inclusion into the review. The data extraction and quality assessment were performed according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. The data extracted from the studies were analyzed and presented qualitatively. Eighty-three studies from an original 12,879 citations were included in this review. Just under half of the studies were published between 2000 and 2009 (n = 38; 46%). Thirty-three (44%) of the studies were conducted in the UK. The review showed that in terms of the contribution of community pharmacy staff in consultations for NPMs, non-pharmacist staff dealt with a large proportion of the consultations and pharmacists were usually involved in the consultation through referral from non-pharmacist staff member. Counseling was not consistently offered to everyone. Where counseling was provided it was not always of sufficient quality. Consultations were performed much better when symptoms were presented compared to when people made a direct product request. Pharmacists were reported to conduct better consultations than non-pharmacist staff. There was evidence to suggest that where counseling was appropriately provided this afforded the person a safe environment to utilize their

  15. Identification of major factors in Australian primary care pharmacists' practice environment that have a bearing on the implementation of professional models of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John K; Hussainy, Safeera Y; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe an environmental framework for pharmacists in primary care in Australia and determine the major factors within that environment that have the greatest bearing on their capacity to implement patient-focused models of professional practice. Methods A draft framework for pharmacists' practice was developed by allocating structures, systems and related factors known to the researchers or identified from the literature as existing within pharmacists' internal, operational and external environments to one of five domains: Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental or Political [STEEP]. Focus groups of pharmacists used an adapted nominal group technique to assess the draft and add factors where necessary. Where applicable, factors were consolidated into groups to establish a revised framework. The three major factors or groups in each domain were identified. The results were compared with the enabling factors described in the profession's vision statement. Results Seventy-eight individual factors were ultimately identified, with 86% able to be grouped. The three dominant groups in each of the five domains that had a bearing on the implementation of professional models of practice were as follows: (1) Social: the education of pharmacists, their beliefs and the capacity of the pharmacist workforce; (2) Technological: current and future practice models, technology and workplace structures; (3) Economic: funding of services, the viability of practice and operation of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme; (4) Environmental: attitudes and expectations of stakeholders, including consumers, health system reform and external competition; and (5) Political: regulation of practice, representation of the profession and policies affecting practice. Conclusions The three dominant groups of factors in each of the five STEEP environmental domains, which have a bearing on pharmacists' capacity to implement patient-focused models of

  16. Optimising the changing role of the community pharmacist: a randomised trial of the impact of audit and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, Nancy; Eguale, Tewodros; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of comparative performance feedback to community pharmacists on provision of professional services and the quality of patients’ medication use. Design Randomised, controlled, single-blind trial. Setting All 1833 community pharmacies in the Quebec province, Canada. Participants 1814 pharmacies not opting out and with more than 5 dispensings of the target medications during the 6-month baseline were randomised by a 2×2 factorial design to feedback first for hypertension adherence (907 control, 907 intervention) followed by randomisation for asthma adherence (791 control, 807 intervention). 1422 of 1814 pharmacies had complete information available during the follow-up for hypertension intervention (706 intervention, 716 control), and 1301 of 1598 had the follow-up information for asthma (657 intervention, 644 control). Intervention Using provincial billing data to measure performance, mailed comparative feedback reported the pharmacy-level percentage of dispensings to patients non-adherent to antihypertensive medications or overusing asthma rescue inhalers. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of hypertension/asthma services billed per pharmacy and percentage of dispensings to non-adherent patients over the 12 months post intervention. Results Feedback on the asthma measure led to increased provision of asthma services (control 0.2, intervention 0.4, RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.46). However, this did not translate into reductions in patients’ overuse of rescue inhalers (control 45.5%, intervention 44.6%, RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.01). For non-adherence to antihypertensive medications, feedback resulted in no difference in either provision of hypertension services (control 0.7, intervention 0.8, RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.82) or antihypertensive treatment adherence (control 27.9%, intervention 28.0%, RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.00). Baseline performance did not influence results, and there was no evidence of a cumulative

  17. Carbon profiles of remote Australian Indigenous communities: A base for opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.; Anda, M.; Harper, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A decision-making model was constructed to assist remote Australian Indigenous communities select appropriate climate change mitigation programs. The Resilient Community and Livelihood Asset Integration Model (ReCLAIM) comprises six steps that focus on community assets and aspirations. The second of these steps is to determine the baseline carbon profiles of communities based on six sources of carbon emissions: materials, construction processes, stationary energy, transport, water systems and waste. The methodology employed an annualised lifecycle analysis of housing materials and construction, and an annual inventory of other emission sources. Profiles were calculated for two remote communities and compared to the Australian average and also average electricity consumption by remote communities in the Northern Territory. The results, expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO_2-e), showed that average household carbon profiles of the two communities (6.3 and 4.1 tCO_2-e/capita/yr) were generally lower than the Australian average (7.3 tCO_2-e/capita/yr). The stationary energy results revealed that infrastructure and building design could raise fuel consumption and costs, and therefore carbon emissions, despite modest lifestyles. The carbon emission categories differed between the two communities highlighting the need for an individualised approach to understanding the drivers of carbon emissions and mitigation responses. - Highlights: •We model carbon profiles of two remote Aboriginal communities. •Community carbon profiles were lower than the Australian average. •We compare stationary energy with a 72-community sample average. •Low-carbon communities are possible with renewable energy systems. •Building design and energy source can impact significantly on emissions.

  18. Assessing the effects of pharmacists' perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and turnover intention on provision of medication information at community pharmacies in Lithuania: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta; Kubilius, Raimondas; Urbonienė, Aušra

    2015-03-01

    As a member of a pharmacy organization, a pharmacist is not only bound to fulfill his/her professional obligations but is also affected by different personal and organizational factors that may influence his/her behavior and, consequently, the quality of the services he/she provides to patients. The main purpose of the research was to test a hypothesized model of the relationships among several organizational variables, and to investigate whether any of these variables affects the service of provision of medication information at community pharmacies. During the survey, pharmacists working at community pharmacies in Lithuania were asked to express their opinions on the community pharmacies at which they worked and to reflect on their actions when providing information on medicines to their patients. The statistical data were analyzed by applying a structural equation modeling technique to test the hypothesized model of the relationships among the variables of Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Provision of Medication Information. The final model revealed that Organizational Commitment had a positive direct effect on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.27) and a negative direct effect (standardized estimate = -0.66) on Turnover Intention. Organizational Commitment mediated the indirect effects of Perceived Organizational Support on Turnover Intention (standardized estimate = -0.48) and on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.20). Pharmacists' Turnover Intention had no significant effect on Provision of Medication Information. Community pharmacies may be viewed as encouraging, to some extent, the service of provision of medication information. Pharmacists who felt higher levels of support from their organizations also expressed, to a certain extent, higher commitment to their organizations by providing more consistent medication information to patients. However, the

  19. Retrospective Evaluation of Pharmacist Interventions on Use of Antimicrobials Using a Clinical Surveillance Software in a Small Community Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R. Huber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America “Guidelines for Developing an Institutional Program to Enhance Antimicrobial Stewardship” recommend the use of computer-based surveillance programs for efficient and thorough identification of potential interventions as part of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP. This retrospective study examined the benefit of utilizing a clinical surveillance software program to help guide antimicrobial therapy in an inpatient setting, in a small community hospital, without a formal ASP. The electronic health record (EHR was used to retrieve documentations for the following types of antibiotic interventions: culture surveillance, duplicate therapy, duration of therapy and renal dose adjustments. The numbers of interventions made during the three-month periods before and after implementation of the clinical surveillance software were compared. Antibiotic related interventions aggregated to 144 and 270 in the pre- and post-implementation time frame, respectively (p < 0.0001. The total number of antibiotic interventions overall and interventions in three of the four sub-categories increased significantly from the pre-implementation to post-implementation period. Clinical surveillance software is a valuable tool to assist pharmacists in evaluating antimicrobial therapy.

  20. Community pharmacist collaboration with a patient-centered medical home: Establishment of a patient-centered medical neighborhood and payment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luder, Heidi R; Shannon, Pam; Kirby, James; Frede, Stacey M

    To determine the feasibility of a partnership between a community pharmacy and a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) by measuring the impact on office- and patient-level clinical outcomes. Kroger Pharmacy and a PCMH practice in Cincinnati, OH. The Kroger Co. is a large grocery store chain that operates 102 pharmacies in the Cincinnati-Dayton marketing area. The PCMH practice is an accredited PCMH office serving more than 9000 patients in the Cincinnati area. In a medical neighborhood, a PCMH coordinates care with other local specialty practices or partners. A partnership between the community pharmacy chain and the PCMH was established to create a medical neighborhood. The pharmacist spent 2 half-days per week at the PCMH. The pharmacist provided initial medication therapy management appointments in the PCMH and offered follow-up services in the office, the pharmacy, or both, depending on patient preference. The pharmacy received a capitated payment per patient per month for a predetermined number of 1000 high-risk patients. Office-level changes in clinical outcomes such as A1C, blood pressure, and lipid measures were collected and compared with those of a similar control office. In addition, patient-level outcomes such as change in A1C, blood pressure, lipids, and weight were measured. One hundred five patients were seen by the pharmacist during the study period, with 1.5% of the total managed at the office. There was a statistically significant increase in influenza vaccinations received. On a patient level, A1C and systolic blood pressure significantly improved. This project represents an exciting opportunity for community pharmacists to expand their scope of services through direct partnership with PCMHs and maintain a sustainable reimbursement structure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Active Citizenship and the Secondary School Experience: Community Participation Rates of Australian Youth. Research Report Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin; Lipsig-Mumme, Carla; Zajdow, Grazyna

    Volunteering is often seen as an essential element in active citizenship and community participation, and existing literature suggests that those who volunteer young are more likely to volunteer through later stages of life. Analysis of Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), which identified factors that contribute to volunteering for…

  2. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  3. The Australian Telecentre Program: A New Approach to Technology Transfer and Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crellin, Ian R.

    Telecottages originated in Scandinavia in the 1980s in an attempt to reverse the decline of isolated communities by giving them access to information and services, facilities for training and distance education, and the opportunity to produce income through telecommuting. In 1992-1993, the Australian government began funding the Telecentre…

  4. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  5. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  6. Examination of why some community pharmacists do not provide 72-hour emergency prescription drugs to Medicaid patients when prior authorization is not available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Marvin D

    2013-09-01

    Existing federal law requires that a 72-hour emergency supply of a prescription drug be dispensed to Medicaid patients when prior authorization (PA) is not available and the medication is needed without delay. The pharmacist's role is to contact prescribers and inform them that PA is needed. If the prescriber cannot be reached, the pharmacist can dispense a 72-hour emergency supply. To determine (a) the reasons why some community pharmacy owners/managers, staff pharmacists, and technicians are not compliant with the law; (b) how often the decision is made; and (c) estimate how often pharmacies do not dispense the 72-hour emergency supply when PA is not available. A questionnaire was mailed to selected Texas community pharmacies. The instrument was developed by the researcher and reviewed by the Texas Medicaid Vendor Drug Program staff. The University of Texas, Office of Survey Research collected the data in September and October of 2011 by mail and online. The data were forwarded to the researcher for analyses. A total of 788 identified community pharmacies were mailed a packet containing 3 questionnaires to be completed by the pharmacist-in-charge, a staff pharmacist, and a pharmacy technician. There were 2 mailings of the questionnaire packet and follow-up telephone calls to nonrespondents. A total of 653 questionnaires were completed and returned from 288 community pharmacies (36.7%) out of 788 pharmacies that were mailed the questionnaire packets. A total of 368 (57.5%) completed questionnaires came from chain store pharmacy respondents and 272 (42.5%) questionnaires from independent pharmacy respondents. A total of 21.3% (n = 134) of the respondents indicated that they were not aware of the federal and state requirement to dispense a 72-hour emergency supply of a prescription drug to Medicaid patients when prior authorization (PA) is not available. A greater proportion of the chain store respondents (26.6%) were unaware of the requirement compared with the

  7. The Development of a Community-Based, Pharmacist-Provided Falls Prevention MTM Intervention for Older Adults: Relationship Building, Methods, and Rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Mott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article are to discuss the process of community engagement experienced to plan and implement a pilot study of a pharmacist-provided MTM intervention focused on reducing the use of medications associated with falling, and to present the research methods that emerged from the community engagement process to evaluate the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary impact of the intervention. Key lessons learned from the community engagement process also are presented and discussed. The relationship building and planning process took twelve months. The RE-AIM framework broadly guided the planning process since an overarching goal for the community partners was developing a program that could be implemented and sustained in the future. The planning phase focused on identifying research questions that were of most interest to the community partners, the population to study, the capacity of partners to perform activities, and process evaluation. Much of the planning phase was accomplished with face-to-face meetings. After all study processes, study materials, and data collection tools were developed, a focus group of older adults who represented the likely targets of the MTM intervention provided feedback related to the concept and process of the intervention. Nine key lessons were identified from the community engagement process. One key to successful community engagement is partners taking the time to educate each other about experiences, processes, and successes and failures. Additionally, partners must actively listen to each other to better understand barriers and facilitators that likely will impact the planning and implementation processes. Successful community engagement will be important to develop both formative and summative evaluation processes that will help to produce valid evidence about the effectiveness of pharmacists in modifying drug therapy and preventing falls as well as to promote the adoption and

  8. Mental health literacy among refugee communities: differences between the Australian lay public and the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.

  9. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  10. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  11. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Smout

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively. The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7% and soil (55.6% in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to “closing the gap” in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  12. The experience of collective trauma in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Anthea

    2009-08-01

    The concept of collective trauma has predominantly been applied in the context of natural and human disasters. This paper seeks to explore whether collective trauma offers a respectful way in which to explore and respond to mental health and wellbeing issues for Aboriginal families and communities. A review of the international literature was undertaken in order to determine the elements of collective and mass trauma studies which may have relevance for Indigenous communities in Australia. Findings support the proposition that the patterns of human responses to disasters, particularly in protracted traumas such as war-zones, shows strong parallels to the contemporary patterns of experience and responses articulated by Aboriginal people affected by colonization and its sequelae in Australia. Adopting evidence-informed principles of family and community healing developed internationally in disaster situations may provide helpful ways of conceptualizing and responding in a coordinated way to mental health and wellbeing issues for Indigenous people within Australia.

  13. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.

  14. Pharmacy students' attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration: Intervention effect of integrating cooperative learning into an interprofessional team-based community service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Liu, Juan; Li, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration among pharmacy students in order to develop an interprofessional education (IPE) opportunity through integrating cooperative learning (CL) into a team-based student-supported community service event. The study also aimed to assess the change in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the event. A bilingual version of the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration (SATP(2)C) in English and Chinese was completed by pharmacy students enrolled in Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China. Sixty-four students (32 pharmacy students and 32 medical students) in the third year of their degree volunteered to participate in the IPE opportunity for community-based diabetes and hypertension self-management education. We found the mean score of SATP(2)C among 235 Chinese pharmacy students was 51.44. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90. Our key finding was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the IPE activity. These data suggest that there is an opportunity to deliver IPE in Chinese pharmacy education. It appears that the integration of CL into an interprofessional team-based community service offers a useful approach for IPE.

  15. Pharmacists' role in opioid overdose: Kentucky pharmacists' willingness to participate in naloxone dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Patricia R; Goodin, Amie; Troske, SuZanne; Strahl, Audra; Fallin, Amanda; Green, Traci C

    To assess pharmacists' willingness to initiate the dispensing of naloxone. As of 2015, Kentucky law permits certified pharmacists to dispense naloxone under a physician-approved protocol. Electronic survey (e-mail) gauging perception of pharmacists' role in opioid overdose and attitudes toward, and barriers to, naloxone dispensing. All Kentucky pharmacists with active licenses in 2015. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of pharmacist characteristics and attitudes on willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing, where the dependent variable was operationalized as a Likert-type question on a scale of 1 (not at all willing) to 6 (very willing). Of 4699 practicing Kentucky pharmacists, 1282 responded, of which 834 were community practitioners (response rate 27.3%). Pharmacists reported varying willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing, with 37.3% very willing (score 5 or 6) and 27.9% not willing (score 1 or 2). However, a majority of pharmacists reported willingness to dispense naloxone with a valid prescription (54.0%, score 5 or 6). Women pharmacists were 1.3 times more likely than men to be willing to initiate naloxone dispensing (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.6). Those who reported confidence in identifying individuals at risk for overdose were 1.2 times more likely to initiate dispensing, and those who reported confidence in ability to educate patients about overdose were 1.6 times more likely to express willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing (95% CIs, respectively, 1.0-1.3 and 1.4-1.8). Community pharmacists reported barriers to naloxone access at higher rates than pharmacists from other practice settings. Kentucky pharmacists are divided in their willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing; however, those who are confident in their ability to identify overdose risks are more willing. Increasing pharmacist confidence through appropriately designed education programs could facilitate pharmacist participation in naloxone

  16. Implementation of oral health initiatives by Australian rural communities: Factors for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Judy; Carlisle, Karen; Farmer, Jane; Larkins, Sarah; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we consider factors significant in the success of community participation in the implementation of new oral health services. Our analysis draws on data from the Rural Engaging Communities in Oral Health (Rural ECOH) study (2014-2016). We aimed to assess the Australian relevance of a Scottish community participation framework for health service development; Remote Service Futures. Internationally, community participation in planning of health initiatives is common, but less common in new service implementation. Health managers query the legitimacy of "lay" community members, whether they will persist, and whether they can act as change agents. Our data provide evidence that helps answer these queries. Six communities, located within regions covered by two large rural primary healthcare organisations (Medicare Locals), were selected in two Australian states. Two university-based facilitators worked with a group of local residents (for each community) to monitor implementation of new oral health initiatives designed through participatory processes. Data about implementation were collected through interviews with 28 key stakeholders at the beginning of implementation and 12 months later. Data were coded, themed and analysed abductively. Five themes emerged; the inter-relationship between community motivation to participate with the fortunes of the oral health initiatives, having the "right" people involved, continuing involvement of sponsors and/or significant people, trusting working relationships between participants and perceiving benefits from participation. Findings provide evidence of a role for community participation in implementing new community services if solid partnerships with relevant providers can be negotiated and services are seen to be relevant and useful to the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The future of community pharmacy practice in South Africa in the light of the proposed new qualification for pharmacists: implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malangu, Ntambwe

    2014-08-15

    Community or retail pharmacies are regarded as one of the most common sources of health services throughout the world. In South Africa, community pharmacies have been providing some primary health care services to clients who could afford to pay. These services included screening, family planning, and emergency care for minor ailments. With the introduction of the new qualification, community pharmacies are poised to become providers of expanded services.  This paper describes the contents, the implications and challenges of the new qualification in light with future directions for community pharmacy practice in South Africa. Its purpose is to inform relevant stakeholders in South Africa and those outside South Africa that may pursue similar offerings. Published papers were identified through searches in MEDLINE and Google Scholar using a combination of search terms, namely: 'community, retail pharmacy, pharmacist/non-medical prescribing, South Africa'. Only articles published in English were considered. In addition, documents from the Ministry of Health of South Africa, the South African Pharmacy Council and curricula materials from schools of pharmacy were also reviewed. Laureates of the new qualification will essentially have the right to examine, diagnose, prescribe and monitor the treatment of their clients or patients. In doing so, this expanded function of prescribing for primary healthcare will imply several practice and infrastructural adjustments; and with many challenges laying ahead in need to be addressed. In conclusion, the authorized pharmacist prescriber qualification augurs a new era for community pharmacy practice in South Africa. This has many implications and some challenges that need to be managed. The pharmacy profession, academia, legislators and political decision-makers need to work together to resolve outstanding issues in a constructive manner.

