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  1. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quester Pascale G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504, 2006 (n = 525, 2007 (n = 414 and 2008 (n = 464. Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  2. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  3. Neural correlates of cigarette health warning avoidance among smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stothart, George; Maynard, Olivia M; Lavis, Rosie J; Munafo, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eye-tracking technology has indicated that daily smokers actively avoid pictorial cigarette package health warnings. Avoidance may be due to a pre-cognitive perceptual bias or a higher order cognitive bias, such as reduced emotional processing. Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study aimed to identify the temporal point at which smokers' responses to health warnings begin to differ.METHOD: Non-smokers (n=20) and daily smokers (n=20) viewed pictorial cigarette package health...

  4. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

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    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  5. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

  6. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Saad, Helmi; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Ben Essghaier, Mejda; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS).Methods: Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n = 36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n =...

  7. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  8. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam;

    2013-01-01

    girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...... social norms leading to cigarette and hookah smoking may help policy makers develop comprehensive interventions to prevent smoking among adolescents....

  9. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    OpenAIRE

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram; Teimori, Soheila; Amirpour, Afshin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451 girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having...

  10. HOW DO SMOKERS RESPOND TO CIGARETTE TAXES? EVIDENCE FROM CHINA'S CIGARETTE INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Sun, Qi; Wu, Fang

    2014-07-18

    This paper examines how Chinese smokers respond to tax-driven cigarette price increases by estimating a discrete choice model of demand for differentiated products, using annual nationwide brand-level cigarette sales data in China from 2005 to 2010. We allow for substitution between different cigarette brands and also incorporate key features of rational addiction theory into the model. Results show that the average own-price elasticity of demand for cigarettes at the brand level is -0.807, and the overall price elasticity of cigarettes at the market level is -0.488 in China. We find tax-induced substitution toward low-price cigarettes as well as high-tar cigarettes and that tax hikes encourage within-class substitution more than across-class substitution. These results have important policy implications for the potential effects of cigarette taxation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044632

  11. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of ‘light’ cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, M; M Bansal-Travers; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as ‘light’, ‘ultra-light’ and ‘low tar’ with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of ‘light’, ‘mild’ and ‘low’ on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Cen...

  12. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  13. Smoking patterns in waterpipe smokers compared with cigarette smokers: an exploratory study of puffing dynamics and smoke exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Pulcu, Erdem; McNeill, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Aim: It is estimated that globally there are about 100 million people who smoke waterpipes daily yet exposure resulting from smoking waterpipes is under-researched relative to cigarette smoking. This exploratory study assesses smoke exposure and puffing profiles among waterpipe smokers in comparison with cigarette smokers in Turkey, where there is a concern that waterpipe smoking prevalence is increasing. Method: A convenience sample of waterpipe (n=20) and cigarette smokers (n=110) was recru...

  14. E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Prochaska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined electronic cigarette (EC use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. METHODS: Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10 cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14 years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. FINDINGS: EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. INTERPRETATION: Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.

  15. Imaging-based assessment of dyspnea in cigarette smokers

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    Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Paul J.; Schwartz, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Helmers, Richard; Mori, Masaki

    1994-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis frequently smoke cigarettes. The cause of dyspnea in these patients is often complex because of the coexistence of multiple disease processes. We investigated 10 cigarette smokers with pulmonary fibrosis who were referred for evaluation of new onset or worsening dyspnea. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests were obtained in addition to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). In those patients with HRCT evidence of both diseases, spirometry and lung volumes were most often normal. Although plain films provided a reasonable assessment of fibrosis, they underestimated the severity of emphysema. Quantitation of both emphysema and fibrosis by HRCT was reproducible and correlated with key pulmonary function tests. Our findings indicate that the HRCT scan is a useful diagnostic test in patients with pulmonary fibrosis who are also cigarette smokers.

  16. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers.Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers.Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our ...

  17. Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Exercise Trained and Sedentary Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated triglyceride (TAG and oxidative stress response to high fat feeding. Exercise training may serve to attenuate the rise in these variables, by improving TAG clearance and antioxidant defense. We compared blood TAG, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise trained (>2 hrs per wk and untrained smokers matched for age, in response to a high fat test meal. We report here that low volume exercise training can attenuate postprandial lipid peroxidation, but has little impact on blood TAG and other markers of oxidative stress. Higher volumes of exercise may be needed to allow for clinically meaningful adaptations in postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress.

  18. Social Inequality in Cigarette Consumption, Cigarette Dependence, and Intention to Quit among Norwegian Smokers

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    Marianne Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aim was to examine the influence of education and income on multiple measures of risk of smoking continuation. Methods. Three logistic regression models were run on cigarette consumption, dependence, and intention to quit based on nationally representative samples (2007–2012 of approximately 1 200 current smokers aged 30–66 years in Norway. Results. The relative risk ratio for current versus never smokers was RRR 5.37, 95% CI [4.26–6.77] among individuals with low educational level versus high and RRR 1.53, 95% CI [1.14–2.06] in the low-income group versus high (adjusted model. Low educational level was associated with high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit. The difference in predicted probability for having high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit were in the range of 10–20 percentage points between smokers with low versus those with high educational level. A significant difference between low- and high-income levels was observed for intention to quit. The effect of education on high consumption and dependence was mainly found in smokers with high income. Conclusion. Increased effort to combat social differences in smoking behaviour is needed. Implementation of smoking cessation programmes with high reach among low socioeconomic groups is recommended.

  19. Eicosanoid production and lymphatic responsiveness in human cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinzinger, H; Kaliman, J; Oguogho, A

    2000-03-01

    Leg lymphatic segments were isolated from 10 patients (4 cigarette smokers and 6 non-smokers) undergoing conventional lymphography. Prostaglandin (PG) levels and PG synthesis in the lymphatics and in a variety of body fluids and the effects of eicosanoids on lymphatic contractility were determined. Leg lymphatics from 4 smokers generated less PGI2 and contained more 8-epi-PGF2 alpha when compared with leg lymphatics in 6 non-smokers. Similarly, levels of 8-epi-PGF2 alpha in smokers compared with non-smokers were higher in plasma (28.6 cf 19.7 pg/ml), leg lymph (146.7 cf 65.3 pg/ml), serum (299.0 cf 204.1 pg/ml), and urine (473.4 cf 241.0 pg/mg creatinine). Lymphatics from smokers also showed a higher contractile response, less 14C-arachidonic acid conversion to PGI2 and less PGI2-formation with various stimuli compared with non-smokers. Together these findings suggest that smoking induces oxidation injury, promotes altered (iso-)eicosanoid production and impacts on the function and dysfunction of peripheral lymphatics under normal circumstances and in a variety of clinical disorders. PMID:10769813

  20. Cigarette Purchasing Patterns among New York Smokers: Implications for Health, Price, and Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    New York State Department of Health; ,

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Raising the price of cigarettes is one of the most effective interventions to prevent and reduce cigarette use. Local, state, and federal governments can change the price of cigarettes by raising or lowering cigarette excise taxes and by implementing and enforcing minimum price laws. Smokers can also adjust their behavior by choosing discount or “bargain” brands, buying fewer cigarettes, and avoiding paying cigarette taxes by purchasing from retailers that do not le...

  1. Smokers' and e-cigarette users' perceptions of modified risk warnings for e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Hammond, David; Villanti, Andrea C; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act opened the possibility for tobacco companies to apply to market their products as having "modified" or reduced risks. However, research on how to communicate comparative tobacco risks and how such messages are interpreted is limited. This study aimed to qualitatively examine perceptions of potential modified risk statements presented as warning labels for e-cigarettes. We conducted six focus groups between 2014 and 2015 with 27 adult e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers who provided comments on two versions of a modified risk warning for e-cigarettes: 1) "WARNING: No tobacco product is safe, but this product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes" (as proposed by two companies for their smokeless tobacco products) and 2) "WARNING: This product may be harmful to health, but is substantially less harmful than cigarettes" (an alternative developed by our team). Although most personally believed that e-cigarettes are safer than cigarettes and some thought the messages were true and accurate, many were skeptical and uncomfortable with the warnings because they did not "seem like a warning" and because use of the phrase "substantially lower risks" could be misleading and difficult to understand. Several thought the second warning was stronger (e.g., more active, more specific). Modified risk messages about e-cigarettes may impact perceptions and use of the product. More research is needed to identify the framing, wording and placement (e.g. within or in addition to a warning) that could potentially increase population-level benefits and minimize harms. PMID:27486560

  2. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

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    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  3. Evaluating smokers' reactions to advertising for new lower nicotine quest cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph; Strasser, Andrew A; Pinto, Angela; Hornik, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Quest cigarettes are a relatively new (2003) product that has been marketed as a way for smokers to gradually reduce the nicotine they receive from cigarettes in order to, according to marketing materials, become nicotine free. However, despite lower levels of nicotine, Quest cigarettes do not have reduced tar levels and, thus, still pose health hazards. This study evaluated beliefs about Quest cigarettes following exposure to a single print advertisement among 200 regular smokers who had never heard of the brand itself. Descriptively, smokers made several specific false inferences about Quest cigarettes after exposure (i.e., lower in tar, healthier, less likely to cause cancer). Two individual-differences variables, need for cognition and perceived vulnerability, moderated smokers' health beliefs about Quest cigarettes. PMID:16536669

  4. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ping Wang

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong.Daily smokers (N = 1,307 were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial ('Quit to Win' in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness on quitting were reported at baseline and 1-week follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in quitting.Most smokers (82.6%, 95% CI 80.2%-84.9% had heard about e-cigarettes, and 13.3% (11.3%-15.5% ever used e-cigarettes. Most users (74.1% and non-users (91.2% did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Being younger and having a larger family income were associated with e-cigarette awareness. Being younger, a tertiary education and a stronger addiction to nicotine were associated with e-cigarette use, which was itself associated with lower levels of intention to quit and had no association with attempts to quit (P for trend 0.45. E-cigarette use, the last quit attempt being a month earlier, having made a quit attempt lasting 24 hours or longer and perceiving quitting as important were all associated with the perceived effectiveness of e-cigarettes in quitting (all P <0.05.Among community-recruited smokers who intended to quit, awareness of e-cigarettes was high, but most did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Correlates concerning e-cigarette perceptions and use will help to inform prospective studies, public education and policy on controlling e-cigarettes.

  5. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  6. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  7. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Man, George; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  8. Does the availability of single cigarettes promote or inhibit cigarette consumption? Perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette use among adult Mexican smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Thrasher, J F; Villalobos, V.; Dorantes-Alonso, A; Arillo-Santillán, E; Cummings, K Michael; O’Connor, R.; Fong, G. T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Single cigarette use and its implications have rarely been studied among adults. Objective: To assess perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette purchase behaviour and its relation to harm reduction. Design: Focus group transcripts and cross-sectional data were analysed. Setting and participants: Focus groups among convenience samples of adult smokers in two Mexican cities and a population-based sample of 1079 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control Po...

  9. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Boyle, Raymond G; St Claire, Ann W

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers' decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers' efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation. PMID:27322301

  10. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes pe...

  11. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  12. The variations in Body Mass Index of different types of cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Agnihotri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of both active and second hand smoking on Body Mass Index of adult smokers in rural areas of Chandigarh. The relationship of body mass index with smoking status was also assessed in current daily and intermittent smokers. The male subjects (N=240 of 20-30 years and 30-40 years age category were divided into four groups of 30 subjects each based on Global Adult Tobacco Survey Questionnaire, India as follows: Group 1 - Current daily cigarette smokers, Group 2 - current intermittent cigarette smokers, Group 3 - Second hand cigarette smokers and Group 4 - Non-smokers (Control group. One way ANOVA test showed non-significant differences between and within all the groups in body mass index (F=1.11, p>0.05 in 20-30 years age category. In 30-40 years age category, significant differences (F=4.11, p<0.05 were observed between and within all the groups. Post hoc Scheffe test in 30-40 years category also revealed significant mean differences between current daily smokers and non-smokers. Karl Pearson’s correlation test showed a highly significant inverse linear relationship (p<0.001 between pack years and BMI in both current daily and intermittent smokers. Current smoking of moderate intensity has an effect to alter relative fatness (or BMI of the body. There may be no substantial difference in BMI with moderate and light smoking as well as exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in younger adults. The greater the number of cigarettes smoked, the lower the adult smoker's BMI in both current moderate and intermittent light smokers.

  13. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khemiss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS. Methods: Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60 and ECS (n=60 groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively. Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively. However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04 and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively. Conclusions: Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss.

  14. Attenuation of cue-induced cigarette craving and anterior cingulate cortex activation in bupropion-treated smokers: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Arthur L.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Lee, Grace; Smith, Erlyn; Sadeghi, Mary; Saxena, Sanjaya; Jarvik, Murray E.; London, Edythe D.

    2004-01-01

    In untreated smokers, exposure to cigarette-related cues increases both the intensity of cigarette craving and relative glucose metabolism of the perigenual/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Given that treatment with bupropion HCl reduces overall cigarette craving levels in nicotine dependent subjects, we performed a preliminary study of smokers to determine if bupropion HCl treatment attenuates cue-induced cigarette craving and associated brain metabolic activation. Thirty-seven, othe...

  15. E-cigarette Marketing and Older Smokers: Road to Renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe older smokers’ perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Results Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. Conclusions To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking. PMID:25741681

  16. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X; Yi, Zan X; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers' response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers' impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  17. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Boyle, Raymond G.; St. Claire, Ann W.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers’ decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers’ efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation. PMID:27322301

  18. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  19. Post-puff respiration measures on smokers of different tar yield cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    St. Charles, Frank K.; Krautter, George R.; Mariner, Derek C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different tar yield cigarette brands on the post-puff inhalation/exhalation depth and duration for established smokers of the brands. The study was conducted with 74 established smokers of 1–17 mg Federal Trade Commission (FTC) tar products. The subjects were participating in a five-day inpatient clinical biomarker study during which time they were allowed to smoke their own brand of cigarette whenever they wished. On two separate days,...

  20. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  1. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  2. Point-of-sale cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation in smokers: results from a population-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Raees A. Shaikh; Robbins, Regina; Tibbits, Melissa; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Soliman, Ghada; McCarthy, Molly; Singh, Gopal K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strict restrictions on outdoor cigarette marketing have resulted in increasing concentration of cigarette marketing at the point-of-sale (POS). The association between POS cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation (SID) has never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine this association and how it is mediated by cravings to smoke, urges to buy cigarettes, and unplanned purchases of cigarettes. Methods Data from a telephone survey of 939 smokers were collected in...

  3. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Nicole Pitts; Melissa Duong; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist’s endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers’ susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the ...

  4. Hookah use predicts cigarette smoking progression among college smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, N; Godfrey, KM; Myers, MG

    2015-01-01

    © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. Introduction: Hookah use is increasingly common among U.S. college students, but little is known regarding the relationship between hookah and cigarette use. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the added nicotine exposure from hookah use may accelerate the uptake of cigarettes. Methods: An ethnically diverse sample of college student...

  5. Response Inhibition of Cigarette-related Cues in Male Smokers: Behavioral Evidence from a Two-choice Oddball Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao eXin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/No-Go and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether smokers’ response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male smokers’ impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers, who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC and reaction time (RT for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues.

  6. The effects of higher cigarette prices on tar and nicotine consumption in a cohort of adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, M C; Nimsch, C T; Hyland, A; Cummings, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the demand for tar and nicotine in cigarettes as a function of cigarette prices in a cohort of cigarette 11,966 smokers followed for 5 years. Data for the analysis come from a longitudinal telephone survey of 11,966 smokers who were interviewed in 1988 and 1993 as part of the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Separate models are estimated for three age groups to account for differences in levels of addiction and brand loyalty across age. We found that smokers respond to higher cigarette prices by reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day but also by switching to cigarettes that are higher in tar and nicotine per cigarette. PMID:14724893

  7. Quantification of Nicotine in Commercial Brand Cigarettes: How Much Is Inhaled by the Smoker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Carlos A.; de Paiva, Sabina A. A.; Funai, Milena N. S.; Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Giglio, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this experiment is to determine the amount of nicotine in commercial brand cigarettes by means of a nonaqueous acid-base titration. A simple glass device simulating a smoker is proposed, which allows the determination of the volatilized, filter retained, and inhaled portions. Students will readily see that the amount of…

  8. The impact of social context on cigarette self-administration in nondependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymarova, Ekaterina; Schlagintweit, Hera E; Barrett, Sean P

    2015-10-01

    Tobacco use in nondependent smokers (i.e. chippers) is believed to be largely determined by situational factors including social context. However, little empirical research has examined how different social contexts impact chippers' smoking behaviour. Twenty-eight (16 men) chippers completed two laboratory sessions where they were offered an opportunity to self-administer puffs of their preferred tobacco brand using a progressive ratio task. During an individual session, participants self-administered cigarettes alone and during a paired session, they self-administered cigarettes with a coparticipant who was also smoking. The strongest predictors for number of self-administered puffs and breakpoint during the paired session were coparticipants' number of puffs and breakpoint, respectively (P<0.001), followed by puffs taken and breakpoint during the individual session (P<0.01). Current smoking frequency (cigarettes/week) did not significantly predict puffs taken or breakpoint during the paired session. Latency to cigarette self-administration during the paired session was correlated positively with coparticipants' latency (P<0.05), but not with latency during the individual session or cigarettes per week. The findings suggest that the presence of another smoker exerts an important influence on the quantity of chippers' smoking behaviour, such that chippers match their smoking behaviour to that of other smokers in their proximate environment. PMID:26086725

  9. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained. PMID:25758192

  10. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Thanoon Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%, impotence in male smokers (52.6%, premature ageing (64%, and stroke (66.3%. In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.

  11. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Morgan, Jennifer C.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers’ social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers’ understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects. PMID:27527199

  12. Higher stimulus control is associated with less cigarette intake in daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Schüz, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that environmental stimuli influence smoking in light, and to a lesser degree, heavy smokers. A 2-factor model of dependence suggests that the influence of stimulus control is masked among heavier smokers who primarily smoke for nicotine maintenance. The current study aimed to assess the influence of stimulus control across a range of moderate to heavy daily smokers. Furthermore, as local tobacco control policies may change the role of stimulus control, the study aimed to replicate previous U.S. findings on stimulus control in an Australian setting marked by strong tobacco control policies. In 2 Ecological Momentary Assessment studies, 420 participants monitored antecedents of smoking and nonsmoking situations. In a set of idiographic logistic regression analyses, situational antecedents were used to predict smoking occasions within each individual's data. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the association between stimulus control and smoking rate, and to test for differences between the 2 samples. Daily smokers' smoking was under considerable stimulus control, which was weaker at higher smoking rates. Overall, there was greater stimulus control in the Australian sample. Daily smokers also experience a degree of stimulus control, which is less influential in heavier smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766542

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L; Rahman, Ardeshir S

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (∼1.5 h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20 min with a current of 2.0 mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation. PMID:24065930

  14. Effects of 7.5% Carbon Dioxide Inhalation on Anxiety and Mood in Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Ataya, Alia F.; Bailey, Jayne E.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with elevated risk of anxiety and mood disorder. Using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model of anxiety induction, we examined the effects of smoking status and abstinence from smoking on anxiety responses. Physiological and subjective responses to CO2 and medical air were compared in smokers and non-smokers (Experiment One) and in overnight abstinent and non-abstinent smokers (Experiment Two). CO2 induced greater increases in blood pressure in non-smokers compared with smokers (ps < 0.043), and greater increases in anxiety (p = 0.005) and negative affect (p = 0.054) in non-abstinent compared with abstinent smokers. CO2 increased physiological and subjective indices of anxiety. There were differences across smoking groups indicating that the CO2 inhalation model is a useful tool for examining the relationship between smoking and anxiety. The findings suggested that both acute smoking and acute abstinence may protect against anxious responding. Further investigation is needed in long-term heavy smokers. PMID:24763184

  15. Pb-210 concentrations in cigarettes tobaccos and radiation doses to the smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is a source of radiation exposure due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the tobacco leaves. From the health point of view, measurement of 210Pb and 210Po contents in cigarette tobacco is important to assess the radiological effects associated with the tobacco smoking for the smokers. In the present study, activity concentrations of 210Pb, which is a 210Po precursor in the 238U-decay series, were measured in cigarette tobaccos. Samples of nine different commonly sold brands of cigarette tobaccos were analysed by employing a planar high purity germanium (HPGe) low background detector. Activity concentrations of 210Pb were measured from its gamma peak at 47 keV. Mean activity concentration of 210Pb was measured to be 13 ± 4 Bq kg-1 from all samples analysed. The annual committed effective dose for a smoker and the collective committed effective dose corresponding to annual cigarettes production were estimated to be 64 ± 20 μSv and 0.6 x 102 man-Sv, respectively. (authors)

  16. Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic cigarette demand curve in adolescent smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption across a range of prices, have been used to assess motivation for a variety of drugs. Such curves generate multiple measures of drug demand that are associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. However, little is known about the relationships among these facets of demand. The aim of the study was to quantify these relationships in adolescent smokers by using exploratory factor analysis to ...

  17. Sex differences in resting state brain function of cigarette smokers and links to nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Adriene M; Berenbaum, Sheri A; Wilson, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    Sex--a marker of biological and social individual differences--matters for drug use, particularly for cigarette smoking, which is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. More men than women smoke, but women are less likely than men to quit. Resting state brain function, or intrinsic brain activity that occurs in the absence of a goal-directed task, is important for understanding cigarette smoking, as it has been shown to differentiate between smokers and nonsmokers. But, it is unclear whether and how sex influences the link between resting state brain function and smoking behavior. In this study, the authors demonstrate that sex is indeed associated with resting state connectivity in cigarette smokers, and that sex moderates the link between resting state connectivity and self-reported nicotine dependence. Using functional MRI and behavioral data from 50 adult daily smokers (23 women), the authors found that women had greater connectivity than men within the default mode network, and that increased connectivity within the reward network was related to increased nicotine tolerance in women but to decreased nicotine tolerance in men. Findings highlight the importance of sex-related individual differences reflected in resting state connectivity for understanding the etiology and treatment of substance use problems. PMID:26237322

  18. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results: As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved VO2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively, v VO2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively, and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusions: After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only

  19. Prevalence and reasons for use of electronic cigarettes among smokers: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hummel; C. Hoving; G.E. Nagelhout; H. de Vries; B. van den Putte; M.J.J.M. Candel; R. Borland; M.C. Willemsen

    2015-01-01

    Background Not much is known about how people in the Netherlands respond to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes); how many know about them, which people try them, keep using them and why, and what are changes over time regarding awareness and use? Methods We used samples of smokers aged 15 years and

  20. Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic cigarette demand curve in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G; Tidey, Jennifer W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2012-11-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption across a range of prices, have been used to assess motivation for a variety of drugs. Such curves generate multiple measures of drug demand that are associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. However, little is known about the relationships among these facets of demand. The aim of the study was to quantify these relationships in adolescent smokers by using exploratory factor analysis to examine the underlying structure of the facets of nicotine incentive value generated from a demand curve measure. Participants were 138 adolescent smokers who completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task, which assessed estimated cigarette consumption at escalating levels of price/cigarette. Demand curves and five facets of demand were generated from the measure: Elasticity (i.e., 1/α or proportionate price sensitivity); Intensity (i.e., consumption at zero price); O(max) (i.e., maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes); P(max) (i.e., price at which expenditure is maximized); and Breakpoint (i.e., the price that suppresses consumption to zero). Principal components analysis was used to examine the latent structure among the variables. The results revealed a two-factor solution, which were interpreted as "Persistence," reflecting insensitivity to escalating price, and "Amplitude," reflecting the absolute levels of consumption and price. These findings suggest a two factor structure of nicotine incentive value as measured via a demand curve. If supported, these findings have implications for understanding the relationships among individual demand indices in future behavioral economic studies and may further contribute to understanding of the nature of cigarette reinforcement. PMID:22727784

  1. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elle Wadsworth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to (1 describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2 relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B: capability (C, opportunity (O, and motivation (M; and (3 to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30 were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking; opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in “smoke-free” environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family; and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits. The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support.

  2. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Elle; Neale, Joanne; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2) relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B): capability (C), opportunity (O), and motivation (M)); and (3) to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour) was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking); opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in "smoke-free" environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family); and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits). The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support. PMID:27376312

  3. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Elle; Neale, Joanne; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2) relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B): capability (C), opportunity (O), and motivation (M)); and (3) to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour) was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking); opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in “smoke-free” environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family); and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits). The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support. PMID:27376312

  4. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18-55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20-45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  5. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18–55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20–45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  6. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnoya Joaquin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45, whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior.

  7. DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI polymorphism and smoking behavior of Egyptian male cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Ghada N; El-Setouhy, Maged; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Hamid, Mohamed Abdel; Azem, Salwa Abdel; Kamel, Omima; Israel, Ebenezer; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the genetic contribution to cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction in Egypt. The dopamine D2 receptor gene contains a TaqI repeat fragment length polymorphism creating two alleles with functional significance, DRD2*A1 and DRD2*A2. We investigated the relationship between these alleles and tobacco use in a study of 389 Egyptian male current smokers (mean age = 40 years; SD = 12). Participants were interviewed in 2004 on their smoking behaviors and quit attempts, and were given the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Blood samples were obtained and genotyped for DRD2 A1and A2 alleles. The frequencies of A1/A2, A1/A2, and A2/A2 genotypes were 6%, 29%, and 65%, respectively. We found no statistically significant association between genotype and age at onset of smoking, years of smoking, FTND score, or average number of cigarettes smoked per day. DRD2 genotype was associated with the number of cigarettes smoked in the past 48 hr (42.2 in A1 carriers vs. 37.6 in A2, p = .03), the previous quit duration (28% in A1 vs. 40% in A2 quit for more than 1 month, p = .05), and the depth of inhalation (82% in A1 vs. 72% in A2 inhaled the smoke deeply, p = .03). Logistic regression analysis including DRD2 genotype, FTND score, age at smoking initiation, marital status, and education as predictors showed that maximum duration of quit time was associated with FTND score (p = .003), DRD2 genotype (p = .01), marital status (p = .03), and age at smoking initiation (p = .04). These findings suggest a modest association between DRD2 genotype and quitting behavior in male cigarette smokers in Egypt. PMID:18058350

  8. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers' beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Rini, Christine M; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-04-01

    We sought to understand smokers' perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use. PMID:25348584

  9. Elevated Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) Activity and the Development of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Noborisaka, Yuka; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamazaki, Michiko; Honda, Ryumon; Yamada, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is predictive of various cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated serum GGT has been recognized in smokers who are likely to develop CKD, but no study has focused on serum GGT and CKD in smokers. Objectives The aim of this study was to clarify the associations between cigarette consumption, elevation of serum GGT and the development of proteinuria and CKD. Patients and Methods A retrospective 6-...

  10. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years, 12 current smokers; age range 35-55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT in inspiration and expiration in supine and prone position. The extent of air trapping was scored in ventral and dorsal aspects of the upper, middle and lower lung portions. In 24 subjects (7 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers, 10 current smokers) areas of focal air trapping were found, and were present significantly more often in dependent lung portions (p < 0.05) compared with non-dependent portions. No significant differences were found between apical and basal lung zones. Scores of focal air trapping were not significantly different between smokers and ex-smokers, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in non-smokers and showed a significant (p < 0.0005) correlation with pack-years. The degree of air trapping was also associated with several lung function tests, especially RV, DLCO, FRC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC. Air trapping is seen in smokers with normal PFT and correlates with the severity of the smoking history, independently of current smoking status. (orig.) (orig.)

  11. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verschakelen, J.A.; Scheinbaum, K.; Bogaert, J.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demedts, M.; Lacquet, L.L. [Department of Pneumology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years, 12 current smokers; age range 35-55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT in inspiration and expiration in supine and prone position. The extent of air trapping was scored in ventral and dorsal aspects of the upper, middle and lower lung portions. In 24 subjects (7 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers, 10 current smokers) areas of focal air trapping were found, and were present significantly more often in dependent lung portions (p < 0.05) compared with non-dependent portions. No significant differences were found between apical and basal lung zones. Scores of focal air trapping were not significantly different between smokers and ex-smokers, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in non-smokers and showed a significant (p < 0.0005) correlation with pack-years. The degree of air trapping was also associated with several lung function tests, especially RV, DLCO, FRC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC. Air trapping is seen in smokers with normal PFT and correlates with the severity of the smoking history, independently of current smoking status. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 59 refs.

  12. Intense passionate love attenuates cigarette cue-reactivity in nicotine-deprived smokers: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Xu

    Full Text Available Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system, potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity.

  13. Association of serum aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity and RBC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with flow-mediated dilation in healthy, young Hispanic cigarette smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Wiest, Elani F.; Warneke, Alex; Walsh, Mary T.; Langsfeld, Mark; Anderson, Joe; Walker, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    Impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) occurs prior to clinical disease in young cigarette smokers. We investigated two potential biomarkers of FMD: serum aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activity and RBC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy young Hispanic cigarette smokers. We recruited never (n = 16) and current (n = 16) Hispanic smokers (32 ± 7 years old), excluding individuals with clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured FMD with duplex ultrasound, RBC fatty acids and serum A...

  14. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  15. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  16. Do more graphic and aversive cigarette health warning labels affect Brazilian smokers' likelihood of quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; Volchan, Eliane; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Szklo, Moysés; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence, with an innovative round of aversive pictorial health warnings implemented on cigarette packs and at points of sale in 2009. The objective of this study was to examine changes over time in the distribution of quitting attempts and self-reported thoughts about quitting due to health warnings among current smokers. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate data from two nationally-representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. Responses to questions on smokers' quitting attempts in the last year (yes vs. no) and whether health warnings led them to think about quitting in the last month (yes vs. no) were combined into four categories, for which the distribution of the Brazilian smoking population by year was estimated. A multinomial model was used to obtain proportions for each category, adjusted by socio-demographic variables and nicotine dependence. The proportion of smokers who reported making a quitting attempt in the last year and stated that health warnings led them think about quitting smoking statistically increased over time (from 30.0% to 33.1%; p-value=0.010). The percentage of those who answered "no" to these two questions also increased over time (from 23.5% to 32.9%; p-value≤0.001). These findings suggest that innovative warnings introduced in Brazil likely served as a "reminder" for continuing to think about cessation among those who attempted to quit in the last year. These warnings may have also triggered more avoidance of thinking about their contents than the previous warnings, which some studies have found to promote subsequent quitting activity. PMID:27161535

  17. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberle L. Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist’s endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers’ susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist’s endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54. Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74 and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08 were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers’ exposure to the music artist’s small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  18. In Adult Smokers Unwilling or Unable to Quit, Does Changing From Tobacco Cigarettes to Electronic Cigarettes Decrease the Incidence of Negative Health Effects Associated With Smoking Tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the e-cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices.

  19. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, does changing from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes decrease the incidence of negative health effects associated with smoking tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer; Brown, Brandon; Schwiebert, Peter; Ramakrisnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the electronic cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices. PMID:26855963

  20. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as "natural'' and American smokers' views of the "naturalness'' (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods: Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results: Cigarette advertisements have used the term "natural'' since at least 1910, but it was not until th...

  1. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  2. Benefits of E-Cigarettes Among Heavy Smokers Undergoing a Lung Cancer Screening Program: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Marianna; Veronesi, Giulia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Spina, Stefania; Jemos, Costantino; Omodeo Salè, Emanuela; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes’ power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers’ baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review. Consequently, it is urgent to know if e-cigarettes may have a higher success rate than other nicotine replacement methods and under what conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the therapeutic setting and the relationship between individual characteristics and the success rate have not been tested. This protocol is particularly innovative, because it aims to test the effectiveness of electronic devices in a screening program (the COSMOS II lung cancer prevention program at the European Institute of Oncology), where tobacco reduction is needed to lower individuals’ lung cancer risks. Objective This protocol was designed with the primary aim of investigating the role of tobacco-free cigarettes in helping smokers improve lung health and either quit smoking or reduce their tobacco consumption. In particular, we aim to investigate the impact of a 3-month e-cigarettes program to reduce smoking-related respiratory symptoms (eg, dry cough, shortness of breath, mouth irritation, and phlegm) through reduced consumption of tobacco cigarettes. Furthermore, we evaluate the behavioral and psychological (eg, well-being, mood, and quality of life) effects of the treatment. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-parallel group study. The study is organized as a nested randomized

  3. Is all risk bad? Young adult cigarette smokers fail to take adaptive risk in a laboratory decision-making test

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Andy C.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Cigarette smoking has been linked to real-world risky behavior, but this association has been based largely on retrospective self-reports. Limitations of self-report data can be avoided by using laboratory, performance-based measures, such as the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., J Exp Psychol Appl 8:75–84, 2002). Initial studies have suggested that smokers display greater risk-taking on this task than nonsmokers, but these studies did not account for drug abuse and p...