  18. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  19. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  20. Promoting physical activity among children and youth in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative community sport opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard

    2016-02-29

    Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts. Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers. Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites. Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities. So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.

  1. Mapping Point-of-Purchase Influencers of Food Choice in Australian Remote Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Henryks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians relies, in part, on addressing the poor levels of nutrition in remote Indigenous communities (RIC. This article identifies and maps key influencers of food choice at the point-of-purchase (POP in Australian RIC and identifies gaps in our knowledge. It is based on a narrative review of the literature pertaining to food in RIC from a range of disciplinary perspectives including nutrition, ethnography, public health, anthropology, and remote health to map POP drivers of food choice. In particular, the role of habit is identified as a key factor that has previously not been discussed in the literature. The conceptual framework can be used as a basis for future POP research in RIC and provides guidance for social marketers, public health, nutrition, and policy workers operating in this field.

  2. The perceptions of Zimbabwean Pharmacists of their overall job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the perceptions of Zimbabwean pharmacists of their overall job satisfaction and the factors associated with it. A random sample of 120 licensed pharmacists working in community, and hospital pharmacies and industry in Zimbabwe participated in this cross-sectional study. Pharmacists were highly satisfied ...

  3. The prevalence and nature of stalking in the Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rosemary; Pathé, Michele; Mullen, Paul E

    2002-02-01

    This study examines the extent and nature of stalking victimisation in a random community sample. A postal survey was distributed to 3700 adult men and women selected from the electoral roll in the State of Victoria. Outcome measures included the lifetime and annual cumulative incidence of stalking, the duration and methods of harassment, rates of associated violence and responses to victimisation. Almost one in four respondents (23.4%;432) had been stalked, the unwanted behaviour they were subjected to being both repeated and fear-provoking. One in 10 (197) had experienced a protracted course of stalking involving multiple intrusions spanning a period of at least one month. Women were twice as likely as men to report having been stalked at some time in their lives, though the rates of victimisation in the 12 months prior to the study did not differ significantly according to gender. Younger people were significantly more likely than older respondents to report having been stalked. Victims were pursued by strangers in 42% of cases. The most common methods of harassment involved unwanted telephone calls, intrusive approaches and following. Associated threats (29%) and physical assaults (18%) frequently arose out of the stalking. Significant social and economic disruption was created by the stalking for 63% of victims. Most sought assistance to manage their predicament (69%). The experience of being stalked is common and appears to be increasing. Ten percent of people have been subjected at some time to an episode of protracted harassment. Assaults by stalkers are disturbingly frequent. Most victims report significant disruption to their daily functioning irrespective of exposure to associated violence.

  4. Evaluation of home lead remediation in an Australian mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, F; Lesjak, M; Lyle, D

    2009-12-20

    In 1994 a comprehensive program was established to reduce children's blood lead levels in Broken Hill, NSW, Australia. Home remediation (abatement of lead hazards in a child's home) was included as part of a case management strategy for children with blood lead levels >or=15 microg/dL. Children with blood lead levels >or=30 microg/dL were offered immediate home remediation. Children with blood lead levels of 15-29 microg/dL were allocated to 'immediate' or 'delayed' home remediation; a subset of these participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of home remediation for reducing blood lead levels. One hundred and seventeen children received home remediation. One hundred and thirteen returned for follow-up blood tests, 88 of whom participated in the RCT. On average children's blood lead levels decreased by 1.7 microg/dL (10%) in the 6 months after remediation and by 2.2 microg/dL (13%) in the 6-12 months after remediation. However, remediation did not significantly change the rate of decline in blood lead levels (P=0.609). There was no evidence of association between change in children's blood lead levels and changes in lead loading in their homes. The results are consistent with the published literature, which suggests that home remediation does not reduce children's exposure to lead sufficiently to cause a moderate or greater decrease in their blood lead level. In communities where lead is widely dispersed, the study suggests that it is important to assess potential sources and pathways by which children are exposed to lead when developing an intervention plan, and the need for multiple interventions to effectively reduce blood lead levels. The findings reinforce the ongoing need for rigorous epidemiological evaluation of lead management programs to improve the evidence base, and for effective primary prevention to avoid children being exposed to lead in the first place.

  5. Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Marine debris and marine wildlife entanglement remains a significant global issue. • We examined awareness of this issue in an Australian community sample. • Findings reveal gaps exist in terms of what entanglement is and the risks posed. • Enhancing community understanding may facilitate greater conservation action. • The ‘Seal the Loop’ initiative provides one potential mechanism for such education. - Abstract: Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative ‘Seal the Loop’ [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours)

  6. Identifying context-specific competencies required by community Australian Football sports trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-08-01

    First-aid is a recommended injury prevention and risk management strategy in community sport; however, little is known about the sport-specific competencies required by first-aid providers. To achieve expert consensus on the competencies required by community Australian Football (community-AF) sports trainers. A three-round online Delphi process. Community-AF. 16 Australian sports first-aid and community-AF experts. Rating of competencies as either 'essential', 'expected', 'ideal' or 'not required'. Results After Round 3, 47 of the 77 (61%) competencies were endorsed as 'essential' or 'expected' for a sports trainer to effectively perform the activities required to the standards expected at a community-AF club by ≥75% of experts. These competencies covered: the role of the sports trainer; the responsibilities of the sports trainer; emergency management; injury and illness assessment and immediate management; taping; and injury prevention and risk management. Four competencies (5%) were endorsed as 'ideal' or 'not required' by ≥85% of experts and were excluded from further consideration. The 26 competencies where consensus was not reached were retained as second-tier, optional competencies. Sports trainers are important members of on-field first-aid teams, providing support to both injured players and other sports medicine professionals. The competencies identified in this study provide the basis of a proposed two-tiered community-AF-specific sports trainer education structure that can be implemented by the peak sports body. This includes six mandatory modules, relating to the 'required' competencies, and a further six optional modules covering competencies on which consensus was not reached.

  7. Managing sleep problems using non-prescription medications and the role of community pharmacists: older adults' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Olufunmilola; Schleiden, Loren J; Brothers, Amanda L; Albert, Steven M

    2017-12-01

    To examine older adults' perspectives regarding managing sleep problems through selection and use of non-prescription sleep aids, and the role of pharmacists. Telephone interviews were conducted from May to June 2015 with 116 individuals aged ≥60 years in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants reported in a previous survey to have used at least one non-prescription sleep aid in the past 30 days and were willing to participate in a follow-up interview. Interview guides were designed to elicit perspectives of sleep problems, selection and use of non-prescription sleep aids, and consultation with healthcare professionals. Interview transcripts underwent content analysis. Four themes emerged as follows: experiences with sleep problems, selection of non-prescription sleep aids, non-prescription sleep aid use and interactions with healthcare professionals. Over half of participants reported using a non-prescription sleep aid for >1 year, were satisfied with its use and perceived it improved sleep quality. Participants commonly used an antihistamine-only sleep aid; 36% of participants self-recommended their sleep aid; and 16% of participants consulted healthcare professionals. Few participants read medication dosage labels (22%), side effects or warnings (19%), and many reported they disregarded directions. Participants did not typically consult pharmacists about sleep problems (65%) but perceived that they could assist with medication concerns. Although most participants had favourable perceptions of non-prescription sleep aids, older adults may be inappropriately using non-prescription sleep aids to self-manage sleep problems by frequently disregarding medication labels and directions for safe use. Also, few older adults are discussing their sleep aid selection and use with pharmacists. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Basidiomycete fungal communities in Australian sclerophyll forest soil are altered by repeated prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian C; Bastias, Brigitte A; Genney, David R; Parkin, Pamela I; Cairney, John W G

    2007-04-01

    Soil basidiomycetes play key roles in forest nutrient and carbon cycling processes, yet the diversity and structure of below ground basidiomycete communities remain poorly understood. Prescribed burning is a commonly used forest management practice and there is evidence that single fire events can have an impact on soil fungal communities but little is known about the effects of repeated prescribed burning. We have used internal transcribed spacer (ITS) terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to investigate the impacts of repeated prescribed burning every two or four years over a period of 30 years on soil basidiomycete communities in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Detrended correspondence analysis of ITS T-RFLP profiles separated basidiomycete communities in unburned control plots from those in burned plots, with those burned every two years being the most different from controls. Burning had no effect on basidiomycete species richness, thus these differences appear to be due to changes in community structure. Basidiomycete communities in the unburned control plots were vertically stratified in the upper 20 cm of soil, but no evidence was found for stratification in the burned plots, suggesting that repeated prescribed burning results in more uniform basidiomycete communities. Overall, the results demonstrate that repeated prescribed burning alters soil basidiomycete communities, with the effect being greater with more frequent burning.

  9. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities......, and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...

  10. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-07-07

    Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Health Action Groups (DAHAGs) to collaborate with health providers in designing culturally-responsive healthcare. The purpose of the strategy was to improve local health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. The evaluation aimed to identify whether the Aboriginal community considered the community engagement strategy effective in identifying their health service needs, translating them to action by local health services and increasing their trust in these health services. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Qualitative data was collected from Aboriginal participants and health service providers using semi-structured interviews or yarning circles that were recorded, transcribed and independently analysed by two senior non-Aboriginal researchers. Responses were coded for key themes, further analysed for similarities and differences between districts and cross-checked by the senior lead Aboriginal researcher to avoid bias and establish reliability in interpreting the data. Three ethics committees approved conducting the evaluation. Findings from 60 participants suggested the engagement process was effective: it was driven and owned by the Aboriginal community, captured a broad range of views and increased Aboriginal community participation in decisions about their healthcare. It built community capacity through regular community forums and established DAHAGs comprising local Aboriginal community members and health service representatives who met quarterly and were

  11. Proposing a health promotion framework to address gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Marisa; Coalter, Nicola; Gordon, Ashley; Breen, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Gambling impacts affect Australian Indigenous families and communities in diverse and complex ways. Indigenous people throughout Australia engage in a broad range of regulated and unregulated gambling activities. Challenges in this area include the complexities that come with delivering services and programmes between the most remote regions, to highly populated towns and cities of Australia. There is little knowledge transfer between states and territories in Australia and no conceptual understanding or analysis of what constitutes 'best practice' in gambling service delivery for Indigenous people, families and communities. This article reviews health promotion approaches used in Australia, with a particular focus on Indigenous and gambling-based initiatives. Contributing to this review is an examination of health promotion strategies used in Indigenous gambling service delivery in the Northern Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia, demonstrating diversity and innovation in approaches. The article concludes by emphasizing the potential value of adopting health promotion strategies to underpin programme and service delivery for addressing gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. However, success is contingent on robust, evidence-based programme design, implementation and evaluation that adhere to health promotion principles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Using scenarios to test the appropriateness of pharmacist prescribing in asthma management

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Tamer; Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate; Armour, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential for community pharmacist prescribing in terms of usefulness, pharmacists' confidence, and appropriateness, in the context of asthma management. Methods: Twenty community pharmacists were recruited using convenience sampling from a group of trained practitioners who had already delivered asthma services. These pharmacists were asked to complete a scenario-based questionnaire (9 scenarios) modelled on information from real patients. Pharmacist interventions w...

  13. Ecstasy use and depression: a 4-year longitudinal study among an Australian general community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amanda M; Olesen, Sarah; Tait, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal, population-based studies can better assess the relationship of ecstasy use with depression. We examined whether change in ecstasy use was associated with change in depressive symptoms/probable depression over a 4-year period, among a large Australian sample. The Personality and Total Health project is a longitudinal general community study of Australians from Canberra and Queanbeyan. Data from the youngest cohort when aged 24-30 (N = 2, 128) and 4 years later (N = 1, 977) was included. The Goldberg depression scale and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms and probable depression, respectively. Multilevel growth models also considered demographics, psychosocial characteristics, and other drug use. Ecstasy use was not associated with long-term depressive symptoms or greater odds of depression in multivariate analyses. Users had more self-reported depressive symptoms when using ecstasy compared to not using. However, differences between people who had and had not ever used ecstasy largely accounted for this. Other factors were more important in the prediction of depression. It would be premature to conclude that ecstasy use is not related to the development of long-term depressive symptoms, given the relatively low level of ecstasy and other drug use in this community sample. Results showed that other factors need to be considered when investigating ecstasy use and depression.

  14. The economic feasibility of price discounts to improve diet in Australian Aboriginal remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Moodie, Marj L; Ferguson, Megan; Cobiac, Linda J; Liberato, Selma C; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fiscal measures applied in remote community food stores for Aboriginal Australians. Six price discount strategies on fruit, vegetables, diet drinks and water were modelled. Baseline diet was measured as 12 months' actual food sales data in three remote Aboriginal communities. Discount-induced changes in food purchases were based on published price elasticity data while the weight of the daily diet was assumed constant. Dietary change was converted to change in sodium and energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) over a 12-month period. Improved lifetime health outcomes, modelled for the remote population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, were converted to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) saved using a proportional multistate lifetable model populated with diet-related disease risks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rates of disease. While dietary change was small, five of the six price discount strategies were estimated as cost-effective, below a $50,000/DALY threshold. Stakeholders are committed to finding ways to reduce important inequalities in health status between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and non-Indigenous Australians. Price discounts offer potential to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Verification of these results by trial-based research coupled with consideration of factors important to all stakeholders is needed. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Tsey, Komla; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Singleton, Michele; Doran, Christopher

    2013-08-07

    While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and

  16. Olivebranches and idiot's guides: Frameworks for community engagement in Australian wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, renewable energy is under pressure in the context of a highly politicised debate about how to act on climate change. The recent repeal of an established carbon tax has seen the defunding of significant renewable energy initiatives and a controversial review of the national Renewable Energy Target is threatening key drivers for investment in renewable energy. The current regulatory focus on community ‘acceptance’ does not facilitate the active community support necessary to challenge this increasingly hostile policy context. This research considers current experiences of community engagement in wind farm governance in one Australian jurisdiction. Through documentary analysis and two qualitative case studies, it examines legal and non-legal requirements for community governance mechanisms and considers how these influence wind farm development in rural areas. Findings include a problematic reliance on procedural compliance in assessing wind farm consultation, domination by vested interests, and reduced expertise in community engagement at the time it is needed most. Recommendations include integration of best practice guidelines in current regulation; harmonisation of policy settings to ensure equity across energy sectors; and an evidence-based commitment to benefit sharing as a strategy for increasing community support of rural wind farm development. - Highlights: • Changes to renewable energy policy in Australia threaten wind farm development. • Active community support is required to ensure ongoing viability of the industry. • Benefit sharing models are shown to increase community support for wind farms. • Legal frameworks reinforce a minimum compliance paradigm and entrench vested interests. • Best practice guidelines improve implementation of community engagement procedures

  17. Development of a questionnaire to measure consumers' perceptions of service quality in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ardalan; Carter, Stephen R; Chen, Jenny Yimin; Rittsteuer, Claudia; Schneider, Carl R

    2018-06-11

    Recent changes within community pharmacy have seen a shift towards some pharmacies providing "value-added" services. However, providing high levels of service is resource intensive yet revenues from dispensing are declining. Of significance therefore, is how consumers perceive service quality (SQ). However, at present there are no validated and reliable instruments to measure consumers' perceptions of SQ in Australian community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to build a theory-grounded model of service quality (SQ) in community pharmacies and to create a valid survey instrument to measure consumers' perceptions of service quality. Stage 1 dealt with item generation using theory, prior research and qualitative interviews with pharmacy consumers. Selected items were then subjected to content validity and face validity. Stages 2 and 3 included psychometric testing among English-speaking adult consumers of Australian pharmacies. Exploratory factor analysis was used for item reduction and to explain the domains of SQ. In stage 1, item generation for SQ initially generated 113 items which were then refined, through content and face validity, down to 61 items. In stage 2, after subjecting the questionnaire to psychometric testing on the data from the first pharmacy (n = 374), the use of the primary dimensions of SQ was abandoned leaving 32 items representing 5 domains of SQ. In stage 3, the questionnaire was subject to further testing and item reduction in 3 other pharmacies (n = 320). SQ was best described using 23 items representing 6 domains: 'health and medicines advice', 'relationship quality', 'technical quality', 'environmental quality', 'non-prescription service', and 'health outcomes'. This research presents a theoretically-grounded and robust measurement scale developed for consumer perceptions of SQ in a community pharmacy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Analysis of the social network development of a virtual community for Australian intensive care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Kaye Denise; Hansen, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Social media platforms can create virtual communities, enabling healthcare professionals to network with a broad range of colleagues and facilitate knowledge exchange. In 2003, an Australian state health department established an intensive care mailing list to address the professional isolation experienced by senior intensive care nurses. This article describes the social network created within this virtual community by examining how the membership profile evolved from 2003 to 2009. A retrospective descriptive design was used. The data source was a deidentified member database. Since 2003, 1340 healthcare professionals subscribed to the virtual community with 78% of these (n = 1042) still members at the end of 2009. The membership profile has evolved from a single-state nurse-specific network to an Australia-wide multidisciplinary and multiorganizational intensive care network. The uptake and retention of membership by intensive care clinicians indicated that they appeared to value involvement in this virtual community. For healthcare organizations, a virtual community may be a communications option for minimizing professional and organizational barriers and promoting knowledge flow. Further research is, however, required to demonstrate a link between these broader social networks, enabling the exchange of knowledge and improved patient outcomes.