  4. Tobacco flakes on cigarette filters grow bacteria: a potential health risk to the smoker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Waight, J D; Paszkiewicz, G M

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial growth from a single flake of tobacco was documented for cigarettes that had been purchased recently from local vendors and from cigarettes that had been stored for more than six years in a warehouse. In a novel tobacco flake assay, a pack of cigarettes was opened within the sterile environment of a laminar flow hood. A single flake of tobacco was collected randomly and aseptically from the middle of the cigarette column and placed onto the surface of a blood agar plate. The test cigarettes included eight different popular US brands, and these were from three different tobacco companies. After 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, the plates showed bacterial growth for tobacco from all brands of cigarettes. Further, more than 90% of the individual tobacco flakes of a given brand grew bacteria. Likewise, bacteria grew from microparticulate tobacco that had been sieved from cigarettes. Tobacco flakes were observed lying loosely on the cut surface of the filter of cigarettes in newly opened packs, and bacteria grew from cigarette filters that had been touched to the surface of a blood agar plate. In conclusion, the results of these studies predict that diverse microbes and microbial toxins are carried by tobacco microparticulates that are released from the cigarette during smoking, and carried into mainstream smoke that is sucked deep into the lung. PMID:18768459

  5. Time to First Morning Cigarette and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Smokers in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A Guertin

    Full Text Available Time to first cigarette (TTFC after waking is an indicator of nicotine dependence. The association between TTFC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the third leading cause of death in the United States, has not yet been reported.We investigated the cross-sectional association between TTFC and prevalent COPD among 6,108 current smokers in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. COPD was defined as a self-reported diagnosis of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or both. Current smokers in PLCO reported TTFC, the amount of time they typically waited before smoking their first cigarette of the day after waking, in four categories: ≤ 5, 6-30, 31-60, or > 60 minutes. We used logistic regression models to investigate the association between TTFC and prevalent COPD with adjustments for age, gender, race, education, and smoking (cigarettes/day, years smoked during lifetime, pack-years, age at smoking initiation, and prior lung cancer diagnosis.COPD was reported by 19% of these 6,108 smokers. Individuals with the shortest TTFC had the greatest risk of COPD; compared to those with the longest TTFC (> 60 minutes the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for COPD were 1.48 (95% CI, 1.15-1.91, 1.64 (95% CI, 1.29-2.08, 2.18 (95% CI, 1.65-2.87 for those with TTFC 31-60 minutes, 6-30 minutes, and ≤ 5 minutes, respectively (P-trend 60 minutes, the adjusted OR (95% CI was 2.29 (1.69-3.12 for emphysema and 2.99 (1.95-4.59 for chronic bronchitis.Current smokers with shorter TTFC have increased risk of COPD compared to those with longer TTFC, even after comprehensive adjustment for established smoking covariates. Future epidemiologic studies, including prospective designs, should incorporate TTFC to better assess disease risk and evaluate the potential utility of TTFC as a COPD screening tool for smokers in the clinical setting.

  6. Aging-related systemic manifestations in COPD patients and cigarette smokers.

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    Laurent Boyer

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear.To look for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening in COPD patients and smokers with minor lung destruction responsible for a decline in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO corrected for alveolar volume (KCO.Cross-sectional study in 301 individuals (100 with COPD, 100 smokers without COPD, and 101 nonsmokers without COPD.Compared to control smokers, patients with COPD had higher aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV, lower bone mineral density (BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI, and shorter telomere length (TL. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were similar between control smokers and COPD patients. Smokers did not differ from nonsmokers for any of these parameters. However, smokers with normal spirometry but low KCO had lower ASMMI values compared to those with normal KCO. Moreover, female smokers with low KCO, had lower BMD and shorter TL compared to those with normal KCO.Aging-related abnormalities in patients with COPD are also found in smokers with minor lung dysfunction manifesting as a KCO decrease. Decreased KCO might be useful, particularly among women, for identifying smokers at high risk for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening.

  7. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

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    Pasquale Caponnetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been reported, including depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide. The use of bupropion also has side effects. It should not be used by people who have epilepsy or any condition that lowers the seizure threshold, nor by people who take a specific class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hence, there are pharmacodynamic reason to believe they could precipitate or exacerbate psychosis. For its capacity to deliver nicotine and provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, electronic-cigarettes may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms without serious side effects. Our recent work with ECs in healthy smokers not intending to quit consistently show surprisingly high success rates. We hypothesised that these positive findings could be replicated in difficult patients with schizophrenia This tool may help smokers with schizophrenia remain abstinent during their quitting attempts or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated for this special population. Methods: In this study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 14 smokers (not intending to quit with schizophrenia experimenting with the “Categoria” e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend six study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 week-24 and week 52. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath (eCO and positive and negative symptoms of

  8. CHRNA3 rs6495308 Genotype as an Effect Modifier of the Association between Daily Cigarette Consumption and Hypertension in Chinese Male Smokers

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    Xiao-Ying Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for hypertension. However, the effects on hypertension of the interaction between smoking and the genotype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene are unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype affects the association between daily cigarette consumption and hypertension. We recruited 947 male smokers in southern China and used a questionnaire administered in face to face interviews to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behavior. Blood samples were collected to test for CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype variations. Three blood-pressure measurements were taken for each participant, and the average values recorded. We found that, compared with light smoking (<15 cigarettes per day, heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes per day yielded a greater risk of hypertension. We also observed that the interaction between daily cigarette consumption and the CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype may affect hypertension. Heavy smokers with the homozygous mutant CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype exhibited a significantly greater risk of hypertension than light smokers with wild-type CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotypes. The positive interaction between heavy smoking and the homozygous mutant CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype was found to affect the likelihood of hypertension in Chinese male smokers.

  9. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smok...

  10. Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these products. We retrospectively reviewed changes in spirometry data, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR, asthma exacerbations and subjective asthma control in smoking asthmatics who switched to regular e-cig use. Measurements were taken prior to switching (baseline and at two consecutive visits (Follow-up/1 at 6 (±1 and Follow-up/2 at 12 (±2 months. Eighteen smoking asthmatics (10 single users, eight dual users were identified. Overall there were significant improvements in spirometry data, asthma control and AHR. These positive outcomes were noted in single and dual users. Reduction in exacerbation rates was reported, but was not significant. No severe adverse events were noted. This small retrospective study indicates that regular use of e-cigs to substitute smoking is associated with objective and subjective improvements in asthma outcomes. Considering that e-cig use is reportedly less harmful than conventional smoking and can lead to reduced cigarette consumption with subsequent improvements in asthma outcomes, this study shows that e-cigs can be a valid option for asthmatic patients who cannot quit smoking by other methods.

  11. Characteristics of Cigarette Smokers Who Want to Quit Now versus Quit Later

    OpenAIRE

    Burris, Jessica L.; Wahlquist, Amy E; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated factors associated with adult smokers’ immediate readiness to quit. Eligible smokers were proactively recruited online and invited to participate in either a telephone-based study for those who intend to quit in the next 30 days (Quit Now) or a telephone-based study for those who intend to quit, but not in the next month (Quit Later). Thirty-five percent of smokers declined participation altogether. Of those who remained, 25% chose Quit Now participation. Baseline data we...

  12. Adaptive regression modeling of biomarkers of potential harm in a population of U.S. adult cigarette smokers and nonsmokers

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    Mendes Paul E

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the data mining analysis of a clinical exposure study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 nonsmokers. The analysis focused on developing models for four biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH: white blood cell count (WBC, 24 h urine 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (EPI8, 24 h urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (DEH11, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL. Methods Random Forest was used for initial variable selection and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline was used for developing the final statistical models Results The analysis resulted in the generation of models that predict each of the BOPH as function of selected variables from the smokers and nonsmokers. The statistically significant variables in the models were: platelet count, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, race and biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoke for WBC (R-squared = 0.29; creatinine clearance, liver enzymes, weight, vitamin use and biomarkers of exposure for EPI8 (R-squared = 0.41; creatinine clearance, urine creatinine excretion, liver enzymes, use of Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, vitamins and biomarkers of exposure for DEH11 (R-squared = 0.29; and triglycerides, weight, age, sex, alcohol consumption and biomarkers of exposure for HDL (R-squared = 0.39. Conclusions Levels of WBC, EPI8, DEH11 and HDL were statistically associated with biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoking and demographics and life style factors. All of the predictors togather explain 29%-41% of the variability in the BOPH.

  13. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

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    Rouba Zeidan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 6.06 and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08 were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40, living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49 or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54 appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81, living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52 and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01. Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46 and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14. Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.

  14. Panic Reactivity to Voluntary Hyperventilation Challenge Predicts Distress Tolerance to Bodily Sensations among Daily Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Erin C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Gregor, Kristin; Gibson, Laura E.; Leyro, Teresa M.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation examined the extent to which panic reactivity to bodily sensations is related to distress tolerance (DT) among daily smokers. It was hypothesized that panic reactivity to an initial voluntary hyperventilation (i.e., whether participants met criteria for a DSM-IV panic attack; PA) would predict the relative degree of task persistence on a second hyperventilation trial (DT) above and beyond the variance accounted for by anxiety sensitivity (AS), negative affectivity (N...

  15. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Bello, Mariel S; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Pang, Raina D; Hendricks, Peter S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community (32.2% women; non-Hispanic African American [n = 175], non-Hispanic White [n = 109], or Hispanic [n = 26]) completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender-by-ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. These findings suggest that gender, ethnicity, and their intersectionality should be considered in research on cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:26438665

  16. Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Buonanno, Giorgio; Fuoco, Fernanda Carmen; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual. PMID:25463721

  17. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within—and between—participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' ‘lived experience’ of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. Methods and analyses This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. Ethics and dissemination This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be

  18. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  19. Cigarette brands with flavour capsules in the filter: trends in use and brand perceptions among smokers in the USA, Mexico and Australia, 2012–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Thrasher, James F.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Moodie, Crawford; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Cummings, K. Michael; Yong, Hua-Hie; Salloum, Ramzi G.; Czoli, Christine; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe trends, correlates of use and consumer perceptions related to the product design innovation of flavour capsules in cigarette filters. Methods Quarterly surveys from 2012 to 2014 were analysed from an online consumer panel of adult smokers aged 18–64, living in the USA (n=6865 observations; 4154 individuals); Mexico (n=5723 observations; 3366 individuals); and Australia (n=5864 observations; 2710 individuals). Preferred brand varieties were classified by price (ie, premiu...

  20. “You're made to feel like a dirty filthy smoker when you're not, cigar smoking is another thing all together.” Responses of Australian cigar and cigarillo smokers to plain packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Caroline L; Ettridge, Kerry A; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences of cigar and cigarillo smokers under Australian laws requiring plain packaging (PP) and strengthened graphic health warnings (GHWs). Methods In February/March 2014, we conducted: in-depth interviews with 10 regular premium cigar smokers; two focus groups with occasional premium cigar and premium cigarillo smokers (n=14); four focus groups with non-premium cigarillo smokers (n=28); and a national online survey of cigar and/or cigarillo smokers (n=268). Results Premium cigar smokers had limited exposure to PP, with many purchasing fully branded cigars in boxes duty free or online and singles in non-compliant packaging. Those who were exposed noticed and were concerned by the warnings, tried to avoid them and felt more like ‘dirty smokers’. Changes in perceived taste, harm and value were minimal for experienced premium cigar smokers. Occasional premium cigar and premium cigarillo smokers with higher PP exposure (gained by purchasing boxes rather than singles) perceived cigar/package appeal and value had declined and noticed the GHWs. Non-premium cigarillo smokers reported high PP exposure, reduced perceived appeal, quality, taste, enjoyment and value, somewhat increased perceived harm, greater noticeability of GHWs and concealment of packs and more contemplation of quitting. Online survey participants reported increased noticeability of GHWs (33%), decreased appeal of packaging (53%) and reduced consumption of cigars (42%) and cigarillos (44%) since PP implementation. Conclusions Non-premium cigarillo smokers appear to have been most exposed and influenced by PP, with cigar smokers less so, especially regular premium cigar smokers who have maintained access to fully branded products.

  1. Are Filter-Tipped Cigarettes Still Less Harmful than Non-Filter Cigarettes?—A Laser Spectrometric Particulate Matter Analysis from the Non-Smokers Point of View

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    Maria Schulz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with human morbidity and mortality, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. Although direct DNA-damage is a leading pathomechanism in active smokers, passive smoking is enough to induce bronchial asthma, especially in children. Particulate matter (PM demonstrably plays an important role in this ETS-associated human morbidity, constituting a surrogate parameter for ETS exposure. Methods: Using an Automatic Environmental Tobacco Smoke Emitter (AETSE and an in-house developed, non-standard smoking regime, we tried to imitate the smoking process of human smokers to demonstrate the significance of passive smoking. Mean concentration (Cmean and area under the curve (AUC of particulate matter (PM2.5 emitted by 3R4F reference cigarettes and the popular filter-tipped and non-filter brand cigarettes “Roth-Händle” were measured and compared. The cigarettes were not conditioned prior to smoking. The measurements were tested for Gaussian distribution and significant differences. Results: Cmean PM2.5 of the 3R4F reference cigarette: 3911 µg/m3; of the filter-tipped Roth-Händle: 3831 µg/m3; and of the non-filter Roth-Händle: 2053 µg/m3. AUC PM2.5 of the 3R4F reference cigarette: 1,647,006 µg/m3·s; of the filter-tipped Roth-Händle: 1,608,000 µg/m3·s; and of the non-filter Roth-Händle: 858,891 µg/m3·s. Conclusion: The filter-tipped cigarettes (the 3R4F reference cigarette and filter-tipped Roth-Händle emitted significantly more PM2.5 than the non-filter Roth-Händle. Considering the harmful potential of PM, our findings note that the filter-tipped cigarettes are not a less harmful alternative for passive smokers. Tobacco taxation should be reconsidered and non-smoking legislation enforced.

  2. Are Filter-Tipped Cigarettes Still Less Harmful than Non-Filter Cigarettes?—A Laser Spectrometric Particulate Matter Analysis from the Non-Smokers Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Maria; Gerber, Alexander; Groneberg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with human morbidity and mortality, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. Although direct DNA-damage is a leading pathomechanism in active smokers, passive smoking is enough to induce bronchial asthma, especially in children. Particulate matter (PM) demonstrably plays an important role in this ETS-associated human morbidity, constituting a surrogate parameter for ETS exposure. Methods: Using an Automatic Environmental Tobacco Smoke Emitter (AETSE) and an in-house developed, non-standard smoking regime, we tried to imitate the smoking process of human smokers to demonstrate the significance of passive smoking. Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) of particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted by 3R4F reference cigarettes and the popular filter-tipped and non-filter brand cigarettes “Roth-Händle” were measured and compared. The cigarettes were not conditioned prior to smoking. The measurements were tested for Gaussian distribution and significant differences. Results: Cmean PM2.5 of the 3R4F reference cigarette: 3911 µg/m3; of the filter-tipped Roth-Händle: 3831 µg/m3; and of the non-filter Roth-Händle: 2053 µg/m3. AUC PM2.5 of the 3R4F reference cigarette: 1,647,006 µg/m3·s; of the filter-tipped Roth-Händle: 1,608,000 µg/m3·s; and of the non-filter Roth-Händle: 858,891 µg/m3·s. Conclusion: The filter-tipped cigarettes (the 3R4F reference cigarette and filter-tipped Roth-Händle) emitted significantly more PM2.5 than the non-filter Roth-Händle. Considering the harmful potential of PM, our findings note that the filter-tipped cigarettes are not a less harmful alternative for passive smokers. Tobacco taxation should be reconsidered and non-smoking legislation enforced. PMID:27092519

  3. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR and Superoxide dismutase (SOD is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS and hookah smokers (HS groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01, 2% (p< 0.05 and 1.7% (p< 0.05 respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG. Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC for CS group (p< 0.01 and HS groups (p< 0.05. This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation.

  4. Cigarette brands with flavour capsules in the filter: trends in use and brand perceptions among smokers in the USA, Mexico and Australia, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Moodie, Crawford; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Cummings, K Michael; Yong, Hua-Hie; Salloum, Ramzi G; Czoli, Christine; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe trends, correlates of use and consumer perceptions related to the product design innovation of flavour capsules in cigarette filters. Methods Quarterly surveys from 2012 to 2014 were analysed from an online consumer panel of adult smokers aged 18–64, living in the USA (n=6865 observations; 4154 individuals); Mexico (n=5723 observations; 3366 individuals); and Australia (n=5864 observations; 2710 individuals). Preferred brand varieties were classified by price (ie, premium; discount) and flavour (ie, regular; flavoured without capsule; flavoured with capsule). Participants reported their preferred brand variety's appeal (ie, satisfaction; stylishness), taste (ie, smoothness, intensity), and harm relative to other brands and varieties. GEE models were used to determine time trends and correlates of flavour capsule use, as well as associations between preferred brand characteristics (ie, price stratum, flavour) and perceptions of relative appeal, taste and harm. Results Preference for flavour capsules increased significantly in Mexico (6% to 14%) and Australia (1% to 3%), but not in the USA (4% to 5%). 18–24 year olds were most likely to prefer capsules in the USA (10%) and Australia (4%), but not Mexico. When compared to smokers who preferred regular brands, smokers who preferred brands with capsules viewed their variety of cigarettes as having more positive appeal (all countries), better taste (all countries), and lesser risk (Mexico, USA) than other brand varieties. Conclusions Results indicate that use of cigarettes with flavour capsules is growing, is associated with misperceptions of relative harm, and differentiates brands in ways that justify regulatory action. PMID:25918129

  5. Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Christopher A.; Patel, Yesha M.; Stram, Daniel O.; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Research from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) demonstrated that, for the same quantity of cigarette smoking, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher lung cancer risk than Whites, while Latinos and Japanese Americans are less susceptible. We collected urine samples from 2,239 cigarette smokers from five different ethnic groups in the MEC and analyzed each sample for S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), a specific biomarker of benzene uptake. African Americans had significantly higher (geometric mean [SE] 3.69 [0.2], p<0.005) SPMA/ml urine than Whites (2.67 [0.13]) while Japanese Americans had significantly lower levels than Whites (1.65 [0.07], p<0.005). SPMA levels in Native Hawaiians and Latinos were not significantly different from those of Whites. We also conducted a genome-wide association study in search of genetic risk factors related to benzene exposure. The glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) deletion explained between 14.2–31.6% (p = 5.4x10-157) and the GSTM1 deletion explained between 0.2%-2.4% of the variance (p = 1.1x10-9) of SPMA levels in these populations. Ethnic differences in levels of SPMA remained strong even after controlling for the effects of these two deletions. These results demonstrate the powerful effect of GSTT1 status on SPMA levels in urine and show that uptake of benzene in African American, White, and Japanese American cigarette smokers is consistent with their lung cancer risk in the MEC. While benzene is not generally considered a cause of lung cancer, its metabolite SPMA could be a biomarker for other volatile lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke. PMID:26959369

  6. Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Haiman

    Full Text Available Research from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC demonstrated that, for the same quantity of cigarette smoking, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher lung cancer risk than Whites, while Latinos and Japanese Americans are less susceptible. We collected urine samples from 2,239 cigarette smokers from five different ethnic groups in the MEC and analyzed each sample for S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA, a specific biomarker of benzene uptake. African Americans had significantly higher (geometric mean [SE] 3.69 [0.2], p<0.005 SPMA/ml urine than Whites (2.67 [0.13] while Japanese Americans had significantly lower levels than Whites (1.65 [0.07], p<0.005. SPMA levels in Native Hawaiians and Latinos were not significantly different from those of Whites. We also conducted a genome-wide association study in search of genetic risk factors related to benzene exposure. The glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1 deletion explained between 14.2-31.6% (p = 5.4x10-157 and the GSTM1 deletion explained between 0.2%-2.4% of the variance (p = 1.1x10-9 of SPMA levels in these populations. Ethnic differences in levels of SPMA remained strong even after controlling for the effects of these two deletions. These results demonstrate the powerful effect of GSTT1 status on SPMA levels in urine and show that uptake of benzene in African American, White, and Japanese American cigarette smokers is consistent with their lung cancer risk in the MEC. While benzene is not generally considered a cause of lung cancer, its metabolite SPMA could be a biomarker for other volatile lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke.

  7. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. Methods We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Results Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). Conclusions These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers.

  8. Comparison of Cotinine Salivary Levels in Hookah Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Alijani, Ebrahim; Tajdari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background At present smoking is considered a great health-related problem. Smoking cigarettes and use of tobacco are on the rise in the Middle East countries; therefore, the number of people exposed to passive cigarette smoke is increasing, too. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare salivary cotinine levels in hookah smokers, individuals exposed to passive cigarette smoke and non-smoker (passive smokers). Methods In the present cross-sectional study, unstimulated salivary...

  9. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core

  10. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers' responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior. PMID:27135826

  11. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Yong, Hua-Hie; McKeever, Robert; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation) in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts. Methods Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations). Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs) and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately), adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated. Results Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater

  12. Metabolites of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yesha M.; Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Paiano, Viviana; Olvera, Natalie; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Results from the Multiethnic Cohort Study demonstrated significant differences in lung cancer risk among cigarette smokers from five different ethnic/racial groups. For the same number of cigarettes smoked, and particularly among light smokers, African Americans and Native Hawaiians had the highest risk for lung cancer, Whites had intermediate risk, while Latinos and Japanese Americans had the lowest risk. We analyzed urine samples from 331–709 participants from each ethnic group in this study for metabolites of phenanthrene, a surrogate for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Consistent with their lung cancer risk and our previous studies of several other carcinogens and toxicants of cigarette smoke, African Americans had significantly (p<0.0001) higher median levels of the two phenanthrene metabolites 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-PheOH, 0.931 pmol/ml) and phenanthrene tetraol (PheT, 1.13 pmol/ml) than Whites (3-PheOH, 0.697 pmol/ml; PheT, 0.853 pmol/ml) while Japanese-Americans had significantly (p = 0.002) lower levels of 3-PheOH (0.621 pmol/ml) than Whites. PheT levels (0.838 pmol/ml) in Japanese-Americans were not different from those of Whites. These results are mainly consistent with the lung cancer risk of these three groups, but the results for Native Hawaiians and Latinos were more complex. We also carried out a genome wide association study in search of factors that could influence PheT and 3-PheOH levels. Deletion of GSTT1 explained 2.2% of the variability in PheT, while the strongest association, rs5751777 (p = 1.8x10-62) in the GSTT2 gene, explained 7.7% of the variability in PheT. These GWAS results suggested a possible protective effect of lower GSTT1 copy number variants on the diol epoxide pathway, which was an unexpected result. Collectively, the results of this study provide further evidence that different patterns of cigarette smoking are responsible for the higher lung cancer risk of African Americans than of Whites and the

  13. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P<0.0001). Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear. PMID:26053186

  14. The effect of chewing gum flavor on the negative affect associated with tobacco abstinence among dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lee M; Collins, Frank L; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Weaver, Cameron C

    2010-11-01

    Many smokers relapse during cessation attempts due to increases in negative affect. Previous research has shown that chewing confectionary chewing gum appears to lessen the severity of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms and help individuals who are trying to reduce smoking in part due to the flavor of the gum chewed. The current study compared the effects of three flavored gums to a No Gum Control during 48-hour cessation periods for young dependent smokers. Forty-nine smokers participated in three experimental conditions (peppermint, vanilla, and baked apple cardamom flavored gum) as well as a No Gum Control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 48-hours each week. Compared to the No Gum Control, participants in the Gum conditions reported lower levels of anxiety, dysphoria, and tension. Vanilla and baked apple cardamom flavored gum resulted in lower levels of negative affect while peppermint flavored gum was not different from the No Gum Control. These findings indicate that some flavors of gum are effective in reducing the negative affect associated with nicotine withdrawal and may serve as a valuable tool in helping smokers quit. PMID:20598808

  15. Effects of Escalating and Descending Schedules of Incentives on Cigarette Smoking in Smokers without Plans to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Contingent incentives can reduce substance abuse. Escalating payment schedules, which begin with a small incentive magnitude and progressively increase with meeting the contingency, increase smoking abstinence. Likewise, descending payment schedules can increase cocaine abstinence. The current experiment enrolled smokers without plans to quit in…

  16. The Use of Fry (Embalming Fluid and PCP-Laced Cigarettes or Marijuana Sticks) among Crack Cocaine Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J.; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W.; Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sherly A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as "fry" or "wet" is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional…

  17. Childhood Antecedents of Being a Cigarette Smoker in Early Adulthood. The Finnish "From a Boy to a Man" Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemela, Solja; Sourander, Andre; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Susser, Ezra; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify childhood psychiatric symptoms as antecedents of cigarette smoking at age 18. Methods: In 1989, a general population sample of 2946 8-year-old boys born in Finland in 1981 was assessed using the Rutter's parent and teacher questionnaires, and the Child Depression Inventory. This birth cohort was followed up in 1999, when the…

  18. Plain cigarette packaging: A policy analysis of Australia’s integrated “whole-of-system” model for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorraine Davies; Erica Bell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Plain cigarette packaging as a tobacco control measure is to be implemented in Australia on December 1st 2012. There is mounting evidence for its likely impact on smokers and potential smokers. Yet Australia’s integrated model of smoking cessation and the particular role and opportunities it has created for primary healthcare have not yet been subject to policy analysis in leading international journals. This policy analysis paper explores these new Australian policy development...

  19. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Rouba Zeidan; Samar Rachidi; Sanaa Awada; Amal Hajje; Wafaa Bawab; Joseph Salamé; Rachelle Bejjany; Pascale Salameh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS) with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where sm...

  20. Smoker's face: an underrated clinical sign?

    OpenAIRE

    Model, D

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective survey of patients attending a general medical outpatient clinic roughly half the current cigarette smokers who had smoked for 10 years or more were identified, using defined criteria, by their facial features alone. These facial features, designated "smoker's face," were present in three (8%) of those who had smoked cigarettes for 10 years or more in the past and in none of the non-smokers. The association of smoker's face with current smoking that had continued for 10 years...

  1. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouachi Kamal; Sajid Khan; Mahmood Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared b...

  2. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using (123I)FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, PS;

    2013-01-01

    -smokers (p = 0.34). Further, we could not demonstrate a significant association between striatal DAT and the number of cigarettes per day or total lifetime cigarette packages in smokers and ex-smokers. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that large differences in striatal DAT availability...

  3. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study during the spring of 2014. RESULTS: Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. PMID:26216326

  4. 吸烟人群饮食习惯引起的吸烟(烟气)偏好分析%Smoking (Mainstream Smoke) Preference Caused by Dietary Habit in Chinese Cigarette Smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 邱杰; 胡安福; 沈一飞; 张海强

    2014-01-01

    China has a huge population of cigarette smokers and investigation on their consumer psychology and smoking habit or preferences are necessary to understand and interfere with their smoking behavior. To determine smoking preference caused by dietary habits and relationship between the cigarette aroma components and the smoking preference in Chinese smokers, a large-scale survey, which involves 2,096 smokers in five different geographical cities (Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Shenyang and Lanzhou) where represent different dietary habits, was conducted by this study. Sensory evaluation of smoking different cigarette branches at different location/seasons was carried out by a 7-members team. To determine key aroma components which influence the smoking preference of Chinese smokers, compositions of mainstream smoke were measured by chemical analysis methods.Our results indicated that (1) dietary habits of smokers had a significant impact on smoking preferences, for an instance, smokers who prefer spicy flavor had higher requirements on aroma quality, fullness and aftertaste of cigarette; (2) several aroma components of mainstream smoke had apparent influence on sensory quality;(3) some aroma chemical compositions of cigarette, including 2,5-dimethyl-pyridine, 2-ethyl furan, 3,4-dimethyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-ketone, ZZZ,9,12,15-eighteen trienoic acid methyl ester and bitterness , were associated with dietary habit and smoking preferences. Taken together, this study provides useful data for reasonable cigarette consumption and smoking control in China.%我国吸烟群体巨大,其消费心理和行为偏好等人文因素研究,可以准确了解和干预吸烟行为。为了研究吸烟人群不同饮食习惯引起的吸烟(烟气)偏好及其引起偏好的卷烟香味成分因素,对杭州、广州、成都、沈阳和兰州5个不同区域吸烟人群进行了大规模群体调查,根据特定人群评吸卷烟样品感官评价结果,和化学

  5. "A cigarette a day keeps the goodies away": smokers show automatic approach tendencies for smoking--but not for food-related stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Machulska

    Full Text Available Smoking leads to the development of automatic tendencies that promote approach behavior toward smoking-related stimuli which in turn may maintain addictive behavior. The present study examined whether automatic approach tendencies toward smoking-related stimuli can be measured by using an adapted version of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT. Given that progression of addictive behavior has been associated with a decreased reactivity of the brain reward system for stimuli signaling natural rewards, we also used the AAT to measure approach behavior toward natural rewarding stimuli in smokers. During the AAT, 92 smokers and 51 non-smokers viewed smoking-related vs. non-smoking-related pictures and pictures of natural rewards (i.e. highly palatable food vs. neutral pictures. They were instructed to ignore image content and to respond to picture orientation by either pulling or pushing a joystick. Within-group comparisons revealed that smokers showed an automatic approach bias exclusively for smoking-related pictures. Contrary to our expectations, there was no difference in smokers' and non-smokers' approach bias for nicotine-related stimuli, indicating that non-smokers also showed approach tendencies for this picture category. Yet, in contrast to non-smokers, smokers did not show an approach bias for food-related pictures. Moreover, self-reported smoking attitude could not predict approach-avoidance behavior toward nicotine-related pictures in smokers or non-smokers. Our findings indicate that the AAT is suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in smokers. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a diminished approach tendency toward food-related stimuli in smokers, suggesting a decreased sensitivity to natural rewards in the course of nicotine addiction. Our results indicate that in contrast to similar studies conducted in alcohol, cannabis and heroin users, the AAT might only be partially suited for measuring smoking-related approach

  6. Smokers' reactions to cigarette package warnings with graphic imagery and with only text: a comparison between Mexico and Canada Reacciones de los fumadores a las advertencias en la cajetilla de cigarrillos con imágenes gráficas o sólo con textos: una comparación entre México y Canadá

    OpenAIRE

    Thrasher, James F.; David Hammond; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Edna Arillo-Santillán

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This comparison of population-based representative samples of adult smokers in Canada (n=1 751) and Mexico (n=1 081) aimed to determine whether cigarette packages with graphic warning labels in Canada had a stronger impact than the text-only warning labels in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bivariate and multivariate adjusted models were used in this study. Results. Canadian smokers reported higher warning label salience (i.e., noticing labels & processing label messages) than Mexic...

  7. Comparison of the characteristics of long-term users of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy: A cross-sectional survey of English ex-smokers and current smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, V. A.; Goniewicz, M. L.; Beard, E.; J. Brown; Sheals, K.; West, R.; Shahab, L

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (ECs) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are non-combustible nicotine delivery devices being widely used as a partial or a complete long-term substitute for smoking. Little is known about the characteristics of long-term users, their smoking behaviour, attachment to smoking, experience of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, or their views on these devices. This study aimed to provide preliminary evidence on this and compare users of the different products. Metho...

  8. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  9. Análisis del impacto en fumadores mexicanos de los avisos gráficos en las cajetillas de cigarros Analysis of the impact of cigarette pack graphic warnings on Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis Thrasher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el impacto de los avisos gráficos (imágenes en las etiquetas que indican el daño a la salud que causa el tabaco en las cajetillas de cigarros entre fumadores adultos mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se aplicó el método antropológico de sorteo de montones a 60 fumadores adultos para determinar cuáles los hacían pensar en dejar de fumar. Se sacaron promedios y se utilizaron métodos estadísticos no paramétricos. RESULTADOS: Los avisos gráficos más impactantes mostraban las siguientes imágenes: un tumor de bronquio fuente visto a través del broncoscopio; un hombre con cáncer de laringe con una gran masa tumoral externa en el cuello; un hombre joven inconsciente en una cama de la unidad de cuidados intensivos, con texto mencionando benceno, formaldehído y cianuro de hidrógeno como componentes del tabaco, y una de dos niños sanos que indica que el cigarro contiene amoníaco, monóxido de carbono; un feto muerto en un frasco con formol; y una boca con dientes amarillos y con texto que menciona la pérdida de dientes y cáncer bucal como resultados del tabaco. CONCLUSIONES: Los avisos gráficos que se utilizan en las cajetillas de cigarros en otros países podrían contribuir a la cesación entre fumadores mexicanos y deben implementarse en México.OBJECTIVE: To determine which graphic warnings on cigarette packs (images on the labels indicating the negative impact on health that tobacco can have provoke the strongest desire to quit smoking among adult Mexican smokers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pile sort method was used among 60 smokers over 18 years old to determine which images made them think about quitting smoking. Averages were determined and non-parametric statistical methods were used to determine differences in ranks. RESULTS: Within each of the five themes, one or two graphic warnings provoked the strongest responses in smokers. The graphic warnings with the greatest impact used the following images: a close

  10. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  11. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  12. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  13. STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeena Bano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

  14. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Maria Knorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

  15. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Maria; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Liguori, Giorgio; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Capasso, Lorenzo; D'Amario, Claudio; Boccia, Stefania; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. Design Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. Data Sources Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. Methods Adults (30–75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. Main Outcome Measures Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. Data Synthesis We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. Results Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35–8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). Conclusions Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate

  16. Are marketing campaigns in Taiwan by foreign tobacco companies targeting young smokers?

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, C; T. Chen; Tsai, Y; Tsai, S; Chung, W.; Cheng, T.; Levy, D; Hsu, C.; Peterson, R.; Liu, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of promotions on cigarette sales in Taiwan after the cigarette market opened to foreign companies, and to assess whether young smokers were targeted by these companies.