  19. Evaluation of Community Pharmacists Performance in Management of Cough, Diarrhea and Common Cold using OTC Medication Requests in Hamadan in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pharmacists usually encounter requests for over the counter drugs. How a pharmacist performs in evaluating patients' signs and symptoms, treating them, and moreover his or her approach in prescribing over the counter (OTC medications were the main goals of this study. Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional study, the scenarios of cough, diarrhea and com-mon cold were obtained from questionnaires. These scenarios were then designed by deter-mining key questions. From the overall pharmacies in Hamadan, for each of the three scenar-ios, 46 pharmacies were randomly selected and analyzed. Performance of pharmacists, includ-ing their interventions on over the counter counseling, asking key questions, explaining drugs' side effects and interactions, and their approach of prescribing medications, were measured. Moreover, the influence of pharmacists' gender and type of the pharmacy were determined. Results: In 41 out of 179 visits, pharmacists were not present in the pharmacy (22.9%, mostly in suburban pharmacies. The pharmacists' performances in explaining drug interactions were significantly better in urban pharmacies in comparison with suburban ones. Moreover, subur-ban pharmacies and male pharmacists, in comparison with urban pharmacies and female pharmacists, prescribed more drugs. Conclusion: This study shows that despite the pharmacists asking the key questions ,the major-ity of pharmacists made weak recommendations. In order to improve pharmacists perform-ances, modification of educational system for pharmacy students in addition to the continu-ous and effective supervision of authorities on pharmacists' performance in OTC drugs is suggested. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:164-171

  20. ‘Making the invisible visible’ through alcohol screening and brief intervention in community pharmacies: an Australian feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laetitia Hattingh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol related problems have been shown to be effective in health settings such as general practice or emergency departments. Recent data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand suggest that SBI can be delivered through community pharmacies, but this approach has not been tested in Australia. This study assesses the feasibility of delivering alcohol SBI via community pharmacists. Method We recruited five pharmacies and developed an SBI training package to be delivered by pharmacy staff, who screened consumers and delivered the brief intervention where appropriate. Consumers also completed a questionnaire on the process. At three months consumers were telephoned to enable ‘retention’ to be quantified. After completing recruitment, a semi-structured interview was conducted with pharmacists on the process of delivering the intervention, potential improvements and sustainability. Results Fifty consumer participants were screened, ten from each pharmacy. There were 28 (57 % men and 21 (43 % women with one not responding. Most (67 % were aged 25–55 years. Their AUDIT scores had a range of 0 to 39 (mean 10.9, SD 9.8 with 11 categorised as ‘hazardous (8–15’, four as ‘harmful (16–19’ and eight as ‘probably dependent (20+’ consumers of alcohol. Reactions to the process of SBI were generally favourable: for example 75 % agreed that it was either appropriate or very appropriate being asked about their alcohol consumption. With respect to follow-up interviews, 23 (46 % agreed that they could be contacted, including five from the highest AUDIT category. Subsequently 11 (48 % were contactable at three months. Three of the five non-low risk drinkers had reduced their level of risk over the three months. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Overall these pharmacists were positive about the intervention and five main themes emerged from the

  1. 'Making the invisible visible' through alcohol screening and brief intervention in community pharmacies: an Australian feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Hallett, Jonathan; Tait, Robert J

    2016-11-08

    Screening and brief interventions (SBI) for alcohol related problems have been shown to be effective in health settings such as general practice or emergency departments. Recent data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand suggest that SBI can be delivered through community pharmacies, but this approach has not been tested in Australia. This study assesses the feasibility of delivering alcohol SBI via community pharmacists. We recruited five pharmacies and developed an SBI training package to be delivered by pharmacy staff, who screened consumers and delivered the brief intervention where appropriate. Consumers also completed a questionnaire on the process. At three months consumers were telephoned to enable 'retention' to be quantified. After completing recruitment, a semi-structured interview was conducted with pharmacists on the process of delivering the intervention, potential improvements and sustainability. Fifty consumer participants were screened, ten from each pharmacy. There were 28 (57 %) men and 21 (43 %) women with one not responding. Most (67 %) were aged 25-55 years. Their AUDIT scores had a range of 0 to 39 (mean 10.9, SD 9.8) with 11 categorised as 'hazardous (8-15)', four as 'harmful (16-19)' and eight as 'probably dependent (20+)' consumers of alcohol. Reactions to the process of SBI were generally favourable: for example 75 % agreed that it was either appropriate or very appropriate being asked about their alcohol consumption. With respect to follow-up interviews, 23 (46 %) agreed that they could be contacted, including five from the highest AUDIT category. Subsequently 11 (48 %) were contactable at three months. Three of the five non-low risk drinkers had reduced their level of risk over the three months. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Overall these pharmacists were positive about the intervention and five main themes emerged from the interviews: 1) flexibility applied in recruitment of participants

  2. The Community Integration Questionnaire - Revised: Australian normative data and measurement of electronic social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Libby; Winkler, Dianne; Tippett, Alice; Herd, Natalie; Migliorini, Christine; Willer, Barry

    2016-06-01

    Consideration of the relationship between meaningful participation, health and wellbeing underpins occupational therapy intervention, and drives measurement of community integration following acquired brain injury (ABI). However, utility of community integration measures has been limited to date by lack of normative data against which to compare outcomes, and none examine the growing use of electronic social networking (ESN) for social participation. This research had four aims: (i) develop and pilot items assessing ESN to add to the Community Integration Questionnaire, producing the Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised (CIQ-R); (ii) examine factor structure of the CIQ-R; (iii) collect Australian CIQ-R normative data; and (iv) assess test-retest reliability of the revised measure. Australia. A convenience sample of adults without ABI (N = 124) was used to develop and pilot ESN items. A representative general population sample of adults without ABI aged 18-64 years (N = 1973) was recruited to gather normative CIQ-R data. Cross-sectional survey. Demographic items and the CIQ-R. The CIQ-R demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, with minor modification to the original scoring based on the factor analyses provided. Large representative general population CIQ-R normative data have been established, detailing contribution of a range of independent demographic variables to community integration. The addition of electronic social networking items to the CIQ-R offers a contemporary method of assessing community integration following ABI. Normative CIQ-R data enhance the understanding of community integration in the general population, allowing occupational therapists and other clinicians to make more meaningful comparisons between groups. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. Specialist clinics in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: where rock art meets rocket science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Russell; Bailie, Ross

    2004-10-01

    People in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory have greater morbidity and mortality than other Australians, but face considerable barriers when accessing hospital-based specialist services. The Specialist Outreach Service, which began in 1997, was a novel policy initiative to improve access by providing a regular multidisciplinary visiting specialist services to remote communities. It led to two interesting juxtapositions: that of 'state of the art' specialist services alongside under-resourced primary care in remote and relatively traditional Aboriginal communities; and that of attempts to develop an evidence base for the effectiveness of outreach, while meeting the short-term evaluative requirements of policy-makers. In this essay, first we describe the development of the service in the Northern Territory and its initial process evaluation. Through a Cochrane systematic review we then summarise the published research on the effectiveness of specialist outreach in improving access to tertiary and hospital-based care. Finally we describe the findings of an observational population-based study of the use of specialist services and the impact of outreach to three remote communities over 11 years. Specialist outreach improves access to specialist care and may lessen the demand for both outpatient and inpatient hospital care. Specialist outreach is, however, dependent on well-functioning primary care. According to the way in which outreach is conducted and the service is organised, it can either support primary care or it can hinder primary care and, as a result, reduce its own effectiveness.

  4. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Thaochan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.

  5. Popularity and customer preferences for over-the-counter Chinese medicines perceived by community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou: a questionnaire survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study interviewed community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou for their perception of the popular categories of over-the-counter (OTC) Chinese medicines and the factors affecting customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six main administrative districts in Guangzhou and eight main administrative districts in Shanghai, China. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted in this study. Results OTC Chinese medicines contributed 21–50% among all the pharmaceutical sales by the community pharmacies. The prevalent categories of OTC Chinese medicines were common cold medicines, respiratory system medicines, digestive system agents, gynecological medicines, health tonic medicines, and qing re (heat-clearing) and qu du (detoxifying) medicines. Customers were more concerned about medical factors of OTC Chinese medicines than business factors. Among the medical factors, the most important was drug safety, followed by efficacy, contraindications, indications, and side effects. Among the business factors, the most important were brand and price. Conclusions This study identified the top sales categories of OTC Chinese medicines in Shanghai and Guangzhou and the important factors such as drug safety, efficacy, period of validity, contraindications, and indications that are affecting the customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. PMID:25243017

  6. Flying-foxes in the Australian urban environment—community attitudes and opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Y. Kung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban presence of flying-foxes (pteropid bats in eastern Australia has increased in the last 20 years, putatively reflecting broader landscape change. The influx of large numbers often precipitates community angst, typically stemming from concerns about loss of social amenity, economic loss or negative health impacts from recently emerged bat-mediated zoonotic diseases such as Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Local authorities and state wildlife authorities are increasingly asked to approve the dispersal or modification of flying-fox roosts to address expressed concerns, yet the scale of this concern within the community, and the veracity of the basis for concern are often unclear. We conducted an on-line survey to capture community attitudes and opinions on flying-foxes in the urban environment to inform management policy and decision-making. Analysis focused on awareness, concerns, and management options, and primarily compared responses from communities where flying-fox management was and was not topical at the time of the survey. While a majority of respondents indicated a moderate to high level of knowledge of both flying-foxes and Hendra virus, a substantial minority mistakenly believed that flying-foxes pose a direct infection risk to humans, suggesting miscommunication or misinformation, and the need for additional risk communication strategies. Secondly, a minority of community members indicated they were directly impacted by urban roosts, most plausibly those living in close proximity to the roost, suggesting that targeted management options are warranted. Thirdly, neither dispersal nor culling was seen as an appropriate management strategy by the majority of respondents, including those from postcodes where flying-fox management was topical. These findings usefully inform community debate and policy development and demonstrate the value of social analysis in defining the issues and options in this complex human

  7. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  8. Community in Credit Unions: Has banking regulationimpaired CSR in Australian Customer Owned Banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne McGrath

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sector scan of a sample of Australian Credit Unions and Mutual Banks to examine the CSR reporting from the perspective of the three pillars model proposed by vanOorschot, de Hoog, van der Steen and van Twist (2013. It is argued that the pillar requiringco-operatives to ensure activities which ‘aim for change’, should promote increasing adoptionof CSR. The paper theorises that regulatory requirements imposed in Australia on all bankinginstitutions carry a higher proportional cost to the customer owned banking sector than theshareholder based commercial banks. This consumption of the limited financial resourcesavailable in this sector of banking services, are inhibiting regional Customer Owned Bankingproviders, as co-operative organisations, to fulfil the required co-operative principle to instigatechange for the betterment of communities. This failure could signal the demise of some entitiesin the jurisdiction of Customer Owned Banking.

  9. Role of art centres for Aboriginal Australians living with dementia in remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Melissa; Mackell, Paulene; Lin, Xiaoping; Farthing, Annie; Jensen, Heather; Meredith, Maree; Haralambous, Betty

    2017-06-01

    To explore the role art centres in remote communities play for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians living with dementia. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken, with no restrictions on articles regarding year of publication. Art programmes have been found to be of benefit to both people living with dementia and their carers, particularly when programmes are administered in environments that are culturally revered. Findings indicate remote art centres play a key role in maintaining traditions, culture and practices unique to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding how they cater for the needs of people with dementia. Addressing this gap will be helpful in remote areas where prevalence of dementia is up to five times that of non-Aboriginal people, and there are limited health and support services. Further research is required to explore strengths and gaps of current practices. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  10. An Australian Indigenous community-led suicide intervention skills training program: community consultation findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Bushra; Kisely, Steve; Hides, Leanne; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Gill, Neeraj S; Hayman, Noel; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree

    2017-06-13

    Little is known of the appropriateness of existing gatekeeper suicide prevention programs for Indigenous communities. Despite the high rates of Indigenous suicide in Australia, especially among Indigenous youth, it is unclear how effective existing suicide prevention programs are in providing appropriate management of Indigenous people at risk of suicide. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with Indigenous communities in rural and regional areas of Southern Queensland. Thematic analysis was performed on the gathered information. Existing programs were time-intensive and included content irrelevant to Indigenous people. There was inconsistency in the content and delivery of gatekeeper training. Programs were also not sustainable for rural and regional Indigenous communities. Appropriate programs should be practical, relevant, and sustainable across all Indigenous communities, with a focus on the social, emotional, cultural and spiritual underpinnings of community wellbeing. Programs need to be developed in thorough consultation with Indigenous communities. Indigenous-led suicide intervention training programs are needed to mitigate the increasing rates of suicide experienced by Indigenous peoples living in rural and remote locations.

  11. The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111 reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15 did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies

  12. Australian primary school communities' understandings of SunSmart: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, Matthew; Wright, Bradley; Dudley, Dean; Cotton, Wayne; Brown, Alexandra

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer represents a major health issue for Australia. Childhood sun exposure is an important risk factor and evidence suggests the use of sun protection measures by Australian school children could be improved. This study examines how the SunSmart Program, a school-based skin cancer prevention resource, can be supported to further increase sun protection behaviours to assist in lowering skin cancer incidence. The Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework was adopted to select key stakeholders from a convenience sample of five school communities. Students, teaching staff and parents participated in semi-structured focus group and individual interviews. A thematic analysis was used to extract key themes from the data. Although these school communities were aware of sun protection practices and the risks associated with sun exposure, their understandings of the SunSmart Program were limited. Sun protection policy implementation was inconsistent and students were unlikely to engage in sun protection practices beyond the school setting. School communities require additional support and engagement to holistically enforce the principles of the SunSmart Program. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Scott; Bent, Elizabeth; Borneman, James; Pereg, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS) is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG) technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006), suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies highlight the

  14. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Godwin

    Full Text Available Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006, suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies

  15. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of claims and references found in Australian pharmacy journal advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandoh, Mona; Curtain, Colin Michael

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of pharmaceutical advertisement claims and supporting references in Australian pharmacy journals that target community pharmacists. All full-page advertisements for a medicinal product, found in two Australian pharmacy journals from the year 2012 to 2015 were included. Advertisement claims and references were evaluated by claim type (unambiguous to immeasurable) and level of evidence (strong to irrelevant) in supporting references. Two hundred and ninety distinct advertisements and 598 claims were identified, with a median of 2 claims per advertisement. Twenty-seven percent of claims were unambiguous, 40% were vague, 16% were emotive/immeasurable and 17% were non-clinical or other marketing claims. Half of all claims were referenced. Although 68% of unambiguous claims were referenced, 63% of those were supported by studies that were funded directly or indirectly by pharmaceutical companies. Only 13% of claims were supported with strong or moderate independent evidence. Pharmaceutical advertisements continue to present vague and emotive claims with little independent supporting evidence. Pharmacists need to be aware of these limitations when providing patient care. Increased awareness of this issue among pharmaceutical companies, Australian pharmaceutical journal publishers, regulators and pharmacists will assist in promoting optimised healthcare outcomes for the Australian public. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. A survey of foot problems in community-dwelling older Greek Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small

  18. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  19. Surgical wound dehiscence in an Australian community nursing service: time and cost to healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy-Hodgetts, K; Leslie, G D; Lewin, G; Hendrie, D; Carville, K

    2016-07-02

    Surgical wound dehiscence (SWD) increases the length of hospital stay and impacts on patient wellbeing and health-care costs. Globally, the health-care costs associated with SWD are poorly reported and those reported are frequently associated with surgical site infection (SSI), rather than dehiscence of non-microbial cause. This retrospective study describes and reports on the costs and time to healing associated with a number of surgical patients who were referred to a community nursing service for treatment of an SWD following discharge from a metropolitan hospital, in Perth, Western Australia. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out to describe the patient, wound and treatment characteristics. A costing analysis was conducted to investigate the cost of healing these wounds. Among the 70 patients referred with a SWD, 55% were treated for an infected wound dehiscence which was a significant factor (p=0.001). Overall, the cost of treating the 70 patients with a SWD in a community nursing service was in excess of $56,000 Australian dollars (AUD) (£28,705) and did not include organisational overheads or travel costs for nurse visits. The management of infection contributed to 67% of the overall cost. SWD remains an unquantified aspect of wound care from a prevalence and fiscal point of view. Further work needs to be done in the identification of SWD and which patients may be 'at risk'. The authors declare they have no competing interests.