  17. Testing warning messages on smokers’ cigarette packages: A standardized protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Noel T.; Hall, Marissa G.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Peebles, Kathryn; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lab experiments on cigarette warnings typically use a brief one-time exposure that is not paired with the cigarette packs smokers use every day, leaving open the question of how repeated warning exposure over several weeks may affect smokers. This proof of principle study sought to develop a new protocol for testing cigarette warnings that better reflects real-world exposure by presenting them on cigarette smokers’ own packs. Methods We tested a cigarette pack labeling protocol with 76 US smokers ages 18 and older. We applied graphic warnings to the front and back of smokers’ cigarette packs. Results Most smokers reported that at least 75% of the packs of cigarettes they smoked during the study had our warnings. Nearly all said they would participate in the study again. Using cigarette packs with the study warnings increased quit intentions (ppack labeling protocol with six steps: (1) schedule appointments at brief intervals; (2) determine typical cigarette consumption; (3) ask smokers to bring a supply of cigarette packs to study appointments; (4) apply labels to smokers’ cigarette packs; (5) provide participation incentives at the end of appointments; and (6) refer smokers to cessation services at end of the study. When used in randomized controlled trials in settings with real-world message exposure over time, this protocol may help identify the true impact of warnings and thus better inform tobacco product labeling policy. PMID:25564282

  18. Cigarette Smoking and Dyspnea Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scano Giorgio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms in adults. The relationship of dyspnea with cigarette smoking has been examined in smokers and ex-smokers and the beneficial effects of smoking cessation have been demonstrated. Recent studies reported that in subjects who smoke cigarettes the risk of developing respiratory symptoms is higher in a dose-dependent way. Environmental tobacco smoke heavily influences the incidence of respiratory symptoms in both adults and in children. Up to the present time, the mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes dyspnea perception remain to be defined. Abnormalities in sensory nerves might diminish the perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers. In this regard, it has been postulated that prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to chronic depletion of sensory nerve neurotransmitters. Eosinophil airway inflammation has been proposed as a determinant of breathlessness via mechanisms affecting either the mechanical pathways that control breathlessness or the afferent nerves involved in perception of dyspnea. An increased number of eosinophils in some smokers implies the possibility that smoking may trigger immunological or other reactions associated with eosinophilia. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is by far one of the greatest risk factors for most respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea. Smoking is associated with the development of symptoms in a dose-dependent way and eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR increase the risk of developing dyspnea.

  19. Psychophysiological reactivity to environmental tobacco smoke on smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; González-Javier, Francisca; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an air pollutant with a relevant impact on public health. In addition, ETS is a significant stimulus that may elicit different responses depending on previous experience and current status regarding smoking. Exposure to cigarette cues has been shown to be a reliable method for inducing subjective and physiological responses. However, the role of ETS as a stimulus has not received, to date, enough attention in the research literature. This study aimed to analyse both the autonomic and subjective responses of smokers and non-smokers to exposure to ETS. To that end, 41 non-smokers and 57 smokers were exposed to ETS, in a controlled laboratory setting. We measured the subjective perception of smoke, unpleasantness, heart rate and skin conductance to compare the reactions of smokers and non-smokers to ETS. Additionally, subjective tobacco craving after exposure was assessed for current smokers. We found different psychophysiological responses to ETS exposure for smokers and non-smokers. Smokers showed a generalised increase in autonomic activity, significantly greater than that of non-smokers. In addition, heart rate increase during exposure to ETS was positively correlated with subjective craving. Our data suggested that ETS was an important stimulus and acted as a relevant cue for smokers; it induced both psychophysiological reactions and subjective craving. Hence, this kind of stimulus within the cue-reactivity research paradigm may be useful for studying the effect of ETS on smokers' reactions, craving, quitting attempts, or relapse probabilities. PMID:22465376

  20. Marketing of Menthol Cigarettes and Consumer Perceptions: A White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Stacey J

    2010-01-01

    Publicly available internal tobacco industry documents were analyzed to answer the following questions regarding menthol cigarette marketing and consumer perception: 1) Are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? 2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? 3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? 4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? More than 800 relevant documents were identified on 1) marketing menthol with health...

  1. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  2. The effect of Taiwan's tax-induced increases in cigarette prices on brand-switching and the consumption of cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Pei-Fen

    2005-06-01

    The effect of raising cigarette taxes to reduce smoking has been the subject of several studies, which often treat the price of cigarettes as an exogenous factor given to smokers who respond to it by adjusting their smoking behavior. However, cigarette prices vary with brand and quality, and smokers can and do switch to lower-priced brands to reduce the impact of the tax on the cost of cigarettes as they try to consume the same number of cigarettes as they had before a tax hike. Using data from a two-year follow-up interview survey conducted before and after a new cigarette tax scheme was imposed in Taiwan in 2002, this study examines three behavioral changes smokers may make to respond to tax-induced cigarette price increase: brand-switching, amount consumed, and amount spent on smoking. These changes were studied in relation to smoker income, before-tax cigarette price, level of addiction, exposure to advertizing, and consumer loyalty. We found that smokers, depending upon exposure to advertizing, level of consumer loyalty and initial price of cigarettes, switched brands to maintain current smoking habits and control costs. We also found that the initial amount smoked and level of addiction, not price, at least not at the current levels in Taiwan, determined whether a smoker reduced the number of cigarettes he consumed. PMID:15791675

  3. Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: A qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien Jon; Paul Christine; Bonevski Billie; Bryant Jamie; Oakes Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking rates remain unacceptably high among individuals who are socially disadvantaged. Social and community service organisations (SCSO) are increasingly interested in providing smoking cessation support to clients, however little is known about the best way to assist disadvantaged smokers to quit in this setting. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to quitting within the conceptual framework of the PRECEDE model to identify possible interventions appro...

  4. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  5. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  6. Somatotype, physical growth, and sexual maturation in young male smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, K B; Singhi, S; Gurnani, M.; Singhi, P; O. P. Garg

    1980-01-01

    One thousand school boys aged 8 to 16 were examined for their somatotype, physical growth, sexual maturation, and smoking habits. Fifty-two boys were found to be smokers, of whom 30 were regularly smoking between two and 20 bidis or cigarettes a day for a mean duration of 2.5 years. The mean height and weight of the smokers was significantly lower than that of the non-smokers at all ages, more so in regular than occasional smokers. Sixty-nine per cent of the smokers had mesomorphic type of bo...

  7. The effect of Taiwan's tax-induced increases in cigarette prices on brand-switching and the consumption of cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Wen Tsai; Chung-Lin Yang; Chin-Shyan Chen; Tsai-Ching Liu; Pei-Fen Chen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of raising cigarette taxes to reduce smoking has been the subject of several studies, which often treat the price of cigarettes as an exogenous factor given to smokers who respond to it by adjusting their smoking behavior. However, cigarette prices vary with brand and quality, and smokers can and do switch to lower-priced brands to reduce the impact of the tax on the cost of cigarettes as they try to consume the same number of cigarettes as they had before a tax hike. Using data fr...

  8. Cigarette Taxes and the Social Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Benjamin; Sabia, Joseph J.; Daniel I. Rees

    2011-01-01

    Previous researchers have argued that the social market for cigarettes insulates its participants from policies designed to curb youth smoking. Using state Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examine whether recent changes in state cigarette taxes affected how young smokers obtained their cigarettes. Our estimates suggest that tax increases reduce youth smoking participation primarily through their effect on third-party purchase, although there is evidence that they are negatively related to ...

  9. Menthol Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes sold in the United States has the descriptor “menthol” on the cigarette pack. Menthol cigarettes are ... over 40 years [21]. Is menthol in other products? Yes. Menthol is added to many other products, ...

  10. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  11. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

  12. Lower gray matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared with never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A Eden

    2016-07-01

    Although nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. This study aimed to (1) evaluate gray matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures were related to smoking behavior. We compared structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (gray matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never smokers. Compared with controls, smokers had lower gray matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Gray matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lPFC) and semantic processing/emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain's salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, were also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). PMID:25990865

  13. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  14. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed. (author)

  15. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. Wackowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  16. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  17. Electronic cigarette use outcome expectancies among college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A.; Fagan, Pebbles; Muranaka, Nicholas; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarette use outcome expectancies and their relationships with demographic and e-cigarette use variables are not well understood. Based on past cigarette as well as e-cigarette use research, we generated self-report items to assess e-cigarette outcome expectancies among college students. The objective was to determine different dimensions of e-cigarette use expectancies and their associations with e-cigarette use and use susceptibility. Methods Self-report data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students [M age=23.5 (SD= 5.5); 65% Female; 35% current cigarette smokers] in Hawaii. Data analyses were conducted by using factor and regression analyses. Results Exploratory factor analysis among e-cigarette ever-users indicated 7 factors: 3 positive expectancy factors (social enhancement, affect regulation, positive sensory experience) and 4 negative expectancy factors (negative health consequences, addiction concern, negative appearance, negative sensory experience). Confirmatory factor analysis among e-cigarette never-users indicated that the 7-factor model fitted reasonably well to the data. Being a current cigarette smoker was positively associated with positive expectancies and inversely with negative expectancies. Higher positive expectancies were significantly associated with greater likelihood of past-30-day e-cigarette use. Except addiction concern, higher negative expectancies were significantly associated with lower likelihood of past-30-day e-cigarette use. Among e-cigarette never-users, positive expectancy variables were significantly associated with higher intentions to use e-cigarettes in the future, adjusting for current smoker status and demographic variables. Conclusions E-cigarette use expectancies determined in this study appear to predict e-cigarette use and use susceptibility among young adults and thus have important implications for future research. PMID:24630824

  18. Cigarette purchasing behaviors when prices are high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Bauer, Joseph E; Giovino, Gary A; Cummings, K Michael

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cigarette purchase patterns of smokers in Erie and Niagara Counties following recent increases in the state excise tax for cigarettes. Data were collected with telephone interviews of a sample of 1,548 randomly selected people in Erie and Niagara Counties between October 2002 and March 2003. Purchase patterns were assessed for the 908 smokers in the sample who responded to questions about cigarette purchasing patterns. Thirty-three percent reported that their usual source of cigarettes is from a small store, large store, pharmacy, or vending machine, while 67% reported that their usual source is from an Indian reservation. Only one smoker reported the Internet was a usual source of cigarettes. The average price paid per pack was $4.80 in a small store and $1.91 on an Indian reservation. Price influences smoking behavior; however, the majority of smokers are taking advantage of readily available venues where less expensive, untaxed cigarettes are sold. This may undermine the public health benefit of higher prices and cause lost revenue to state and local governments. PMID:15643371

  19. Who is using e-cigarettes in Canada? Nationally representative data on the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jessica L; Rynard, Vicki L; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the Canadian population, using data from the nationally representative 2013 Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (n=14,565). Sociodemographic correlates of e-cigarette use (ever, and in the past 30 days) were examined using logistic regression models. Overall, 8.5% of Canadians aged 15 and older reported having ever tried an e-cigarette; 1.8% had used one in the past 30 days. E-cigarette use was particularly high among smokers and young people. Overall, prevalence did not differ between males and females, for ever (P=0.24) or past 30-day use (P=0.30). Smoking status was the strongest correlate of e-cigarette use (ever and in the past 30 days, Pyoung adults aged 20-24 (20.1% ever; 3.9% past 30-day), and decreased with age. Among youth, the majority of e-cigarette users were never-smokers, while the majority of adult users were smokers. In Canada, e-cigarette use is particularly high among smokers and young people. Dual use with cigarettes was common, with most e-cigarette users also smoking conventional cigarettes. Continued monitoring of e-cigarette use and its relationship with smoking should be a priority, given the rapidly-evolving e-cigarette market and implementation of new policy measures. PMID:26348453

  20. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. PMID:25180551

  1. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea L Smith; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Objective When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Design Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). Participants 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28–68 years; 9 male...

  2. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  3. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Contingency Management to Modify Cigarette Smoking by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Roll, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smokers initiate this dangerous behavior during adolescence. This report describes a contingency management intervention designed to initate and maintain a period of abstinence from cigarettes by adolescent smokers. Results suggest that the intervention was generally successful and that further investigation of this topic is warranted.

  4. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  5. Why public health people are more worried than excited over e-cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    The research field on e-cigarettes is characterized by severe methodological problems, severe conflicts of interest, relatively few and often small studies, inconsistencies and contradictions in results, and a lack of long-term follow-up. Therefore, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the harm of e-cigarettes......, but they can hardly be called safe. Experimental studies indicate negative health effects and, amongst others, the major ingredient propylene glycol warrants concern. Growing evidence raises doubt about the efficacy of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid. Unfortunately, it seems that many smokers use e-cigarettes...... with the intention to quit but switch to long-term use of e-cigarettes or dual use. Use is spreading rapidly to minors, ex-smokers, and never-smokers. It is questionable whether the potential health benefits obtained by some smokers outweigh the potential harm by use of non-smokers, of undermining of complete...

  6. Polimorfismos GSTT1 e GSTM1 em indivíduos tabagistas com carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism in cigarette smokers with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Matos Biselli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A variabilidade em genes relacionados aos processos de ativação e detoxificação de carcinógenos pode interferir na suscetibilidade ao câncer. OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre os polimorfismos GSTT1 e GSTM1 nulos e o risco para o carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço em indivíduos tabagistas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Este estudo caso-controle foi realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, Brasil. Foram avaliadas as freqüências dos genótipos nulos GSTT1 e GSTM1 por PCR multiplex em 60 pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço e 60 indivíduos sem a doença. RESULTADOS: A cavidade oral foi o sítio de tumor mais freqüente. O genótipo GSTT1 nulo foi encontrado em 33,3% dos pacientes e em 23,3% dos indivíduos controles (p=0,311. Os grupos caso e controle apresentaram freqüências do genótipo GSTM1 nulo de 35% e 48,3%, respectivamente (p=0,582. Não foram encontradas associações entre o hábito etilista e genótipos nulos GSTT1 e GSTM1 em ambos os grupos (valores de p>0,05. O gênero masculino e o hábito etilista foram prevalentes em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação entre os genótipos nulos GSTT1 e GSTM1 e o carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço em indivíduos tabagistas.Gene variability related to carcinogen activation and detoxification may interfere with susceptibility to head and neck cancer. AIM: To investigate the relation between GSTT1 and GSTM1 null polymorphisms and the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in cigarette smokers. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A case-control study conducted at the Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Brazil. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies were evaluated by multiplex PCR in 45 cigarette smokers with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and 45 cigarette smokers without this disease. RESULTS: The oral cavity was the most prevalent tumor site for squamous cell carcinoma

  7. An investigation on the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha%长沙市大学生尝试吸烟者吸烟行为演变及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 陈凤磊; 史翔宇; 陈浩; 林丹; 谭红专

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha.Methods Stratified sampling method was adopted and 3600 undergraduate students from grade 1 to 3 in Changsha city were investigated through a self-administered questionnaire.All the experimental smokers during the last month were selected and divided into two groups based on the present smoking status.x2 test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare the differences of cigarette smoking among subpopulations and to explore the determinants.Results Among the 1550 experimental smokers of undergraduate students,the prevalence of cigarette smoking was 30.8%(95%CI:28.5-33.1).Students from the second-class(OR=2.367)or the third-class universities(OR=2.562)were more likely to adopt smoking behavior than those from top universities.Students majored in sports or arts(OR=2.456)were significantly more inclined to smoke than the liberal arts students.Students whose father were cadres(OR=1.602)were more likely to become smokers than those whose fathers were workers.Students being males(OR=7.386),having high monthly expenses(OR=1.139),with positive attitude to smoking benefits(OR=1.140)were risk factors for smoking.Number of smoking members in the family(OR=1.801)was significantly associated with the prevalence of cigarette smoking.Knowledge on diseases caused by smoking(OR=0.806)was protecting factor to smoking among the experimental smokers.Conclusion Those experimental smokers among undergraduate students might become smokers and the determinants of cigarette smoking behavior would include:ranking of universities,students' major,gender,father' s occupation,amount of pocket money,number of smoking members in the family,knowledge about smoking,the attitude to the benefit of smoking.%目的 分析长沙市大学生尝试吸烟者吸烟行为演变及影响因素.方法 采用问卷调查方式在长沙市的高校

  8. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Crossed two relapse prevention conditions (skills training-vs-discussion control) with two levels of aversive smoking in volunteer subjects (N=123). Results indicated that relapse-prevention skill training did prevent relapse among cigarette smokers. Lighter smokers were more favorably influenced. (LLL)

  9. Smoking behavior and motivational flexibility in light and heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Susan; Lobel, Marci

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the consistency of people's reasons for smoking and how these might influence the amount of smoking in individuals. Therefore, we developed a new concept, motivational flexibility, which suggests that a behavior is more common when people have multiple reasons for engaging in it and when the primary reason changes across occurrences of the behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine motivational flexibility in cigarette smokers. We hypothesized that smoking would be associated with greater number of reasons for smoking and greater frequency of change (shifting) in the most important motive for smoking among light smokers. Student cigarette smokers (N=116) completed daily entries for 14 days: whether they smoked or not and their reasons for doing so, with importance ratings for each reason listed. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the relationship between motivational flexibility and daily cigarette smoking. Shifting among the most important motive over the 14-day assessment was associated with greater frequency of smoking in light but not daily smokers. Also, smoking for craving and social reasons was associated with smoking fewer cigarettes and on fewer days. Results confirm the applicability of the motivational flexibility concept to smoking. The association between motive shifting and greater frequency of smoking may indicate a greater responsiveness to environmental cues. That we found this association in light but not daily smokers who are likely addicted to cigarettes may indicate that light smokers are affected more by triggers for smoking, or that they may rationalize their smoking behavior more than heavier smokers. PMID:22370522

  10. Telomerase mutations in smokers with severe emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Susan E.; Chen, Julian J. L.; Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Alder, Jonathan K; Hansel, Nadia N.; Rasika A Mathias; Qi, Xiaodong; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Wise, Robert A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Kathleen C. Barnes; Armanios, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the essential telomerase genes TERT and TR cause familial pulmonary fibrosis; however, in telomerase-null mice, short telomeres predispose to emphysema after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we tested whether telomerase mutations are a risk factor for human emphysema by examining their frequency in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Across two independent cohorts, we found 3 of 292 severe COPD cases carried deleterious mutations in TERT (1%). This p...

  11. Are Light and Ultra-Light Cigarettes Safer: Perceptions of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Gail M.; Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    The reported study investigates college students' perceptions of light compared to regular and ultra-light compared to light cigarettes, and whether perceptions vary by smoking status (nonsmoker, former smoker, social smoker, or regular smoker) and gender. A survey of 172 college students found that all four smoking status groups perceived light…

  12. Cigarette smoking: health effects and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberg, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    Active cigarette smoking causes a broad spectrum of diseases that extend to many different organ systems. Its numerous deleterious health effects, combined with the substantial prevalence of cigarette smoking, make it a major worldwide cause of death. Smoking contributes so heavily to the mortality burden because it is a major cause of vascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition to these diseases, cigarette smoking also causes other respiratory symptoms, adversely affects reproductive outcomes and is a cause of diminished health status. Furthermore, exposure to secondhand smoke is an established cause of coronary heart disease and lung cancer, as well as a host of other adverse health effects. Given that cigarette smoking is such a major threat to global public health, controlling the worldwide epidemic of cigarette smoking would lead to enormous public health benefits. Strategies to control cigarette smoking at the societal level include smoke-free workplace legislation, increasing cigarette taxes and regulating cigarette advertising. On the individual level, preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking among youths is the optimal strategy; in practice, discovering efficacious primary prevention interventions has proven challenging. During the past two decades, major advances have been made in extending the menu of options available to assist dependent smokers in successfully quitting smoking. Successfully combating cigarette smoking requires a broad-based commitment to smoking control from multiple stakeholders, along with a multifaceted strategy that addresses both societal and individual factors. PMID:19198699

  13. E-cigarettes: methodological and ideological issues and research priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette combustion, rather than either tobacco or nicotine, is the cause of a public health disaster. Fortunately, several new technologies that vaporize nicotine or tobacco, and may make cigarettes obsolete, have recently appeared. Research priorities include the effects of vaporizers on smoking cessation and initiation, their safety and toxicity, use by non-smokers, dual use of vaporizers and cigarettes, passive vaping, renormalization of smoking, and the development of messages that effe...

  14. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine dependence: evolving products, evolving problems

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb, Caroline O.; Hendricks, Peter S.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use an electric heater to aerosolize a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine. ECIG-induced nicotine dependence has become an important concern, as some ECIGs deliver very little nicotine while some may exceed the nicotine delivery profile of a tobacco cigarette. This variability is relevant to tobacco cigarette smokers who try to switch to ECIGs. Products with very low nicotine de...

  15. Smokers' reactions to cigarette package warnings with graphic imagery and with only text: a comparison between Mexico and Canada Reacciones de los fumadores a las advertencias en la cajetilla de cigarrillos con imágenes gráficas o sólo con textos: una comparación entre México y Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Thrasher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This comparison of population-based representative samples of adult smokers in Canada (n=1 751 and Mexico (n=1 081 aimed to determine whether cigarette packages with graphic warning labels in Canada had a stronger impact than the text-only warning labels in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bivariate and multivariate adjusted models were used in this study. Results. Canadian smokers reported higher warning label salience (i.e., noticing labels & processing label messages than Mexican smokers, and warning label salience independently predicted intention to quit. Moreover, Canadians had higher levels of knowledge about smoking-related health outcomes that were included as content on Canadian, but not Mexican, warning labels. Finally, a majority of Mexican smokers want their cigarette packs to contain more information than they currently contain. DISCUSSION: These results are consistent with other studies that indicate that cigarette packages whose warning labels contain prominent graphic imagery are more likely than text-only warning labels to promote smoking-related knowledge and smoking cessation.OBJETIVO: Esta comparación basada en muestras representativas de la población de fumadores adultos de Canadá (n = 1 751 y México (n = 1 081 pretendió determinar si las cajetillas de cigarrillos con leyendas de advertencia que contienen imágenes gráficas en Canadá tuvieron un impacto más acentuado que las leyendas mexicanas que se basan sólo en textos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el presente estudio se usaron modelos bivariados y multivariados. Resultados. Los fumadores canadienses respondieron mucho mejor a las advertencias de la etiqueta (es decir, atención que prestaban a los anuncios de las etiquetas y comprensión del mensaje que los fumadores mexicanos y fueron influidos por las características de las advertencias independientemente de la intención previa que tuvieran de abandonar el hábito. Más aún, los canadienses tienen

  16. Study of the patterns of periodontal destruction in smokers with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Sukumaran

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for periodontitis and carries an increased risk for loss of periodontal attachment as well as for bone loss. Aims: The purpose of the study was to investigate the pattern of the intraoral distribution of periodontal destruction among cigarette smokers with periodontitis by assessing the periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: Thirty smokers with chronic periodontitis were enrolled in th...

  17. Electronic Cigarette Trial and Use among Young Adults: Reasons for Trial and Cessation of Vaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Biener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies predictors of trial and current use, and reasons for trying and ceasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes among young adults, with particular attention to former and never smokers. Data are from a mail survey of a population-based sample of adults aged 18 to 35 (N = 4740 in three U.S. metropolitan areas. Survey items assessed trial and use of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking status, and reasons for trial and for ceasing use of e-cigarettes. Almost 23% reported trial of e-cigarettes, and 8.4% reported using them in the past month. Current smokers were much more likely to have tried e-cigarettes (70.2% than both former (32.3% and never smokers (7.6%; p < 0.001 and to have used them in the past month (30.8%, 10.1%, 2.0% respectively; p < 0.001. Smoking status and scores on sensation seeking were significant independent predictors of both trial and current use of e-cigarettes. Never-smokers cite curiosity as the reason for trying e-cigarettes and also that their friends used them. The most frequent reason for ceasing use among never and former smokers was health concerns. For virtually none of them were e-cigarettes their first exposure to nicotine.

  18. PULMONARY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKER AND NON-SMOKER MODERN DANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Agopyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Although the harmful effects of smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems have been established for a long time, the effect on physiological and physical parameters in modern female dancers is not well documented. Objective: To determine differences in selected pulmonary functions, biochemical parameters, and body composition in female smoker and non-smoker modern dancers who are university or graduate students. Methods: A total of twenty-two female modern dancers (mean age of 24.6 ± 4.3 years, who were non-smokers (n = 11 and smokers (n = 11, voluntarily participated in the study. The smokers had been smoking 1 to 20 cigarettes per day for an average period of seven years. The pulmonary function test Mir Spirobank Spirometer, (Italy was applied; selected biochemical parameters were tested, and various anthropometric measurements (height, weight and seven skinfold thickness were performed. The results of body composition were evaluated using Jackson-Pollock equations. Intergroup comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Result: No significant differences were found between smoker and non-smoker dancers in terms of body composition (body fat, % body fat, lean body fat and selected biochemical parameters (p > 0.05. However, non-smokers had prediction values of forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1 and peak expiratory flow (PEF significantly better (p < 0.05. The effect of smoking on the performance of female modern dancers should be examined in a longitudinal study, with a higher number of participants. Conclusion: It was observed that smoking reduces lung pulmonary capacity at a certain rate, although the biochemical parameters and body composition of the female smoker and non-smoker dancers were similar.

  19. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  20. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth M; Clapp, Phillip W; Rebuli, Meghan E; Pawlak, Erica A; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Benowitz, Neal L; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is known to result in impaired host defense responses and immune suppressive effects. However, the effects of new and emerging tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, on the immune status of the respiratory epithelium are largely unknown. We conducted a clinical study collecting superficial nasal scrape biopsies, nasal lavage, urine, and serum from nonsmokers, cigarette smokers, and e-cigarette users and assessed them for changes in immune gene expression profiles. Smoking status was determined based on a smoking history and a 3- to 4-wk smoking diary and confirmed using serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) levels. Total RNA from nasal scrape biopsies was analyzed using the nCounter Human Immunology v2 Expression panel. Smoking cigarettes or vaping e-cigarettes resulted in decreased expression of immune-related genes. All genes with decreased expression in cigarette smokers (n = 53) were also decreased in e-cigarette smokers. Additionally, vaping e-cigarettes was associated with suppression of a large number of unique genes (n = 305). Furthermore, the e-cigarette users showed a greater suppression of genes common with those changed in cigarette smokers. This was particularly apparent for suppressed expression of transcription factors, such as EGR1, which was functionally associated with decreased expression of 5 target genes in cigarette smokers and 18 target genes in e-cigarette users. Taken together, these data indicate that vaping e-cigarettes is associated with decreased expression of a large number of immune-related genes, which are consistent with immune suppression at the level of the nasal mucosa. PMID:27288488

  1. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, M.; F. J. Chaloupka

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the c...

  2. High-resolution computed tomography of the lung in smokers: Visual and computer-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It has been the aim of the study to assess parenchymal changes in the lung with high-resolution CT in healthy heavy, moderate, and non-smokers. Material and methods: We prospectively evaluated CT changes in 42 healthy heavy smokers (gr. (group) 2, ≥30 pack-years), 40 moderate smokers (gr. 1, R, Kontron GmbH, Munich, Germany). Results: Productive cough, dyspnoea and chronic bronchitis were more common in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.05). Pathological CT-findings were found in 6/38 non-smokers and in 71/82 smokers (p<0.01). In particular, in smokers (gr. 1 [%[, gr. 2 [%[) the following pathological findings were found: Dystelectases in dependent lung areas in 50% (62, 38), centrilobular emphysema in 44% (43, 20), pleural thickening in 38% (38, 38), panlobular emphysema in 36% (52, 20), ground-glass pattern in 33% (36, 30), paraseptal emphysema in 21% (31, 10), prominent or thickened interlobular septa in 18% (29, 8) and centrilobular micronodules in 13% (10, 18). Computer-based analysis demonstrated thicker bronchial walls in smokers as compared to non-smokers. Conclusion: Although feeling healthy, smokers demonstrate various parenchymal abnormalities in the lung. In smokers, subpleural dystelectases, centrilobular and panlobular emphysema are dependent on cigarette consumption, ground glass pattern centrilobular micronodules, pleural thickening and bronchial wall thickening are independent on cigarette consumption. (orig.)

  3. Electronic Cigarettes: Ambiguity and Controversies of Usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes. (author)

  4. Impacto de las advertencias con pictogramas en las cajetillas de cigarrillos en México: resultados de una encuesta en fumadores de Guadalajara Impact of cigarette package health warnings with pictures in Mexico: results from a survey of smokers in Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Thrasher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar el efecto de las primeras advertencias sanitarias (AS con pictogramas en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Encuesta transversal en una muestra representativa de 1 765 adultos fumadores de Guadalajara, México (2010. Se estimaron modelos logísticos para determinar la asociación entre el reconocimiento de las AS con pictogramas y las variables que indican el impacto de las mismas. RESULTADOS: 58% de la población indicó haber comprado una cajetilla con AS con pictogramas. Estos fumadores expuestos reportaron pensar con mayor frecuencia en los daños que causa fumar (34 contra 25% p=0.003 y pensar en dejar de fumar (23 contra 14% p=0.001. Se observó una mayor aceptación de las AS como medio para comunicar información importante al fumador (93 contra 87% pOBJETIVE: Evaluate the impact of the first pictorial health warning labels (HWLs on cigarette packs in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1 765 adult smokers from Guadalajara, Mexico, 2010. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine the association between recall of having purchased a pack with a pictorial HWL and psychosocial variables indicating their impact. RESULTS: 58% reported having purchased a pack with one of the pictorial HWLs, and these were considered the exposed population. Exposed smokers reported a greater frequency of thinking about smoking-related risks (34 vs. 25% p=0.003, and thinking about quitting smoking (23 vs. 14% p=0.001. Exposure to pictorial HWLs was also associated with a greater acceptability of HWLs as a means of communicating with smokers (93 vs. 87% p<0.001, as was the perception that the government communicates well about tobacco-related health risks (68 vs. 55% p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Pictorial HWLs have made smokers think more about these risks and about quitting smoking. This policy should continue to be exploited as a cost-effective educational intervention.

  5. Electronic Cigarette Use Among Working Adults - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver a heated aerosol, which typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other additives, to the user. The e-cigarette marketplace is rapidly evolving, but the long-term health effects of these products are not known. Carcinogens and toxins such as diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and other harmful chemicals have been documented in the aerosol from some e-cigarettes (1-3). On May 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finalized a rule extending its authority to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.* The prevalence of e-cigarette use among U.S. adults has increased in recent years, particularly among current and former conventional cigarette smokers (4); in 2014, 3.7% of all U.S. adults, including 15.9% of current cigarette smokers, and 22.0% of former cigarette smokers, used e-cigarettes every day or some days (5). The extent of current e-cigarette use among U.S. working adults has not been assessed. Therefore, CDC analyzed 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults aged ≥18 years who were working during the week before the interview, to provide national estimates of current e-cigarette use among U.S. working adults by industry and occupation. Among the estimated 146 million working adults, 3.8% (5.5 million) were current (every day or some days) e-cigarette users; the highest prevalences were among males, non-Hispanic whites, persons aged 18-24 years, persons with annual household income <$35,000, persons with no health insurance, cigarette smokers, other combustible tobacco users, and smokeless tobacco users. By industry and occupation, workers in the accommodation and food services industry and in the food preparation and serving-related occupations had the highest prevalence of current e-cigarette use. Higher prevalences of e-cigarette use among specific groups and the effect of e-cigarette use on patterns of conventional tobacco use underscore the importance

  6. Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballbè, Montse [Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Cancer Prevention and Control Group, Institut d' Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Addictions Unit, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona – IDIBAPS, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Clinical Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M., E-mail: jmmartinez@iconcologia.net [Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Cancer Prevention and Control Group, Institut d' Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biostatistics Unit, Department of Basic Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela [Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Cancer Prevention and Control Group, Institut d' Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Clinical Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2014-11-15

    Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=4.05) in the smokers’ homes, 0.13 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.02 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers’ homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes’ vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne

  7. Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m3 (GSD=4.05) in the smokers’ homes, 0.13 μg/m3 (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.02 μg/m3 (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers’ homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes’ vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne nicotine and

  8. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankleman, M.; Sykes, C.; Mandeville, K.L.; Di Costa, S.; Yarrow, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. Study design A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Methods Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. Results An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. PMID:25542740

  9. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Cartwright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000 were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05. The majority (74.1% of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7% reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66 and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32. Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94. Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic

  10. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

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    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  11. Heavy metals and its relationships with biomarkers of oxidative stress in chronic smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salazar-Lugo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated in 50 chronic smokers, both females and males (30 to 84 years. Smokers were divided into two groups (1-5 cigarettes/day, 25, and smokers of more than 6 cigarettes/day, 25. Metal concentrations in whole blood and urine were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with inductively coupled (ICP; hematological and biochemical assays were performed to determine total proteins, fractionated proteins and total thiols. Smokers had higher concentrations of Fe regardless of the number of cigarettes smoked and lower concentrations of Zn, Cr and Ni, No di erences were observed in Cu blood concentrations. Smokers show Cd concentrations between 5.0-10.0 μg/L and non-smokers between 0,0-5,0 μg/L. No signi cant di erences were observed in of Hb, Hct and MCHC concentrations, neither albumin and globulins concentrations; an increased in leukocytes and total thiol was observed in smokers. Blood Fe concentrations were correlated with leucocytes and with Cd. Also, it was showed correlation between albumin and thiols. Zn and Cu concentrations were increased in urine of smokers. According to these results, in chronic smokers, the distribution of Fein the body plays a central role in the possible progression and development of diseases related to smoking.

  12. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals. PMID:27184265

  13. Changes in cigarette consumption patterns among Brazilian smokers between 1989 and 2008 Mudanças nos padrões de consumo de cigarros dos fumantes brasileiros entre 1989 e 2008

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    André Salem Szklo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of temporal differences in cigarette consumption may help in understanding whether a smoking population is becoming more resistant to quitting over time. We calculated absolute differences in average cigarette consumption, stratified by birth cohort and age group. Data were obtained from random samples from two Brazilian national household surveys (1989, N = 12,782; 2008, N = 6,675. A linear regression model was used to adjust estimates by gender, educational level, and place of residence. Birth cohort analysis found that average daily cigarette consumption increased for individuals born after 1964 and decreased for those born before 1955 (adjusted p-values A avaliação temporal das mudanças no consumo de cigarros pode ajudar a entender se os fumantes estão se tornando mais resistentes à cessação. Calcularam-se as diferenças absolutas no consumo médio de cigarros, estratificadas por coorte de nascimento e faixa etária. Utilizaram-se dados provenientes de dois inquéritos domiciliares nacionais brasileiros (1989, N = 12.782; 2008, N = 6.675. Um modelo de regressão linear foi usado para ajustar as diferenças por sexo, escolaridade e residência. A análise por coorte de nascimento mostrou que o uso de cigarros diários aumentou entre os indivíduos nascidos após 1964 e diminuiu entre aqueles nascidos antes de 1955 (valores de p ajustados < 0,001. A análise por faixa etária mostrou que a população remanescente de fumantes com menos de 65 anos reduziu o uso de cigarros entre 1989 e 2008 (valores de p ajustados < 0,001. Mudanças nas políticas antitabaco e o rápido crescimento econômico do Brasil podem estar preferencialmente relacionados a mudanças temporais no consumo de cigarros na maioria dos grupos etários, ao invés de uma mudança na associação entre idade e consumo de cigarro.

  14. The extent of cigarette brand and company switching: results from the Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M; Nelson, D E; Peddicord, J P; Merritt, R K; Giovino, G A; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette advertising on brand switching, an accurate estimate of the extent of cigarette brand and company switching among current smokers is needed. Data from the 1986 Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey were analyzed to estimate the percentage of adult smokers who switched cigarette brands and companies in the previous year. Approximately 9.2% of adult smokers (4.2 million) switched cigarette brands in 1986, and 6.7% (3.1 million) switched cigarette companies. The aggregate profitability of brand switching in 1986 was approximately $362 million. Based on this analysis, brand switching alone justifies only a small percentage of a cigarette company's advertising and promotion expenditures, suggesting that future research should address other potential effects of advertising, including maintenance of brand loyalty and expanding the cigarette market. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): addictive behavior, advertising, smoking, tobacco. PMID:8776289

  15. Electronic Cigarette Use among Irish Youth: A Cross Sectional Study of Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Babineau

    Full Text Available To examine prevalence of, and factors associated with, e-cigarette use among young people aged 16-17 in Ireland.In 2014, a representative sample of 821 young people aged 16-17 recruited from secondary schools completed a pen and paper survey on e-cigarette use, tobacco use, and socio-demographic items.A total of 23.8% of respondents had used e-cigarettes at least once. Dual trial of tobacco and e-cigarettes was common with 69.5% of regular smokers and 30.4% of 'ever' smokers having tried e-cigarettes and 10.6% of current smokers using e-cigarettes regularly. 4.2% of never smokers have tried e-cigarettes. Overall, current e-cigarette use (once a month or more was low (3.2%. Binary logistic regression conducted through generalized estimating equations (GEE determined that controlling for other variables, current tobacco use and 'ever' tobacco use predicted ever e-cigarette use. Gender and school-level socioeconomic status were also independent predictors of ever e-cigarette use. Gender stood as the only predictor of on-going e-cigarette use, with males being more likely to regularly use e-cigarettes at least once a month.E-cigarette use among 16-17 year olds in Ireland is of note, with nearly a quarter of students having tried them. Concurrent or experimental use of e-cigarettes and tobacco is more common than sole use, while a small number have tried e-cigarettes without having tried tobacco.

  16. A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY ON LIPID PROFILE IN SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Afroz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the environmental factors which can alter normal lipid profile. It is one of the major risk fa ctors in the genesis of coronary atherosclerosis and development of coronary heart disease. AIMS: To evaluate and compare the lipid profile in both groups and to evaluate the existence of dose de pendent relationship and durational significance between smoking and lipid profile among smokers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Out of 100 apparently healthy male subjects of age group 21-4 0yrs, 50 were smokers and 50 were non smokers. All the subjects were non alcoholic, non – obese, normotensives and from same socioeconomic status. Subjects who smoke more than equal 10 cigarettes for more than 2 years were considered as smokers group. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The subjects were asked to fast overnight and early morning blood samples colle cted and analyzed for lipid profile by appropriate methods. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The student’s unpaired “t” test was used for statistical analysis. P-value of < 0.05 or P va lue <0.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In our study we found serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL w ere higher in smokers as compared to non smokers and the serum HDL level was significantly decreased in smokers compared to non smokers showing greater risk of thes e persons to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Conclusions: - We conclude our study with the obser vation that smoking causes alteration in lipid profile. Increased amount and duration of smok ing causes more dyslipidaemia .This alteration in serum lipid levels increases risk for coronary artery disease.

  17. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

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    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  18. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  19. Chronic smoker lung dosimetry of radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine how cigarette smoking affects the dose of radon progeny in the lungs. An extensive survey of the medical literature suggests that about six physiological parameters may influence deposition as well as clearance of radon progeny and thus, affecting the resulting doses received by sensitive bronchial target cells. The calculations reflect a difference between the dose of a nonsmoker lung and the lung of the heavy long-term smoker, of a multiplicative factor 1,8. (authors)

  20. Re-examining the price sensitivity of demand for cigarettes with quantile regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Existing studies suggest that teenagers, young adults, and individuals of low socioeconomic status are more sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. However, little is known as to whether there are differences in price sensitivity between heavy and light smokers. To examine this gap, the present study uses quantile regression to estimate price sensitivity of demand for smokers with different levels of tobacco consumption. We conducted a national personal interview survey in Taiwan and the results showed price sensitivity is positively associated with the level of cigarette consumption. The data indicate that pricing strategies are more likely to notably reduce cigarette consumption for heavy smokers. Our findings suggest policymakers can meet target control for cigarette consumption by effectively adjusting market prices of cigarettes. PMID:24018220

  1. Exploring Cigarette Use among Male Migrant Workers in Nigeria

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    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background There is limited knowledge about the use of cigarettes by blacks outside the United States (U.S. Nigeria creates an opportunity to explore smoking behaviours, smoking cessation (nicotine dependence and use of cigarettes in a country that has a large black population outside the U.S. Methods We conducted three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs involving twenty-four male migrant workers who reported that they were current cigarette smokers. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Results Four major themes namely: reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke cigarettes, factors affecting brand choice, barriers to quitting, effect of smoking mentholated cigarette brands were identified. Conclusion This study provides insight into the use of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes and suggests the need for further studies to explore smoking behavior among Nigerians.

  2. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    . Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  3. Trends in the Use of Premium and Discount Cigarette Brands: Findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E.; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analyzed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Results Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Conclusions Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favor the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population. PMID:24092600

  4. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

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    Yang Chung-Lin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue. Methods Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics. Results Current smokers (OR = 0.34 and former smokers (OR = 0.68 were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy. Conclusions Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette

  5. Detection of 210Pb in the lungs of smokers by in-vivo gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since mainstream smoke is highly enriched in 210Pb, alpha radiation from inhaled cigarette smoke particles has been proposed as a cancer-producing agent in cigarette smokers. 210Po and 210Pb have been observed in tobacco, cigarette smoke and in the lungs of smokers. Since 210Pb is highly enriched in mainstream smoke, there have been estimates of yearly excesses of 210Pb in the lungs of one-pack-a-day smokers of 3 to 10 pCi (0.11 to 0.37 Bq). The ORNL Whole Body Counter was used to verify this estimate by the methodology of high-resolution, in vivo gamma spectrometry. Measurements were made on 113 adult male non-radiation workers who have either smoked at least one pack of cigarettes per day for at least five years, or have never smoked cigarettes. An analysis-of-variance table was generated based on the Pb-ratio for each individual which revealed that there was no statistically significant increase in the amount of 210Pb in the lungs of smokers over those of non-smokers. Sources of error are also discussed

  6. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M; Chaloupka, F J

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the current cohort of 0 to 17-year-olds. Adjusted for inflation, the current 24-cent-a-pack tax costs the buyer about half of the original cigarette tax of 8 cents imposed in 1951. A substantial tax hike would curb youth smoking; this strategy should move to the forefront of the antismoking campaign. PMID:9258294

  7. [Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and lipid parameters in Tunisian smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Ezzaher, Asma; Araoud, Manel; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at examine the effect of cigarettes smoking on paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and lipid profile. Our study included 102 smokers aged 35.5 +/- 16.0 years and 98 non-smokers aged 38.5 +/- 21.9 years. Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG), HDL cholesterol (CHDL) and LDL-cholesterol (cLDL) were determined by enzymatic colorimetric methods. ApoA1 and ApoB and Lp(a) were analyzed by immunoturbidimetry on Konélab 30, PON1 activity was measured by a kinetic method. Plasma CT, TG, cLDL, Lp(a) and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio appeared significantly higher in the smokers when compared to nonsmokers, since cHDL levels were lower. In addition, TG values were significantly higher in subjects smoking more than 30 cigarettes/day as compared to those smoking 5-10 cigarettes/day. We noted a significant decrease of PON1 activity in smokers compared to non smokers (94 +/- 104 vs 158 +/- 133 IU/L), with regression of PON1 activity according number of cigarettes/day. In conclusion, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of cHDL, high levels of ApoB/ApoA1 and significant decrease of PON1 activity confirm the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. PMID:20348046

  8. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G.; Peebles, Kathryn; Bach, Laura E.; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2) talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87%) and spouses/significant others (34%/42%). Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05). Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior. PMID:26506363

  9. The Association between Cigarette Smoking and Acne Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ramin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. Different factors have been suggested to influence acne including diet, menstruation and occupation. The role of some of these factors on acne intensity is confirmed. The affect of Cigarette smoking on acne intensity has been suggested. In this research, we evaluated the association between cigarette smoking and the acne intensity.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 278 smoker and 277non smoker males referred to dermatology clinics of Semnan during 2006-2007. The dermatologists interviewing the patients completed questionnaires based on clinical diagnosis and intensity of acne. Data analysis was performed using t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Spearman coefficient tests. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Severe acne was observed in 16.6% of non-smokers and 22.7% of smokers. Distribution of acne intensity in both groups was significant (P=0.023. Association between duration of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was significant too (P<0.001. The association between dosage of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was also significant (P<0.001.Conclusion: Significant association between cigarette smoking and acne intensity showed that smoking withdrawal is helpful for reducing the acne intensity

  10. The case in favor of E-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzkin, Joel L

    2014-06-01

    A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs. PMID:25003176

  11. The Case in Favor of E-Cigarettes for Tobacco Harm Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L. Nitzkin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs.

  12. Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xi-tao; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Wakui, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are at risk for micro and macro vascular complications, which could be observed in heavy smokers. Cigarette smoking increases the risk for type 2 diabetes incidence. Nicotine, acknowledged as the major pharmacologically active chemical in tobacco, is responsible for the association between cigarette smoking and development of diabetes. This minireview summarized recent studies on nicotine effects on insulin action and insulin secretion, indica...

  13. Neural Circuitry of Impulsivity in a Cigarette Craving Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna; Dinh-Williams, Laurence; Potvin, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity has been shown to play a pivotal role in the onset, pattern of consumption, relapse and, most notably, craving of illicit and licit drugs such as cigarette smoking. The goal of this study was to examine the neurobiological influence of trait impulsivity during cue-induced cigarette craving. Thirty-one chronic smokers passively viewed appetitive smoking-related and neutral images while being scanned and reported their feelings of craving. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Sc...

  14. Neural circuitry of impulsivity in a cigarette craving paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    StephanePotvin; JosianeBourque; AdriannaMendrek

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity has been shown to play a pivotal role in the onset, pattern of consumption, relapse and, most notably, craving of illicit and licit drugs such as cigarette smoking. The goal of this study was to examine the neurobiological influence of trait impulsivity during cue-induced cigarette craving. Thirty-one chronic smokers passively viewed appetitive smoking-related and neutral images while being scanned and reported their feelings of craving. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Sc...

  15. Addiction to the nicotine gum in never smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Etter Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Addiction to nicotine gum has never been described in never smokers or in never users of tobacco. Methods Internet questionnaire in 2004–2006 in a self-selected sample of 434 daily users of nicotine gum. To assess dependence on nicotine gum, we used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Cigarette Dependence Scale. Results Five never smokers used the nicotine gum daily. They had been using the...

  16. THE CORRELATION OF FVC%, FEV1%, PEFR CORRESPONDING TO PULMONARY FUNCTION IN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Dwarakanath,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Back ground and Objectives: Smoking is one of the major causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Cigarette smoke is a heterogeneous aerosol contains 4000 chemicals, on chronic exposure reduces small air ways function, increase inflammatory cells in lung, which produce free radicals. The oxidative stress increases progressive deterioration of lung function and affects all the parameters of pulmonary function test. Our work is aimed to highlight the changes in FVC%, FEV1%, PEFR in smokers so that early intervention prevents the morbidity and mortality. Methods: This study include 50 healthy male subjects aged between 40 - 55yrs. Out of them 25 are non-smokers and 25 are smokers, who smoke 11 - 25 cigarettes per day for the past 15 yrs. All of these underwent computerized pulmonary function tests (WinspiroPRO. Results: The results showed that there is significant decrease in mean values of FVC%, FEV1%, PEFR in smokers as compared to the non-smokers with significant P value < 0.001. Interpretation and Conclusion: The irritants present in the smoke cause release of elastase from alveolar macrophages that degrades structural elements of the lung which leads to loss of elastic recoil causing decrease in FVC%, FEV1%, PEFR in our present study.

  17. Electronic Cigarette Trial and Use among Young Adults: Reasons for Trial and Cessation of Vaping

    OpenAIRE

    Lois Biener; Eunyoung Song; Sutfin, Erin L.; John Spangler; Mark Wolfson

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies predictors of trial and current use, and reasons for trying and ceasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among young adults, with particular attention to former and never smokers. Data are from a mail survey of a population-based sample of adults aged 18 to 35 (N = 4740) in three U.S. metropolitan areas. Survey items assessed trial and use of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking status, and reasons for trial and for ceasing use of e-cigarettes. Almost 23% reported ...

  18. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Bos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarett

  19. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Colin, Bos,

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarett

  20. [Are graphic warnings on cigarette packs useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, J F; Cornuz, J

    2009-07-01

    Based on the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommendations, health warnings and messages should be printed on cigarettes packages. Scientific data show that such messages are effective by delivering important information directly to smokers, who believe these messages more and remember better than they do public education campaigns. These warnings also increase the chance of quitting. This narrative review summarizes the data at the time Switzerland requires such pictures on tobacco products. PMID:19634535

  1. Motion and twisting of magnetic particles ingested by alveolar macrophages in non-smokers and smokers: Implementation of viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrimagnetic iron oxide particles were inhaled by 17 healthy volunteers (9 non-smokers, 8 smokers), and the retained particles were magnetized and detected by a SQUID. Stochastic particle transport due to cytoskeletal reorganizations within macrophages (relaxation) and directed particle motion in a weak magnetic twisting field were investigated with respect to viscous and elastic properties of the cytoskeleton. Relaxation and cytoskeletal stiffness were not influenced by cigarette smoking. Relaxation and particle twisting revealed a non-Newtonian viscosity with a pure viscous and a viscoelastic compartment. Viscous and elastic data obtained from relaxation correlated with particle twisting, indicating that the proposed simple model is a reasonable approximation of cytoskeletal mechanical properties

  2. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  3. E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Giroud; Mariangela De Cesare; Aurélie Berthet; Vincent Varlet; Nicolas Concha-Lozano; Bernard Favrat

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has given cannabis smokers a new method of inhaling cannabinoids. E-cigs differ from traditional marijuana cigarettes in several respects. First, it is assumed that vaporizing cannabinoids at lower temperatures is safer because it produces smaller amounts of toxic substances than the hot combustion of a marijuana cigarette. Recreational cannabis users can discretely “vape” deodorized cannabis extracts with minimal annoyance to the people around ...

  4. Relative intakes of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide from cigarettes of different yields.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N. J.; Boreham, J; Bailey, A.

    1984-01-01

    The relative intakes of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were estimated in 2455 cigarette smokers, who freely smoked their usual brands of cigarette. The estimates were derived by using an objective index of inhaling based on the measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin divided by the carbon monoxide yield of the cigarettes smoked, after background and carry over carboxyhaemoglobin effects had been allowed for. Separate analyses were performed according to the yield and type (plain, filter, etc) o...

  5. Filter presence and tipping paper color influence consumer perceptions of cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; James F. Thrasher; Tworek, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarettes are marketed in a wide array of packaging and product configurations, and these may impact consumers’ perceptions of product health effects and attractiveness. Filtered cigarettes are typically perceived as less hazardous and white tipping paper (as opposed to cork) often conveys ‘lightness’. Methods This study examined cigarette-related perceptions among 1220 young adult (age 18-35) current, ever, and never smokers recruited from three eastern U.S. cities (Buffalo NY, C...

  6. A Dynamic Simultaneous-Equations Model for Cigarette Consumption in the Western States

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Hai-Yen; Hu, Teh-Wei; Keeler, Theodore E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a rational addiction model, which integrates the addictive behavior of smokers toward cigarette consumption and the dynamic, profit-maximizing behavior of an oligopoly of cigarette producers. This model is tested on a panel data for eleven western states over the period of 1967-1990, using simultaneous estimation techniques. The results suggest the following conclusions: first, cigarette consumption is price-sensitive, with a demand elasticity of about -.33 in the short ru...

  7. Experts’ consensus on use of electronic cigarettes: a Delphi survey from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Blaser, Jeremie; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In some countries, nicotine-containing electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are considered a consumer product without specific regulations. In others (eg, Switzerland), the sale of e-cigarettes containing nicotine is forbidden, despite the eagerness of many smokers to obtain them. As scientific data about efficacy and long-term safety of these products are scarce, tobacco control experts are divided on how to regulate them. In order to gain consensus among experts to provide recomm...

  8. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs: A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morissette, Mathieu C; Maxime Lamontagne; Jean-Christophe Bérubé; Gordon Gaschler; Andrew Williams; Carole Yauk; Christian Couture; Michel Laviolette; Hogg, James C; Wim Timens; Sabina Halappanavar; Martin R Stampfli; Yohan Bossé

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. ...

  9. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  10. Cadmium exposure from smoking cigarettes: variations with time and country where purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Kjellström, T; Lind, B; Linnman, L; Piscator, M; Sundstedt, K

    1983-10-01

    Cadmium has been determined in 26 brands of cigarettes purchased in eight different countries throughout the world and in 16 different samples of cigarettes produced in Sweden between 1918 and 1968. In addition the amount of cadmium released from smoking one cigarette to the particulate phase collected from a smoking simulation machine, corresponding to the amount actually inhaled by a smoker, has been determined. The cadmium concentration in different brands of cigarettes ranged from 0.19 to 3.0 micrograms Cd/g dry wt, with a general tendency toward lower values in cigarettes from developing countries. No systematic change in the cadmium concentration of cigarettes with time could be revealed. The amount of cadmium inhaled from smoking one cigarette containing about 1.7 microgram Cd was estimated to be 0.14 to 0.19 microgram, corresponding to about 10% of the total cadmium content in the cigarette. PMID:6617614

  11. Inhalation of 210Po and 210Pb from cigarette smoking in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carcinogenic effect of 210Po and 210Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The results of 210Po determination on the 14 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% of the total cigarette consumption in Poland are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobaccos, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210Po and 210Pb inhalation with the cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of 210Po and 210Pb each. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 μSv from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke two packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 μSv yr-1) in comparison with the intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and the principal pathway of 210Po and 210Pb intake of smokers in Poland

  12. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking. PMID:22385817

  13. PULMONARY LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS PRESENTING AS SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX IN A NON-SMOKER PATIENT

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vaziri; A. Pazooki L. Zahedi

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare idiopathic disorder that primarily affects young adult cigarette smokers. Affected patients often present with cough and dyspnea and about 20% of patients present with or later develop pneumothorax. It is striking that more than 90% of patients are smokers. We report a very unusual case of PLCH in a 20-year- old male patient with no smoking history in whom a life- threatening complication such as simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax was ...

  14. Population-based survey of cessation aids used by Swedish smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Rutqvist Lars E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Most smokers who quit typically do so unassisted although pharmaceutical products are increasingly used by those who want a quitting aid. Previous Scandinavian surveys indicated that many smokers stopped smoking by switching from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco in the form of snus. However, usage of various cessation aids may have changed in Sweden during recent years due to factors such as the wider availability of pharmaceutical nicotine, the public debate about the heal...

  15. Decreased leukotriene B4 synthesis in smokers' alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Laviolette, M.; Coulombe, R; Picard, S.; Braquet, P; Borgeat, P

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that alveolar macrophages (AM) are able to release leukotrienes (LTs). Since cigarette smoking inhibits the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in the AM, we evaluated the LT production by AM from smokers and nonsmokers. AM were obtained from 35 volunteers, 16 nonsmokers, and 19 smokers. The cells were incubated under various conditions including stimulation with 30 microM arachidonic acid, 2 microM ionophore A23187, or both. Each experiment was per...

  16. Noni juice reduces lipid peroxidation–derived DNA adducts in heavy smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Jensen, Claude J; Deng, Shixin; Brett J. West

    2013-01-01

    Food plants provide important phytochemicals which help improve or maintain health through various biological activities, including antioxidant effects. Cigarette smoke–induced oxidative stress leads to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and their decomposition product malondialdehyde (MDA), both of which cause oxidative damage to DNA. Two hundred forty-five heavy cigarette smokers completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the e...

  17. Marijuana’s Dose-Dependent Effects in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.

    2013-01-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose–response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The numbe...

  18. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  19. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  20. Graphic Cigarette Warnings May Target Brain's 'Quit Centers'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scans, the smokers were shown non-graphic and graphic pictures used on cigarette pack warning labels. For example, one image included an open mouth with rotten teeth and a tumor on the lower lip. The images were accompanied by ... the graphic pictures triggered activity in areas of the brain ...

  1. Neural Correlates of Self-Focused and Other-Focused Strategies for Coping with Cigarette Cue Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Stephen J.; Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain imaging research has begun to characterize the neurocognitive processes that cigarette smokers utilize to cope with cue-elicited craving. Presently, however, it remains unclear whether distinct neural substrates support different types of coping. We sought to address this knowledge gap by examining neural responses associated with self-focused and other-focused coping techniques. Fifty-seven treatment-seeking male cigarette smokers initiated an attempt to quit smoking and subsequently u...

  2. [The challenge of electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba García, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cig) is a device with a conventional cigarette shape that releases a determined dose of nicotine vapour through an electronic heating process. The nicotine cartridges vary significantly in the amount of nicotine released, even within the same brand. Not all brands admit that they contain nicotine, but this is detected in the majority of units analysed. The e-cig usually contains a propellant, such as propylene glycol, which is a lung irritant. The short-term respiratory effect of the vapour of an e-cig is similar to that caused by the smoke of a cigarette, and is a cause of broncho-restriction. The majority of brands contain glycerine and at least one case of lipoid pneumonia has been detected due to this substance. Many brands contain traces of N-nitrosamines, heavy metals, and other products that are found in conventional cigarette smoke, but in a much higher proportion. There is currently no scientific evidence available that shows it is an effective device for quitting smoking, thus it should not be pro-actively recommended for this purpose, and may interfere with the use of demonstrated scientific evidence-based treatments for quitting smoking. It may have an undesirable effect on promoting the starting of smoking in adolescents or keeping adult smokers consuming nicotine and on gestural dependency. The toxicity of the vapour is not well known, but it is known that they are not innocuous, thus they should not be used in closed public spaces. PMID:24704194

  3. Cigarette Cravings, Impulsivity, and the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Dinh-Williams, Laurence Lê-Anh; Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-01-01

    Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g., someone smoking) trigger significant cravings in smokers impede their self-control capacities and promote drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers' craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, planning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies, and self-regulation) and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit, and genetic factors). Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingulate mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco-smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation. PMID:26441686

  4. Polonium-210 concentration of cigarettes traded in Cuba and their estimated dose contribution due to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is one of the pathways that might contribute significantly to the increase in the radiation dose reaching man, due to the relatively large concentrations of polonium-210 found in tobacco leaves. The results of 200Po determination on the 11 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes and cigars which constitute over 75% of the total cigarette consumption in Cuba are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in cigarettes, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. 210Po was determined by gas flow proportional detector after spontaneous deposition of 210Po on a high copper-content disk. The annual committed equivalent dose for lungs and the annual effective dose for smokers between 12-17 years old and for adults were calculated on the basis of the 210Po inhalation through cigarette smoke. The results showed concentration ranging from 9.3 to 14.4 mBq per cigarette with a mean value of 11.8 ± 0.6 mBq.Cig-1. the results of this work indicate that Cuban smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 62 to 98 mBq.d-1 of 210Po and smokers between 12-17 years old who consume 10 cigarettes daily inhale from 30-50 mBq.d-1. The average committed equivalent dose for lungs is estimated to be 466 ± 36 and 780 ± 60 μSv.year-1 for young and adult smokers, respectively and annual committed effective dose is calculated to be 60 ± 5 and 100 ± 8 μSv for these two groups of smokers, respectively. (Author)

  5. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics.

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    Joachim Marti

    Full Text Available Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchase in smaller quantities. Further, a desire to quit smoking and high self-control is associated with preference for a smaller pack. While we provide some preliminary evidence that smaller packs may be beneficial to certain types of smokers, further research should be conducted to assess whether the smaller pack size should be considered in the arsenal of tobacco control policies to help current smokers quit (JEL: I18; I12; D12.

  6. Bronchial Responsiveness and Lung Function Related to Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation

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    Shieh Ching Yang

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationships between bronchial responsiveness and both cigarette smokingand smoking cessation are still controversial.Methods: To investigate the effects of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation onbronchial reactivity and the level of pulmonary function, bronchial responsivenessto methacholine using the forced oscillation method, the transferfactor, and spirometry were measured in 180 nonsmokers, 109 current smokers,and 82 ex-smokers. The following indices of bronchial responsivenesswere used: (1 baseline respiratory resistance (Rrs; (2 the cumulative doseof methacholine (DA causing an increase in Rrs by twice the baseline values(bronchial sensitivity; and (3 the slope of linearly decreased respiratoryconductance (SGrs representing bronchial reactivity.Results: Current smokers had significantly higher baseline Rrs ( p < 0.001 andbronchial responsiveness than did nonsmokers and ex-smokers. In 24.7% ofsmokers, Rrs increased by twice or more upon challenge with methacholine(responders, compared with 0% of nonsmokers ( p < 0.0001 and 19.5% ofex-smokers ( p = 0.28. SGrs for responders among ex-smokers was foundnot to differ from that for responders among smokers. However, smokershad a significantly lower DA of inhaled methacholine than did ex-smokers.Cigarette smoking was also associated with an appreciable reduction inFEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1s/forced vital capacity, DLCO(carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and DLCO/VA (alveolar volume.Conclusion: There seems to be a partially reversible phenomenon that leads to improvementin airway responsiveness and DLCO upon smoking cessation.

  7. Radioactivity of cigarettes and the importance of (210)Po and thorium isotopes for radiation dose assessment due to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalek, Davor; Serša, Gregor; Štrok, Marko; Benedik, Ljudmila; Jeran, Zvonka

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are very complex mixtures. In addition to various chemical and organic compounds they also contain natural radioactive elements (radionuclides). In this work, the natural radionuclide activity concentrations ((234)U, (238)U, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) of nine different cigarette samples available on the Slovenian market are reported. In addition to (210)Po, the transfer of thorium isotopes from a cigarette to a smoker's body and lungs have been determined for the first time. Cigarette smoke and exhaled air from smokers' lungs were collected from volunteer smokers (C-4 brand) to determinate what quantity of (210)Po and thorium isotopes is transferred from the tobacco to the smoker's lungs. Cigarette ash and smoked filters were also collected and analysed. Among the determined isotopes, (210)Pb and (210)Po showed the highest activity concentrations. During the smoking of one cigarette approximately 22% of (210)Po (and presumably its predecessor (210)Pb), 0.6% of (228)Th, 24% of (230)Th, and 31% of (232)Th are transferred from the cigarette and retained in the smoker's body. The estimated annual effective dose for smokers is 61 μSv/year from (210)Po; 9 μSv/year from (210)Pb; 6 μSv/year from (228)Th; 47 μSv/year from (230)Th, and 37 μSv/year from (232)Th. These results show the importance of thorium isotopes in contributing to the annual effective dose for smoking. PMID:26942842

  8. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

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    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  9. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

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    Chaouachi Kamal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.. Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc., prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8. 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes; Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs. Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59 were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937 from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5; 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28 and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26 respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138. In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567. Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah

  10. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects’ disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  11. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olatunde; A; Olayanju; Sheu; K; Rahamon; Ijeboime; O; Joseph; Olatunbosun; G; Arinola

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis.METHODS:Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent.They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20(aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis(S+P);24(40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis(S-P);and 25(53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis(NS+P).An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis.The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed.About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles.Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Student’s t test was used to deter-mine significant differences between the means.Values of P < 0.05 were regarded as significant.RESULTS:No significant differences were observed in the mean salivary levels of the immunoglobulin classes(IgG,IgA,IgM and IgE) when S+P was compared with S-P.Mean salivary levels of IgA(520.0 ± 155.1 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.000) and IgM(644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group.Salivary IgA(570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.008) and IgM(703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group.Only one(5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.20 IU/mL).Similarly,only one smoker(4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers(9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE(0.24 IU/mL).CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  12. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers. PMID:27373532

  13. Alterations in the sputum proteome and transcriptome in smokers and early-stage COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Schneider, Thomas; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Dijon, Sophie; Luettich, Karsta; Guedj, Emmanuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peck, Michael J; Chaudhary, Nveed I; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-10-14

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent lung diseases. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. In this parallel-group clinical study we investigated to what extent the transitions in a chronic-exposure-to-disease model are reflected in the proteome and cellular transcriptome of induced sputum samples. We selected 60 age- and gender-matched individuals for each of the four study groups: current asymptomatic smokers, smokers with early stage COPD, former smokers, and never smokers. The cell-free sputum supernatant was analyzed by quantitative proteomics and the cellular mRNA fraction by gene expression profiling. The sputum proteome of current smokers clearly reflected the common physiological responses to smoke exposure, including alterations in mucin/trefoil proteins and a prominent xenobiotic/oxidative stress response. The latter response also was observed in the transcriptome, which additionally demonstrated an immune-cell polarization change. The former smoker group showed nearly complete attenuation of these biological effects. Thirteen differentially abundant proteins between the COPD and the asymptomatic smoker group were identified including TIMP1, APOA1, C6orf58, and BPIFB1 (LPLUNC1). In summary, our study demonstrates that sputum profiling can capture the complex and reversible physiological response to cigarette smoke exposure, which appears to be only slightly modulated in early-stage COPD. PMID:26306861

  14. Chronic respiratory effect of narguileh smoking compared with cigarette smoking in women from the East Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousser Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Yousser Mohammad, Mouna Kakah, Yasser MohammadDepartment of Internal Medicine, Tishreen University School of Medicine, Lattakia, SyriaAbstract: Narguileh is a water pipe. Narguileh smoking is a traditional pattern of smoking among Eastern Mediterranean women, publicly considered as a harmless entertainment. We performed a survey aimed at tracking chronic respiratory symptoms and alteration in respiratory functions in 77 female narguileh smokers, 77 cigarette smokers, and controls. A questionnaire about respiratory symptoms, quantity, and duration of smoking was completed by each woman, and a flow-volume loop was performed with all women. Women were then categorized in subgroups according to a cumulative smoking duration of over 5 years, and cumulative quantity of 50 kilograms smoked. We obtained 8 subgroups for quantity and 10 for duration. Results showed a higher proportion of chronic bronchitis in narguileh smokers compared with cigarette smokers for both quantity and duration (p value < 0.001, as well as quasi-permanent alteration in maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF 25%–75% in narguileh smokers compared with cigarette smokers (p value < 0.001. Forced expired volume in one second was more altered in cigarette smokers than in narguileh smokers (p value > 0.001. These results will help to raise health authority awareness that narguileh smoking is also dangerous for women.Keywords: sheesha, narguileh, narguile, COPD, MMEF, smoking in women

  15. A comparison of oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers: an in vivo human quantitative study of n-3 lipid peroxidation

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    Ross Brian M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is believed to cause oxidative stress by several mechanisms, including direct damage by radical species and the inflammatory response induced by smoking, and would therefore be expected to cause increased lipid peroxidation. The aim was to carry out the first study of the relationship of smoking in humans to the level of n-3 lipid peroxidation indexed by the level of ethane in exhaled breath. Methods Samples of alveolar air were obtained from 11 smokers and 18 non-smokers. The air samples were analyzed for ethane using mass spectrometry. Results The two groups of subjects were matched with respect to age and gender. The mean cumulative smoking status of the smokers was 11.8 (standard error 2.5 pack-years. The mean level of ethane in the alveolar breath of the group of smokers (2.53 (0.55 ppb was not significantly different from that of the group of non-smokers (2.59 (0.29 ppb; p = 0.92. With all 29 subjects included, the Spearman rank correlation coefficient between ethane levels and cumulative smoking status was -0.11 (p = 0.58, while an analysis including only the smokers yielded a corresponding correlation coefficient of 0.11 (p = 0.75. Conclusion Our results show no evidence that cigarette smoking is related to increased n-3 lipid peroxidation as measured by expired ethane.