  20. Swiss community pharmacies' on the Web and pharmacists' experiences with E-commerce: longitudinal study and Internet-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Simon; Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2004-03-03

    There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to be the most effective solutions. Even though 40

  1. Swiss Community Pharmacies' on the Web and Pharmacists' Experiences with E-commerce: Longitudinal study and Internet-based questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2004-01-01

    Background There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. Objective To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. Methods A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. Results As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. Conclusions The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to

  2. Pharmacist-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Keene; O'Connor, Bonnie; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document, in their own words, beliefs and attitudes that American pharmacists have towards the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacists' interactions with industry. An ethnographic-style qualitative study was conducted utilizing open-ended interviews with four hospital pharmacists, two independent pharmacists, two retail pharmacists and one administrative pharmacist in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area to elicit descriptions of and attitudes towards pharmacists' relationships with industry. Analysis of the qualitative material followed established ethnographic conventions of narrative thematic analysis. All pharmacists reported interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives. Most had received free resources or services from industry, including educational courses. Respondents uniformly believed that industry promotional efforts are primarily directed towards physicians. Although respondents felt strongly that drug prices were excessive and that 'me-too' drugs were of limited use, they generally had a neutral-to-positive view of industry-funded adherence/compliance programmes, coupons, vouchers, and copay payment programmes. Interviewees viewed direct-to-consumer advertising negatively, but had a generally positive view of industry-funded drug information. Pharmacists may represent a hitherto under-identified cohort of health professionals who are targeted for industry influence; expanding roles for pharmacists may make them even more attractive targets for future industry attention. Pharmacy schools should ensure that students learn to rely on unbiased information sources and should teach students about conflicts of interest and the risks of interacting with industry. Further research should be conducted on the extent to which pharmacists' attitudes towards their duties and towards drug assessment and recommendation are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Transformation of mortality in a remote Australian Aboriginal community: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Mott, Susan Anne; McLeod, Beverly June

    2017-08-11

    To describe trends in ages and causes of death in a remote-living Australian Aboriginal group over a recent 50-year period. A retrospective observational study, from 1960 to 2010, of deaths and people starting dialysis, using data from local clinic, parish, dialysis and birthweight registers. A remote island community in the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory, where a Catholic mission was established in 1911. The estimated Aboriginal population was about 800 in 1960 and 2260 in 2011. All Aboriginal residents of this community whose deaths had been recorded. Annual frequencies and rates of terminal events (deaths and dialysis starts) by age group and cause of death. Against a background of high rates of low birth weight, 223 deaths in infants and children and 934 deaths in adults (age > 15 years) were recorded; 88% were of natural causes. Most deaths in the 1960s were in infants and children. However, over time these fell dramatically, across the birthweight spectrum, while adult deaths progressively increased. The leading causes of adult natural deaths were chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease and, more recently, renal failure, and rates were increased twofold in those of low birth weight. However, rates of natural adult deaths have been falling briskly since 1986, most markedly among people of age ≥45 years. The population is increasing and its age structure is maturing. The changes in death profiles, the expression of the Barker hypothesis and the ongoing increases in adult life expectancy reflect epidemiological and health transitions of astonishing rapidity. These probably flow from advances in public health policy and healthcare delivery, as well as improved inter-sectoral services, which are all to be celebrated. Other remote communities in Australia are experiencing the same phenomena, and similar events are well advanced in many developing countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  4. Sleep and academic performance in Indigenous Australian children from a remote community: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick; Kohler, Mark; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Disruptions to sleep in childhood are associated with poor behaviour and deficits in academic performance and executive function. Although academic performance of indigenous children from remote communities in Australia is documented as well below that of non-indigenous children, the extent of sleep disruption and its contribution to academic performance among this population has not been assessed. This pilot study aimed to objectively assess the sleep of remote indigenous children and the association between sleep disruption and both academic performance and executive function. Twenty-one children from a remote Australian indigenous community aged 6-13 years wore actigraphy for two consecutive nights, reported subjective sleepiness, and were objectively assessed for academic performance (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition) and executive function (NEuroloPSYcological Assessment-II). Results show marked reduction in sleep time, sleep fragmentation, academic performance and auditory attention compared with non-indigenous norms. Sleep duration was not associated with performance, possibly because of reduced sleep and performance observed across the entire group. Sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced reading and numerical skills (P sleep of indigenous children in remote communities is an important area of future inquiry, and our initial findings of poor sleep and an association between sleep disruption and academic performance may have important implications for intervention strategies aimed at 'closing the gap'. Further studies should assess a broader range of demographic, social and economic factors to better understand the associations reported here and guide future intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate S; Magin, Parker; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP) pressure control in patients with hypertension. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control - usual care), Group B (Intervention), or Group C (Short Intervention). Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively), improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01), and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index) scores (P=0.91). There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention), and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care). Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  6. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajorek B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP pressure control in patients with hypertension. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. Method: A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control – usual care, Group B (Intervention, or Group C (Short Intervention. Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Results: Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively, improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01, and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index scores (P=0.91. There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention, and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care. Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. Conclusion: A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  7. Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on appropriateness of prescribing for community-acquired pneumonia in an Australian regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stuart E; Boutlis, Craig S; Yeo, Wilfred W; Miyakis, Spiros

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the second commonest indication for antibiotic use in Australian hospitals and is therefore a frequent target for antimicrobial stewardship. A single-centre prospective study was conducted in a regional referral hospital comparing management of adult patients with CAP before and after an educational intervention. We demonstrated a reduction in duration of therapy and reduced inappropriate use of ceftriaxone-based regimens for non-severe CAP. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Methods Data were collected from 1,139 Austra...

  9. Preventing Australian bat lyssavirus: community knowledge and risk perception of bats in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; El Saadi, Debra; McCall, Bradley J

    2014-04-01

    Ongoing potential exposure of members of the public to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in South East Queensland, Australia, prompted investigation of community knowledge, risk perception, and intention to handle bats to inform future prevention efforts. After pilot testing, a computer-assisted telephone survey of a representative sample of 700 adults without previous potential exposure to ABLV was undertaken in the defined geographic region. Twenty-four percent of eligible contacted individuals participated. Basic knowledge of bats and ABLV was generally high, with 65% of participants answering nine or more of 12 knowledge questions correctly. The perceived risk that bats pose to human health was also high, with 93% indicating some degree of risk. Although 88% of participants indicated they would handle bats in one or more of the scripted situations, overall intention to handle bats was low, with 59% indicating they would handle a bat in four or less of the 12 scenarios. Younger males with lower risk perception of bats most frequently indicated intention to handle bats in varying situations. Knowledge score was not associated with intention to handle bats on multivariate modeling. Future public health prevention efforts, both in Australia and overseas, should focus further on conveying the risk to humans and to bats when nontrained, nonvaccinated people attempt to handle bats rather than attempting to purely convey knowledge about bats and ABLV or rabies. Suitable alternative measures to handling should be included. Younger adult males are a particular target group for prevention efforts.

  10. Descriptive features and causal attributions of headache in an Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, E; Sheffield, J

    1996-04-01

    The reported characteristics and causes of headache differ across individuals and between groups. Such differences are of interest from an epidemiological point of view. This study set out to identify the main descriptive features and causal attributions of headache within an Australian urban community. A sample of 261 subjects reporting headache volunteered to participate in the survey. Subjects completed a self-report questionnaire for assessing demographic variables, headache parameters (intensity, duration, etc), headache medication habits, and perceived causes of one's headache (as in the UK headache survey by Blau, 1990). Results revealed that the typical headache sufferer was a middle-aged employed individual. Migraine versus tension headache were equivalent in number, and on the average, subjects experienced moderate intensity, day-long headaches that recurred about nine times per month. With regard to causal attributions, the prevalence of headaches due to mental stress was higher than that due to any other single stimulus (eg, noise, exercise), and alcohol was the most frequent dietary cause of headache. These findings are generally consistent with those from previous surveys, although some interesting departures emerge which may be accounted for by demographic differences in the populations studied.

  11. Exploring Weight Management Recommendations across Australian Community Pharmacies Using Case Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages, life stages…

  12. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  13. Community awareness and predictors of uptake of pertussis booster vaccine in South Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle; Thomas, Natalie; Giles, Lynne; Marshall, Helen

    2015-12-16

    Pertussis is a highly virulent vaccine preventable disease that remains a global challenge. This study aimed to assess community knowledge of pertussis infection as well as awareness and uptake of adult pertussis booster vaccine. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of randomly selected households in South Australia by Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews in 2011. Survey data were weighted to the age, gender and geographical area profile of the population. From 3124 randomly sampled contactable households, 1967 interviews were conducted (participation rate 63%) with individuals aged 18-93 years, including 608 parents of children aged pertussis (whooping cough) and 18% reported that a household member had previously contracted whooping cough infection. Most respondents considered whooping cough to be highly contagious (73%) and severe for infants (89%). Over half (51%) of those surveyed were aware that family members commonly transmit pertussis to infants. Despite high knowledge, pertussis vaccine uptake was low, with only 10% of respondents reporting pertussis vaccination in the previous five years. Whilst 61% of respondents were aware of the availability of an adult pertussis booster vaccine, only 8% (n=154) reported their Family Physician had discussed it with them. If provided free, 77% agreed that they would be more likely to accept a booster pertussis vaccination. Independent predictors of recent pertussis vaccination included higher education, larger household size, perception of greater disease severity for infants and discussion with a Family Physician about pertussis vaccination. Whilst knowledge regarding transmission and severity of Bordetella pertussis was high, uptake of pertussis vaccination for adults is remarkably low amongst the South Australian community. Improved awareness regarding the availability of a booster pertussis vaccine through Family Physicians and/or provision of funded pertussis vaccination for adults has the potential to improve

  14. Community pharmacist participation in a practice-based research network: a report from the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Puja; Hemmeger, Heather; Kozak, Mary Ann; Gernant, Stephanie A; Snyder, Margie E

    2015-01-01

    To describe the experiences and opinions of pharmacists serving as site coordinators for the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet). Retail chain, independent, and hospital/health system outpatient community pharmacies throughout Indiana, with a total of 127 pharmacy members represented by 26 site coordinators. Rx-SafeNet, a statewide practice-based research network (PBRN) formed in 2010 and administered by the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. Barriers and facilitators to participation in available research studies, confidence participating in research, and satisfaction with overall network communication. 22 of 26 site coordinators participated, resulting in an 85% response rate. Most (72.2%) of the respondents had received a doctor of pharmacy degree, and 13.6% had postgraduate year (PGY)1 residency training. The highest reported benefits of PBRN membership were an enhanced relationship with the Purdue University College of Pharmacy (81% agreed or strongly agreed) and enhanced professional development (80% agreed or strongly agreed). Time constraints were identified as the greatest potential barrier to network participation, reported by 62% of respondents. In addition, the majority (59%) of survey respondents identified no prior research experience. Last, respondents' confidence in performing research appeared to increase substantially after becoming network members, with 43% reporting a lack of confidence in engaging in research before joining the network compared with 90% reporting confidence after joining the network. In general, Rx-SafeNet site coordinators appeared to experience increased confidence in research engagement after joining the network. While respondents identified a number of benefits associated with network participation, concerns about potential time constraints remained a key barrier to participation. These findings will assist network leadership in identifying opportunities to positively increase member participation

  15. Barriers to the routine collection of health outcome data in an Australian community care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancarrow SA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan A NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: For over a decade, organizations have attempted to include the measurement and reporting of health outcome data in contractual agreements between funders and health service providers, but few have succeeded. This research explores the utility of collecting health outcomes data that could be included in funding contracts for an Australian Community Care Organisation (CCO. An action-research methodology was used to trial the implementation of outcome measurement in six diverse projects within the CCO using a taxonomy of interventions based on the International Classification of Function. The findings from the six projects are presented as vignettes to illustrate the issues around the routine collection of health outcomes in each case. Data collection and analyses were structured around Donabedian's structure–process–outcome triad. Health outcomes are commonly defined as a change in health status that is attributable to an intervention. This definition assumes that a change in health status can be defined and measured objectively; the intervention can be defined; the change in health status is attributable to the intervention; and that the health outcomes data are accessible. This study found flaws with all of these assumptions that seriously undermine the ability of community-based organizations to introduce routine health outcome measurement. Challenges were identified across all stages of the Donabedian triad, including poor adherence to minimum dataset requirements; difficulties standardizing processes or defining interventions; low rates of use of outcome tools; lack of value of the tools to the service provider; difficulties defining or identifying the end point of an intervention; technical and ethical barriers to accessing data; a lack of standardized processes; and time lags for the collection of data. In no case was

  16. Case study of conservation and community concerns for present and future multiple use of the Great Australian Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, T. [Marine and Coastal Community Network, Henley Beach, SA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    As part of the Australian National Strategy for ecologically sustainable development, State and Federal Governments have agreed to cooperate on action under the Ocean Rescue 2000 Program to develop a national representative system of Marine Protected Areas. As a component of this program an area of the Great Australian Bight has been the focus of a proposal for a large area multiple use marine park. Within the context of this workshop, however, the conservation and community considerations extend beyond this proposed area. There is a need for resolution of apparent and real conflict with conservation, fishing, tourism and mining objectives in the development of equitable policies in establishing a marine protected area for the significant region. In this paper current activities in the Great Australian Bight, conservation values and concerns, fisheries and conservation, and fisheries and potential conflict with future petroleum exploitation, are discussed. The marine animals of the area are outlined, and community conservation concerns are detailed. It is concluded that there is an increasing need for States to develop a strategic approach to marine management. The adoption of marine bio-regionalisation methodology to define areas of significant biodiversity, representative marine protected areas and the development of a marine conservation and management strategy can be seen as essential components in the management of the marine environment. (author). refs.

  17. Medical-attention injuries in community Australian football: a review of 30 years of surveillance data from treatment sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-03-01

    In recent reports, Australian football has outranked other team sports in the frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) presentations. Understanding the profile of these and other "medical-attention" injuries is vital for developing preventive strategies that can reduce health costs. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency and profile of Australian football injuries presenting for medical attention. A systematic search was carried out to identify peer-reviewed articles and reports presenting original data about Australian football injuries from treatment sources (hospitals, EDs, and health-care clinics). Data extracted included injury frequency and rate, body region, and nature and mechanism of injury. Following literature search and review, 12 publications were included. In most studies, Australian football contributed the greatest number of injuries out of any sport or recreation activity. Hospitals and EDs reported a higher proportion of upper limb than lower limb injuries, whereas the opposite was true for sports medicine clinics. In hospitals, fractures and dislocations were most prevalent out of all injuries. In EDs and clinics, sprains/strains were most common in adults and superficial injuries were predominant in children. Most injuries resulted from contact with other players or falling. The upper limb was the most commonly injured body region for Australian football presentations to hospitals and EDs. Strategies to prevent upper limb injuries could reduce associated public health costs. However, to understand the full extent of the injury problem in football, treatment source surveillance systems should be supplemented with other datasets, including community club-based collections.

  18. Weight management in community pharmacy: what do the experts think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Irene S; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2013-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight adults creates a significant public health burden and there is great potential for pharmacists to be involved in the provision of weight management services, other than the mundane supply of commercial products. In order to provide optimal services that can be integrated into the healthcare system, a best practice model for weight management services in community pharmacy should be in place. We sought experts' and key stakeholders' opinions on this matter. (1) To identify components of a best practice model of a weight management service feasible in Australian community pharmacy. (2) To identify the role of pharmacists and the training requirements to up-skill pharmacists to competently provide weight management services. (3) To elicit any practical suggestions that would contribute to successful implementation of weight management services in pharmacy. Australian primary care sector. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 12 participants including Australian experts in obesity and representatives of main Australian professional organisations in pharmacy. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using the framework approach. Recommended components of pharmacy-based weight management services and training requirements. Participants perceived two potential roles for pharmacists involved in weight management: health promotion and individualised service. Multi-component interventions targeting all three areas: diet, physical activity and behaviour change were emphasised. Physical assessment (e.g. weight, waist circumference measurements), goal setting, referral to allied healthcare professionals and on-going support for weight maintenance were also proposed. Participants suggested pharmacists should undergo formal training and identified various training topics to improve pharmacists' knowledge, attributes and skills to acquire competencies

  19. Assessment of professional responsibilities of pharmacists towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary supplements (DS) are widely sold in pharmacies. In developing countries like Nigeria. Although there are no available data on the prevalence of use of DS, pharmacies sell many nutrition products used by the community. Patients generally depend on pharmacists for advice and information on drugs, including DS.