  16. Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Dysfunctions Induced by Cigarette Smoking

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    Abdel-Sater Khaled A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO•, uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, NO• and uric acid in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking- induced cardiovascular diseases.40 apparently healthy subjects were studied. Depending on their previous physical conditioning status subjects were divided into equal four groups (n=10, physically active nonsmokers, physically active smokers, sedentary nonsmokers and sedentary smokers. Exercise tolerance was evaluated for each subject by using a running race (3 kilometers after a worming up period of 5 minutes.The obtained data revealed that regular exercise significantly decreased the plasma malonaldehyde, total cholesterol, LDL and uric acid levels below sedentary levels. Pre and post race plasma level of malonaldehyde and uric acid levels were significantly increased, while, plasma glutathione and NO• were decreased in sedentary smokers than the sedentary non smokers, physically active smokers and physically active non smokers.These findings point to the role of NO•, uric acid and lipid peroxide in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Sedentary smokers may be at an even greater risk of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases. Finally, every body should include in a regular exercise.

  17. Association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methodology: In this retrospective study which was carried out in Razi hospital, in Ahvaz a city southwest Iran, medical charts of patients with tuberculosis between 2005 and 2007 were reviewed. Sixty one patients aged 15-96 years with documented pulmonary tuberculosis (smear positive) were selected as cases and 122 age and sex matched persons without tuberculosis(patients hospitalized in surgery and orthopedic wards) were selected randomly as controls. Data on smoking status, quantity of cigarette smoked, and duration of smoking was collected from medical charts. The data in the two groups were statistically compared with SPSS version 16. The chi square test was used to compare the frequency of cigarette smoking in two groups. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated when appropriate. Differences with a P value of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of total 61 case, 42 (68.9%) were smoker, while, of total 122 controls 22(18%) were smoker. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the relation between smoking and tuberculosis was 10.1 [(95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3 to 23.5), P<0.001]. The mean of pocket - year of smoked cigarette (20/pocket) in cases and controls were 15.9 +- 13.7 and 13.5 +- 9.1, respectively (P=0.5). Conclusion: This study showed that pulmonary tuberculosis is associated to cigarette smoking. The association is not dose-dependent. Smoking may be a risk factor for TB acquisition. (author)

  18. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases

  19. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  20. The use and perception of electronic cigarettes and snus among the U.S. population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes have generated controversy in the tobacco control field similar to that of Swedish snus, which came to the U.S. market six years earlier. Some argue that e-cigarettes have great potential to help smokers quit regular cigarettes while others contend they should be banned for lack of safety and efficacy data. This study examined population data from the U.S. METHODS: A U.S. population survey with a national probability sample (N=10,041 was conducted (February 24 to March 8, 2012, before any major paid advertisement of e-cigarettes appeared on television. Survey respondents were asked if they had heard about e-cigarettes, where they had heard about them, whether they had used e-cigarettes or snus, how often they used them, and why they used them. Responses were weighted to represent the entire U.S. population. FINDINGS: A high proportion, 75.4%, reported having heard about e-cigarettes. Television ranked as the number one source of information, followed by "in-person conversation" and "Internet." About 8.1% had tried e-cigarettes, and 1.4% were current users. These rates were twice those of snus (4.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Among current smokers, 32.2% had tried e-cigarettes, and 6.3% were current users. Over 80% of current e-cigarette users were non-daily users. Women were significantly more likely to have tried e-cigarettes than men. Those who had tried e-cigarettes were more likely than those who tried snus to report their products being safer than regular cigarettes (49.9% vs. 10.8%. Almost half (49.5% of current smokers were susceptible to using e-cigarettes in the future. CONCLUSIONS: That e-cigarettes have surpassed snus in adoption rate, even before any promotion by major tobacco companies, suggests that the former have tapped into smokers' intuitive preference for potentially harm-reducing products, probably due to the product design. E-cigarette use is likely to increase in the next few years.

  1. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. PMID:25122618

  2. Effect of smoking on active male smokers across various age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common form of smoking in the world is cigarette smoking, which is one of the leading causes of lung cancer, blood pressure, emphysema9, bronchitis, heart attack etc5… In the present study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used for analysis of saliva sample for the detection of markers for smokers. The analysis included 7 individuals. The samples were classified as 2 samples from smokers of group 10-25, 2 samples from smokers of group 25-40, 1 sample from smokers of group 40-60 and 2 samples from smokers ofgroup 60 & above. Several interesting peaks have been identified as markers for smokers from saliva sample. Many peaks were significantly altered in absorption level of different age groups. The peaks at 754 cm-1, 1644 cm-1, 2136 cm-1, 3408 cm-1 were altered differently in different age groups as compared to non-smokers. Our study indicates that a stable marker was possible for active smokers by analysing the spectral graph obtained from the FTIR technique2. These parameters could be used for developing a spectral method of detection of active smokers along with predicting their duration of smoking by studying the effect of smoking in the different age groups.

  3. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hagen (Germany); Kirchner, Esther Maria [Staedtisches Klinikum Wedau, Clinic for Medicine, Duisburg (Germany); Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  4. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  5. Bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT and the relationship to clinical and other morphological features on CT. Thin-section CT images of 503 cigarette smokers were assessed for the profusion and location of diverticula in the major airways. The extent of the bronchial diverticula was recorded as follows: grade 0, none; grade 1, one to three diverticula; grade 2, more than three diverticula. The extent of emphysema, bronchial wall thickness, clinical features, and pulmonary function were compared in the sub-groups stratified according to the extent of bronchial diverticula. A total of 229/503 (45.5%) smokers had bronchial diverticula, with 168/503 (33.3%) and 61/503 (12.2%) having grade 1 and 2 bronchial diverticula respectively. Subjects with grade 2 bronchial diverticula were heavier smokers, reported a history of coughing more frequently, and showed more severe functional impairment, greater extent of emphysema and more severe bronchial wall thickening compared with subjects with grade 1 and those individuals without bronchial diverticula (P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only bronchial wall thickness predicted the extent of the bronchial diverticula (P<0.0001). Bronchial diverticula are a frequent finding in the major airways of smokers, and they are associated with other markers of smoking-related damage. (orig.)

  6. Bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Ingegnoli, Anna [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Calabro, Elisa; Pastorino, Ugo [National Cancer Institute, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Milan (Italy); Randi, Giorgia; La Vecchia, Carlo [Mario Negri Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milano, Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry ' ' G. A. Maccacaro' ' , Milan (Italy); Marchiano, Alfonso [National Cancer Institute, Division of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin [Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Zompatori, Maurizio [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT and the relationship to clinical and other morphological features on CT. Thin-section CT images of 503 cigarette smokers were assessed for the profusion and location of diverticula in the major airways. The extent of the bronchial diverticula was recorded as follows: grade 0, none; grade 1, one to three diverticula; grade 2, more than three diverticula. The extent of emphysema, bronchial wall thickness, clinical features, and pulmonary function were compared in the sub-groups stratified according to the extent of bronchial diverticula. A total of 229/503 (45.5%) smokers had bronchial diverticula, with 168/503 (33.3%) and 61/503 (12.2%) having grade 1 and 2 bronchial diverticula respectively. Subjects with grade 2 bronchial diverticula were heavier smokers, reported a history of coughing more frequently, and showed more severe functional impairment, greater extent of emphysema and more severe bronchial wall thickening compared with subjects with grade 1 and those individuals without bronchial diverticula (P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only bronchial wall thickness predicted the extent of the bronchial diverticula (P<0.0001). Bronchial diverticula are a frequent finding in the major airways of smokers, and they are associated with other markers of smoking-related damage. (orig.)

  7. Electronic cigarettes: a survey of users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etter Jean-François

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about users of electronic cigarettes, or their opinions, satisfaction or how and why they use such products. Methods An internet survey of 81 ever-users of ecigarettes in 2009. Participants answered open-ended questions on use of, and opinions about, ecigarettes. Results Respondents (73 current and 8 former users lived in France, Canada, Belgium or Switzerland. Most respondents (77% were men; 63% were former smokers and 37% were current smokers. They had used e-cigarettes for 100 days (median and drew 175 puffs per day (median. Participants used the ecigarette either to quit smoking (53 comments, to reduce their cigarette consumption (14 comments, in order not to disturb other people with smoke (20 comments, or in smoke-free places (21 comments. Positive effects reported with ecigarettes included their usefulness to quit smoking, and the benefits of abstinence from smoking (less coughing, improved breathing, better physical fitness. Respondents also enjoyed the flavour of ecigarettes and the sensation of inhalation. Side effects included dryness of the mouth and throat. Respondents complained about the frequent technical failures of ecigarettes and had some concerns about the possible toxicity of the devices and about their future legal status. Conclusions Ecigarettes were used mainly to quit smoking, and may be helpful for this purpose, but several respondents were concerned about potential toxicity. There are very few published studies on ecigarettes and research is urgently required, particularly on the efficacy and toxicity of these devices.

  8. The effects of repeated exposure to graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Bos, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarette packages. In this field-experiment, 118 smokers were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions with either graphic fear appeals or textual warnings on their cigarette packages. During 3 weeks, fear and disgust were assessed 6 times. The intention to quit smoking after 3 weeks and quitting activity during the 3 weeks were the dependent measures. The effects of 3 pretest individual difference moderators were tested: disengagement beliefs, number of cigarettes smoked a day, and readiness to quit. Three weeks of exposure to the graphic fear appeals led to a stronger intention to quit, but only when smokers scored low on disengagement beliefs, or were heavier smokers. In addition, smokers low in disengagement more often reported to have cut down on smoking in the graphic condition. There were no indications of habituation of fear and disgust over the 3 weeks. The effects of graphic fear appeals depended on smokers' characteristics: The moderators may explain the mixed findings in the literature. The lack of habituation may be caused by the renewal of the graphics every few days. The used field-experimental design with natural repeated exposure to graphics is promising. PMID:25621418

  9. Marlboro and Other Usual Brand Choices by Youth Smokers in Middle Eastern Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed data from 118,743 adolescents completing 30 different Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 15 different Middle Eastern countries between 1999 and 2007 to determine the proportion of young smokers who usually smoked Marlboro, other cigarette brands, or no usual brand smoked in these countries. Marlboro was the most…

  10. E-cigarette use in young Swiss men : is vaping an effective way of reducing or quitting smoking ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gmel G.; Baggio S.; Mohler-Kuo M.; Daeppen J.B.; Studer J.

    2016-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY: To test longitudinally differences in conventional cigarette use (cigarettes smoked, cessation, quit attempts) between vapers and nonvapers. METHODS: Fifteen months follow-up of a sample of 5 128 20-year-old Swiss men. The onset of conventional cigarette (CC) use among nonsmokers, and smoking cessation, quit attempts, changes in the number of CCs smoked among smokers at baseline were compared between vapers and nonvapers at follow-up, adjusted for nicotine dependen...

  11. DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Email Facebook Twitter Revised May ... by ©iStock.com/kitiara65/ http://istockpho.to/1SWVugO Electronic cigarettes (also called e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine ...

  12. Are marketing campaigns in Taiwan by foreign tobacco companies targeting young smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C; Chen, T; Tsai, Y; Tsai, S; Chung, W; Cheng, T; Levy, D; Hsu, C; Peterson, R; Liu, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of promotions on cigarette sales in Taiwan after the cigarette market opened to foreign companies, and to assess whether young smokers were targeted by these companies. Methods: Trends in cigarette sales, advertising expenditure, brand preference, and cigarette consumption were examined for the period following the 1987 opening of the cigarette market. Tobacco industry internal documents from Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, were searched for corporate strategies on promoting youth consumption in Taiwan. Results: Between 1995 and 2000, the inflation adjusted advertising expenditures by all foreign firms increased fourfold. Much of the expenditure was spent on brand stretching the Mild Seven (Japan) and Davidoff (Germany) brands in television advertising. By 2000, the market share of foreign cigarettes exceeded domestics by three to one among young smokers and the leading brand preferred by this segment shifted from the most popular domestic brand (Long Life) to a foreign brand (Mild Seven). Furthermore, there was a sudden increase of 16.4% in smoking rates among young adults (from 36.1% to 42.0%) during the first five years after the market opened. This was also accompanied by increased per capita cigarette consumption and decreased age of smoking initiation. Industry documents confirmed the use of strategies targeted at the young. In particular, establishing new point of sale (POS) retail stores or promotional activities at POS were found to be more effective than advertising in magazines. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that advertising increased with increased competition following the market opening, which, in turn, spurred cigarette sales and consumption. Foreign tobacco companies have deliberately targeted youth in Taiwan and succeeded in gaining three quarters of their cigarette purchases within a decade. Expanding youth consumption will incur excessive future health

  13. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (ppack appeal (pcigarette quality (ppacks (pcigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  14. Mu Opioid Receptor Binding Correlates with Nicotine Dependence and Reward in Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Kuwabara

    Full Text Available The rewarding effects of nicotine are associated with activation of nicotine receptors. However, there is increasing evidence that the endogenous opioid system is involved in nicotine's rewarding effects. We employed PET imaging with [11C]carfentanil to test the hypotheses that acute cigarette smoking increases release of endogenous opioids in the human brain and that smokers have an upregulation of mu opioid receptors (MORs when compared to nonsmokers. We found no significant changes in binding potential (BPND of [11C]carfentanil between the placebo and the active cigarette sessions, nor did we observe differences in MOR binding between smokers and nonsmokers. Interestingly, we showed that in smokers MOR availability in bilateral superior temporal cortices during the placebo condition was negatively correlated with scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Also in smokers, smoking-induced decreases in [11C]carfentanil binding in frontal cortical regions were associated with self-reports of cigarette liking and wanting. Although we did not show differences between smokers and nonsmokers, the negative correlation with FTND corroborates the role of MORs in superior temporal cortices in nicotine addiction and provides preliminary evidence of a role of endogenous opioid signaling in frontal cortex in nicotine reward.

  15. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μ Sv y-1 (average 79.7 μ Sv y-1), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μ Sv y-1 (average 67.1 μ Sv y-1) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μ Sv y-1 (average 104.7 μ Sv y-1), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μ Sv y-1 (average 251.5 μ Sv y-1). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y-1 (average 199.3 nSv y-1). (authors)

  16. Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In non-smokers, ozone (O3) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and dead space (VD) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (SN). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O3 boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19 M, 11 F, 24 ± 4 years, 6 ± 4 total years smoking,4 ± 2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17 M, 13 F, 25 ± 6 years) exercised for 1 h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30 ppm O3. Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV1 (− 9.5 ± 1.8% vs − 8.7 ± 1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of VD (− 6.1 ± 1.2%) and SN (9.1 ± 3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (VD/VT) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4 ± 2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O3 and, uniquely, experience changes in VD that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in SN. - Highlights: • We previously found lung function responses to O3 bolus exposure in smokers. • Here, we describe their responsiveness to continuous O3 exposure with exercise. • Spirometry and capnography were used to assess pulmonary function changes. • Enhanced bronchoconstriction in smokers increases parenchymal delivery of O3

  17. AWARENESS OF HARMFUL EFFECTS OF SMOKING AMONG SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is the preventable risk factor for many non - communicable diseases like COPD, atherosclerotic diseases, stroke and many malignancies. Many smokers smoke their 1 st cigarette at early age due to various social factors. Ma ny of the smokers doesn’t know the harmful effects of the smoking on individual systems. METHODS : Prospective study conducted on 102 smokers attending to outpatient department of the Government fever hospital, Guntur. They were surveyed about their smoking preferences. After taking the preliminary details they are enquired about the level of awareness of harmful effects of smoking. RESULT : More than half the members (n=56 , 54.90% smoke in their houses. They don’t know about effect of second hand smoke on th e health of the members. Only few members know the complication of the smoking like Skin diseases (17 , 16.66%, Cerebrovascular accidents (26 , 25.49% and endocrine complications including diabetes (n=2, 1.8%. Most of subjects know risk of Carcinomas (92,90 .19%, Cardiovascular diseases (34,33.33% and Respiratory diseases (85,83.33%. People continue smoking inspite of awareness of complications of smoking due their addiction. CONCLUSIONS : Newer policies should raise towards educating the people about the exact impact of smoking on health. Policies should target the younger people that should stop smoking their 1 st cigarette or beedi

  18. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production

  19. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Wolfgang; Szendrei, Katalin; Matzen, Wolfgang; Osiander-Fuchs, Helga; Heitmann, Dieter; Schettgen, Thomas; Jörres, Rudolf A; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (PM), particle number concentrations (PNC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbonyls, and metals. In six vaping sessions nine volunteers consumed e-cigarettes with and without nicotine in a thoroughly ventilated room for two hours. We analyzed the levels of e-cigarette pollutants in indoor air and monitored effects on FeNO release and urinary metabolite profile of the subjects. For comparison, the components of the e-cigarette solutions (liquids) were additionally analyzed. During the vaping sessions substantial amounts of 1,2-propanediol, glycerine and nicotine were found in the gas-phase, as well as high concentrations of PM2.5 (mean 197 μg/m(3)). The concentration of putative carcinogenic PAH in indoor air increased by 20% to 147 ng/m(3), and aluminum showed a 2.4-fold increase. PNC ranged from 48,620 to 88,386 particles/cm(3) (median), with peaks at diameters 24-36 nm. FeNO increased in 7 of 9 individuals. The nicotine content of the liquids varied and was 1.2-fold higher than claimed by the manufacturer. Our data confirm that e-cigarettes are not emission-free and their pollutants could be of health concern for users and secondhand smokers. In particular, ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor can be deposited in the lung, and aerosolized nicotine seems capable of increasing the release of the inflammatory signaling molecule NO upon inhalation. In view of consumer safety, e-cigarettes and nicotine liquids should be officially regulated and labeled with appropriate warnings of potential health effects, particularly of toxicity risk in children. PMID:24373737

  20. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  1. Hyper-resting brain entropy within chronic smokers and its moderation by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Fang, Zhuo; Hager, Nathan; Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, and remains a premier cause of morbidity and mortality. Functional neuroimaging has been used to assess differences in the mean strength of brain activity in smokers' brains, however less is known about the temporal dynamics within smokers' brains. Temporal dynamics is a key feature of a dynamic system such as the brain, and may carry information critical to understanding the brain mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking. We measured the temporal dynamics of brain activity using brain entropy (BEN) mapping and compared BEN between chronic non-deprived smokers and non-smoking controls. Because of the known sex differences in neural and behavioral smoking characteristics, comparisons were also made between males and females. Associations between BEN and smoking related clinical measures were assessed in smokers. Our data showed globally higher BEN in chronic smokers compared to controls. The escalated BEN was associated with more years of smoking in the right limbic area and frontal region. Female nonsmokers showed higher BEN than male nonsmokers in prefrontal cortex, insula, and precuneus, but the BEN sex difference in smokers was less pronounced. These findings suggest that BEN mapping may provide a useful tool for probing brain mechanisms related to smoking. PMID:27377552

  2. Radon-induced lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers: risk implications using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sets of data (population statistics in non-smokers, data from an investigation of the smoking habits of British doctors and a study of Colorado uranium miners) were used to analyse lung cancer in humans as a function of exposure to radon and smoking. One of the aims was to derive implications for radon risk estimates. The data were analysed using a two-mutation radiation carcinogenesis model and a stepwise determination of the model parameters. The basic model parameters for lung cancer were derived from the age dependence fit of the spontaneous lung cancer incidence in non-smokers. The effect of smoking was described by two additional parameters and, subsequently, the effect of radon by three other parameters; these five parameters define the dependence of the two mutation steps on smoking and exposure to radon. Using this approach, a consistent fit and comprehensive description of the three sets of data have been achieved, and the parameters could, at least partly, be related to cellular radiobiological data. The model results explain the different effect of radon on non-smokers and smokers as seen in epidemiological data. Although the analysis was only applied to a limited number of populations, lung cancer incidence as a result of radon exposure is estimated to be about ten times higher for people exposed at the age of about 15 than at about 50, although this effect is masked (especially for smokers) by the high lung cancer incidence from smoking. Using the model to calculate the lung cancer risks from lifetime exposure to radon, as is the case for indoor radon, higher risks were estimated than previously derived from epidemiological studies of the miners' data. The excess absolute risk per unit exposure of radon is about 1.7 times higher for smokers of 30 cigarettes per day than for non-smokers, even though, as a result of the low spontaneous tumour incidence in the non-smokers, the excess relative risk per unit exposure for the smokers is about 20 times

  3. Smokers' strategic responses to sin taxes: evidence from panel data in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S; Ross, Hana

    2015-02-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, sociodemographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of roll-your-own tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to overestimates of a sin tax's health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses. PMID:24677731

  4. [The biggest fraud of the century: light cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Francis

    2005-01-01

    "The biggest fraud of the century: 'light' cigarettes" exposes one of the largest scams companies have exerted on their consummers. Exploiting the dreams of smokers to find cigarettes which would not harm them as much, tobacco manufacturers duped and lurred millions of people by making them believe such a product existed and encouraged them to take up "light" cigarettes, while they knew internally that these products were by no means less dangerous. Tobacco manufacturers also lurred public authorities by neglecting to share vital information on the way smokers do not behave like measuring machines and would compensate by drawing on their cigarettes according to their nicotine intake needs. Thus smoking machines utilised to measure tar and nicotine intake could never reflect the reality and would render the content information printed on packs of cigarette meaningless. Very few countries have banned the misleading descriptors such as "light". It is hoped that the FCTC which includes a provision on the use of descriptors will prevent the fraud being repeated in the rest of the world and especially in the countries of Africa. PMID:16190263

  5. Retreatment With Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Smokers Who Have Previously Taken Varenicline: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, D.; Hajek, P; Pliamm, L; Nackaerts, K; Tseng, L-J; McRae, T. D.; Treadow, J

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of retreatment with varenicline in smokers attempting to quit were evaluated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial (Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States). Participants were generally healthy adult smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with ≥1 prior quit attempt (≥2 weeks) using varenicline and no quit attempts in ≤3 months; they were randomly assigned (1:1) to 12 weeks' varen...

  6. Impaired sleep quality and sleep duration in smokers-results from the German Multicenter Study on Nicotine Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Cohrs, S.; Rodenbeck, A; Riemann, D.; Szagun, B.; Jaehne, A.; Brinkmeyer, J.; Grunder, G.; Wienker, T; Diaz-Lacava, A.; Mobascher, A.; Dahmen, N.; Thuerauf, N.; Kornhuber, J.; Kiefer, F.; Gallinat, J

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a severe health burden being related to a number of chronic diseases. Frequently, smokers report about sleep problems. Sleep disturbance, in turn, has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathophysiology of several disorders related to smoking and may be relevant for the pathophysiology of nicotine dependence. Therefore, determining the frequency of sleep disturbance in otherwise healthy smokers and its association with degree of nicotine dependence is highly relevant....

  7. Visual Assessment of CT Findings in Smokers With Nonobstructed Spirometric Abnormalities in The COPDGene® Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Stinson, Douglas S.; Zach, Jordan A.; McKenzie, Alexander S.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Wan, Emily S.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Lynch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Within the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study population of cigarette smokers, 9% were found to be unclassifiable by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. This study was to identify the differences in computed tomography (CT) findings between this nonobstructed (GOLDU) group and a control group of smokers with normal lung function. This research was approved by the institutional review board of each institution. CT images of 400 participants in t...

  8. Cigarette cravings, impulsivity and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Potvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g. someone smoking trigger significant cravings in smokers which impedes their self-control capacities and promotes drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, panning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies and self-regulation and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit and genetic factors. Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingular mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation.

  9. No sisyphean task: how the FDA can regulate electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of smoking have fostered a natural market for smoking cessation and smoking reduction products. Smokers attempting to quit or reduce consumption have tried everything: "low" or "light" cigarettes; nicotine-infused chewing gum, lozenges, and lollipops; dermal patches; and even hypnosis. The latest craze in the quest to find a safer source of nicotine is the electronic cigarette. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have swept the market, reaching a rapidly expanding international consumer base. Boasting nicotine delivery and the tactile feel of a traditional cigarette without the dozens of other chemical constituents that contribute to carcinogenicity, e-cigarettes are often portrayed as less risky, as a smoking reduction or even a complete smoking cessation product, and perhaps most troubling for its appeal to youth, as a flavorful, trendy, and convenient accessory. The sensationalism associated with e-cigarettes has spurred outcry from health and medical professional groups, as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), because of the unknown effects on public health. Inhabiting a realm of products deemed "tobacco products" under recent 2009 legislation, e-cigarettes pose new challenges to FDA regulation because of their novel method of nicotine delivery, various mechanical and electrical parts, and nearly nonexistent safety data. Consumer use, marketing and promotional claims, and technological characteristics of e-cigarettes have also raised decades old questions of when the FDA can assert authority over products as drugs or medical devices. Recent case law restricting FDA enforcement efforts against e-cigarettes further confounds the distinction among drugs and medical devices, emerging e-cigarette products, and traditional tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. This Article investigates the e-cigarette phenomenon in the wake of the recently enacted Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009

  10. Taking ad-Vantage of lax advertising regulation in the USA and Canada: Reassuring and distracting health-concerned smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Stacey J; Pollay, Richard W; Ling, Pamela M.

    2006-01-01

    We explored the evolution from cigarette product attributes to psychosocial needs in advertising campaigns for low-tar cigarettes. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and print advertising images indicated that low-tar brands targeted smokers who were concerned about their health with advertising images intended to distract them from the health hazards of smoking. Advertising first emphasized product characteristics (filtration, low tar) that implied health benefits. Over...

  11. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I;

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  12. The Length of Cigarette Smoking is the Principal Risk Factor for Developing COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senaida Bišanović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The deterioration in lung function associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is directly related to duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked. Over 85% of lung cancers are attributed to smoking. The problem is, whether the length of smoking consumption period has more impact to COPD and lung cancer than the bigger number of cigarettes smoked per day?Examinees and methods: The sample has constituted of two groups of examinees, smokers, both gender, age 25-64 years old. The first group consisted of 240 examinees divided in 8 subgroups according to a number of years they have been smoking. The second group consisted of 180 examinees, which was divided in 6 subgroups, according to average number of cigarettes smoked daily during the smoking consumption period.Results: The prevalence of smoking was higher in men (65.7% vs. 62% than in women (34.3% vs. 38%. Smoking duration in the group of smokers according to the length of smoking consumption period was 20.34±10.63 y and in the group of smokers according to a number of cigarettes smoked daily 13.55±8.20y. COPD were registered as the most frequent lung disease, in the group of smokers according to a number of cigarettes smoked per day 52.2% and in the group according to the length of smoking consumption period 39.1%, and the middle values of FEV1 (82.77% vs. 97.64%, and FEV1/FVC (86.02% vs. 97.73% were lower in the group of smokers according to a number of cigarettes smoked.Conclusion: Chronic respiratory symptoms, impairment of lung function and diagnosis of COPD depended more on the length of smoking duration than a number of cigarettes smoked.

  13. Maximizing help for dissonant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, M

    2000-01-01

    'Consonant' smokers know and accept the risks associated with tobacco consumption, and do not wish to change their smoking, whereas 'dissonant' smokers are tobacco consumers whose attitudes differ from their behaviour. Dissonant smokers have several options: to quit smoking (the optimal solution), reduce their smoking, switch products or brands, or do nothing. To date, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is the best-established medical aid to smoking cessation, but several important factors impact on NRT use. As smokers constitute a diverse group there is a need for various different formulations, some of which will suit certain smokers better than others. Smokers should be allowed to select their preferred products in order to increase compliance, and should also be permitted to combine various products if desired. Adequate dosage regimens should be stressed in order to avoid under-dosing, which is common with NRT. It is also essential that the medical system focuses increasingly on the diagnosis and treatment of those smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. High nicotine dependence correlates with a high risk of pulmonary and cardiovascular disease; because these smokers cannot quit, cessation efforts have little impact on the incidence of tobacco-related diseases in this population. Additional smoking control interventions, such as smoking reduction therapy, are therefore required to treat this group. Our experience in Vienna shows that these smokers can be targeted through approaches that utilize new messages offering alternatives to cessation. PMID:10723817

  14. Quantitative differentiation of dendritic cells in lung tissues of smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yan-wei; XU Yong-jian; LIU Xian-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to be an inflammatory immune response disease. In most cases, the disease is caused by cigarette smoke, but it has been demonstrated that only 10% to 20% of smokers will definitely suffer from COPD. Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be the promoter of immune responses.However, the underlying mechanisms involved are still unrevealed. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quantitative differentiation of pulmonary DC in smokers with or without COPD to explore the possible role of DCs in smokers suffering COPD.Methods Peripheral lung specimens from non-smokers without airflow obstruction (control group, n=7), smokers without airflow obstruction (smoker group, n=7) and patients with COPD (COPD group, n=7) were investigated to detect the quantity of S-100 and CD1a positive cells by immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent assay.Results In smokers with COPD, the number of S-100+ DCs was higher than in the controls and smokers without COPD (P 0.05). An inverse correlation was found between the number of DCs and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)% pred (r=-0.75, P <0.05), which was also found between the number of DCs and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=-0.72, P <0.05). The mean number of CD1a+ DCs, increased from non-smokers to non-COPD smokers to COPD patients, with significant differences between each group (P <0.01).Conclusions The quantity of DCs significantly increased in smokers with COPD compared with non-smokers or smokers without COPD. The results suggest that DCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced COPD, and the upregulation of DCs may be a potential maker to identify the smokers who have more liability to suffer from COPD.

  15. Test of "Light" cigarette counter-advertising using a standard test of advertising effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Shiffman, S; Burton, S.; Pillitteri, J.; Gitchell, J; Di, M.; C. Sweeney; Wardle, P.; Koehler, G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate systematically the effectiveness of six advertising strategies (two message strategies presented in three different contexts) designed to promote smoking cessation by addressing smokers' misperceptions about Light cigarettes.
DESIGN—Smokers viewed one of six, 30 second test television concept advertisements, which varied by message (one emphasising how the sensory effects of Lights can be deceptive, the other describing the effects of vent blocking) and by ad context (no...

  16. Family and friends influences on cigarette smoking tendency among the dormitories students of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Shojaa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking leads to harmful physical and emotional disorder. Since the family atmosphere plays an important role on nurture of children, our study was done to study perspectives of the students about the family and friends influence on cigarette smoking. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among the residents in dormitories in Golestan University of Medical Sciences which is located in Gorgan, North of Iran in 2010. The sample size consisted all of the dormitories’ students. The data was gathered using a valid and reliable questionnaire and was analyzed by SPSS software and statistical tests including Chi-square, Logistic regression and Independent t-test. Results: Of 669 students, 538 of them filled out the questionnaires completely. 6.1% of them were smoker and 83.5% of them had experiences of cigarette smoking. The most important reason for the smoking tendency was "having a smoker friend". There were significant relationships among smoking with “age, gender, ethnicity, year of education, smoker mother and smoker friend” (P<0.05. Smoker mother (OR: 8.26, CI:1.97-34.68 and smoker friend (OR:4.21, CI:1.83-9.67 increased the chance of cigarette smoking tendency of the students. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was more common among the students who have close smoker friends. It seems that enhance of public awareness about detrimental effects of smoking is needed.

  17. Addiction to the nicotine gum in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etter Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction to nicotine gum has never been described in never smokers or in never users of tobacco. Methods Internet questionnaire in 2004–2006 in a self-selected sample of 434 daily users of nicotine gum. To assess dependence on nicotine gum, we used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Cigarette Dependence Scale. Results Five never smokers used the nicotine gum daily. They had been using the nicotine gum for longer than the 429 ever smokers (median = 6 years vs 0.8 years, p = 0.004, and they had higher NDSS-gum Tolerance scores (median = 0.73 vs = -1.0, p = 0.03, a difference of 1.5 standard deviation units. Two never smokers had never used smokeless tobacco, both answered "extremely true" to: "I use nicotine gums because I am addicted to them", both "fully agreed" with: "after a few hours without chewing a nicotine gum, I feel an irresistible urge to chew one" and: "I am a prisoner of nicotine gum". Conclusion This is to our knowledge the first report of addiction to nicotine gum in never users of tobacco. However, this phenomenon is rare, and although the long-term effect of nicotine gum is unknown, this product is significantly less harmful than tobacco.

  18. Use of spirometry in detecting airway obstruction in asymptomatic smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To detect spirometric abnormalities in asymptomatic smokers in relation to duration of smoking. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at PNS Shifa from Oct 2006 to June 2007. Subjects and Methods: Hundred individuals were included in this study who fulfilled the required criteria. Spirometry was done after briefing the patient about the procedure. Smokers were divided into two groups. Group I (5 to 9 pack years) and group II (= 10 pack years). All relevant information were recorded on Performa (Annex-A). The data was analyzed through SPSS-10, in terms of Mean +- SD (Standard Deviation) for numeric response variables and independent sample T test was applied to compare significance of proportion for numeric response variables at p < 0.05. Categorical variables were compared by applying Chi-square test at p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: Significant statistical difference was found between the mean age in the two groups with p-value of 0.011. This may be due to the longer duration of smoking history in Group II. Strong association was found between number of cigarette smoked and the pattern of airway obstruction as significant statistical difference of airway obstruction and early airflow limitation was found between the two groups of smokers at p value of 0.004. Conclusion: There is strong association between duration of smoking and development of airway obstruction even before the smoker become symptomatic. (author)

  19. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood : relation to cigarette smoking and other sources

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Anna-Maja; Nilsson Sojka, Birgitta; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umea, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked ...

  20. REINFORCING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE AND NON-NICOTINE COMPONENTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Jed E.; Salley, Al; Behm, Frederique M.; Bates, James E.; Westman, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the reinforcing effects of nicotine and non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke, by presenting a concurrent choice paradigm in which participants had access to intravenous (IV) nicotine infusions vs. saline (placebo) infusions and puffs from denicotinized (“denic”) cigarettes vs. air (sham puffs). We also measured the effects on self-administration of prior satiation with each component. Sixteen smokers participated in 7 sessions, consisting of: 1) a baseline smoking assessment...

  1. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  2. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollay, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen.
METHODS—Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada.
RESULTS—Careful and extensive research has been employed in all stages of the process of conceiving, developing, refining, and deploying cigarette advertising. Two segments commanding much management attention are "starters" and "concerned smokers". To recruit starters, brand images communicate independence, freedom and (sometimes) peer acceptance. These advertising images portray smokers as attractive and autonomous, accepted and admired, athletic and at home in nature. For "lighter" brands reassuring health concerned smokers, lest they quit, advertisements provide imagery conveying a sense of well being, harmony with nature, and a consumer's self image as intelligent.
CONCLUSIONS—The industry's steadfast assertions that its advertising influences only brand loyalty and switching in both its intent and effect is directly contradicted by their internal documents and proven false. So too is the justification of cigarette advertising as a medium creating better informed consumers, since visual imagery, not information, is the means of advertising influence.


Keywords: advertising; brand imagery; market research; youth targeting; "concerned" smokers; corporate documents PMID:10841849

  3. Bronchial airway gene expression in smokers with lung or head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the respiratory tract, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to better understand carcinogenesis of the lung and upper airways, we have compared the gene expression profiles of tumor-distant, histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from current smokers with NSCLC or HNC (SC, considered as a single group), as well as nonsmokers (NS) and smokers without cancer (SNC). RNA from a total of 97 biopsies was used for gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array). Differentially expressed genes were used to compare NS, SNC, and SC, and functional analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Smoking-related cancer of the respiratory tract was found to affect the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic biotransformation proteins, as well as proteins associated with crucial inflammation/immunity pathways and other processes that protect the airway from the chemicals in cigarette smoke or contribute to carcinogenesis. Finally, we used the prediction analysis for microarray (PAM) method to identify gene signatures of cigarette smoking and cancer, and uncovered a 15-gene signature that distinguished between SNC and SC with an accuracy of 83%. Thus, gene profiling of histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens provided insight into cigarette-induced carcinogenesis of the respiratory tract and gene signatures of cancer in smokers

  4. E-cigarettes for the management of nicotine addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, Chris; Knight-West, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Oliver Knight-West, Christopher Bullen The National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: In this review, we discuss current evidence on electronic cigarettes (ECs), a rapidly evolving class of nicotine delivery system, and their role in managing nicotine addiction, specifically in helping smokers to quit smoking and/or reduce the amount of tobacco they smoke. The current evidence base is limited to t...

  5. Macrophage-stimulating protein differently affects human alveolar macrophages from smoker and non-smoker patients: evaluation of respiratory burst, cytokine release and NF-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunella, Gabriele; Bardelli, Claudio; Amoruso, Angela; Viano, Ilario; Balbo, Piero; Brunelleschi, Sandra

    2006-06-01

    Macrophage activation is a key feature of inflammatory reactions occurring during bacterial infections, immune responses and tissue injury. We previously demonstrated that human macrophages of different origin express the tyrosine kinase receptor recepteur d'origine nantaise, the human receptor for MSP (RON) and produce superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) when challenged with macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), the endogenous ligand for RON. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of MSP in alveolar macrophages (AM) isolated from healthy volunteers and patients with interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), either smokers or non-smokers, by evaluating the respiratory burst, cytokine release and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. MSP effects were compared with those induced by known AM stimuli, for example, phorbol myristate acetate, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide.MSP evokes O(2)(-) production, cytokine release and NF-kappaB activation in a concentration-dependent manner. By evaluating the respiratory burst, we demonstrate a significantly increased O(2)(-) production in AM from healthy smokers or smokers with pulmonary fibrosis, as compared to non-smokers, thus suggesting MSP as an enhancer of cigarette smoke toxicity. Besides inducing interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production, MSP triggers an enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha release, especially in healthy and pulmonary fibrosis smokers. On the contrary, MSP-induced IL-10 release is higher in AM from healthy non-smokers. MSP activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB; this effect is more potent in healthy and fibrosis smokers (2.5-fold increase in p50 subunit translocation). This effect is receptor-mediated, as it is prevented by a monoclonal anti-human MSP antibody. The higher effectiveness of MSP in AM from healthy smokers and patients with pulmonary fibrosis is suggestive of its role in these clinical conditions

  6. Physiological effects of cigarette smoking in the limbic system revealed by 3 tesla magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecke, Angelika; Gossler, Andrea; Hammen, Thilo; Dörfler, Arnd; Stadlbauer, Andreas; Rösch, Julie; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Dölken, Marc; Thürauf, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    Several studies and recent models of effects of nicotine, the main addictive and psychoactive component in tobacco, point to action of the drug on the limbic system during maintenance of addiction, either direct or indirect via projections from the ventral tegmental area. The objective of this study was to demonstrate physiological effects of cigarette smoking on the hippocampus and the grey matter of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain with regard to addiction and withdrawal. This aim was achieved by group comparisons of results of magnetic resonance spectroscopy between non-smokers, smokers and smokers during withdrawal. 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers were measured with single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for total N-acetyl aspartate, glutamate and glutamine, choline-containing compounds, myo-inositol and total creatine in the right and the left hippocampus and in the right and the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Smokers were examined twice, first during regular cigarette smoking and second on the third day of nicotine withdrawal. The ratios to total creatine were used for better reliability. In our study, Glx/tCr was significantly increased and tCho/tCr was significantly decreased in the left cingulate cortex in smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.01, both). Six out of seven smokers showed normalization of the Glx/tCr in the left cingulate cortex during withdrawal. Although these results are preliminary due to the small sample size, our results confirm the assumption that cigarette smoking interferes directly or indirectly with the glutamate circuit in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:24643301

  7. Diet, cigarettes and alcohol in laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenheim, J.L.; Graham, S.; Byers, T.E.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.K.; Wilkinson, G. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the larynx were examined in a case-control study among white males in Western New York, conducted in 1975-1985. Incident, pathologically-confirmed cases and age- and neighborhood-matched controls were interviewed to determine usual diet, and lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol. Because response rates were low for both cases and controls, this cannot be considered a population-based study. A strong association of risk with cigarette but not pipe and cigar smoking was found. Beer and hard liquor but not wine were associated with increased risk. After control for cigarettes, alcohol and education, the upper quartile odds ratio for fat was 2.40, while the odds ratio for high intake of carotenoids was 0.51. There was effect modification by smoking. Carotenoids were most negatively associated with risk among lighter smokers; dietary fat was most positively associated with risk among heavier smokers. Total calories, protein, and retinol were associated with increased risk; there was no relationship between laryngeal cancer and vitamins C and E or carbohydrate. This study again demonstrates the strong association between tobacco and alcohol and laryngeal cancer and also suggests that diets low in carotenoids and high fat may increase risk.

  8. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Stop Smoking Services (SSS are a source of information and advice on e-cigarettes for smokers and thus it is important to understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes held by stop smoking practitioners. The datasets were English SSS quarterly monitoring returns (n = 207,883 and an online survey of English SSS practitioners, managers, and commissioners between 26th November and 15th December 2014 (n = 1801. SSS monitoring data suggested 2% of clients were using e-cigarettes to quit with SSS and that clients using e-cigarettes had similar quit rates to clients using Varenicline. Most SSS personnel are waiting for licenced e-cigarettes to become available before they will recommend them to clients. However, less than a quarter view e-cigarettes as “a good thing”. Managers and commissioners were more positive than practitioners. SSS personnel working for the NHS (hospitals and GP surgeries were less positive about e-cigarettes than those employed elsewhere. E-cigarettes were cited as the most important reason for the recent decline in service footfall. Thus dissemination of information about e-cigarettes needs to be examined and services should address their stance on e-cigarettes with some urgency.

  9. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Arnott, Deborah; Dockrell, Martin; Ross, Louise; McEwen, Andy

    2015-12-01

    The UK Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are a source of information and advice on e-cigarettes for smokers and thus it is important to understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes held by stop smoking practitioners. The datasets were English SSS quarterly monitoring returns (n = 207,883) and an online survey of English SSS practitioners, managers, and commissioners between 26th November and 15th December 2014 (n = 1801). SSS monitoring data suggested 2% of clients were using e-cigarettes to quit with SSS and that clients using e-cigarettes had similar quit rates to clients using Varenicline. Most SSS personnel are waiting for licenced e-cigarettes to become available before they will recommend them to clients. However, less than a quarter view e-cigarettes as "a good thing". Managers and commissioners were more positive than practitioners. SSS personnel working for the NHS (hospitals and GP surgeries) were less positive about e-cigarettes than those employed elsewhere. E-cigarettes were cited as the most important reason for the recent decline in service footfall. Thus dissemination of information about e-cigarettes needs to be examined and services should address their stance on e-cigarettes with some urgency. PMID:26703638

  10. Cigarette use, Cigarette Consumption and Price of Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingMing Li

    2016-01-01

    两种经验方法在这篇研究论文中使用,为了调查在美国香烟价格跟香烟需求的关系通过可以找到的数据信息。这篇论文的目的为了调查香烟的价格是否是一个强有力的方式去减少香烟的需求。论文中的的数据收集来源于美国的48个州从1985年到1995年,目的是检测香烟价格跟其他独立的变量对香烟需求的作用。最小二乘回归模型跟虚拟变量的最小二乘法模型已经使用去决定香烟价格的作用。此外,其他因素像人均GDP,人口,CPI也使用在模型中去证实潜在的关系对于香烟需求。报告结果显示了任何方式的香烟价格上升将会导致个人香烟需求的下降。香烟需求的百分比下降取决于香烟价格的百分比上升,这个现象可以通过需求的价格弹性去估量。基于报告的分析可以放心的作出结论,香烟价格上升仍然是一种有效的工具去减少香烟的需求。%In this research paper two empirical methodologies are used for studying the relation between cigarette price and cigarette consumption in America with available statistical information. The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether the price of cigarette is a powerful method for cutting cigarette consumption. The statistical information used in the paper is collected from 48 U.S. states over the period from 1985 to 1995 for examining the effect of cigarette price and others independent variables on cigarette consumption. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model and Least square dummy variable model are used to determine effect of cigarette price. Furthermore, other factors such as GDP per capita, population and Consumer price index (CPI), have been added into the model to attest to their potential nexuses with cigarette consumption. The result of the report shows that any increase in the price of cigarettes will decrease personal consumption of cigarettes. Higher prices increase costs to

  11. Radioactivity levels in jurak and moasel, comparison with cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurak and moasel are tobacco products that contain, in addition to tobacco, juice of sugar cane, fruits, spices, tar and nicotine. These products are smoked by hubble-bubble, a popular smoking habit in the Middle Eastern and North African countries. Charcoal is put directly on these products during smoking and the smoke passes through water for cooling purpose before it goes to the lung, without filtering. Radioactivity levels were measured in these products, tobacco leaves, charcoal and in cigarette tobacco of most well known brand names by gamma spectrometry system consisting of HPGe detector coupled to a PC-based 8192 channel multichannel analyzer. The average 226Ra concentrations in jurak, moasel, tobacco leaves, charcoal and cigarette tobacco in Bq/kg were:3.4, 1.8, 3.2, 2.9 and 7 respectively; that of 232Th were: 3.8, 2.6, 3.5, 2.2 and 7.8 respectively; that of 40K were 620, 445, 511, 163 and 876 respectively. It is expected that a jurak smoker inhales 10 times the radioactivity and a moasel smoker twice that compared to a 25 cigarette/d smoker. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Opinions of Turkish University Students on Cigarette Smoking at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keloglu-Isler, Esra; Erdogan, Irfan

    Cigarette smoking among college students is a critical public health problem with serious personal and social consequences. This study examined college student opinions about smoking in the student cafeteria, hallways and offices, considering smoking as freedom of choice, complying with the cigarette law and policy of universities on smoking. A sample of 1527 students (53.9% female, 46.1% male) attending to the six prestigious universities in Ankara, Turkey, completed a ten-item questionnaire. Results of the study showed that nonsmoking students reported the most favorable opinions toward the issues questioned, whereas occasional smokers and regular smokers reported the least favorable opinions. The highest level of disagreement by smokers and nonsmokers was provided for banning cigarette smoking in the cafeteria. Students generally agreed on that teachers should not smoke in the classrooms and in their offices with doors open. Recommended actions include campus-wide no-smoking policies embracing indoors and outdoors and identification and use of new ways of providing smoking prevention and cessation programs and services.

  13. Effect of the number of cigarettes smoked and of radon exposure on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between the extent of cigarette smoking and the lung cancer risk in people exposed to radon was examined. The changes in the airway geometry due to an increased production of mucus caused by smoking were taken into account. The mucous layer protects the target cells from the effects of ionizing radiation. The radiation risk per unit exposure decreases with the number of cigarettes smoked, in contrast to the total risk, which increases to stagnate in the range of extensive daily cigarette smoking. Lung damage in chronic smokers should be taken into account, though. (orig.)

  14. CDC: Tips from Former Smokers – Tiffany PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-28

    When Tiffany was 16, her mother—a cigarette smoker—died of lung cancer. Tiffany quit smoking at 34 because she wanted to be around for her own daughter, who had just turned 16. In this 60 second PSA from CDC's Tips From Former Smokers campaign, Tiffany offers tips on how to quit.  Created: 3/28/2013 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  15. Implicit associations and compensatory health beliefs in smokers: Exploring their role for behaviour and their change through warning labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Müller, B.C.N.; Krolak-Schwerdt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Smokers might think that the negative effects of smoking can be compensated for by other behaviours, such as doing exercise or eating healthily. This phenomenon is known as compensatory health beliefs (CHBs). Graphic warning labels on cigarette packets emphasize the negative effects of sm

  16. Conditioned cortical reactivity to cues predicting cigarette-related or pleasant images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, Menton M; Robinson, Jason D; Cinciripini, Paul M; Versace, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Through Pavlovian conditioning, reward-associated neutral stimuli can acquire incentive salience and motivate complex behaviors. In smokers, cigarette-associated cues may induce cravings and trigger smoking. Understanding the brain mechanisms underlying conditioned responses to cigarette-associated relative to other inherently pleasant stimuli might contribute to the development of more effective smoking cessation treatments that emphasize the rehabilitation of reward circuitry. Here we measured brain responses to geometric patterns (the conditioned stimuli, CSs) predicting cigarette-related, intrinsically pleasant and neutral images (the unconditioned stimuli, USs) using event-related potentials (ERPs) in 29 never-smokers, 20 nicotine-deprived smokers, and 19 non-deprived smokers. Results showed that during US presentation, cigarette-related and pleasant images prompted higher cortical positivity than neutral images over centro-parietal sensors between 400 and 800ms post-US onset (late positive potential, LPP). The LPP evoked by pleasant images was significantly larger than the LPP evoked by cigarette images. During CS presentation, ERPs evoked by geometric patterns predicting pleasant and cigarette-related images had significantly larger amplitude than ERPs evoked by CSs predicting neutral images. These effects were maximal over right parietal sites between 220 and 240ms post-CS onset and over occipital and frontal sites between 308 and 344ms post-CS onset. Smoking status did not modulate these effects. Our results show that stimuli with no intrinsic reward value (e.g., geometric patterns) may acquire rewarding properties through repeated pairings with established reward cues (i.e., cigarette-related, intrinsically pleasant). PMID:26826400

  17. Will any future increase in cigarette price reduce smoking in Saudi Arabia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Al-Mohrej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette′s price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013. Methods: We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and personal opinion on the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. The questionnaire was distributed in public places such as malls and posted on famous Saudi athlete media′s twitter accounts. Results: Among the 2057 included responses, 802 (39% were current smokers. The smokers′ population constituted of 746 (92% males, of which 546 (68% had a monthly income equal or greater to 800 US dollars, and 446 (55% were aged between 21 and 30 years. Multivariate analyses of the risk factors for smoking showed that male gender and older age were associated with greater risk. Despite the current low prices of 2.67 US dollars, 454 smokers (56% thought that cigarette prices are expensive. When asked about the price of cigarettes that will lead to smoking cessation, 443 smokers (55% expected that a price of 8.27 US dollars and more per pack will make them quit. Conclusions: Increasing the price of popular cigarettes pack from 2.67 US dollars to 8.27 US dollars is expected to lead to smoking cessation in a large number of smokers in the Saudi population.

  18. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  19. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  20. Does phosphodiesterase inhibition lessen facial flap necrosis in tobacco cigarette users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Miles; Shah, Ajul; Steinbacher, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco cigarette smoking remains a serious risk factor for necrosis of local facial skin flaps. To date, no pharmacological therapies exist for cigarette smoke-induced impairment of skin flap tissue survival. Accumulating evidence suggest that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor therapy may counteract the negative effects of cigarette smoke on flap survival. Here, we evaluate skin flap survival in a series of consecutive tobacco cigarette users treated with the PDE-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, who underwent local flap facial reconstruction. We included 11 patients (5 females; median age: 64) with a significant smoking history. Seventeen facial flaps were performed for 14 defects. All patients received sildenafil in the postoperative setting. One complication of necrosis of the flap distal margin was encountered. Follow-up was available for all patients. Our results demonstrate that facial reconstruction in tobacco cigarette smokers can be performed with improved success and that sildenafil therapy may mitigate the deleterious effects of smoking on flap survival. PMID:24488644

  1. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  2. Children's hedonic judgments of cigarette smoke odor: effects of parental smoking and maternal mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestell, Catherine A; Mennella, Julie A

    2005-12-01

    Age-appropriate tasks were used to assess 3- to 8-year-old children's liking, identification, and preference for a variety of odors, including that of exhaled cigarette smoke. Children whose parents smoke took longer to decide whether they liked the cigarette odor and were significantly more likely to prefer the odor of cigarette to the neutral and unfamiliar odor of green tea compared with children of nonsmokers. Among children of smokers, relative preferences for the cigarette odor were related to maternal mood disturbance and depression scores. These findings suggest that some early learning about cigarette smoke odor is based on sensory experiences at home and anchors it to the emotional context in which their mothers smoke. PMID:16366814

  3. Children’s Hedonic Judgments of Cigarette Smoke Odor: Effects of Parental Smoking and Maternal Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestell, Catherine A.; Monell, Julie A. Mennella

    2006-01-01

    Age-appropriate tasks were used to assess 3-to 8-year-old children’s liking, identification, and preference for a variety of odors, including that of exhaled cigarette smoke. Children whose parents smoke took longer to decide whether they liked the cigarette odor and were significantly more likely to prefer the odor of cigarette to the neutral and unfamiliar odor of green tea compared with children of nonsmokers. Among children of smokers, relative preferences for the cigarette odor were related to maternal mood disturbance and depression scores. These findings suggest that some early learning about cigarette smoke odor is based on sensory experiences at home and anchors it to the emotional context in which their mothers smoke. PMID:16366814

  4. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  5. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Results Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African–Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. Conclusions The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find ‘regular’ cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit. PMID:21504928

  6. Impact of cigarette smoke on the human and mouse lungs: a gene-expression comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu C Morissette

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases.

  7. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke.

  8. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Methods Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students’ current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. Results The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%–10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29–0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49–0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21–0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09–0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29–0.74). Conclusion Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users. PMID:27490368

  9. Differential effect of cigarette smoking on antipyrine oxidation versus acetaminophen conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, J M; Greenblatt, D J; LeDuc, B W; Blyden, G T; Luna, B G; Harmatz, J S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoking on drug oxidation and conjugation was studied using antipyrine and acetaminophen as marker compounds. For the antipyrine study, healthy cigarette smokers (n = 30) and nonsmoking controls (n = 53) received a single 1.0-gram intravenous dose of antipyrine. For the acetaminophen study, 14 smokers and 15 nonsmokers received a 650-mg intravenous dose of acetaminophen. The clearance of antipyrine was significantly increased (0.93 vs. 0.60 ml/min/kg, p less than 0.0001) and elimination half-life was correspondingly reduced (8.9 vs. 13.0 h, p less than 0.0001) in smokers compared to nonsmoking controls. Total recovery of antipyrine and metabolites excreted in urine did not differ between groups, but there was a significantly increased fractional clearance of antipyrine via formation of 4-hydroxyantipyrine and 3-hydroxymethyl metabolites in smokers. Fractional clearance via formation of norantipyrine did not differ significantly between groups. Comparison of acetaminophen kinetics between smokers and nonsmokers indicated no significant differences in elimination half-life, clearance or volume of distribution. Thus, cigarette smoking is more likely to induce drug oxidation rather than drug conjugation. However, not all oxidative pathways are equally influenced; induction effects of smoking are highly substrate selective and pathway specific. PMID:2345775

  10. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  11. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (15 cigarettes/day. Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0, moderate (76.6 ± 4.2, light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5 as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6 (P < 0.01. The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5, moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5, and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5 compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  12. The effects of cigarette smoke on some hematological parameters in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of cigarette smoke on Red Blood Cells (RBCs) membrane were studied. Spontaneous hemolysis test indicated that RBCs which were separated from heavier smokers' blood (more than 20 cigarettes/day) have higher percentage of hemolysis when compared to those separated from nonsmokers blood (15±0.7%, 1.8±0.2%, respectively ). The results of osmotic fragility test for the above RBCs from both volunteers indicate, a slight shift to the left (MCF(50%)=4.4±0.05, 4.55±0.06g/l, respectively), this illustrate that the resistance to lysis was increased (the volume to the surface area ratio was decreased). In the analysis of phospho lipid's composition of RBCs, we observed that the percentage of diphosphoglyceride(DPG) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to the total phospholipids were increased for cigarette smokers. Also results obtained from measuring the superoxide radicals in smoker's blood have high optical density than that for nonsmokers, also for conjugated dienes. our results indicate that the cigarette smoke has many effects on RBCs specially on their membranes and phospho lipid's compost ion, and theses effects may be due to cigarette smoke contents and free radicals. (author). 35 refs., 4 figs

  13. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarettes smoked by the participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yershova, Katrina; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Valentin, Liza; Watson, Clifford; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2016-09-15

    Our recent studies on tobacco smoke carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers and cancer risk among male smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study showed that exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is prospectively associated with the risk of cancer. These findings support the hypothesis that the smokers' cancer risk is a function of the dose of select tobacco carcinogens and highlight the importance of understanding the factors that affect the intake of these carcinogens by smokers. Given that tobacco constituent exposures are driven, at least in part, by the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke, we measured mainstream smoke TSNA and PAH levels in 43 Chinese cigarette brands that participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study reported to smoke. In all brands analyzed here, mainstream smoke levels of NNN and NNK, the two carcinogenic TSNA, were generally relatively low, averaging (±SD) 16.8(±25.1) and 14.2(±9.5) ng/cigarette, respectively. The levels of PAH were comparable to those found in U.S. cigarettes, averaging 15(±9) ng/cigarette for benzo[a]pyrene, 119(±66) ng/cigarette for phenanthrene and 37(±19) ng/cigarette for pyrene. Our findings indicate that the generally low levels of NNN and NNK are most likely responsible for the relatively low levels of the corresponding biomarkers in the urine of the Shanghai Cohort Study participants as compared to those found in the U.S. smokers, supporting the role of the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke in smokers' exposures. Our findings also suggest that, in addition to smoking, other sources contribute to Chinese smokers' exposure to PAH. PMID:27163125

  14. Oxidative stress in smokers supplemented with vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, E; Royall, D; Allard, J P

    1999-01-01

    The ability of vitamin C supplement to influence lipid peroxidation and pulmonary function tests in healthy smokers was investigated. In this randomized double blind controlled trail, 56 smokers (S) received either 500 mg of vitamin C (C) or placebo (P) daily for 4 weeks. All completed the trial. Both groups were comparable and the number of cigarettes smoked were C: 14.2 +/- 1.8 and P: 18.3 +/- 2.0 pack-years. Plasma vitamin C concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.005) only in the group supplemented with vitamin C. Lipid peroxidation measured by breath pentane output (BPO) (C: 7.5 +/- 1.4 vs P: 7.0 +/- 1.3 pmol.kg-1.min-1) and plasma HPLC-separated malondialdehyde (MDA) (C: 0.58 +/- 0.05 vs P: 0.47 +/- 0.05 nmol.ml-1) were not significantly different between the 2 groups at baseline and did not change after four weeks of vitamin C supplementation (BPO: C: 5.3 +/- 0.9 vs P: 5.5 +/- 0.9 pmol.kg-1.min-1; HPLC-MDA: C: 0.50 +/- 0.07 vs P: 0.42 +/- 0.07 nmol.ml-1). No changes were detected in pulmonary function tests even in heavy smokers. Therefore, 4 week supplementation with 500 mg of vitamin C did not change lipid peroxidation indices and had no effect on pulmonary function tests. PMID:10052021

  15. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances (‘toxicants’) by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc.) provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depen...

  16. Common prefrontal regions activate during self-control of craving, emotion, and motor impulses in smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Tabibnia, Golnaz; Creswell, J. David; Kraynak, Thomas; Westbrook, Cecilia; Julson, Erica; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2014-01-01

    It has been posited that self-regulation of behaviors, emotions, and temptations may all rely on a common resource. Recent reviews suggest this common resource may include the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). However, to our knowledge no single functional neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis. We obtained fMRI scans as 25 abstinent treatment-seeking cigarette smokers completed motor, affective, and craving self-control tasks before smoking cessation treatment. We identified two regions ...

  17. Plasma Antioxidants Are Associated with Impaired Lung Function and COPD Exacerbations in Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Nicks, Michael E.; O’Brien, Maureen M.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2011-01-01

    Low molecule weight antioxidants such as uric acid (UA), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbate (ASC) counter the effects of oxidants produced by cigarette smoke. Although dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidants has been associated with a reduced risk of smokers developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the association between plasma antioxidants and COPD is less clear. In this cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship among plasma antioxidants and COPD phenotypes (...

  18. Doppler measurements of feto-placental blood stream in pregnant smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Doppler analysis of the feto-placental and fetal circulation give dynamic information on the condition of the bloodstream during pregnancy, and early detection of fetal hypoxia. The objectives of the study were: testing whether there is influence of smoking on feto-placental circulation; determining whether there is a link to a number of smoked cigarettes during the day; assessing the benefits of Doppler ultrasonographic screening in detection of fetal hypoxia in pregnant women who smoke during pregnancy.Methods: 300 pregnancies were included in the prospective research. With regard to a number of smoked cigarettes the pregnant women were divided into three groups: I. the first group (moderate smokers consisted of 100 pregnant women who smoked up to 15 cigarettes a day during pregnancy; II. the second group (heavy smokers 100 pregnant women who smoked more than 15 cigarettes a day during pregnancy and III. the third group (control group 100 pregnant women who did not smoke during pregnancy. All pregnant women underwent Doppler measurements of blood circulation (determination of resistance index – RI in the umbilical artery, fetal aorta and middle cerebral artery.Results: The intensity of smoking has influence to circulation because RI in the umbilical artery and fetal aorta is increased and RI is decreased in the middle cerebral artery in pregnant women heavy smokers in comparison to pregnant women moderate smokers.Conclusion: Doppler sonography of the blood vessels could have an important role in detection of hypoxia and monitoring of the condition of the fetus of pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy.

  19. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Parents > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Using Them en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos About E-Cigarettes E-cigarettes are being marketed as a ...

  20. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Teens > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Habit en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes look high tech, so it's ...

  1. Dopamine receptor gene DRD1 (A-48G polymorphism and smoking related behavior among smokers of Punjab (North West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addictive behaviors exert an enormous cost on society. Cigarette smoking, like other substances of abuse is a public health problem associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, personal and public cost. In the present study, we have attempted to investigate possible links between the dopamine receptor gene DRD1 and smoking behavior in smokers inhabiting the North West Indian region. A total of 361 subjects (173 smokers with a mean age 35.37±14.29 years and 188 healthy age/ethnicity matched non-smokers with a mean age of 35.79±13.37 years participated in the study. The degree of nicotine dependence was ascertained by commonly used measure: The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Measures such as cigarettes per day, smoking history, pack years smoked and age at initiation of smoking were also used as predictive measures of nicotine dependence. On categorization of smokers into low nicotine dependence (LND and high nicotine dependence (HND, significantly high differences were seen between HND vs. LND for all the smoking related variables except age at initiation of smoking. However, our study could not find any significant associations between various smoking variables and DRD1 genotypes. Also, no significant differences were seen between smokers and non-smokers at both genotypic and allelic level.

  2. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

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    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. METHODS/RESULTS: Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals

  3. The intake of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry extract normalizes H2O2 and IL-6 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate from healthy smokers - an explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    VERGARA, DANIELA; Ávila, Daniela; Escobar, Elizabeth; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Sánchez, Andrés; Gotteland, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory diseases are associated with pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. Though studies in animal models suggest that dietary polyphenols improve lung injury, no intervention studies were carried out in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether the intake of an anthocyanin-rich maqui extract improved H2O2 and IL-6 concentrations in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) from asymptomatic smokers. Findings 15 asymptomatic smokers with mild cigarette sm...