  20. Emergency contraception supply in Australian pharmacies after the introduction of ulipristal acetate: a mystery shopping mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack Charles; Schneider, Carl Richard; Moles, Rebekah Jane

    2018-05-09

    To explore the supply of emergency contraception (EC) from Australian community pharmacies after the introduction of ulipristal acetate (UPA) and to explore pharmacists' knowledge, decision-making, attitudes and beliefs surrounding supplying EC. A mixed-methods approach of mystery shopping with structured interview was employed. From August to November 2017, 20 pharmacy students mystery-shopped 10 community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia, requesting "the morning after pill." Each pharmacy was visited five times with varying scenarios. Structured interviews were conducted immediately postvisit. Visit data were analyzed descriptively and comparatively. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and categorically analyzed. Of 50 planned visits, 43 were analyzed. EC was supplied in 38 requests by pharmacists (54% male). Levonorgestrel (LNG) was more frequently supplied than UPA (74% vs. 26%). UPA was only supplied when intercourse occurred >72 h prior. Directions for use were provided in 35 supplies. No difference in questioning or counseling was found based on sex of requester. Female pharmacists provided more counseling points (MED=4 [IQR=4-5] vs. MED=3 [IQR=0-4]; p<.01). Two pharmacists asked all guideline questions, and no pharmacist provided all guideline counseling points. Interviews elicited supply guidelines, regulatory and clinical knowledge, financial considerations, privacy and stock availability as factors influencing EC supply. EC was supplied in accordance with local legislation in all instances, with the majority supplied within the licensed timeframe for each EC formulation. LNG was supplied more frequently than UPA. UPA was only supplied in the 72-120-h timeframe. Clinical and regulatory knowledge, availability and cost to consumer were identified as factors influencing supply. This study found that despite the introduction of ulipristal acetate to the Australian market, it is not frequently supplied. Interviews identified the need for

  1. Culture and healthy lifestyles: a qualitative exploration of the role of food and physical activity in three urban Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Ruth; Stanley, Rebecca; Probst, Yasmine; McMahon, Anne

    2017-08-01

    1) To explore the links between Indigenous Australian children's perspectives on culture, and healthy lifestyle behaviours. 2) To provide insight into how to approach the development of a health intervention targeting lifestyle behaviours in Australian Indigenous children. Seven semi-structured focus groups sessions were conducted with Australian Indigenous children aged 5-12 years living on the South Coast of New South Wales. Audio-recordings were transcribed and thematic analyses were conducted and related to principles of grounded theory. Participants had connections to aspects of Australian Indigenous culture that were embedded in their everyday lives. Healthy lifestyle behaviours (such as healthy eating and physical activity) were found to be interconnected with Australian Indigenous culture and positive emotional wellbeing was identified as an important outcome of connecting Australian Indigenous children to cultural practices. Understanding the importance of culture and its role in healthy lifestyles is critical in the development of health interventions for Indigenous populations. Health interventions embedded with Australian Indigenous culture may have potential to improve physical and emotional health within Australian Indigenous communities. However, it is unlikely that a 'one size fits all' approach to health interventions can be taken. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Consumer and community involvement in health and medical research: evaluation by online survey of Australian training workshops for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Alpers, Kirsten; Heyworth, Jane; Phuong, Cindy; Hanley, Bec

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, since 2009, the Consumer and Community Involvement Program (formerly the Consumer and Community Participation Program) has developed and run workshops to help people working in health and medical research involve more consumers (patients) and community members (the public) in their research. In 2012, workshop attendees were invited to do an online survey to find out the effect, if any, that attending a workshop had on their awareness of and attitudes to consumer and community involvement. They were also asked about changes in their behaviour when it came to the involvement of consumers and the community in their work. The study found that, for people who answered the survey, more than double the number found consumer and community involvement very relevant after attending a workshop, compared with the number who thought that before attending one. Also, amongst those who answered the survey, 94 % thought that the workshop increased their understanding about involvement. Background There is limited evidence of the benefits of providing training workshops for researchers on how to involve consumers (patients) and the community (public) in health and medical research. Australian training workshops were evaluated to contribute to the evidence base. The key objective was to evaluate the impact of the workshops in increasing awareness of consumer and community involvement; changing attitudes to future implementation of involvement activities and influencing behaviour in the methods of involvement used. A secondary objective was to use a formal evaluation survey to build on the anecdotal feedback received from researchers about changes in awareness, attitudes and behaviours. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, online survey of researchers, students, clinicians, administrators and members of non-government organisations who attended Consumer and Community Involvement Program training workshops between 2009 and 2012 to ascertain changes to awareness

  3. The impact of subsidized low aromatic fuel (LAF) on petrol (gasoline) sniffing in remote Australian indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abbs, Peter; Shaw, Gillian; Field, Emma

    2017-08-17

    Since 2005, the Australian Government has subsidized the production and distribution of Low Aromatic Fuel (LAF) as a deterrent against petrol (gasoline) sniffing in remote Indigenous communities. LAF is used in place of unleaded petrol as a fuel for vehicles and other engines. This paper reports findings from an independent evaluation of the LAF rollout. Forty one Indigenous communities were surveyed between 2010 and 2014, with each community being visited twice at a two yearly interval. Quantitative data on prevalence of petrol sniffing were collected, as well as qualitative data on the acceptability of LAF, evidence of substitution for inhaled petrol with other drugs, and programs such as recreational, training and employment opportunities. Prevalence rates of sniffing per 1000 population for each survey year and community were calculated by dividing the total number of sniffers by the population aged 5-39 years and multiplying by 1000. Between 2011-12 and 2013-14, the total estimated number of people sniffing petrol declined from 289 to 204, a fall of 29.4%. At both times, the median petrol sniffing prevalence rate was lower in communities with LAF than in communities without LAF. In 17 of the 41 communities, comparable data were available over a longer period, commencing in 2005-06. Fifteen of these communities stocked LAF over the entire period. In these communities, the median rate of petrol sniffing declined by 96%, from 141.6 per 1000 population in 2005-06 to 5.5 in 2013-14 (p < 0.05). LAF was widely accepted, although acceptance was often qualified by a belief that LAF harmed engines. Anecdotal reports suggest that the fall in petrol sniffing may have been offset by increased use of cannabis and other drugs, but the relationship is not one of simple cause-and-effect, with evidence that an increase in cannabis use in communities commenced before the LAF rollout began. Provision of services in communities has improved in recent years, but many programs

  4. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  5. Cultural competence in working with the Arab Australian community: a conceptual review and the experience of the Arab Council Australia (ACA gambling help counselling service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Mazbouh-Moussa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Culturally And Linguistically Diverse (CALD communities participate less in gambling than the general population, those who gamble are more likely to show signs of disordered gambling (Moore and Ohtsuka International Gambling Studies, 1, 87–101, 2001; Raylu and Oei Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1087–1114, 2004; Yamine and Thomas The impact of gaming on specific cultural groups, Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority, Melbourne, 2000. Research data on gambling problems and interventions in the Arab Australian community are extremely scarce. Therefore, this article will present an overview of the Arab Australian community and cultural issues regarding gambling within the Arab Australian community. Identifying these issues is important to work effectively with Arab Australians clients and those from other CALD backgrounds. The article also presents a conceptual review of peer-reviewed research articles on cultural competence in working with the Arab clients, the overview of Arab migration history to Australia and a summary of recent events that suggest a tension between Arab and non-Arab Australian communities. Observations and experiences that were encountered during the gambling counselling service operating in the Australian Arab community in New South Wales are also discussed. The research data to validate the effectiveness and positive impact of cultural competence are still in its early stages. However, a small number of community education resources have been available for working with the Arab community. From the data in annual reviews on the Arab Council Australia gambling counselling service, it was identified that cultural beliefs and expectations influence risk-taking decisions, identification of gambling issues, and preference of help seeking within the client’s social network. Further, culturally-specific sensitive issues related to political and global security events, which in turn influenced openness and

  6. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Forms of the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities Project for Promoting Cooperative Conflict Resolution Education in Australian Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, Margot; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth; Sanson, Ann; Richardson, Shanel; Hunt, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities (ERIS) Project which aimed to promote constructive conflict resolution (CR) in Australian primary school communities through professional development for core teams of three-five staff (n = 33 teachers). Twelve schools were randomly assigned to a full intervention (FI) group or…

  7. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context.

  8. Domestic dog roaming patterns in remote northern Australian indigenous communities and implications for disease modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G; Brookes, Victoria J; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    Although Australia is canine rabies free, the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland and other northern Australian communities are at risk of an incursion due to proximity to rabies infected islands of Indonesia and existing disease spread pathways. Northern Australia also has large populations of free-roaming domestic dogs, presenting a risk of rabies establishment and maintenance should an incursion occur. Agent-based rabies spread models are being used to predict potential outbreak size and identify effective control strategies to aid incursion preparedness. A key component of these models is knowledge of dog roaming patterns to inform contact rates. However, a comprehensive understanding of how dogs utilise their environment and the heterogeneity of their movements to estimate contact rates is lacking. Using a novel simulation approach - and GPS data collected from 21 free-roaming domestic dogs in the NPA in 2014 and 2016 - we characterised the roaming patterns within this dog population. Multiple subsets from each individual dog's GPS dataset were selected representing different monitoring durations and a utilisation distribution (UD) and derived core (50%) and extended (95%) home ranges (HR) were estimated for each duration. Three roaming patterns were identified, based on changes in mean HR over increased monitoring durations, supported by assessment of maps of daily UDs of each dog. Stay-at-home dogs consolidated their HR around their owner's residence, resulting in a decrease in mean HR (both core and extended) as monitoring duration increased (median peak core and extended HR 0.336 and 3.696ha, respectively). Roamer dogs consolidated their core HR but their extended HR increased with longer monitoring durations, suggesting that their roaming patterns based on place of residence were more variable (median peak core and extended HR 0.391 and 6.049ha, respectively). Explorer dogs demonstrated large variability in their roaming patterns, with both core and

  9. ACCP Clinical Pharmacist Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saseen, Joseph J; Ripley, Toni L; Bondi, Deborah; Burke, John M; Cohen, Lawrence J; McBane, Sarah; McConnell, Karen J; Sackey, Bryan; Sanoski, Cynthia; Simonyan, Anahit; Taylor, Jodi; Vande Griend, Joseph P

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) is to advance human health by extending the frontiers of clinical pharmacy. Consistent with this mission and its core values, ACCP is committed to ensuring that clinical pharmacists possess the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to deliver comprehensive medication management (CMM) in team-based, direct patient care environments. These components form the basis for the core competencies of a clinical pharmacist and reflect the competencies of other direct patient care providers. This paper is an update to a previous ACCP document and includes the expectation that clinical pharmacists be competent in six essential domains: direct patient care, pharmacotherapy knowledge, systems-based care and population health, communication, professionalism, and continuing professional development. Although these domains align with the competencies of physician providers, they are specifically designed to better reflect the clinical pharmacy expertise required to provide CMM in patient-centered, team-based settings. Clinical pharmacists must be prepared to complete the education and training needed to achieve these competencies and must commit to ongoing efforts to maintain competence through ongoing professional development. Collaboration among stakeholders will be needed to ensure that these competencies guide clinical pharmacists' professional development and evaluation by educational institutions, postgraduate training programs, professional societies, and employers. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  10. Knowledge, perceptions and practices of pharmacovigilance amongst community and hospital pharmacists in a selected district of North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Joubert

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The majority of pharmacists are familiar with the concept of PV, but less than half reported any ADR. They are willing to participate in PV processes but are unsure what their exact role playing should be. More than half indicated that they would like to see improvements to the current PV system in South Africa. The majority are prepared to undergo further education to improve their PV knowledge.

  11. Putting History in Its Place: Grounding the Australian Curriculum--History in Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This position paper develops the case for a greater focus on the teaching of local histories in the Australian Curriculum: History. It takes as its starting point an Indigenous epistemology that understands knowledge to be embedded in the land. This connection between knowledge and country is used to examine recent literature on whether the…

  12. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...

  13. Community and consumer participation in Australian health services--an overview of organisational commitment and participation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A; Silburn, K

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly describes recent initiatives to improve consumer participation in health services that have led to the establishment of the National Resource Centre for Consumer Participation in Health. The results of a component of the needs assessment undertaken by the newly established Centre are presented. They provide a 'snapshot' of the types of feedback and participation processes mainly being utilised by Australian health services at the different levels of seeking information, information sharing and consultation, partnership, delegated power and consumer control. They also allow identification of the organisational commitment made by Australian health services to support a more coordinated approach to community and consumer feedback and participation at different levels of health services such as particular emphasis on determining the presence of community and consumer participation in key organisational statements, specific consumer policies and plans, identifiable leadership, inclusion into job descriptions, allocation of resources, and staff development and consumer training. Discussion centres around four key observations and some of the key perceived external barriers.

  14. Pharmacists in a liberalised system - Results from a profession-wide survey in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn; Traulsen, Janine Morgall

    2002-01-01

    satisfaction was correlated with respondents' perception of the job's importance and responsibility, more so for community pharmacists than others. Overall job satisfaction was quite high and community pharmacists felt that their contact with customers was satisfactory. However, they were more dissatisfied...... with their work hours, importance of their work, and responsibility than other pharmacists. Conclusion - Community pharmacists have been affected more adversely by the legislative change than their colleagues in other work settings.......Background - The study reported here was part of a multi-study evaluation of new drug distribution legislation in Iceland. Objective - The objective of this sub-study was to compare the satisfaction of community pharmacists and pharmacists in other settings with regard to their job in general...

  15. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Future enhanced clinical role of pharmacists in Emergency Departments in England: multi-site observational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth; Terry, David; Huynh, Chi; Petridis, Konstantinos; Aiello, Matthew; Mazard, Louis; Ubhi, Hirminder; Terry, Alex; Wilson, Keith; Sinclair, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Background There are concerns about maintaining appropriate clinical staffing levels in Emergency Departments. Pharmacists may be one possible solution. Objective To determine if Emergency Department attendees could be clinically managed by pharmacists with or without advanced clinical practice training. Setting Prospective 49 site cross-sectional observational study of patients attending Emergency Departments in England. Method Pharmacist data collectors identified patient attendance at their Emergency Department, recorded anonymized details of 400 cases and categorized each into one of four possible options: cases which could be managed by a community pharmacist; could be managed by a hospital pharmacist independent prescriber; could be managed by a hospital pharmacist independent prescriber with additional clinical training; or medical team only (unsuitable for pharmacists to manage). Impact indices sensitive to both workload and proportion of pharmacist manageable cases were calculated for each clinical group. Main outcome measure Proportion of cases which could be managed by a pharmacist. Results 18,613 cases were observed from 49 sites. 726 (3.9%) of cases were judged suitable for clinical management by community pharmacists, 719 (3.9%) by pharmacist prescribers, 5202 (27.9%) by pharmacist prescribers with further training, and 11,966 (64.3%) for medical team only. Impact Indices of the most frequent clinical groupings were general medicine (13.18) and orthopaedics (9.69). Conclusion The proportion of Emergency Department cases that could potentially be managed by a pharmacist was 36%. Greatest potential for pharmacist management was in general medicine and orthopaedics (usually minor trauma). Findings support the case for extending the clinical role of pharmacists.

  17. Non-prescription treatment of NSAID induced GORD by Australian pharmacies: a national simulated patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Brett; Matthews, Andrew; Bergin, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    Patients regularly present to community pharmacies for advice about and treatment for reflux symptoms and NSAIDs are a common cause of these symptoms. There is no published literature detailing the approach that pharmacies take to these enquiries, the pharmacotherapy they recommend or whether they contribute to the safe and effective use of reflux medicines. To assess in an observational study design the clinical history gathering, recommendations for GORD management and counselling provided by community pharmacies in a simulated patient scenario involving suspected NSAID induced reflux symptoms. Setting Australian community pharmacies. Simulated patients visited 223 community pharmacies to request treatment for reflux symptoms. The interaction was audiotaped and assessed against guidelines for the treatment of reflux symptoms. Alignment of community pharmacies with international expert gastroenterologist guidance and national professional practice guidelines for the treatment of reflux symptoms by pharmacists including: consultation with a pharmacist; confirmation of reflux diagnosis based on symptoms; recommendation of short courses proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy; advice on the safe and effective use of reflux medicines and referral to a doctor for further assessment. Pharmacists consulted with the simulated patient in 77% of cases. Symptoms were enquired about in 95% of cases and a medicines history taken in 69% of cases. Recommendations for treatment included: PPIs (18%), histamine H2 antagonists (57%) and antacids (19%). Advice on product use was given in 83% of cases. Referral to a doctor to discuss reflux symptoms was made in 63% of cases. When assessing patients for the symptoms of GORD, Australian pharmacists and non-pharmacist support staff take a comprehensive history including symptomatology, duration of symptoms, concomitant medicines and medical conditions and any GORD treatments previously trialled. They provide comprehensive counselling on the

  18. Patient-pharmacist communication during a post-discharge pharmacist home visit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, H.T.; Vervloet, M.; Dooren, A.A. van; Bouvy, M.L.; Koster, E.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background With the shifting role of community pharmacists towards patient education and counselling, they are wellpositioned to conduct a post-discharge home visit which could prevent or solve drug-related problems. Gaining insight into the communication during these home visits could be valuable

  19. Internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain: what do registration data tell us about their recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassell Karen

    2009-06-01

    work in hospitals than in community pharmacies, and all groups of internationally trained pharmacist are more likely to work full-time than British-trained ones. Adjudication pharmacists appear to stay on the Register longer than their reciprocal and European colleagues. Conclusion Analysis of the Register of Pharmacists provides novel insights into the origins, composition and destinations of internationally trained pharmacists. They represent a notable proportion of the Register, indicating that British employers are relying on their contribution for the delivery of pharmacy services. With the increasing mobility of health care professionals across geographical borders, it will be important to undertake primary research to gain a better understanding of the expectations, plans and experiences of pharmacists entering from outside Great Britain.

  20. A systematic review of studies evaluating Australian indigenous community development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Mieke; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Stephens, Anne; Calabria, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Community development is a health promotion approach identified as having great potential to improve Indigenous health, because of its potential for extensive community participation. There has been no systematic examination of the extent of community participation in community

  1. Pharmacists subjected to disciplinary action: characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Noyce, Peter R; Walshe, Kieran; Parker, Dianne; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish whether there are any characteristics of pharmacists that predict their likelihood of being subjected to disciplinary action. METHODS  The setting was the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain's Disciplinary Committee. One hundred and seventeen pharmacists, all of whom had been referred to the Disciplinary Committee, were matched with a quota sample of 580 pharmacists who had not been subjected to disciplinary action but that matched the disciplined pharmacists on a set of demographic factors (gender, country of residence, year of registration). Frequency analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the two groups of pharmacists in terms of sector of work, ethnicity, age and country of training. Descriptive statistics were also obtained from the disciplined pharmacists to further explore characteristics of disciplinary cases and those pharmacists who undergo them. KEY FINDINGS  While a number of characteristics appeared to increase the likelihood of a pharmacist being referred to the disciplinary committee, only one of these - working in a community pharmacy - was statistically significant. Professional misconduct accounted for a greater proportion of referrals than did clinical malpractice, and approximately one-fifth of pharmacists who went before the Disciplinary Committee had previously been disciplined by the Society. CONCLUSIONS  This study provides initial evidence of pharmacist characteristics that are associated with an increased risk of being disciplined, based upon the data currently available. It is recommended that follow-up work is carried out using a more extensive dataset in order to confirm the statistical trends identified here. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Factors Affecting Number of Diabetes Management Activities Provided by Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Annie; Lorenz, Kathleen; Cor, Ken; Simpson, Scot H

    2016-12-01

    Legislative changes since 2007 have given Alberta pharmacists additional authorizations and new practice settings, which should enhance provision of clinical services to patients. This study examined whether these changes are related to the number of diabetes management activities provided by pharmacists. Cross-sectional surveys of Alberta pharmacists were conducted in 2006 and 2015. Both questionnaires contained 63 diabetes management activities, with response options to indicate how frequently the activity was provided. Respondents were grouped by survey year, practice setting, diabetes-specific training and additional authorizations. The number of diabetes management activities provided often or always were compared among groups by using analysis of variance. Data from 128 pharmacists participating in the 2006 survey were compared with 256 pharmacists participating in the 2015 survey; overall mean age was 41.6 (±10.9) years, 245 (64%) were women, mean duration of practice was 16.1 (±11.8) years, 280 (73%) were community pharmacists, 75 (20%) were certified diabetes educators (CDEs), and 100 (26%) had additional prescribing authorization (APA). Pharmacists provided a mean of 28.7 (95% CI 26.3 to 31.2) diabetes management activities in 2006 and 35.2 (95% CI 33.4-37.0) activities in 2015 (p<0.001). Pharmacists who were CDEs provided significantly more activities compared to other pharmacists (p<0.001). In 2015, working in a primary care network and having APA were also associated with provision of more activities (p<0.05 for both comparisons). Pharmacists provided more diabetes management activities in 2015 than in 2006. The number of diabetes management activities was also associated with being a CDE, working in a primary care network or having APA. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Views on equine-related research in Australia from the Australian equestrian community: perceived outputs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K; Clarkson, L

    2016-04-01

    The extension of research into public practice is enhanced by communication and behaviour change strategies that are consistent with consumer needs and perspectives. To gain support for equine research (or to appreciate the perspectives contributing to disagreement), it is necessary to determine how aware consumers are of research, what research means to them, how they perceive its benefits (if at all) and how they engage with (or resist) it. Because of a surprising dearth of research evaluating consumer perceptions of research in any sector, our aim was to identify the perceived outputs and benefits of research from the perspective of the Australian horse owner. We analysed the data for 930 participants in an online survey. Participants' understanding of research was associated with a broad terminology. Slightly more than half were aware of equine research that had taken place in Australia, with almost half reporting gaining some benefit, notably in relation to equine health. Although comments demonstrated an awareness of the collective benefit of research, research was made meaningful in relation to local conditions and participants' own equestrian disciplines. There is a significant opportunity for increasing awareness of Australia-based equine research and its value to owners of horses. The critical engagement with research by some owners suggests the need for communicators to present research in terms suitable for an intelligent lay audience, with clear identification of the personal and collective benefits for owners, horses and the equestrian community. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Improving the transition of highly complex patients into the community: impact of a pharmacist in an allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Ruth; Coutsouvelis, John; Poole, Susan; Dooley, Michael J; Booth, Diana; Wei, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Patients having undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) require complex medication regimens. To ensure the safe and effective management of this patient group, specialised care in a centre with a dedicated and experienced healthcare team is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a specialty clinical pharmacist working in an ambulatory SCT clinic. A prospective cohort study was conducted on patients post SCT and discharged to the ambulatory setting. Patients were reviewed by a clinical pharmacist weekly for six visits. At these visits a medication review was undertaken. Interventions from these reviews were recorded. Interventions were then assigned a risk rating by a multidisciplinary panel. Adherence was also assessed by a Morisky questionnaire and review of dose administration aids. Comparison of data over the six-visit period was undertaken. In total 23 patients were enrolled in the study. All six visits were completed in 17 patients and 161 interventions were recorded at an average of 1.4 interventions per patient visit. The panel rated 40 % of interventions as high risk, 46 % as medium risk and 14 % as low risk. At all visit points high- and medium-risk interventions constituted >80 % of the total. Morisky scores improved by an average of 1.53 (p SCT outpatient clinic resulted in regular and effective intervention contributing to improved medication management and adherence.

  5. Using scenarios to test the appropriateness of pharmacist prescribing in asthma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tamer; Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate; Armour, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    To explore the potential for community pharmacist prescribing in terms of usefulness, pharmacists' confidence, and appropriateness, in the context of asthma management. Twenty community pharmacists were recruited using convenience sampling from a group of trained practitioners who had already delivered asthma services. These pharmacists were asked to complete a scenario-based questionnaire (9 scenarios) modelled on information from real patients. Pharmacist interventions were independently reviewed and rated on their appropriateness according to the Respiratory Therapeutic Guidelines (TG) by three expert researchers. In seven of nine scenarios (78%), the most common prescribing intervention made by pharmacists agreed with TG recommendations. Although the prescribing intervention was appropriate in the majority of cases, the execution of such interventions was not in line with guidelines (i.e. dosage or frequency) in the majority of scenarios. Due to this, only 47% (76/162) of the interventions overall were considered appropriate. However, pharmacists were deemed to be often following common clinical practice for asthma prescribing. Therefore 81% (132/162) of prescribing interventions were consistent with clinical practice, which is often not guideline driven, indicating a need for specific training in prescribing according to guidelines. Pharmacists reported that they were confident in making prescribing interventions and that this would be very useful in their management of the patients in the scenarios. Community pharmacists may be able to prescribe asthma medications appropriately to help achieve good outcomes for their patients. However, further training in the guidelines for prescribing are required if pharmacists are to support asthma management in this way.

  6. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Work in a Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Model for the Management of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isetts, Brian J; Buffington, Daniel E; Carter, Barry L; Smith, Marie; Polgreen, Linnea A; James, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    Physician-pharmacist collaborative models have been shown to improve the care of patients with numerous chronic medical conditions. Team-based health care using integrated clinical pharmacists provides one opportunity to improve quality in health care systems that use population-based financing. In November 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) requested that the relative value of pharmacists' work in team-based care needs to be established. Thus the objective of this study was to describe the components of pharmacists' work in the management of hypertension with a physician-pharmacist collaborative model. Descriptive analysis of the components of pharmacists' work in the Collaboration Among Pharmacists and Physicians to Improve Outcomes Now (CAPTION) study, a prospective, cluster randomized trial. This analysis was intended to provide policymakers with data and information, using the CAPTION study model, on the time and intensity of pharmacists' work to understand pharmacists' relative value contributions in the context of CMS financing and population management aims. The CAPTION trial was conducted in 32 community-based medical offices in 15 U.S. states and included 390 patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Blood pressure was measured by trained study coordinators in each office, and patients were included in the study if they had uncontrolled blood pressure. Included patients were randomized to a 9-month intervention, a 24-month intervention, or usual care. The goal of the pharmacist intervention was to improve blood pressure control and resolve drug therapy problems impeding progress toward blood pressure goals. This intervention included medical record review, a structured assessment with the patient, collaboration to achieve goals of therapy, and patient follow-up. The two intervention arms (9 and 24 mo) were identical the first 9 months, and that time frame is the focus of this workload evaluation. Pharmacists completed

  7. Cultural diversity in community sport: an ethnographic inquiry of Somali Australians' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sport organisations aim to grow the participation of culturally and linguistically diverse communities, including newly arrived people from refugee backgrounds. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic research conducted by the author at community sport organisations in the multicultural city of

  8. The Components of Resilience--Perceptions of an Australian Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikstra, Elizabeth; Ross, Helen; King, Christine A.; Baker, Peter G.; Hegney, Desley; McLachlan, Kathryn; Rogers-Clark, Cath

    2010-01-01

    Resilience, of individuals, is a well-established concept in the psychology/mental health literatures, but has been little explored in relation to communities. Related theory in the community development and social impact assessment literature provides insight into qualities and assets of communities that enable them to develop effectively or to…

  9. Testing evidence routine practice: Using an implementation framework to embed a clinically proven asthma service in Australian community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joanne M; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Garcia Cardenas, Victoria; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Armour, Carol

    Community pharmacists are well placed and evidence clearly demonstrates that they can be suitably trained to deliver professional services that improve the management of asthma patients in clinical, economic and humanistic terms. However the gap between this evidence and practice reality remains wide. In this study we measure the implementation process as well as the service benefits of an asthma service model. Using an effectiveness-implementation hybrid design, a defined implementation process (progression from Exploration through Preparation and Testing to Operation stages) supporting an asthma service (promoting asthma control and inhaler technique) was tested in 17 community pharmacies across metropolitan Sydney. Seven pharmacies reached the Operation stage of implementation. Eight pharmacies reached the Testing stage of implementation and two pharmacies did not progress beyond the Preparation stage of implementation. A total of 128 patients were enrolled in the asthma service with 110 patients remaining enrolled at the close of the study. Asthma control showed a positive trend throughout the service with the overall proportion of patients with 'poor' asthma control at baseline decreasing from 72% to 57% at study close. There was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients with correct inhaler technique from 12% at Baseline (Visit 1) to 33% at Visit 2 and 57% at study close. Implementation of the asthma service varied across pharmacies. Different strategies specific to practice sites at different stages of the implementation model may result in greater uptake of professional services. The asthma service led to improved patient outcomes overall with a positive trend in asthma control and significant change in inhaler technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring chronic condition self-management in an Australian community: factor structure of the revised Partners in Health (PIH) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Harvey, Peter; Lawn, Sharon; Harris, Melanie; Battersby, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the factor structure of the revised Partners in Health (PIH) scale for measuring chronic condition self-management in a representative sample from the Australian community. A series of consultations between clinical groups underpinned the revision of the PIH. The factors in the revised instrument were proposed to be: knowledge of illness and treatment, patient-health professional partnership, recognition and management of symptoms and coping with chronic illness. Participants (N = 904) reporting having a chronic illness completed the revised 12-item scale. Two a priori models, the 4-factor and bi-factor models were then evaluated using Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis (BCFA). Final model selection was established on model complexity, posterior predictive p values and deviance information criterion. Both 4-factor and bi-factor BCFA models with small informative priors for cross-loadings provided an acceptable fit with the data. The 4-factor model was shown to provide a better and more parsimonious fit with the observed data in terms of substantive theory. McDonald's omega coefficients indicated that the reliability of subscale raw scores was mostly in the acceptable range. The findings showed that the PIH scale is a relevant and structurally valid instrument for measuring chronic condition self-management in an Australian community. The PIH scale may help health professionals to introduce the concept of self-management to their patients and provide assessment of areas of self-management. A limitation is the narrow range of validated PIH measurement properties to date. Further research is needed to evaluate other important properties such as test-retest reliability, responsiveness over time and content validity.

  11. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-04-18

    Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Data were collected from 1,139 Australians regarding types of racial discrimination experienced, settings for these incidents, response mechanisms and psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) Psychological Distress Scale. Age, education, religion, gender, visibility and rurality were all significantly associated with differences in the frequency of experiencing racial discrimination. Experiencing racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. Mental health impacts were not associated with the type of discriminatory experience, but experiencing racial discrimination in shops and in employment and government settings was associated with being above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. One out of twelve response mechanisms was found to be associated with lower stress following a discriminatory incident. Study results indicate that poorer mental health was associated with the volume of discrimination experienced, rather than the type of experience. However, the impact of experiencing discrimination in some settings was shown to be particularly associated with high or very high psychological distress. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of racism have more potential to increase mental health in racial and ethnic minority communities than interventions that work with individuals in response to experiencing racism.

  12. Predicting absolute risk of type 2 diabetes using age and waist circumference values in an aboriginal Australian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odewumi Adegbija

    Full Text Available To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination.A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors.Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2 for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6 for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease.The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians.

  13. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Pharmacist Orientation Toward Dispensing Controlled Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, Michael; Bryan, Janelle K; Hooyer, Katinka

    2018-01-03

    We sought to understand how pharmacists viewed and used a newly implemented prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP). We also sought to understand pharmacist orientation toward dispensing of controlled substances and the people who obtain them. We conducted three mini focus groups. The focus group findings were used to inform the design of a structured survey. We emailed a survey to 160 pharmacists who were employed in one statewide community chain store; we obtained 48 survey responses. Focus groups findings suggested that, in relation to the dispensing of scheduled prescription medication, pharmacists were either "healthcare" oriented, "law-enforcement" oriented, or an orientation that combined these two perspectives. Surveys suggested that pharmacists found PDMPs easy to use and that they used them frequently - often to contact physicians directly. Surveys suggested that pharmacists were typically either "healthcare" oriented or "mixed" (combined perspectives). Pharmacist orientation was associated with the frequency with which they counseled patients about medication risk and the frequency with which they used the PDMP as the basis for contacting prescribers. Ongoing tracking of pharmacists' use of PDMPs is important both at the implementation stage and as PDMPs develop over time. The orientation construct developed here is useful in understanding pharmacist behavior and attitudes towards patients potentially at risk for misuse of controlled substance medications. Further research on this construct could shed light on barriers and incentives for pharmacist PDMP participation and use and provide guidance for pharmacist training, ultimately enhancing patient care.

  14. Stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental disorders: a comparison of Australian health professionals with the general community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore attitudes towards people with mental disorders among Australian health professionals (psychiatrists, psychologists and general practitioners (GPs)) and to compare their attitudes with members of the general community. The study involved a postal survey of 518 GPs, 506 psychiatrists and 498 clinical psychologists and a telephone survey of 6019 members of the general community. Participants were given a case vignette describing a person with either depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or social phobia and two questionnaires to assess stigmatising attitudes (the Depression Stigma Scale and the Social Distance Scale). Exploratory structural equation modelling was used to elucidate the structure of stigma as measured by the two scales, to establish dimensions of stigma and to compare patterns of association according to gender, age, vignette and professional grouping. The measurement characteristics of stigmatising attitudes in health professionals were found to be comparable to those in members of the general community in social distance and also in personal and perceived attitude stigma, with each forming distinct dimensions and each comprising 'Weak-not-sick' and 'Dangerous/unpredictable' components. Among health professionals, female gender, age and being a GP were associated with higher scores on the personal stigma scales. Mental health professionals had lower scores on the personal 'Weak-not-sick' and 'Dangerous/unpredictable' scales than members of the general community, while there were no significant differences in the desire for social distance between health professionals and the general community. While mental health professionals have less stigmatising attitudes than the general public, the greater beliefs in dangerousness and personal weakness by GPs should be addressed.

  15. Consumer perspectives about weight management services in a community pharmacy setting in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Irene S; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a public health challenge faced worldwide. Community pharmacists may be well placed to manage Australia's obesity problem owing to their training, accessibility and trustworthiness. However, determining consumers' needs is vital to the development of any new services or the evaluation of existing services. To explore Australian consumers' perspectives regarding weight management services in the community pharmacy setting, including their past experiences and willingness to pay for a specific pharmacy-based service. An online cross-sectional consumer survey was distributed through a marketing research company. The survey instrument comprised open-ended and closed questions exploring consumers' experiences of and preferences for weight management services in pharmacy. It also included an attitudinal measure, the Consumer Attitude to Pharmacy Weight Management Services (CAPWMS) scale. A total of 403 consumers from New South Wales, Australia, completed the survey. The majority of respondents had previously not sought a pharmacist's advice regarding weight management. Those who had previously consulted a pharmacist were more willing to pay for and support pharmacy-based services in the future. Most consumers considered pharmacists' motivations to provide advice related to gaining profit from selling a product and expressed concerns about the perceived conflicts of interest. Participants also perceived pharmacists as lacking expertise and time. Although Australian consumers were willing to seek pharmacists' advice about weight management, they perceived several barriers to the provision of weight management services in community pharmacy. If barriers are addressed, community pharmacies could be a viable and accessible setting to manage obesity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The role of primary health care services to better meet the needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jane E; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F

    2015-07-22

    Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences-a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community. Purposive sampling was used to identify 30 interviewees. Twelve interviews were with Aboriginal people who had been in prison; ten were with family members and eight with community service providers who worked with former inmates. Thematic analysis was conducted on the interviewees' description of their experience of services provided to prisoners both during incarceration and on transition to the community. Interviewees believed that effective access to primary health care on release and during transition was positively influenced by providing appropriate healthcare to inmates in custody and by properly planning for their release. Further, interviewees felt that poor communication between health care providers in custody and in the community prior to an inmate's release, contributed to a lack of comprehensive management of chronic conditions. System level barriers to timely communication between in-custody and community providers included inmates being placed on remand which contributed to uncertainty regarding release dates and therefore difficulties planning for release, cycling in and out of prison on short sentences and being released to freedom without access to support services. For Aboriginal former inmates and family members, release from prison was a period of significant emotional stress and commonly involved managing complex needs. To support their transition into the community, Aboriginal former inmates would benefit from immediate access to culturally- responsive

  17. Integration of pharmacists into a patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; Hitch, Bill; Ray, Lisa; Colvin, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    To define the joint principles of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and describe the integration of pharmacists into a PCMH. Family medicine residency training program in North Carolina from 2001 to 2011. Mountain Area Health Education Family Health Center is a family medicine residency training program that is part of the North Carolina Area Health Education Center system. The goal of the organization is to train and retain health care students and residents. The practice is recognized as a level III PCMH by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and seeks to provide quality, safe, patient-centered care according to the joint principles of PCMH. Pharmacists, nurses, nutritionists, care managers, Spanish translators, and behavioral medicine specialists work collaboratively with physicians to provide seamless, comprehensive care. The Department of Pharmacotherapy is embedded in the family medicine clinic. Three pharmacists and two pharmacy residents are involved in providing direct patient care services, ensuring access to community resources, assisting patients with transitions of care, providing interprofessional education, and participating in continuous quality improvement initiatives. The pharmacists serve as clinical pharmacist practitioners and provide medication therapy management services in a pharmacotherapy clinic, anticoagulation clinics, and an osteoporosis clinic and via an inpatient family medicine service. Multiple learners such as student pharmacists, pharmacy residents, and family medicine residents rotate through the various pharmacy clinics to learn about pharmacotherapeutic principles and the role of the pharmacist in PCMH. PCMH is a comprehensive, patient-centered, team-based approach to population management in the primary care setting. Pharmacists play a vital role in PCMH and make fundamental contributions to patient care across health care settings. Such innovations in the ambulatory care setting create a unique niche

  18. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2014-07-28

    Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ɛ4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline.