  4. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M; Montague, P Read

    2015-02-24

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of "no nicotine in cigarette" (compared with "nicotine in cigarette") strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers' choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems. PMID:25605923

  5. Electronic Cigarettes and Vaping: A New Challenge in Clinical Medicine and Public Health.A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic L. Palazzolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use in the United States and worldwide is increasing. These devices closely mimic smoking of conventional cigarettes and can be used by consumers as a substitute for their smoking and nicotine addiction. Reasons for their popularity are that vendors of e-cigarettes have previously marketed their product as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, and as a possible smoking cessation tool. Rather than inhaling harmful smoke from burning tobacco, users of electronic cigarettes inhale a potentially less harmful vaporized mist primarily consisting of propylene glycol, nicotine, and water in a process referred to as vaping. Furthermore, the e-cigarette web pages are full of anecdotal claims from ex-smokers on how e-cigarettes helped them to give up traditional cigarettes in favor of these electronic devices. Government agencies and the medical community are skeptical, indicating that there is not enough empirically-derived evidence to substantiate such claims. While vaping e-cigarettes appear to do very little to abate nicotine addiction, and almost certainly carry unknown potential dangers, its supporters believe it is a safer alternative to smoking cigarettes. However, before e-cigarettes and vaping can be considered as a viable harm reduction clinical approach to smoking cessation, the medical community must first face the challenges e-cigarettes and vaping present to public health. For example, what should the primary medical focus be for a patient who has successfully transitioned from conventional cigarettes to e-cigarettes? Should it be to maintain smoking abstinence or should it be to quit vaping? Would it not be prudent for a patient who is unwilling to quit smoking or to give up nicotine to vape instead of smoke? Given these circumstances, how should medical care providers advise their patients? To effectively face these challenges, health care professionals need to become more familiar with the

  6. Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Watt, H C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who h...

  7. The Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Bleeding and Serum Concentrations of Haptoglobin and Alpha 1-Antitrypsin

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Bayaty, Fouad H.; NorAdinar Baharuddin; Mahmood A. Abdulla; Hapipah Mohd Ali; Arkilla, Magaji B.; ALBayaty, Mustafa F.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at alpha < 0.05. ...

  8. Nicotine-specific and non-specific effects of cigarette smoking on endogenous opioid mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuechterlein, Emily B; Ni, Lisong; Domino, Edward F; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates differences in μ-opioid receptor mediated neurotransmission in healthy controls and overnight-abstinent smokers, and potential effects of the OPRM1 A118G genotype. It also examines the effects of smoking denicotinized (DN) and average nicotine (N) cigarettes on the μ-opioid system. Positron emission tomography with (11)C-carfentanil was used to determine regional brain μ-opioid receptor (MOR) availability (non-displaceable binding potential, BPND) in a sample of 19 male smokers and 22 nonsmoking control subjects. Nonsmokers showed greater MOR BPND than overnight abstinent smokers in the basal ganglia and thalamus. BPND in the basal ganglia was negatively correlated with baseline craving levels and Fagerström scores. Interactions between group and genotype were seen in the nucleus accumbens bilaterally and the amygdala, with G-allele carriers demonstrating lower BPND in these regions, but only among smokers. After smoking the DN cigarette, smokers showed evidence of MOR activation in the thalamus and nucleus accumbens. No additional activation was observed after the N cigarette, with a mean effect of increases in MOR BPND (i.e., deactivation) with respect to the DN cigarette effects in the thalamus and left amygdala. Changes in MOR BPND were related to both Fagerström scores and changes in craving. This study showed that overnight-abstinent smokers have lower concentrations of available MORs than controls, an effect that was related to both craving and the severity of addiction. It also suggests that nicotine non-specific elements of the smoking experience have an important role in regulating MOR-mediated neurotransmission, and in turn modulating withdrawal-induced craving ratings. PMID:27095017

  9. Cigarette purchasing behaviour in Thailand and Malaysia: Comparative analysis of a semi-monopolistic and a free-market structure

    OpenAIRE

    H Ross; Driezen, P; Sirirassamee, B; Kin, F.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of cigarette prices can undermine the impact of tobacco tax policy when smokers switch to cheaper cigarettes instead of quitting. In order to better understand this behaviour, we study socio-economic determinants of price/brand choices in two different markets: a semi-monopolistic market in Thailand and a competitive market in Malaysia. The hypothesis that the factors affecting the price/brand choice are different in these two markets is analysed by employing a 2005 survey among ...

  10. Cigarette smoking and health care professionals at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To observe the frequency of cigarette smoking in doctors and paramedics and study various variables associated with it. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was given to randomly selected 250 Doctors and 250 Paramedics at Mayo Hospital in 2009. Information about demographic characteristics, smoking status in family, number of cigarettes smoked per day, influence for starting smoking, reason for continuation of smoking and use of nicotine replacement therapy was obtained. Results: A total of 234 questionnaires from doctors and 207 from paramedics were received back (88.2% response rate). There were 280 males (163 Doctors; 117 Paramedics) and 161 females (71 Doctors; 90 Paramedics). Eighty seven (37.18%) Doctors and 74 (35.74%) Paramedics were smokers with 82 (50.31%) male doctors and 5 (7.04%) females. Similar results were obtained in Paramedics 72 (61.53%) males and 2 (2.22%) females. Of the smokers, majority started smoking between 11-20 years age with 39 (44.83%) Doctors and 48 (64.86%) Paramedics. Twenty three (26.44%) Doctors and 31 (41.89%) Paramedics smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day. Smoking was initiated due to the influence of friends by 48 (55.17%) Doctors and 56 (75.68%) Paramedics. Most smokers, 29 (33.33%) Doctors and 33 (44.59%) Paramedics found use of cigarette smoking as 'Relaxing'. Addiction was the main reason for difficulty in quitting cigarette smoking as reported by 33 (37.93%) Doctors and 31 (41.89%) Paramedics. Of the smokers, 61(70.11%) doctors and 50 (32.43%) paramedics had no intention to quit smoking in the next 6 months. Conclusion: A significant number of doctors and paramedics, especially males, in Pakistan smoke cigarettes, which requires proper attention. (author)

  11. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  12. Impact of cigarette smoking on outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery in patients with hepatitis B.

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    Xu-Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is a potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC initiation, partially through interaction with hepatitis B virus (HBV. We examined the hypothesis that cigarette smoking might be associated with HBV-related HCC recurrence and patient survival after curative surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 302 patients with HBV infection who had undergone curative resection for HCC were prospectively collected from 2008 to 2011. Smoking status and smoking quantity (pack-years, PY were asked at admission. Factors affecting recurrence-free survival (RFS were examined. RFS and liver-specific mortality (LSM stratified by risk factors were compared with log-rank test. RESULTS: 109 were current smokers. Current smokers were not different from non-smokers in tumor burden and surgical procedure. Univariate and multivariate analysis identified that heavy smoking (PY ≥ 20 was the most significant factor associated with HBV-related HCC recurrence after curative surgical resection (p = 0.001, followed by anti-HBV treatment (p600 ml (p = 0.028. The median RFS in non-smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers was 34 months, 24 months and 26 months, respectively (p = 0.033. Current smokers had significantly worse RFS rate and increased 5-year cumulative LSM than non-smokers (p = 0.024, and p<0.001, respectively. Heavy smokers had significantly worse RFS than non- and light smokers (0smokers and light smokers (p = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively. Furthermore, in current smokers, continuing smoking postoperatively was strongly associated with poorer RFS and higher LSM than those who quit smoking postoperatively (p = 0.016 and p = 0.003, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking history and quantity appears to be risk factors for HBV-related HCC recurrence and LSM of patients after surgery. For smokers, continued smoking postoperatively might accelerate tumor

  13. Are the predictors of hookah smoking differ from those of cigarette smoking? report of a population-based study in Shiraz, Iran, 2010

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    Gholamreza Abdollahifard

    2013-01-01

    Results: Response rate was 98%. Prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.7%. Among cigarette users, 12.6% reported smoking 2 years. Almost half of those surveyed (48.9% smoked 20 cpd. Almost a quarter (20.4% of the cigarette smokers tried to quit in the past year. Being male, married, aged 37-54, having higher perceived levels of stress, a non-manual occupation, and sedentary lifestyle were positively associated with cigarette smoking. Manual labor occupations, housewife/jobless status, and going frequently to restaurants were positive predictors of hookah smoking. Conclusions: Compared to cigarettes, hookah smoking was more prevalent among Iranian adults. Approximately, the prevalence of hookah smoking in women is the same as men, whereas cigarette use was 31 times more common in men. Cigarette and hookah smoking were associated with less healthy lifestyle habits in both men and women.

  14. Cigarette Smoking and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Elena Morotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To verify if in lean polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS patients, the smoking habitude might increase the risk of cardiovascular (CV disease. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, eighty-one women were divided into the following three groups: group I with 27 non-smokers, group II with 26 light-smokers (1-10 cigarettes/day, and group III with 28 heavy smokers (>10 cigarettes/ day. They were submitted to fasting blood sampling; blood measurement of nitrites/nitrates (NO2-/ NO3, biochemical and hormonal parameters; ovarian ultrasonographic (US analysis; doppler evaluation of uterine and ophthalmic arteries; brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Results: Doppler analysis revealed higher uterine and ophthalmic arteries pulsatility index (PI and ophthalmic artery back pressure in group III compared with group I. The brachial artery diameter and PI, at baseline, was similar among all groups. After the reactive hyperemia, a more intense vasodilatation was observed in group I in comparison with group III. The 24-hour blood pressure demonstrated that, in group III patients, the 24-hour, day- and night-time diastolic blood pressure (DBP, was higher in comparison with non-smokers. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP was higher in heavy smokers than in non-smokers. The leukocytes and homocysteine (HCY values were increased in group III. The NO2-/ NO3- plasma levels were reduced in heavy smokers in comparison with non-smokers. The insulin, glucose and C-peptide plasma values were higher in group III than in other groups. In heavy smokers, the estimates of insulin sensitivity (ISI and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-B were higher compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Smoking habitude in lean PCOS patients may increase the soft markers of CV risk.

  15. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H M; Callcott, R; Dobson, A J; Hardes, G R; Lloyd, D M; O'Connell, D L; Leeder, S R

    1983-03-01

    Factors associated with changes in the smoking behaviour of approximately 6000 schoolchildren (two cohorts aged between 10 and 12 years in 1979) over 12 months are described. They were measured twice as part of a randomized controlled trial of a smoking prevention programme. Four groups were defined: (a) those who became smokers (adopters); (b) those who remained non-smokers; (c) those who became non-smokers (quitters), and, (d) those who remained smokers. Personal and social variables were ordered using a logistic regression model according to the strength of their association with adopting and quitting smoking. Factors distinguishing adopters from children who remained nonsmokers were, being a member of the older cohort, having friends who smoke, having siblings who smoke, approving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively large amount of money to spend each week. Factors distinguishing quitters from children who continued to smoke were, having siblings who do not smoke, being a member of the younger cohort, disapproving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively small amount of money to spend each week. Initial attitude scores were indicative of future smoking behaviour and where smoking behaviour changed, attitudes also changed so that the two remained congruent. The younger cohort improved their knowledge of smoking hazards over the year irrespective of their smoking behaviour. The older cohort showed significant differences in knowledge which were dependent upon smoking category, with 1980 smokers having lower knowledge scores than non-smokers and showing an apparent decrement in their previous knowledge. PMID:6341272

  16. Cerebral monoamine oxidase A inhibition in tobacco smokers confirmed with PET and [11C]Befloxatone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibition of cerebral monoamine oxidases (MAOs) by cigarette smoke components could participate to the tobacco addiction. However, the actual extent of this inhibition in vivo in smokers is still poorly known. We investigated cerebral MAO-A availability in 7 tobacco-dependent subjects and 6 healthy nonsmokers, using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MAO-A selective radioligand [11C]befloxatone. In comparison to nonsmokers, smokers showed a significant overall reduction of [11C]befloxatone binding potential (BP) in cortical areas (average reduction, -60%) and a similar trend in caudate and thalamus (-40%). Our findings confirm a widespread inhibition of cerebral MAO-A in smokers. This mechanism may contribute to tobacco addiction and for a possible mood-modulating effect of tobacco. (authors)

  17. Gold standard program for heavy smokers in a real-life setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit L; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: High-intensity smoking cessation programs generally lead to more continuous abstinence, however, lower rates of success have been reported among heavy smokers. The aim was to evaluate continuous abstinence among heavy smokers during the intensive 6-week Gold Standard Program (GSP) and...... to identify modifiable factors associated with continuous abstinence. Methods: In this nationwide clinical study based on 36,550 smokers attending an intensive cessation program in Denmark. Heavy smoking was defined as ≥7 points in the Fagerström Nicotine Dependency Test, smoking ≥20 cigarettes daily...... population. Attending GSP with an individual format (vs. group/other, OR 1.23-1.44); in a hospital setting (vs. pharmacy/municipality services, OR 1.05-1.11); and being compliant (attending the planned meetings OR 4.36-4.89) were associated with abstinence. Abstinence decreased in a dose-dependent manner...

  18. Characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking at a teaching hospital in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking, among Family Practice Patients, at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Main outcome measures: Age at starting smoking, duration and number of cigarettes smoked, started smoking under influence of friends, colleagues, family members or self motivation, number of friends and colleagues who smoked, whether smoking is unhealthy, and actual chance of harm to an individual due to smoking is very rare or not. Results: One hundred patients who visited Family Practice Center were interviewed. Sixty one percent were young married men, well educated and either student, in private service, self employed or unemployed. Eighty-four (84%) smokers started smoking between 16-25 years of age, and smoked 6-20 cigarettes daily for two to twenty five years. Sixty-nine (69%) of them started smoking under the influence of friends and had 3-5 friends and colleagues who smoked. 91% of smokers believed that smoking is unhealthy and were aware that it causes lung cancer and heart disease. Majority of them (69%) believed that the actual harm of smoking to an individual is not very rare. Conclusion: We have documented the characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking among Family Practice patients. Majority of the respondents started smoking at a young age under the influence of friends though they were aware of its harmful effects. Though the sample size is small but it does give an indication about the responsible factors to plan interventional preventive strategies. (author)

  19. Hyper-resting brain entropy within chronic smokers and its moderation by Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Fang, Zhuo; Hager, Nathan; Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, and remains a premier cause of morbidity and mortality. Functional neuroimaging has been used to assess differences in the mean strength of brain activity in smokers’ brains, however less is known about the temporal dynamics within smokers’ brains. Temporal dynamics is a key feature of a dynamic system such as the brain, and may carry information critical to understanding the brain mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking. We measured the temporal dynamics of brain activity using brain entropy (BEN) mapping and compared BEN between chronic non-deprived smokers and non-smoking controls. Because of the known sex differences in neural and behavioral smoking characteristics, comparisons were also made between males and females. Associations between BEN and smoking related clinical measures were assessed in smokers. Our data showed globally higher BEN in chronic smokers compared to controls. The escalated BEN was associated with more years of smoking in the right limbic area and frontal region. Female nonsmokers showed higher BEN than male nonsmokers in prefrontal cortex, insula, and precuneus, but the BEN sex difference in smokers was less pronounced. These findings suggest that BEN mapping may provide a useful tool for probing brain mechanisms related to smoking. PMID:27377552

  20. Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoenzyme in Lung Tissue of Smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been demonstrated that only 10%-20% cigarette smokers finally suffer chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The underlying mechanism of development remains uncertain so far. Nitric oxide (NO has been found to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of COPD, the alteration of NO synthase (NOS expression need to be revealed. The study aimed to investigate the alterations of NOS isoforms expressions between smokers with and without COPD, which might be helpful for identifying the susceptibility of smokers developing into COPD. Methods: Peripheral lung tissues were obtained from 10 nonsmoker control subjects, 15 non-COPD smokers, and 15 smokers with COPD. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, inducible NOS (iNOS, and endothelial NOS (eNOS mRNA and protein levels were measured in each sample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results: INOS mRNA was significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively. iNOS protein was also higher in COPD patients than nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, expressions of nNOS and eNOS did not differ among nonsmokers, smokers with and without COPD. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between iNOS protein level and lung function parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 (% predicted (r = −0.549, P = 0.001 and FEV 1 /forced vital capacity (%, r = −0.535, P = 0.001. Conclusions: The expression of iNOS significantly increased in smokers with COPD compared with that in nonsmokers or smokers without COPD. The results suggest that iNOS might be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD, and may be a potential marker to identify the smokers who have more liability to suffer COPD.

  1. Cigarette Smoke Decreases the Maturation of Lung Myeloid Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Acuña, Carmen; Moreno-Mata, Nicolás; Gómez-Izquierdo, Lourdes; Sánchez-López, Verónica; López-Ramírez, Cecilia; Tobar, Daniela; López-Villalobos, José Luis; Gutiérrez, Cesar; Blanco-Orozco, Ana; López-Campos, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Conflicting data exist on the role of pulmonary dendritic cells (DCs) and their maturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Herein, we investigated whether disease severity and smoking status could affect the distribution and maturation of DCs in lung tissues of patients undergoing elective pneumectomy or lobectomy for suspected primary lung cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 75 consecutive patients were included. Spirometry testing was used to identify COPD. Lung parenchyma sections anatomically distant from the primary lesion were examined. We used flow cytometry to identify different DCs subtypes—including BDCA1-positive myeloid DCs (mDCs), BDCA3-positive mDCs, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs)—and determine their maturation markers (CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86) in all participants. We also identified follicular DCs (fDCs), Langerhans DCs (LDCs), and pDCs in 42 patients by immunohistochemistry. Results COPD was diagnosed in 43 patients (16 current smokers and 27 former smokers), whereas the remaining 32 subjects were classified as non-COPD (11 current smokers, 13 former smokers, and 8 never smokers). The number and maturation of DCs did not differ significantly between COPD and non-COPD patients. However, the results of flow cytometry indicated that maturation markers CD40 and CD83 of BDCA1-positive mDCs were significantly decreased in smokers than in non-smokers (P = 0.023 and 0.013, respectively). Immunohistochemistry also revealed a lower number of LDCs in COPD patients than in non-COPD subjects. Conclusions Cigarette smoke, rather than airflow limitation, is the main determinant of impaired DCs maturation in the lung. PMID:27058955

  2. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  3. Waterpipes and e-cigarettes: Impact of alternative smoking techniques on indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer. E-cigarettes are marketed as a smokeless and safe way to inhale nicotine without being exposed to the many toxic components of tobacco cigarettes, and as an aid to smoking cessation. In fact, consumers (vapers) and secondhand vapers can be exposed to substantial amounts of VOC, PAH or other potentially harmful substances. Of major health concern is the inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor. Such particles can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung and may harm the respiratory system or increase the risk of acquiring asthma. More research on the safety of e-cigarettes needs to be conducted to ensure a high level of public health protection in the long-term.

  4. Comparison of Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jamshidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide non communicable diseases are increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity.The disorder is defined in various ways. This study determine the 6Tcomparison of indicators of metabolic syndrome in Iranian smokers population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,024 Iranian subjects aged 30 to 70 participated in this cross sectional study. Standard questionnaire was completing regarding smoking habits, medications, past medical history, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting blood suger, total cholestrol HDL and triglycerides. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the IDF criteria. Results: As defined by the modified IDF criteria, (45.9% had the MS at baseline assessment. The risk of incidence of the metabolic syndrome among smokers was9T 6T9Tsignificantly6T9T 6T9T(p<0.008 greater6T than nonsmokers. Among men without the MS at entry, body weight gain, compared with never smokers, was significantly6T (p<0.007 6Thigher in smokers who had quit smoking. It is important for the prevention of the MS not only to quit smoking but also to prevent weight gain after smoking cessation. Conclusion: Although many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs can be treated or prevented many people die from CVDs. Reducing the rate of cigarette smoking, body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose all have a benefit impact on major biological cardiovascular risk factors. Behaviors such as stopping smoking, taking regular physical activity and eating a healthy diet promote health and have no known harmful effects.

  5. 210Po radiation dose due to cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of 210Po in eight brands of cigarettes and four brands of bidis popular in and around Nagercoil town was determined to evaluate the annual effective dose. The 210Po activity in a full cigarette ranged from 32.8±3.6 to 68.4±5.9 mBq and from 34.3±3.5 to 62.9±5.8 mBq in a bidi. In tobacco, the highest 210Po content was recorded in the brand C4 (23.0±1.2 mBq) whereas for bidis it was the highest in the brand B2 (21.1±1.1 mBq). The activity in mainstream varied from 15.2±0.75 to 36.8±2.1 mBq in a cigarette and from 20.7±3.1 to 39.8±4.0 mBq in a bidi. With regard to 210Po activity concentration, not much specificity was noted with respect to the tobacco brand. The data showed a relatively wide range of activity concentration of 210Po in the different cigarette/bidi brands and even within the same brand. The bidis showed a higher activity when compared to cigarettes. The popular brands concentrated more activity than the fine brands. Smokers who smoke one pack (10 cigarettes/bidis) per day may inhale about 100-300 mBq d-1 (0.1-0.3 Bq d-1) of 210Po. In this study, radiation dose values in the range of 153.5-372.9 μSv Y-'1 from cigarettes and from 209.2 to 402.7 μSvY-1 from bidis was estimated for the whole body. (author)

  6. An observational study of retail availability and in-store marketing of e-cigarettes in London: potential to undermine recent tobacco control gains?

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Robert; Myers, Allison E; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives E-cigarette companies and vendors claim the potential of e-cigarettes to help smokers reduce or quit tobacco use. E-cigarettes also have the potential to renormalise smoking. The purpose of this study was to describe the availability and in-store marketing of e-cigarettes in London, UK stores selling tobacco and alcohol. Design Observational study. Setting Small and large stores selling alcohol and tobacco in London, UK. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores s...

  7. Influence of cigarette smoking in the rate pressure product among young adults: a case control study from Manipal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulki Ganesh Kamath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cigarette smoking is an important cause of mortality across the world, resulting in death of nearly six million people. Nearly 40% of the deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease and 20% are due to lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is said to increase the susceptibility towards vascular injuries by impacting phases of atherosclerosis, and altering blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR and elevating plasma catecholamine levels. The objective of this study was to assess if cigarette smoking increases the rate pressure product (RPP at rest and after standing in young adult light smokers compared to non-smokers. Methods 30 young adult smokers and 30 non-smokers (19 - 24 years were enrolled in this case control study. The smoking pack-years was calculated. Blood pressure (BP was measured and RPP was calculated. The mean values between both groups were compared using the univariate analysis of variance adjusted for confounding variables. Results The smoking pack-years was 1.6±1.0 (0.2-4.5. RPP in smokers was 88.8±8.0, 96.2±10.2 at rest and after standing respectively. RPP in non-smokers at rest was 81.6±8.1 and 89.5±10.3 after standing. RPP was statistically significant in between both groups at rest. Conclusion Smoking increases the RPP significantly in young adult light smokers due to an increased HR when compared to non-smokers, at rest. This study reinforces that young adults who are light smokers have an increased workload on the heart, which affects their cardiac performance.

  8. Detection of COPD in smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Geijer, R.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is the main risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), formerly known as lung emphysema or ‘chronic bronchitis’. Early detection of COPD and smoking cessation may result in significant health gain. In a thesis titled ‘Detection of COPD in smokers’ the results of 6 studies in middle-aged male smokers, conducted between 1998 and 2003 in IJsselstein, a town in the center of The Netherlands, are presented. At the baseline survey, among 702 male smokers, mean age 50 year...

  9. Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Melissa L., E-mail: mlbates@pediatrics.wisc.edu [Interdisciplinary Graduate Degree Program in Physiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Critical Care Division, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Brenza, Timothy M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz [Interdisciplinary Graduate Degree Program in Physiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bascom, Rebecca [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Eldridge, Marlowe W. [Department of Pediatrics, Critical Care Division, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Ultman, James S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Degree Program in Physiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In non-smokers, ozone (O{sub 3}) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV{sub 1}) and dead space (V{sub D}) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (S{sub N}). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O{sub 3} boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19 M, 11 F, 24 ± 4 years, 6 ± 4 total years smoking,4 ± 2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17 M, 13 F, 25 ± 6 years) exercised for 1 h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30 ppm O{sub 3}. Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV{sub 1} (− 9.5 ± 1.8% vs − 8.7 ± 1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of V{sub D} (− 6.1 ± 1.2%) and S{sub N} (9.1 ± 3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (V{sub D}/V{sub T}) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4 ± 2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O{sub 3} and, uniquely, experience changes in V{sub D} that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in S{sub N}. - Highlights: • We previously found lung function responses to O{sub 3} bolus exposure in smokers. • Here, we describe their responsiveness to continuous O{sub 3} exposure with exercise. • Spirometry and capnography were used to assess pulmonary function changes. • Enhanced bronchoconstriction in smokers increases parenchymal delivery of O{sub 3}.

  10. The implication of frontostriatal circuits in young smokers: A resting-state study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Guan, Yanyan; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances. Additionally, mediation analysis was carried out to test whether the frontostriatal RSFC mediates the relationship between striatum morphometry and cognitive control behaviors in young smokers when applicable. We revealed increased volume of right caudate and reduced RSFC between caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex in young smokers. Significant positive correlation between right caudate volume and QSU as well as negative correlation between anterior cingulate cortex-right caudate RSFC and FTND were detected in young smokers. More importantly, DLPFC-caudate RSFC strength mediated the relationship between caudate volume and incongruent errors during Stroop task in young smokers. Our results demonstrated that young smokers showed abnormal interactions within frontostriatal circuits, which were associated with smoking behaviors and cognitive control impairments. It is hoped that our study focusing on frontostriatal circuits could provide new insights into the neural correlates and potential novel therapeutic targets for treatment of young smokers. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2013-2026, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918784

  11. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neekkan Dey; Archita Das; Arunava Ghosh; Indu B Chatterjee

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100–200 g/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73–80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70–90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  12. The separate effects of tar and nicotine on the cigarette smoking manoeuvre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separate effects of tar and nicotine on the cigarette smoking manoeuvre were investigated. Each of ten asymptomatic habitual smokers smoked three different commercially available cigarettes in a randomised order. The brands were chosen such that two had the same tar yield (10 mg) and two had the same nicotine yield (1.4 mg). The volume of smoke inhaled into the lungs was measured by tracing the smoke with the inert gas 81Krm. Puffing indices were recorded using an electronic smoking analyser and flowhead/cigarette holder. There was no difference in the total volume of smoke puffed from each of the cigarette brands. With cigarettes of the samme tar level, the total inhaled smoke volume was lower with the higher nicotine cigarette (P<0.05): by contrast, with cigarettes of the same nicotine level, the toal inhaled smoke volume was lower with the lower tar cigarette (P<0.02). Tar and nicotine appear to exercise independent control over the volume of smoke inhaled. (author)

  13. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  14. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniuk JN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available James N Baraniuk,1 Begona Casado,1 Lewis K Pannell,2 Peter B McGarvey,3 Piera Boschetto,4 Maurizio Luisetti,5,† Paolo Iadarola6 1Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Mitchell Cancer Center, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, 3Innovation Center for Biomedical Informatics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA; 4Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 5SC Pneumologia, Dipartimento Medicina Molecolare, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 6Lazzaro Spallanzani Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy †Maurizio Luisetti passed away on October 20, 2014 Rationale: Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective: To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods: Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7 and smokers with normal lung function (n=13, mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11, obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15, and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10 were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results: Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of

  15. The influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of haptoglobin and alpha 1-antitrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayaty, Fouad H; Baharuddin, Noradinar; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Arkilla, Magaji B; ALBayaty, Mustafa F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at α ≤ 0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 13.39 ± 5.75 cigarettes; the mean duration was 16.03 ± 8.78 years. Relatively low BOP values (26.05 ± 1.48) and moderate plaque indexes (51.35 ± 11.27) were found. The levels of serum cotinine (106.9 ± 30.71 ng/dL), haptoglobin (76.04 ± 52.48 mg/dL), and alpha 1-antitrypsin (141.90 ± 18.40 mg/dL) were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years) and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers. PMID:24286083

  16. The Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Bleeding and Serum Concentrations of Haptoglobin and Alpha 1-Antitrypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad H. Al-Bayaty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP, and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at α≤0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 13.39±5.75 cigarettes; the mean duration was 16.03±8.78 years. Relatively low BOP values (26.05±1.48 and moderate plaque indexes (51.35±11.27 were found. The levels of serum cotinine (106.9±30.71 ng/dL, haptoglobin (76.04±52.48 mg/dL, and alpha 1-antitrypsin (141.90±18.40 mg/dL were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers.

  17. Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, without Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158913.html Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, Without Diagnosis It's not clear how many ... smokers have symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) even before they've been diagnosed with the ...

  18. Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, without Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158913.html Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, Without Diagnosis It's not clear how many ... smokers have symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) even before they've been diagnosed with the ...

  19. Taking ad-Vantage of lax advertising regulation in the USA and Canada: reassuring and distracting health-concerned smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; Pollay, Richard W; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-10-01

    We explored the evolution from cigarette product attributes to psychosocial needs in advertising campaigns for low-tar cigarettes. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and print advertising images indicated that low-tar brands targeted smokers who were concerned about their health with advertising images intended to distract them from the health hazards of smoking. Advertising first emphasized product characteristics (filtration, low tar) that implied health benefits. Over time, advertising emphasis shifted to salient psychosocial needs of the target markets. A case study of Vantage cigarettes in the USA and Canada showed that advertising presented images of intelligent, upward-striving people who had achieved personal success and intentionally excluded the act of smoking from the imagery, while minimal product information was provided. This illustrates one strategy to appeal to concerned smokers by not describing the product itself (which may remind smokers of the problems associated with smoking), but instead using evocative imagery to distract smokers from these problems. Current advertising for potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) emphasizes product characteristics, but these products have not delivered on the promise of a healthier alternative cigarette. Our results suggest that the tobacco control community should be on the alert for a shift in advertising focus for PREPs to the image of the user rather than the cigarette. Global Framework Convention on Tobacco Control-style advertising bans that prohibit all user imagery in tobacco advertising could preempt a psychosocial needs-based advertising strategy for PREPs and maintain public attention on the health hazards of smoking. PMID:16843578

  20. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  1. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  2. Brand Cigarillos — A Cheap and Less Harmful Alternative to Cigarettes? Particulate Matter Emissions Suggest Otherwise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gerber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS-associated particulate matter (PM constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It ought to be assessed separately from the other known toxic compounds of tobacco smoke. Brand-specific differences between cigarettes and particularly between cigarettes and favorably taxed cigarillos, are of public interest and therefore worth being investigated. Methods: An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE was developed to generate cigarette and cigarillo smoke in a reliable and reproducible way. John Player Special (JPS Red cigarettes, JPS filter cigarillos and 3R4F standard research cigarettes were smoked automatically in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber according to a standardized protocol until 5 cm from the top were burned down. Results: Mean concentrations (Cmean and area of the curve (AUC of PM2.5 were measured and compared. Cmean PM2.5 were found to be 804 µg/m3 for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 1633 µg/m3 for JPS cigarettes, and 1059 µg/m3 for JPS filter cigarillos. AUC PM2.5-values are 433,873 µg/m3×s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 534,267 µg/m3×s for JPS Red cigarettes and 782,850 µg/m3×s for JPS filter cigarillos. Conclusion: Potential brand-specific differences of ETS-associated PM emissions among brands of cigarettes, and between cigarettes and cigarillos of the same brand and size should be investigated and published. Information about relative PM-emissions should be printed on the package.