  19. Burning questions: Exploring the impact of natural disasters on community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Pey Wen; Singleton, Judith

    The past decade has seen a rapid change in the climate system with an increased risk of extreme weather events. On and following the 3rd of January 2013, Tasmania experienced three catastrophic bushfires, which led to the evacuation of several communities, the loss of many properties, and a financial cost of approximately AUD$80 million. To explore the impacts of the 2012/2013 Tasmanian bushfires on community pharmacies. Qualitative research methods were undertaken, employing semi-structured telephone interviews with a purposive sample of seven Tasmanian pharmacists. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and two different methods were used to analyze the text. The first method utilized Leximancer ® text analytics software to provide a birds-eye view of the conceptual structure of the text. The second method involved manual, open and axial coding, conducted independently by the two researchers for inter-rater reliability, to identify key themes in the discourse. Two main themes were identified - 'people' and 'supply' - from which six key concepts were derived. The six concepts were 'patients,' 'pharmacists,' 'local doctor,' 'pharmacy operations,' 'disaster management planning,' and 'emergency supply regulation.' This study identified challenges faced by community pharmacists during Tasmanian bushfires. Interviewees highlighted the need for both the Tasmanian State Government and the Australian Federal Government to recognize the important primary care role that community pharmacists play during natural disasters, and therefore involve pharmacists in disaster management planning. They called for greater support and guidance for community pharmacists from regulatory and other government bodies during these events. Their comments highlighted the need for a review of Tasmania's three-day emergency supply regulation that allows pharmacists to provide a three-day supply of a patient's medication without a doctor's prescription in an emergency situation. Copyright

  20. Research protocol for the Picture Talk Project: a qualitative study on research and consent with remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Emily F M; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Lawford, Tom; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; D'Antoine, Heather A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-12-28

    Research with Indigenous populations is not always designed with cultural sensitivity. Few publications evaluate or describe in detail seeking consent for research with Indigenous participants. When potential participants are not engaged in a culturally respectful manner, participation rates and research quality can be adversely affected. It is unethical to proceed with research without truly informed consent. We describe a culturally appropriate research protocol that is invited by Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley in Western Australia. The Picture Talk Project is a research partnership with local Aboriginal leaders who are also chief investigators. We will interview Aboriginal leaders about research, community engagement and the consent process and hold focus groups with Aboriginal community members about individual consent. Cultural protocols will be applied to recruit and conduct research with participants. Transcripts will be analysed using NVivo10 qualitative software and themes synthesised to highlight the key issues raised by the community about the research process. This protocol will guide future research with the Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley and may inform the approach to research with other Indigenous communities of Australia or the world. It must be noted that no community is the same and all research requires local consultation and input. To conduct culturally sensitive research, respected local people from the community who have knowledge of cultural protocol and language are engaged to guide each step of the research process from the project design to the delivery of results. Ethics approval was granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (No. 2012/348, reference:14760), the Western Australia Country Health Service Ethics Committee (No. 2012:15), the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and reviewed by the Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum Research Sub-Committee (No. 2012

  1. Pharmacists' views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carol; Brillant, Martha; Krass, Ines

    2007-01-01

    In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted. Three themes emerged around pharmacists' attitudes towards research: pharmacists' perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists' motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists' desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists' mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff), and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested. Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research projects.

  2. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...

  3. Benchmarking the cost efficiency of community care in Australian child and adolescent mental health services: implications for future benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Gareth; Brann, Peter; Skene, Clive; Allison, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to benchmark the cost efficiency of community care across six child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) drawn from different Australian states. Organizational, contact and outcome data from the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP) data-sets were used to calculate cost per "treatment hour" and cost per episode for the six participating organizations. We also explored the relationship between intake severity as measured by the Health of the Nations Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) and cost per episode. The average cost per treatment hour was $223, with cost differences across the six services ranging from a mean of $156 to $273 per treatment hour. The average cost per episode was $3349 (median $1577) and there were significant differences in the CAMHS organizational medians ranging from $388 to $7076 per episode. HoNOSCA scores explained at best 6% of the cost variance per episode. These large cost differences indicate that community CAMHS have the potential to make substantial gains in cost efficiency through collaborative benchmarking. Benchmarking forums need considerable financial and business expertise for detailed comparison of business models for service provision.

  4. Evaluating a handwashing with soap program in Australian remote Aboriginal communities: a pre and post intervention study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola

    2015-11-27

    The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A survey questionnaire taking an ecological approach and based on the principals and constructs of the TPB was developed. Surveys were completed in six discrete Aboriginal communities immediately before and on completion of four weeks intensive televising of the three new commercials. Across the six communities access in the home to a television that worked ranged from 49 to 83 % (n = 415). Seventy-seven per cent (n = 319) of participants reported having seen one or more of the new commercials. Levels of acceptability and comprehension of the content of the commercials was high (97 % n = 308). Seventy-five per cent (n = 651) of participants reported they would buy more soap, toilet paper and facial tissues if these were not so expensive in their communities. For TPB constructs demonstrated to have good internal reliability the findings were mixed and these need to be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the study design. Cultural, social-economic and physical barriers in remote communities make it challenging to promote adults and children wash their hands with soap and maintain clean faces such that these behaviours become habit. Low levels of access to a television in the home illustrate the extreme level of disadvantage experienced in these communities. Highlighting that social marketing programs have the potential to increase disadvantage if expensive items such as television sets are needed to gain access to information. This trial of a theory informed evaluation design allowed for new and rich

  5. Parental fatigue and parenting practices during early childhood: an Australian community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Giallo, R; Rose, N

    2012-09-01

    Parenting behaviours are influenced by a range of factors, including parental functioning. Although common, the influence of parental fatigue on parenting practices is not known. The first aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and parenting practices. The second aim was to identify parental psychosocial factors significantly associated with fatigue. A sample of 1276 Australian parents, of at least one child aged 0-5 years, completed a survey. Demographic, psychosocial (social support, coping responses) and parental sleep and self-care information was collected. Hierarchical regression was performed to assess the contribution of fatigue (modified Fatigue Assessment Scale) to parental practices (warmth, irritability and involvement), and parenting experiences (Parenting Stress Index, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale). Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the contribution of a range of parental sleep, psychosocial (social support, coping responses) and self-care variables to fatigue when demographic characteristics were held constant. Higher fatigue was significantly associated with lower parental competence (β=-0.17, P parenting stress (β= 0.21, P parent-child interactions (β= 0.11, P parental fatigue, including inadequate social support, poorer diet, poorer sleep quality and ineffective coping styles including self-blame and behaviour disengagement. Fatigue is common, and results suggest that fatigue contributes to adverse parental practices and experiences. However, possible risk factors for higher fatigue were identified in this study, indicating opportunities for intervention, management and support for parents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Pharmacist intervention reduces gastropathy risk in patients using NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Cuevas, Victoria; Lopez-Briz, Eduardo; Guardiola-Chorro, M Teresa

    2008-12-01

    To establish a detection and intervention strategy in order to reduce the number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) users at risk of gastropathy from receiving either inadequate or no gastroprotection. Community Pharmacies in Valencia, Spain. Prospective longitudinal intervention study without control group carried out by 79 Community Pharmacies. Patients over 18 who asked for any systemic NSAID were interviewed according to standard procedure. Pharmacist intervention was carried out when a patient at risk of serious NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications due to inadequate or no gastric protection was identified. The doctor responsible was informed in order to then be able to assess the need to prescribe gastroprotection or change it if inadequate. In the case of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, pharmacist intervention mainly involved replacing NSAIDs for safer medications. Firstly, the number of patients who had no prescribed gastroprotection or inadequate gastroprotection was determined. Pharmacist intervention then brought about changes in pharmacotherapy in this situation. Of the 6,965 patients who asked for NSAIDs during the study period, 3,054 (43.9%) presented NSAID gastropathy risk factors. 35.6% of the latter (1,089) were not prescribed gastroprotection or were prescribed inadequate gastroprotection. Pharmacist intervention was carried out in 1,075 of these cases. On 391 occasions such risk situations were reported to doctors, who accepted pharmacist intervention on 309 occasions (79.0%) and then either prescribed gastroprotection (77% of cases); changed it (13.9%); withdrew the NSAID (5.8%) or substituted it (3.2%). 235 Pharmacist interventions took place when dispensing OTC NSAIDs. Our strategy allowed us to identify a large number of patients who asked for NSAIDs in Community Pharmacies and who were at risk of NSAID gastropathy, as they received either inadequate gastroprotection or no gastroprotection whatsoever. Moreover, the

  7. The Cascade of Care for an Australian Community-Based Hepatitis C Treatment Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Wade

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia is low. To increase access to hepatitis C virus treatment for people who inject drugs, we developed a community-based, nurse-led service that linked a viral hepatitis service in a tertiary hospital to primary care clinics, and resulted in hepatitis C treatment provision in the community.A retrospective cohort study of patients referred to the community hepatitis service was undertaken to determine the cascade of care. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of hepatitis C treatment uptake.Four hundred and sixty-two patients were referred to the community hepatitis service; 344 attended. Among the 279 attendees with confirmed chronic hepatitis C, 257 (99% reported ever injecting drugs, and 124 (48% injected in the last month. Of 201 (72% patients who had their fibrosis staged, 63 (31% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Fifty-five patients commenced hepatitis C treatment; 26 (47% were current injectors and 25 (45% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Nineteen of the 27 (70% genotype 1 patients and 14 of the 26 (54% genotype 3 patients eligible for assessment achieved a sustained virologic response. Advanced fibrosis was a significant predictor of treatment uptake in adjusted analysis (AOR 2.56, CI 1.30-5.00, p = 0.006.Our community hepatitis service produced relatively high rates of fibrosis assessment, hepatitis C treatment uptake and cure, among people who inject drugs. These findings highlight the potential benefits of providing community-based hepatitis C care to people who inject drugs in Australia-benefits that should be realised as direct-acting antiviral agents become available.

  8. A Study on How Industrial Pharmacists Rank Competences for Pharmacy Practice: A Case for Industrial Pharmacy Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135 ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care. Results show that, compared to community pharmacists (n = 258, industrial pharmacists rank competences centering on research, development and production of drugs higher, and those centering on patient care lower. Competences centering on values, communication skills, etc. were ranked similarly by the two groups of pharmacists. These results are discussed in the light of the existence or not of an “industrial pharmacy” specialization.

  9. The correlates of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in a high risk Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaimin; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2013-08-16

    Albuminuria marks renal disease and cardiovascular risk. It was estimated to contribute 75% of the risk of all-cause natural death in one Aboriginal group. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is commonly used as an index of albuminuria. This study aims to examine the associations between demographic factors, anthropometric index, blood pressure, lipid-protein measurements and other biomarkers and albuminuria in a cross-sectional study in a high-risk Australian Aboriginal population. The models will be evaluated for albuminuria at or above the microalbuminuria threshold, and at or above the "overt albuminuria" threshold with the potential to distinguish associations they have in common and those that differ. This was a cross-sectional study of 598 adults aged 18-76 years. All participants were grouped into quartiles by age. Logistic regression models were used to explore the correlates of ACR categories. The significant correlates were systolic blood pressure (SBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid, diabetes, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (marginally significant, p=0.054) and serum albumin (negative association) for ACR 17+ (mg/g) for men and 25+ for women. Independent correlates were SBP, uric acid, diabetes, total cholesterol, alanine amino transferase (ALT), Cystatin C and serum albumin (negative association) for overt albuminuria; and SBP, CRP and serum albumin only for microalbuminuria. This is the most detailed modelling of pathologic albuminuria in this setting to date. The somewhat variable association with risk factors suggests that microalbuminuria and overt albuminuria might reflect different as well as shared phenomena.

  10. [Medical IT-ization and development of pharmacists business].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Ryouju

    2014-01-01

    Two major trends are materializing: the super-aging of society and information technology (IT-ization). Thus, the most important action to benefit patients and society is to establish a medical information network supported by a trustworthy human network. This network should be organized by the people involved in local community healthcare. As such, it is essential for the human network to include not only hospitals and clinics (medical practitioners) but also community pharmacies (pharmacists). This need is apparent, because in the past, drug hazards recurred because fundamental improvement of the means to prevent those hazards was not possible without pharmacists where and when those incidences occurred. The medical information to be IT-ized would include drug notebooks and prescription cards, although electronic medical charts will be the ultimate source of information. The following points will be discussed in this paper: (a) Legal requirements for physical assessments by pharmacists, (b) Physical assessments by hospital pharmacists, (c) Physical assessments by community pharmacists, and (d) Security requirements for the Act for Protection of Personal Information, Articles 20-22.

  11. The role of the pharmacist in hypertension management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palo, Katherine E; Kish, Troy

    2018-04-24

    Hypertension remains a vital, modifiable risk factor in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, many patients do not achieve their therapeutic goals for numerous reasons which can include poor disease insight and nonadherence. Pharmacists can be key players in controlling hypertension, given their medication knowledge and patient counseling skills, yet they remain an underutilized resource in the management of chronic disease states. Various models exist that allow pharmacists to provide direct patient-centered care but practices differ from state to state since pharmacists are not recognized nationally as healthcare providers. This article aims to provide an update on the proven methods in which pharmacists contribute to the management of hypertensive patients. Several recently published studies demonstrate the positive impact of pharmacist intervention and care on patient outcomes in ambulatory and community settings. These practice models include medication therapy management, collaborative drug therapy management, telehealth and team-based care. The role of the pharmacist in hypertension encompasses medication management, disease state education and patient counseling and is most successful when integrated into the patient's care team. Further validation through larger, prospective trials and evaluation of long-term outcomes, such as mortality, remain viable research opportunities.

  12. Color me healthy: food diversity in school community gardens in two rapidly urbanising Australian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A

    2014-03-01

    Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Community-based interventions for obesity prevention: lessons learned by Australian policy-makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haby Michelle M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.

  14. General practitioners' perceptions of pharmacists' new services in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatah, Ernieda; Braund, Rhiannon; Duffull, Stephen; Tordoff, June

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the pharmacy profession has moved towards more patient-oriented services. Some examples are medication review, screening and monitoring for disease, and prescribing. The new services are intended to be in close collaboration with general practitioners (GPs) yet little is known of how GPs in New Zealand perceive these new services. Objective To examine GPs' perceptions of pharmacists' new services. Study was undertaken at GPs' practices in two localities in New Zealand. Qualitative, face to face, semi-structured interviews were undertaken of 18 GPs. The cohort included GPs with less/more than 20 years of practice, and GPs who had experience of working in localities where some patients had undergone a medication review (Medicines Use Review, MUR) by community pharmacists. GPs were asked to share their perceptions about pharmacists providing some new services. Data were thematically analysed with constant comparison using NVivo 8 software. Using a business strategic planning approach, themes were further analysed and interpreted as the services' potential Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOTs). GPs' perceptions of pharmacists' new services. GPs were more supportive of pharmacists' playing active roles in medication review and less supportive of pharmacists practising screening-monitoring and prescribing. Discussions Pharmacists' knowledge and skills in medication use and the perceived benefits of the services to patients were considered the potential strengths of the services. Weaknesses centred around potential patient confusion and harm, conflict and irritation to GPs' practice, and the potential to fragment patient-care. Opportunities were the possibilities of improving communication, and having a close collaboration and integration with GPs' practice. Apparent threats were the GPs' perceptions of a related, and not renumerated, increase in their workloads, and the perception of limited benefit to patients. Pharmacists should

  15. The Role of the Pharmacist in Animal Health Care: Case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this cross-sectional study, the role of pharmacists in animal health care, particularly in the distribution of veterinary medicines in community pharmacies in Dar es Salaam was investigated. Using a semi-structured questionnaire a total of 260 pharmacists were interviewed. The study revealed that majority of the ...

  16. Do Training Programs Work? An Assessment of Pharmacists Activities in the Field of Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Valerie G.; Brock, Tina Penick; Ahn, Jungeun

    2001-01-01

    Seeks to determine if pharmacists who attended a chemical dependency training program were performing more chemical dependency related activities. Results reveal that participants were more likely to perform the following activities: lecture to community groups about chemical dependency; participate in a pharmacists' recovery program; provide…

  17. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  18. Interspecific variation in the phenology of advertisement calling in a temperate Australian frog community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Geoffrey W; Canessa, Stefano; Parris, Kirsten M

    2015-09-01

    Spatial and temporal partitioning of resources underlies the coexistence of species with similar niches. In communities of frogs and toads, the phenology of advertisement calling provides insights into temporal partitioning of reproductive effort and its implications for community dynamics. This study assessed the phenology of advertisement calling in an anuran community from Melbourne, in southern Australia. We collated data from 1432 surveys of 253 sites and used logistic regression to quantify seasonality in the nightly probability of calling and the influence of meteorological variables on this probability for six species of frogs. We found limited overlap in the predicted seasonal peaks of calling among these species. Those shown to have overlapping calling peaks are unlikely to be in direct competition, due to differences in larval ecology (Crinia signifera and Litoria ewingii) or differences in calling behavior and acoustics (Limnodynastes dumerilii and Litoria raniformis). In contrast, closely related and ecologically similar species (Crinia signfera and Crinia parinsignifera;Litoria ewingii and Litoria verreauxii) appear to have staggered seasonal peaks of calling. In combination with interspecific variation in the meteorological correlates of calling, these results may be indicative of temporal partitioning of reproductive activity to facilitate coexistence, as has been reported for tropical and temperate anurans from other parts of the globe.

  19. Exploring domestic violence and social distress in Australian-Indian migrants through community theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Manjula; Colucci, Erminia

    2016-02-01

    In many parts of the world, young adult women have higher levels of common mental disorders than men. The exacerbation of domestic violence (DV) by migration is a salient social determinant of poor mental health. Ecological models describe factors contributing to DV as operating at individual, family, cultural, and societal levels. We explored the interplay among these factors in an Indian community living in Melbourne, Australia, in a qualitative participatory action research study using a modified Forum Theater approach. We here present findings on connections between migration, societal factors, and social/family/cultural factors in DV. The study captured the voices of women living in the community as they describe how DV contributes to their emotional difficulties. Improved understanding of the sociocultural dynamics of DV and the associated social distress in this migrant Indian community can be used to guide the development of culturally sensitive prevention and response programs to assist migrant women from the Indian subcontinent who present with psychopathology and suicidal behaviors associated with DV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning provision for Australian community aged care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Karen Margaret; Carter, Rachel Zoe; Sellars, Marcus William; Lewis, Virginia; Sutton, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-12-01

    Conduct a prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning (ACP) provision in community aged care: ACP conducted by the client's case manager (CM) ('Facilitator') and ACP conducted by an external ACP service ('Referral') over a 6-month period. This Australian study involved CMs and their clients. Eligible CM were English speaking, ≥18 years, had expected availability for the trial and worked ≥3 days per week. CMs were recruited via their organisations, sequentially allocated to a group and received education based on the group allocation. They were expected to initiate ACP with all clients and to facilitate ACP or refer for ACP. Outcomes were quantity of new ACP conversations and quantity and quality of new advance care directives (ACDs). 30 CMs (16 Facilitator, 14 Referral) completed the study; all 784 client's files (427 Facilitator, 357 Referral) were audited. ACP was initiated with 508 (65%) clients (293 Facilitator, 215 Referral; p<0.05); 89 (18%) of these (53 Facilitator, 36 Referral) and 41 (46%) (13 Facilitator, 28 Referral; p<0.005) completed ACDs. Most ACDs (71%) were of poor quality/not valid. A further 167 clients (facilitator 124; referral 43; p<0.005) reported ACP was in progress at study completion. While there were some differences, overall, models achieved similar outcomes. ACP was initiated with 65% of clients. However, fewer clients completed ACP, there was low numbers of ACDs and document quality was generally poor. The findings raise questions for future implementation and research into community ACP provision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The potential role for a pharmacist in a multidisciplinary general practitioner super clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata; LeMay, Kate; Gunn, Kate; Armour, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Australian government's General Practitioner (GP) super clinics programme aims to provide well-integrated, multidisciplinary, patient-centred care for people with chronic disease. However, there is no research into the current role of pharmacists in this setting. To explore the perspectives of GP super clinic staff on current and potential (future) pharmacist-led services provided in this setting. Individual interviews (facilitated using a semi-structured interview guide and thematically analysed) were conducted with purposively sampled staff of a GP super clinic in a semirural location in the state of New South Wales, until theme saturation. Participating staff included (n=9): three GPs, one pharmacist, one nurse, one business manager, and three reception staff. Three themes emerged conveying perspectives on: working relationships between staff; a pharmacist's current role; and potential future roles for a pharmacist. All clinic staff actively engaged the pharmacist in their "team approach". Currently established roles for home medicines reviews (HMRs) and drug information were well supported, but needed to be expanded, for example, with formalised case conferences between GPs, pharmacists, and other staff. New roles needed be explored in auditing medication use, optimising medication records, specialised drug information, dispensing, and prescribing. Although GPs had differing views about opportunities for pharmacists' prescribing in this setting, they saw several benefits to this service, such as reducing the time pressure on GPs to enable more effective consultations. Results suggest a pharmacist's services can potentially be better used within the multidisciplinary super clinic model of care to address current gaps within the semi-rural practice setting. Any future role for the pharmacist could be addressed as part of a formalised, strategic approach to creating an integrated healthcare team, with attention to funding and government legislation.

  2. Pharmacist-led screening in sexually transmitted infections: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood H

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Wood, Sajni Gudka School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia Introduction: Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening is a crucial initiative that aims to reduce the increasing global prevalence of many common STIs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes simplex virus (HSV. Many STIs are either asymptomatic or show mild symptoms that are often attributed to other infections; hence, screening is the only way to identify – and by extension, treat – them. In this way, the spread of STIs can be reduced, and the health implications of an untreated STI are minimized. Community pharmacies could provide an avenue to convenient, confidential STI screening by using noninvasive or minimally invasive sample collection techniques that are used by the consumer or pharmacist. We identified the most common STIs found globally and investigated the current and potential role of pharmacists in provision of STI screening interventions.Discussion: There is sufficient evidence for pharmacy-based chlamydia screening, with many consumers and pharmacists finding it an acceptable and highly valued service. Some evidence was found for pharmacy-based gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV screening. Appropriate sample collection for gonorrhea screening needs to be further examined in a pharmacy setting. HBV screening presented an increased risk of personal injury to pharmacists through the collection of whole blood specimens, which could be reduced through consumer self-sampling. Pharmacist-collected specimens for HIV is less risky as an oral swab can be used, nullifying the risk of transmission; but pre- and post-screen consultations can be time-intensive; hence, pharmacists would require remuneration to provide an ongoing HIV screening service. Not enough evidence was found for syphilis screening through community pharmacies; more studies are

  3. Maintaining relevance: an evaluation of health message sponsorship at Australian community sport and arts events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee

    2014-12-04

    Health message sponsorship at community sport and arts events is an established component of a health promotion settings approach. Recent increases in commercial sponsorship of sport and community events has swelled competition for consumer attention and potentially reduced the impact of health message sponsorship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate awareness, understandings and behavioural intentions of health messages promoted at sponsored community sport and arts events. Interview and self-administered surveys were completed by 2259 adults attending one of 29 sport and arts events held in Western Australia between 2008 and 2013. The surveys measured participant awareness of the health message promoted at the event, as well as comprehension, acceptance and behavioural intention as a result of exposure to health messages. Awareness of the sponsored health message was 58% across all sponsored events, with high levels of comprehension (74%) and acceptance (92%) among those aware of the health message. Forming behavioural intentions was significantly related to the type of sponsored message promoted at the event, being female and over 40 years of age. Messages about sun protection and promoting mental health were the most likely to result in behavioural intention. Health message sponsorship, at least within a comprehensive sponsorship program, appears to remain an effective health promotion strategy for generating awareness and behavioural intention among people attending sport and arts events. Remaining relevant within a modern sponsorship environment appears closely aligned to selecting health messages that promote behavioural action relevant to the sponsored event that are also supported by broader health promotion campaigns.

  4. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community

  5. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-24

    Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. ACTRN12612000384853.

  6. Impact of Self Efficacy on Innovative Behaviour Pharmacist in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri M. Wahyuningrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are always required in order to improve the quality of service in accordance with professional standards in accordance with their code of ethics. Therefore, health workers in hospitals, especially pharmacists, are required to continuously improve its service to the community. To improve health services to the community, then the pharmacist must interact and be accepted by other professional health personnel in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of self-efficacy pharmacist in a hospital organization that became an impact on innovative behavior. This study used an obsevational quantitative measurement using questionnaire instrument. The results measured by number consist of value, rank, and frequencies were analyzed using statistics software smartPLS to answer the research question or hypothesis to predict a particular variable affects another variable. The results showed that effect between self-efficacy of behavioral innovations in the hospital pharmacist significantly different. A pharmacist who has high self-efficacy will obviously have the higher innovation behavior in hospitals.

  7. A qualitative study of pharmacists' perceptions of, and recommendations for improvement of antibiotic use in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emily; Cartwright, Andrea; Bakharaiba, Sumaia; Al-Mekaty, Eman; Alsahan, Dima

    2014-08-01

    Use of antibiotics has been correlated with increasing rates of resistance. Pharmacists are ideally positioned as front line health care providers to limit indiscriminate antibiotic use and promote the safe and effective administration of these medications. The aim of this project was to assess pharmacists' opinions relating to antibiotic utilization in the community setting. Doha, Qatar. Community and primary care pharmacists were invited to participate in one of three focus groups or a semi-structured interview at Qatar University or at their site of employment. A total of 22 community and primary care pharmacists participated in this study. Interviews were facilitated using a focus group guide, were recorded, and later transcribed. Transcripts were reviewed for recurring themes and coded using Nvivo software for qualitative research. Pharmacists' perceptions. Five major themes emerged from a series of focus groups and interviews. Themes which recurred across interview groups included: misconceptions and inappropriate practices by patients and healthcare providers, currently implemented strategies, perceived barriers, ways to overcome perceived barriers, and targets for improvement of antibiotic use in Qatar. The greatest need, as identified by pharmacists in this study was increased knowledge of the general population about appropriate antibiotic use through various educational interventions. Pharmacists report a number of misconceptions and inappropriate practices relating to antibiotic use in Qatar by patients and healthcare providers. Education to improve knowledge of appropriate antibiotic use is needed. Despite recognition of these issues, barriers are preventing pharmacists from implementing strategies to improve antibiotic use in Qatar.

  8. Perceived barriers and enablers to participation in a community-tailored physical activity program with Indigenous Australians in a regional and rural setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Engelberg, Terry; Gebel, Klaus

    2017-09-18

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of chronic disease and a lower life expectancy than non-Indigenous Australians. In non-urban areas these health disparities are even larger. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore perceived barriers and enablers to attending an eight-week physical activity program in a rural and regional setting which aimed to improve health outcomes, but had a low attendance rate. Thirty-four Indigenous Australians participated in the intervention from the rural (n = 12) and the regional (n = 22) community. Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at the follow-up health assessments with 12 participants. A thematic network analysis was undertaken to examine the barriers and enablers to participation in the program. Overall, there were positive attitudes to, and high levels of motivation towards, the physical activity program. Enablers to participation were the inclusion of family members, no financial cost and a good relationship with the principal investigator, which was strengthened by the community-based participatory approach to the program design. Barriers to program attendance were mostly beyond the control of the individuals, such as 'sorry business', needing to travel away from the community and lack of community infrastructure. More consideration is needed prior to implementation of programs to understand how community-specific barriers and enablers will affect attendance to the program. ACTRN12616000497404 . Registered 18 April 2016.

  9. Adherence to Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Australian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Adler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly patients, and is associated with a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. The combination of high incidence and substantial financial costs necessitate accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients admitted with CAP. This article will discuss the rates of adherence to clinical guidelines, the use of severity scoring tools and the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing for patients diagnosed with CAP. The authors maintain that awareness of national and hospital guidelines is imperative to complement the physicians’ clinical judgment with evidence-based recommendations. Increased use of pneumonia severity assessment tools and greater adherence to therapeutic guidelines will enhance concordant antimicrobial prescribing for patients with CAP. A robust and multifaceted educational intervention, in combination with antimicrobial stewardship programs, may enhance compliance of CAP guidelines in clinical practice in Australia.

  10. Stages of Change, Smoking Behaviour and Readiness to Quit in a Large Sample of Indigenous Australians Living in Eight Remote North Queensland Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn McDermott

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major health issue for Indigenous Australians, however there are few interventions with demonstrated efficacy in this population. The Transtheoretical Model may provide a useful framework for describing smoking behaviour and assessing readiness to quit, with the aim of developing better interventions. Interviews were conducted with 593 Indigenous Australians in eight rural and remote communities in north Queensland, to examine stages of change and smoking behaviour. Among current smokers, 39.6% and 43.4% were in Precontemplation and Contemplation stages respectively. A further 13.9% were making preparations to quit (Preparation whilst only 3.2% said they were actively trying to quit (Action. When analysed by stage of change, the pattern of smoking-related behaviours conformed to the results of past research using the model. Importantly however, distribution of individuals across the stages opposes those observed in investigations of smoking behaviour in non-Indigenous Australian populations. The Transtheoretical Model can be used to meaningfully classify Indigenous smokers in remote north Queensland according to stages along the behaviour change continuum. Importantly, in this large sample across eight communities, most Indigenous smokers were not making preparations to change their smoking behaviour. This suggests that interventions should focus on promoting movement toward the Preparation and Action stages of change.

  11. Desirable Skills in New Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Flowers, Schwanda K; Stowe, Cindy D

    2017-02-01

    To compare survey responses between licensed pharmacists who work with or employ new graduates and graduating senior pharmacy students at a college of pharmacy. This was a retrospective analysis of surveys given to 2 groups of pharmacists and students. Responses to items regarding importance of desirable qualities in new pharmacists and level of preparation of new graduates were analyzed. Qualities included drug information, pharmacology, therapeutics, communication with patients/customers or health care professionals, professionalism, ethics, management, and conflict resolution. There was consensus between pharmacists and students regarding the importance of all items ( P > .05 for all comparisons). However, the percentage of pharmacists versus students who agreed that new graduates communicate effectively differed (86.7% vs 100%, respectively, P career fair, 64.1% chose communication as the 1 skill that would distinguish an applicant, and retail and hospital pharmacists displayed a statistically significant ( P skills essential for pharmacy practice but disagree on the level of preparation for effective communication. These results support ongoing efforts to improve the development of communication skills in the professional pharmacy curriculum.

  12. Pharmacists' views on and experiences with bowel cancer screening kits in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Nataly; Basdew, Kamlika; Kammona, Ala; Shen, Amy; Taylor, Caragh; McIntosh, Timothy R; Barnes, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    To explore the views of New Zealand pharmacists on bowel cancer screening, particularly with regards to faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kits, self-perceived knowledge on FOBT kits and barriers, motivators and experiences with selling and counselling consumers with respect to FOBT kits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face to face or by telephone with 20 community pharmacists in the Auckland region. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and data were coded and analysed using NVivo software to identify key themes. Participant pharmacists believed that they were well placed to provide advice on FOBT kits to consumers. Barriers to selling the kits included cost and perceived lack of test sensitivity of the kits, poor consumer demand, pharmacists' lack of training and information, and a belief that selling FOBT kits was outside the pharmacists' scope of practice. Motivators to selling the kits included customer convenience, ease of use, confidence in the kits and embracing new roles for pharmacists. Pharmacists were concerned that use of the kits may increase the burden on the public health system through customer anxiety over test results; however, they agreed that there was a need for bowel cancer screening and awareness and that people concerned about bowel cancer should make visiting their general practitioner a priority. Pharmacists' views were mixed. Pharmacists' training and competence with respect to the provision of bowel cancer kits, and how a bowel cancer screening service can be developed to optimise public health outcomes, need to be addressed. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Australian fly-in, fly-out operations: Impacts on communities, safety, workers and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Rebecca R; Biggs, Herbert C; Rowland, Bevan

    2016-10-17

    Australia's mineral, resource and infrastructure sectors continues to expand as operations in rural and remote locations increasingly rely on fly-in, fly-out or drive-in, drive-out workforces in order to become economically competitive. The issues in effectively managing these workforces are becoming more apparent with reported high amounts of turnover and concerns for safety and performance. The issues presented include a range of physical, mental, psychosocial, safety and community challenges. This review aims to consolidate a range of research conducted to communicate potential challenges for industry in relation to a wide variety of issues when engaging and using FIFO/DIDO workforces which includes compressed working schedule design (work schedules), working hours, fatigue, safety performance, employee wellbeing, turnover, psychosocial relationships and community concerns. A comprehensive literature review was performed using EBSCOhost, PubMed and google scholar, with a focus on FIFO or DIDO workforces engaged within the resources sector. Search terms were kept broad in order to capture all national and international research conducted and included: "fly-in, fly-out" "FIFO" "DIDO" "drive-in, drive-out" "mining". There was no date restriction included in the search. Many of the studies were focused on sleep quality, fatigue and the influence of lowered safety performance while at work, presenting an increased risk for health and safety. These issues may be exacerbated for the FIFO workforce when linked to additional research surrounding the extended periods of absence from families influencing workers personal relationships, psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction and the reported high amounts of turnover within the industry. Taken together, this presents a unique implication for the management and continued use of FIFO workforces when considering balancing safety and performance with economic viability of production and operations. The issues of long working

  14. Do pharmacists have a right to refuse to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, B D

    1992-01-01

    Some pharmacists opposed to abortion on moral ground are concerned by having to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs like mifepristone (RU-486). The issue of the right of pharmacists to refuse to fill such prescriptions depends on the model of the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship. The libertarian model of pharmacy practice holds that physicians, pharmacists, and patients are bound only by the contract that they freely negotiate with one another, thus the pharmacist has no moral obligation to fill a prescription for mifepristone unless he or she has expressly contracted to do so. The American Pharmaceutical Association's 1981 Code of Ethics does not specify what a pharmacist ought to do in particular circumstances. The right to refuse is strongly supported by the principles of nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. These are principles of the libertarian model of the pharmacist-patient relationship but are also present in the guild or societal models stressing the duty to avoid harming others. Justification for pharmacists right of refusal appeals to their autonomy rights as members of the moral community rather than the profession of pharmacy. Since the professional right to autonomy is not absolute, moral consideration circumscribe it: it is difficult to argue that a pharmacist who believes that homosexuality is immoral has the right to refuse to fill a prescription for AZT. Even if a person who presents such a prescription is homosexual there is no causal relationship between filling a prescription for AZT and participating in a homosexual act. At the opposite end the libertarians reject the notion of even a basic right to health care. A woman in the above situation would not have a right to the abortifacient drug, so a pharmacist has no duty to dispense it. According to the technician model of professionalism, the pharmacist's personal values do not matter, so a pharmacist has a duty to provide the service.

  15. 'Esprit de corps': Towards collaborative integration of pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    framework[4] and implementation plan.[5]. The role of ... Netcare model also confirmed that quality improvement science skills are critical in ... of process and outcome measures for the management of community- acquired ... This article proposes possible ways of engagement between the pharmacist, nurse and doctor. The.

  16. Knowledge of pharmacists on proper use of oral contraceptive pills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community pharmacists and senior pharmacy students in UAE. The survey ... contraceptive methods use among women in. UAE [3]. More than 58 % of women in the Middle. East are using ... week, age, gender, social status and pharmacy location. In ..... knowledge and attitudes regarding oral emergency contraception.

  17. The role of pharmacists in diabetes management in Zanzibar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in public diabetes clinics, hospital and community pharmacies in vicinity of diabetes clinics in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar to investigate the role of pharmacists in management of diabetes and diabetic patients' care. Face to face interviews were conducted with patients, ...

  18. The relationships between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction, and self-esteem among Australian gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousari-Rad, Pantea; McLaren, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction has been linked to belonging to the gay community and poor self-esteem among gay men. This study was designed to explore the applicability of a moderation model and a mediation model in explaining the relations between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem among 90 self-identified Australian gay men. Participants completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Body Satisfaction Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results supported the moderation model; the relation between body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem was found to be statistically significant only at average and high levels of belonging to the gay community. The mediation model was also supported; bod