  3. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Sutherland, J.M. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McCluskey, A. [Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hansbro, P.M. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  4. Does cigarette smoking affect the diagnostic reliability of hemoglobin alpha 2 delta 2 (HbA2)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, Issa S; Sirdah, Mahmoud M; El Jeadi, Hesham; Al Haddad, Rami M

    2008-01-01

    Quantitation of hemoglobin alpha 2 delta 2 (HbA2) is a basic and confirmatory test in diagnosing the carrier state of beta-thalassemia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the diagnostic reliability of HbA2. A total of 2,867 (654 smokers and 2,213 never smokers) male subjects were involved in the present study. The subjects were categorized into three groups according to their laboratory findings: beta-thalassemia minor, iron deficient, and normal groups. Complete blood count (CBC) parameters and HbA2 levels were compared between smokers and never smokers of each group according to the independent-samples t-test using the SPSS program, significance results were reported at PHct]) and Hb concentration in smokers of all groups; however, no significant differences were reported in the HbA2 level between smokers and never smokers in all groups. It was concluded that cigarette smoking does not affect the diagnostic reliability of the HbA2 test. PMID:18348310

  5. Effects of cigarette smoking on I-123 IMP clearance from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-isopropyl-p-I-123-iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP), originally developed as a brain scanning agent, is also taken up by the lung. To evaluate the cigarette smoking on the uptake of IMP by the lung, we studied I-123 IMP clearance from the lung on 14 volunteers; 5 non-smokers and 9 smokers. After the injection of 111 MBq (3mCi) of I-123 IMP into the medial cubital vein, the time-activity curve for 60 minutes and the regional activity using 1 frame per minute and a 64 x 64 matrix was obtained. I-123 IMP clearance curve was described as follows: C(t)=A1e-k1t+A2e-k2t (A1, A2: intercepts, and k1, k2: slopes of the exponential components). I-123 IMP clearance was delayed in smokers, and k2 was smaller in smokers. Also a significant correlations between k1, k2, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were found. In conclusion, this study suggests that the delayed clearance and retention of I-123 IMP in the lung indicate the lung metabolic disorders due to cigarette smoking. (author)

  6. Effects of cigarette smoking on iodine 123 N-isopropyl-f-iodoamphetamine clearance from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine 123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP), originally developed as a brain scanning agent, is also taken up by the lung. To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on the kinetics of IMP in the lung, we studied 123I-IMP clearance from the lung in 18 volunteers (8 non-smokers and 10 smokers). After the injection of 111 MBq of 123I-IMP into the medial cubital vein, the time-activity curve for 60 min and the regional activity using 1 frame per minute and a 64x64 matrix were obtained. The 123I-IMP clearance curve was described as follows: C(t)=A1e(-k1t)+A2e(-k2t)(A1, A2: intercepts, and k1, k2: slopes of the exponential components). 123I-IMP clearance was delayed in smokers, and k2 was smaller in smokers. Also, a correlation between k1, k2, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was found (r=-0.65, r=-0.74, respectively, P123I-IMP in the lung indicate lung metabolic disorders due to cigarette smoking. (orig.)

  7. Lung Transfer Factor in Middle Aged Asymptomatic Male Smokers of a City from West India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Shah, Chinmay J.; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Makwana, Amit H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is an increasingly popular indulgence in India. Assessment by routine spirometry falls short of direct functional parameter like Diffusion Lung Capacity (DLC), also known as lung transfer factor (LTF). Aim To measure LTF amongst middle aged male smokers and to study various correlates for it. Materials and Methods Total of 45 asymptomatic male current smokers were enrolled for this cross-sectional study conducted at pulmonary function testing lab of Physiology Department of our college. Smoking history was evaluated and smoking index was defined by product of number smoked per day and years smoked. We used instrument Ultima PFX of Medgraphic Company. After pre syringe calibration LTF was measured by Methane mixture using protocols of ATS. Parameters measured were Dlco-uncorrected, corrected and normalized to VA (alveolar volume). Results were compared for statistical significance and significance was set as p <0.05. Results In case group of 45(25 bidi and 20 cigarette smokers) mean age was 30 years, mean duration was 8 years, mean smoking index was 60. We found small insignificant decline in actual LTF values than predicted which was not significantly different between bidi and cigarette smokers. Duration, age and intensity of smoking were negatively and significantly correlated with LTF value while anthropometric parameters were not. Conclusion Smoking adversely affects LTF in young asymptomatic current male smoker that further declines with severity of smoking and with duration regardless of type of smoking. With years to come, these alterations can largely be prevented by smoking cessation, at least theoretically.

  8. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes and without exposing others to secondhand smoke. Marketing for e-cigarettes often describes them as emitting ... Us: Follow Circulation on Twitter Visit Circulation on Facebook Follow Circulation on Google Plus Follow Circulation on ...

  9. The relation between price and daily consumption of cigarettes and bidis: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Wave 1 Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, 14% of the population use smoked tobacco products. Increasing prices of these products is one of the measures to curb their consumption. Aims: This study analyzes "unit price" and "daily consumption" of cigarettes and bidis and investigates their relation with each other. Settings And Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four states of India (Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra as a part of the International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP Evaluation Project (the TCP India Project during 2010-2011. Methods: Information was collected from adult (aged ≥15 daily exclusive smokers of cigarette/bidi regarding (a last purchase (purchase in pack/loose, brand and price and (b daily consumption. Average unit price and daily consumption was calculated for different brands and states. Regression model was used to assess the impact of price on daily consumption. Results: Bidis were much less expensive (₹0.39 than cigarettes (₹3.1. The daily consumption was higher (14 among bidi smokers than cigarette smokers (8. The prices and daily consumption of bidis (₹0.33-0.43; 12-15 and cigarettes (₹2.9-3.6; 5-9 varied across the four states. The unit prices of bidis and cigarettes did not influence their daily consumption. Smokers purchasing bidis in packs paid substantially less per unit and purchase of bidis and cigarettes in packs influenced their consumption positively. Conclusions: Cigarettes although more expensive than bidis, seem very cheap if compared internationally. Hence, prices of both cigarettes and bidis do not influence their consumption.

  10. Psychosocial differences between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela J; Edwards, Sharon E; Ingram, Amber; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Despite the well-established adverse birth and childhood health outcomes associated with maternal smoking, smoking rates among pregnant women remain high. Psychosocial health attributes, including anxiety, depression, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and personality characteristics, have especially important roles in smoking behavior. Understanding who smokes during pregnancy and what factors influence this behavior choice may be key to improving the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention programs. We use data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to understand the psychosocial health profiles of women who choose to smoke during pregnancy compared to the profiles of women who do not smoke or successfully quit smoking during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on 1518 non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women assessed the association between smoking status and psychosocial health while controlling for demographic characteristics. Higher levels of perceived stress, depression, neuroticism, negative paternal support, and perceived racism among non-Hispanic blacks were associated with higher odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (pconstellation of psychosocial adversities than women who did not smoke. Given the psychosocial needs and personality profiles experienced by smokers, more attention to the psychosocial strengths and weaknesses of these women may allow for more tailored smoking cessation programs, enhancing both the short- and long-term effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:22000409

  11. Distribution of cigarette smoking in the lungs and its efect upon 99mTc DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of submicronic particles during cigarette smoking was demonstrated by means of an insoluble (sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid) aerosol in eleven habitual smokers with no evidence of impaired lung function. Considerable pains were taken to simulate precisely the conditions of their usual smoking. The distribution of aerosol during smoking was compared with that during normal tidal breathing in the same subjects. All subjects showed a shift towards greater apical and central (tracheo bronchial) deposition during smoking as compared with quiet respiration. These findings may be relevant to the apical predominance of centrilobular emphysema and bronchial carcinoma. In a second study the differential clearance of a submicronic sup(99m)Tc DTPA aerosol was studied in a population of habitual smokers immediately after smoking two cigarettes and in a control population. Differential clearance was studied continuously for a period of 60 minutes at several peripheral sites in both lung fields. In non smokers the clearance curve was monoexponential over the study period. In smokers the curve was biexponential and clearance overall was more rapid than in non smokers as expected. No difference in clearance was seen between the apices and the bases in smokers to correspond to the predominent apical distribution of cigarette smoke particles in either the erect or the supine position. The biexponential clearance curve in smokers may be due to diffusion of the aerosol from both alveoli and bronchi reflecting the greater central deposition in smokers even though this may not be evident on visual inspection of the aerosol lung scan. (Author)

  12. The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Human Sperm Creatine Kinase Activity: As An ATP Buffering System in Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatozoa are a group of cells that consume adenosine triphosphate (ATP rapidly.Creatine kinase (CK, produced by creatine phosphate, is an energy reservoir for the rapid bufferingand regeneration of ATP and can play an important role in sperm motility. Therefore, this studyinvestigates the effects of cigarette smoking on human sperm CK activity in males who smoke.Materials and Methods: In this case - control study, we obtained semen samples from male smokers(n=64 and nonsmokers (n=83. Smokers were categorized as light, moderate, or heavy smokersaccording to the daily number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years they have smoked. Datawere analyzed by the independent t test and Pearson’s analysis.Results: This investigation showed significantly lower sperm CK activity and movement in malesmokers compared to nonsmokers. In addition, it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking had adose-dependent effect on these parameters. There was a positive relation, although not significant,between sperm CK activity and its motility in male smokers.Conclusion: Smoking, by diminishing sperm CK activity, may potentially impair sperm energyhomeostasis and have an association with damage to sperm motility. This effect can be an importantmechanism that may cause infertility in male smokers. However, further research is necessary toelucidate the underlying mechanism of sperm motility damage caused by cigarette smoking.

  13. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  14. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments. PMID:26164168

  15. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  16. Facebook recruitment of young adult smokers for a cessation trial: Methods, metrics, and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Ramo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms, previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette, appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo. Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13–7/29/13, targeted by age (18–25, location (U.S., and language (English, and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2024 ($0.34/click. Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5895 unique clicks, 586 (10% were study eligible and 230 (39% consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n = 79 was largely Caucasian (77% and male (69%, averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD = 8.3 and 2.7 years smoking (SD = 0.7. Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  17. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 109, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 109, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 109 part. cm−3 for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 1010, 5.2 × 1010 and 2.3 × 1010 particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number concentrations and size distributions were

  18. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Sara, E-mail: s.marini@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Buonanno, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  19. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gravely

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%, Republic of Korea (2010: 79%, United States (2010: 73%, Australia (2013: 66%, Malaysia (2011: 62%, United Kingdom (2010: 54%, Canada (2010: 40%, Brazil (2013: 35%, Mexico (2012: 34%, and China (2009: 31%, in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%, Malaysia (19%, Netherlands (18%, United States (15%, Republic of Korea (11%, United Kingdom (10%, Mexico (4%, Canada (4%, Brazil (3%, and China (2%, and in current use (Malaysia (14%, Republic of Korea (7%, Australia (7%, United States (6%, United Kingdom (4%, Netherlands (3%, Canada (1%, and China (0.05%. Conclusions: The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine, and the survey timing along the trajectory of e-cigarette

  20. The Role of Nicotine in the Effects of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy on Lung Development and Childhood Respiratory Disease. Implications for Dangers of E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Eliot R; McEvoy, Cindy T

    2016-03-01

    Use of e-cigarettes, especially among the young, is increasing at near-exponential rates. This is coupled with a perception that e-cigarettes are safe and with unlimited advertising geared toward vulnerable populations, the groups most likely to smoke or vape during pregnancy. There is now wide appreciation of the dangers of maternal smoking during pregnancy and the lifelong consequences this has on offspring lung function, including the increased risk of childhood wheezing and subsequent asthma. Recent evidence strongly supports that much of the effect of smoking during pregnancy on offspring lung function is mediated by nicotine, making it highly likely that e-cigarette use during pregnancy will have the same harmful effects on offspring lung function and health as do conventional cigarettes. In fact, the evidence for nicotine being the mediator of harm of conventional cigarettes may be most compelling for its effects on lung development. This raises concerns about both the combined use of e-cigarettes plus conventional cigarettes by smokers during pregnancy as well as the use of e-cigarettes by e-cigarette-only users who think them safe or by those sufficiently addicted to nicotine to not be able to quit e-cigarette usage during pregnancy. Thus, it is important for health professionals to be aware of the risks of e-cigarette usage during pregnancy, particularly as it pertains to offspring respiratory health. PMID:26756937

  1. Adherence to Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among HIV-Infected Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Kristine K; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K; Diaz, Philip; Koletar, Susan L; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2016-03-01

    High prevalence of tobacco use and low success in quitting remain significant problems for reducing disease burden among HIV-infected persons. This study's purpose was to examine participant responsiveness and tobacco dependence treatment adherence and their influences on tobacco abstinence among HIV-infected patients. This non-randomized study included HIV-infected smokers 18 years of age or older, who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day, and had an interest in quitting smoking in the next 30 days. HIV-infected smokers (n = 247) received a 12-week tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included pharmacotherapy and telephone counseling. Younger age and non-White race were associated with lower adherence to pharmacotherapy. Younger age, non-White race, and increased monthly binge drinking were associated with lower adherence to telephone counseling. High participant responsiveness was associated with adherence to pharmacotherapy, counseling, and abstinence. Development and testing of interventions to improve adherence to evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment is warranted. PMID:25855045

  2. Study of the crevicular fluid flow rate in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, G M; Lucas, G Q; Lucas, O N

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if smoking--a risk factor in periodontal disease-affects the crevicular fluid (CF) flow rate. Twenty-nine dental students were included in the control group--non-smokers- (NS) and 34 in the experimental group--smokers- (S). All subjects were enrolled in a rigorous dental hygiene program (RDHP). The Greene-Vermillion plaque index, and Löe-Silness gingival index (GI) were recorded. CF was obtained and measured with the Periotron 8000. These recordings were made before and after the RDHP. The results show that the CF mean flow rate was slightly lower in the S group than in the NS group, for both recordings. The analysis of the relation between the CF flow rate and the GI recorded in the dental surfaces, revealed a significantly lower flow rate in the S group for GI 1 (p < 0.01) and GI 3 (p < 0.05). The difference observed between the S and NS groups, may be due to the vasoconstrictor action of the cigarette components (nicotine and/or metabolites) on the gingival vasculature. PMID:11885468

  3. The cessation and detoxification effect of tea filters on cigarette smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To treat tobacco addiction,a tea filter was developed and studied for smoking cessation.This work reports the smoking cessation effect of tea when it was used as a component of cigarette filters.In one trial it was found that after using the tea filters for 2 months,the volunteer smokers decreased their cigarette consumption by 56.5%,and 31.7% of them stopped smoking.This work identified a new method and material,tea filter and theanine,which inhibit tobacco and nicotine addiction and provide an effective strategy for treating tobacco addiction.

  4. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Hiscock; Linda Bauld; Deborah Arnott; Martin Dockrell; Louise Ross; Andy McEwen

    2015-01-01

    The UK Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are a source of information and advice on e-cigarettes for smokers and thus it is important to understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes held by stop smoking practitioners. The datasets were English SSS quarterly monitoring returns (n = 207,883) and an online survey of English SSS practitioners, managers, and commissioners between 26th November and 15th December 2014 (n = 1801). SSS monitoring data suggested 2% of clients were using e-...

  5. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  6. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Meernik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121 to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62% completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  7. Noni juice reduces lipid peroxidation-derived DNA adducts in heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Jensen, Claude J; Deng, Shixin; West, Brett J

    2013-03-01

    Food plants provide important phytochemicals which help improve or maintain health through various biological activities, including antioxidant effects. Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and their decomposition product malondialdehyde (MDA), both of which cause oxidative damage to DNA. Two hundred forty-five heavy cigarette smokers completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on LOOH- and MDA-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo every day for 1 month. DNA adducts were measured by (32)P postlabeling analysis. Drinking 29.5-118 mL of noni juice significantly reduced adducts by 44.6-57.4%. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence LOOH- and MDA-DNA adduct levels in current smokers. Noni juice was able to mitigate oxidative damage of DNA in current heavy smokers, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:24804023

  8. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi Rema A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25 and in-depth interviews (9 were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries.

  9. Attitudes, perceptions, habits of smoker non-smoker general practitioners and why they fail to motivate patients to quit smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate attitudes, perceptions and habits of General Practitioners (GPs) who smoke and those who do not smoke cigarettes, with particular attention to smoking cessation. Two physician groups were targeted: GPs who smoke and those who do not smoke. They were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A unique country-specific questionnaire was developed to conduct a 20-minute telephonic interview. Survey was started from December 2006 and completed in May 2007. Simple statistical calculations were used to interpret the data. GPs view smoking as the most harmful behaviour among the risk factors. 94% agreed that smoking should be classified as a medical condition and if it were so would encourage more smokers to quit smoking and they have suggested the need of prescription therapies for their patients to quit smoking. Significant discontent exists between physicians and smokers. The main cause of this discontent is physician perceived inability to provide successful solutions to quit smoking due to low awareness level and lack of training. This issue, when properly addressed, can be useful as an additional tool to aid patients in quitting. (author)

  10. Comparison of no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction between smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shemirani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is relatively common and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Cigarette smoking is known as deleterious in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, but the effect of smoking on no-reflow phenomenon is less investigated. The aim of this study was to compare no-reflow phenomenon after percutneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, between smokers and non smokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 141 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran between March and September, 2012 with a diagnosis of STEMI, enrolled into our Cohort study. Patients were divided into current smoker and nonsmoker groups (based on patient′s information. All patients underwent primary PCI or rescue PCI within the first 12-h of chest pain. No-reflow phenomenon, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI flow, and 24-h complications were assessed in both groups. Results: A total of 47 current smoker cases (32.9% and 94 (65.7% nonsmoker cases were evaluated. Smokers in comparison to nonsmokers were younger (53.47 ± 10.59 vs. 61.46 ± 10.55, P < 0.001 and they were less likely to be hypertensive (15.2% vs. 44.7%, P < 0.001, diabetic (17% vs. 36.2%, P < 0.05, and female gender (4.3% vs. 25.5%, P < 0.01. Angiographic and procedural characteristics of both groups were similar. 9 patients died during the first 24-h after PCI (4.3% of smokers and 6.4% of nonsmokers, P: 0.72. No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 29.8% of current smokers and 31.5% of nonsmokers (P = 0.77. Conclusion: No-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications were not significantly different between current smokers and non smokers.

  11. Ulcerative colitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillermo Bastida; Belén Beltrán

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor that interferes in the establishment and clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC). Firstly, the risk of smoking status impact in the development of UC is reviewed, showing that current smoking has a protective association with UC.Similarly, being a former smoker is associated with an increased risk of UC. The concept that smoking could have a role in determining the inflammatory bowel disease phenotype is also discussed. Gender may also be considered, as current smoking delays disease onset in men but not in women. No clear conclusions can be driven from the studies trying to clarify whether childhood passive smoking or prenatal smoke exposure have an influence on the development of UC, mainly due to methodology flaws. The influence of smoking on disease course is the second aspect analysed. Some studies show a disease course more benign in smokers that in non-smokers, with lower hospitalizations rates, less flare-ups, lower use of oral steroids and even less risk of proximal extension. This is not verified by some other studies. Similarly, the rate of colectomy does not seem to be determined by the smoking status of the patient.The third issue reviewed is the use of nicotine as a therapeutic agent. The place of nicotine in the treatment of UC is unclear, although it could be useful in selected cases, particularly in recent ex-smokers with moderate but refractory attacks of UC. Finally, the effect of smoking cessation in UC patients is summarised. Given that smoking represents a major worldwide cause of death,for inpatients with UC the risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit. Thus, physicians should advise,encourage and assist UC patients who smoke to quit.

  12. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  13. Adiponectin and Mortality in Smokers and Non-Smokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Graciela E; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A decreased concentration of adiponectin has been reported in smokers. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cigarette smoking on the concentration of adiponectin and potassium in active smokers (AS) and life-time non-smokers (NS) of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study, and the use of these two markers for risk prediction. Smoking status was assessed by a questionnaire and measurement of plasma cotinine concentration. The serum concentration of adiponectin was measured by ELISA. Adiponectin was binned into tertiles separately for AS and NS and the Cox regression was used to assess the effect on mortality. There were 777 AS and 1178 NS among the LURIC patients. Within 10 years (median) of follow-up 221 AS and 302 NS died. In unadjusted analyses, AS had lower concentrations of adiponectin. However, after adjustment for age and gender there was no significant difference in adiponectin concentration between AS and NS. In the Cox regression model adjusted for age and gender, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality in AS, but not in NS, with hazard ratio (95 % CI) of 1.60 (1.14-2.24) comparing the third with first tertile. In a model further adjusted for the risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, body mass index, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality with hazard ratio of 1.83 (1.28-2.62) and 1.56 (1.15-2.11) for AS and NS, respectively. We conclude that increased adiponectin is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in both AS and NS. The determination of adiponectin concentration could be used to identify individuals at increased mortality risk. PMID:27358181

  14. Empowering smokers with a web-assisted tobacco intervention to use prescription smoking cessation medications: a feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Peter; Hussain, Sarwar; Voci, Sabrina; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Background Varenicline and bupropion, efficacious smoking cessation medications, have had suboptimal impact due to barriers at the patient, practitioner and system level. This study explored the feasibility of a web-assisted tobacco intervention offering free prescription smoking cessation medication by mail if the smoker visited a physician for authorization. Methods Adult Ontarians, smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily, intending to quit within 30 days, with no contraindications to bupropio...

  15. Modification of the Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on the Mortality of Male Smokers by Age and Dietary Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study (1985–1993) recruited 29,133 Finnish male cigarette smokers, finding that vitamin E supplementation had no overall effect on mortality. The authors of this paper found that the effect of vitamin E on respiratory infections in ATBC Study participants was modified by age, smoking, and dietary vitamin C intake; therefore, they examined whether the effect of vitamin E supplementation on mortality is modified by the same variables....

  16. Cigarette smoking causes hearing impairment among Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumit, Ahmed Faisal; Das, Anindya; Sharmin, Zinat; Ahsan, Nazmul; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94) were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63 ± 2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06 ± 11.06, 40.79 ± 20.36 decibel (dB), respectively and that of the smokers were 7 ± 3.8, 13.27 ± 8.4, 30.66 ± 12.50 and 56.88 ± 21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p5 years) showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16 ± 19.87 dB) at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52 ± 19.21 dB) of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002). In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI) of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies. PMID:25781179

  17. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Carla J. Berg

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. Methods In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen H...

  18. Smoking and interstitial lung disease. The effect of cigarette smoking on the incidence of pulmonary histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, A J; Basset, F; Saumon, G; Danel, C; Valeyre, D; Battesti, J P; Chrétien, J; Georges, R

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking produces marked alterations in the lung parenchyma and in the population of immune and inflammatory cells present in the lower respiratory tract. These cigarette-induced changes appear to influence the incidence of two different interstitial lung diseases, histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. Smoking is a strong risk factor for the development of pulmonary histiocytosis X, since the incidence of smoking is very high among patients with histiocytosis X: 90% of the patients with histiocytosis X were smokers; 46% of the controls were smokers (p less than .001). In contrast, smoking appears to reduce the incidence of sarcoidosis: 31% of the patients with sarcoidosis were smokers (p less than .05 compared to controls). In an effort to understand how cigarette smoking influences the incidence of these two disorders, we compared the numbers and types of immune and inflammatory cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from nonsmoking and smoking controls and patients with histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. Although nonsmoking patients with histiocytosis X did not have a significant increase in the number of alveolar macrophages recovered by lavage (p greater than .2 compared to normals), smoking patients had an increase in the number of alveolar macrophages similar to that observed in the control population. In contrast, the number of macrophages recovered from patients with sarcoidosis who smoked was considerably less than that observed in normal smokers (p less than .05 comparing patients with sarcoidosis and controls who smoked 1-20 cigarettes/day). This difference in the intensity of the cigarette-induced macrophage alveolitis observed in the two patient groups may be important in explaining the opposite effects of cigarette smoking on the incidence of histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. PMID:3488004

  19. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [15O]H2O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [15O]H2O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8±1.1 yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0±2.5 yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6±2.5 pack years. Myocardial [15O]H2O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 deg. C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [15O]H2O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43±0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37±0.41 ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25±0.33 vs. 1.59±0.29 ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90±24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122±28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81±1.99 vs. 5.03±1.27 ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [15O]H2O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  20. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, Padvertisements designed to target smokers

  1. Cigarette Taxes and Older Adult Smoking: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Johanna Catherine; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Kenkel, Donald S

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use the Health and Retirement Study to test whether older adult smokers, defined as those 50 years and older, respond to cigarette tax increases. Our preferred specifications show that older adult smokers respond modestly to tax increases: a $1.00 (131.6%) tax increase leads to a 3.8-5.2% reduction in cigarettes smoked per day (implied tax elasticity = -0.03 to -0.04). We identify heterogeneity in tax elasticity across demographic groups as defined by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status and by smoking intensity and level of addictive stock. These findings have implications for public health policy implementation in an aging population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25721732

  2. Multielement determination in a Chinese cigarette brand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cigarette brand manufactured in the Republic of China was analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of 27 elements in cigarette tobacco, cigarette wrapping paper, cigarette filter before and after smoking and in the dropped ash. The results were compared to the literature values for American and other international cigarette brands. (author) 28 refs.; 3 tabs

  3. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Bhagavathul, Akshaya Srikanth; Ya’u, Adamu; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Elsayed, Tarek M.; Ahmad, Akram; Mohamed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0). Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women) respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%), Malay (83.8%), Muslims (83.8%), singles (69%), and employed (75.8%), with about 83 (29.9%) of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4). About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26%) have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02). Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5%) and cheaper price (40.8%). Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse. PMID:27413354

  4. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  5. Population-based survey of cessation aids used by Swedish smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutqvist Lars E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most smokers who quit typically do so unassisted although pharmaceutical products are increasingly used by those who want a quitting aid. Previous Scandinavian surveys indicated that many smokers stopped smoking by switching from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco in the form of snus. However, usage of various cessation aids may have changed in Sweden during recent years due to factors such as the wider availability of pharmaceutical nicotine, the public debate about the health effects of different tobacco products, excise tax increases on snus relative to cigarettes, and the widespread public misconception that nicotine is the main cause of the adverse health effects associated with tobacco use. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey was done during November 2008 and September 2009 including 2,599 males and 3,409 females aged between 18 and 89 years. The sampling technique was random digit dialing. Data on tobacco habits and quit attempts were collected through structured telephone interviews. Results The proportion of ever smokers was similar among males (47% compared to females (44%. About two thirds of them reported having stopped smoking at the time of the survey. Among the former smokers, the proportion who reported unassisted quitting was slightly lower among males (68% compared to females (78%. Among ever smokers who reported having made assisted quit attempts, snus was the most frequently reported cessation aid among males (22%, whereas females more frequently reported counseling (8%, or pharmaceutical nicotine (gum 8%, patch 4%. Of those who reported using snus at their latest quit attempt, 81% of males and 72% of females were successful quitters compared to about 50-60% for pharmaceutical nicotine and counseling. Conclusions This survey confirms and extends previous reports in showing that, although most smokers who have quit did so unassisted, snus continues to be the most frequently reported cessation

  6. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  7. Interactions of Several Lipid-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Cigarette Smoking on Blood Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xing Yin, Dong-Feng Wu, Jin-Zhen Wu, Xiao-Li Cao, Lynn Htet Htet Aung, Lin Miao, Xing-Jiang Long, Wan-Ying Liu, Lin Zhang, Meng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect nine lipid-related SNPs and their interactions with cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1 V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1 rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R AvaⅡ, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9 E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1 rs5888 was performed in 935 nonsmokers and 845 smokers. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The frequencies of genotypes (ACAT-1 and LIPG, alleles (ABCA-1, and both genotypes and alleles (LDL-R, LIPC, PPARD and SCARB1 were different between nonsmokers and smokers (P < 0.05-0.001. The levels of pulse pressure (PP, ABCA-1, and systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP and PP (LIPC in nonsmokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001. The levels of SBP (ABCA-1, ACAT-1, LIPG and PCSK9, DBP (ACAT-1, LDL-R, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD, and PP (LIPC, LIPG, MTHFR and PCSK9 in smokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001. The SNPs of ABCA-1, ACAT-1 and PCSK9; ACAT-1, LDL-R, MTHFR and PCSK9; and ABCA-1, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD were shown interactions with cigarette smoking to influence SBP, DBP and PP levels (P < 0.05-0.001; respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between the nonsmokers and smokers might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and cigarette smoking.

  8. Worldwide research productivity in the field of electronic cigarette: a bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Waleed M. Sweileh

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (EC) is an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. There is a lack of data concerning the evaluation of research productivity in the field of EC originating from the world. The main objectives of this study were to analyse worldwide research output in EC field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods Data were searched for documents with specific words regardin...

  9. Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke reduces phagocytosis in peripheral blood leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Tschernig, Thomas; Rabung, Andrea; Voss, Meike; Meier, Carola; Bals, Robert; Beisswenger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in smokers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was found to be controversial and dependent on the phagocytic stimulus. Results We demonstrated that long-term exposure to cigarette smoke in mice clearly suppressed the phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes from peripheral blood. Conclusions Impaired phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood leukocytes may have a systemic effect and potentially contribute to smoki...

  10. Public Smoking Bans, Youth Access Laws, and Cigarette Sales at Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasnicka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco control policies have proliferated in many countries in recent years, in particular youth access laws and public smoking bans. The effectiveness of youth access laws is still disputed, however, as are the costs of public smoking bans to the hospitality industry. Using a unique data set on cigarette sales at more than 100k vending machines that provides first objective evidence on the outgoing and customer behavior of smokers, we study both outcome dimensions by investigating several r...

  11. Cerebral monoamine oxidase A inhibition in tobacco smokers confirmed with PET and [{sup 11}C]Befloxatone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, C.; Bragulat, V.; Penttila, J.; Artiges, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Trichard, Ch. [INSERM U797, Research Unit ' Neuroimaging and Psychiatry' , Orsay (France); Leroy, C.; Bragulat, V.; Penttila, J.; Artiges, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Trichard, Ch. [CEA, ' Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, U797 Unit, Hospital Department Frederic Joliot and Neurospin (France); Leroy, C.; Bragulat, V.; Penttila, J.; Artiges, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Trichard, Ch. [Paris sud University - Paris Descartes University, UMR U797 (France); Berlin, I. [Service de Pharmacologie, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere - Universite Paris6 - INSERM U677, Paris (France); Gregoire, M.C.; Bottlaender, M.; Roumenov, D.; Dolle, F.; Bourgeois, S. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Artiges, E.; Trichard, Ch. [Psychiatry Department, Orsay Hospital, Orsay (France)

    2009-07-01

    The inhibition of cerebral monoamine oxidases (MAOs) by cigarette smoke components could participate to the tobacco addiction. However, the actual extent of this inhibition in vivo in smokers is still poorly known. We investigated cerebral MAO-A availability in 7 tobacco-dependent subjects and 6 healthy nonsmokers, using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MAO-A selective radioligand [{sup 11}C]befloxatone. In comparison to nonsmokers, smokers showed a significant overall reduction of [{sup 11}C]befloxatone binding potential (BP) in cortical areas (average reduction, -60%) and a similar trend in caudate and thalamus (-40%). Our findings confirm a widespread inhibition of cerebral MAO-A in smokers. This mechanism may contribute to tobacco addiction and for a possible mood-modulating effect of tobacco. (authors)

  12. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P.

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  13. Compliance of anti-smoking regulations by cigarette industry in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The hazards of cigarette smoking and its increasing consumption are well known despite the ongoing tussle between the tobacco industry and global governments. To curb the menace of smoking, anti-smoking laws have been enforced from time to time by various governments. In 2003, Ministry of Health (MoH) Government of Pakistan has imposed certain regulations on cigarette manufacturing industry. The aim of this study was to highlight the compliance of the industry with these regulations. Methods: A cross-sectional study of major cigarette selling shops was conducted in Abbottabad. It was aimed at determining the availability of total cigarette brands and their compliance with the regulations and also to find out attributes of cigarette customers. Results: A total of 39 varieties of 18 cigarette brands are available in Abbottabad city, out of which 71.8% are imported varieties. A total of 38.4% varieties have displayed health warnings (28.2% pictorial health warning, 10.2% have written health warning. Majority of cigarette customers are between 20-40 years of age, while 5.6% customers include youngsters between 10-20 years of age. Female customers, accounting for 8% of total cigarette customers, buy only those brands which have not displayed the health warning. Conclusions: Observed compliance with governmental regulation for displaying health warning is 39% which is far less than desired. Sale of cigarette to children is also practiced. Ministry of Health (MoH) should assure the display of these warnings on all the brands so that smokers must be fully aware about the risk involved in smoking. (author)

  14. The impact of tetrahydrobiopterin administration on endothelial function before and after smoking cessation in chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beth A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Dornelas, Ellen A; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality is reduced following smoking cessation but the reversibility of specific atherogenic risk factors such as endothelial dysfunction is less established. We assessed brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 57 chronic smokers and 15 healthy controls, alone and after oral tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) administration, to assess the extent to which reduced bioactivity of BH4, a cofactor for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme (eNOS), contributes to smoking-associated reductions in FMD. Thirty-four smokers then ceased cigarette and nicotine use for 1 week, after which FMD (±BH4 administration) was repeated. Brachial artery FMD was calculated as the peak dilatory response observed relative to baseline (%FMD). Endothelium-independent dilation was assessed by measuring the dilatory response to sublingual nitroglycerin (%NTG). Chronic smokers exhibited reduced %FMD relative to controls: (5.6±3.0% vs. 8.1±3.7%; PFMD in both groups (P=0.03) independent of smoking status (P=0.78) such that FMD was still lower in smokers relative to controls (6.6±3.3% vs. 9.8±3.2%; PFMD increased significantly (from 5.0±2.9 to 7.8±3.2%;PFMD (P=0.33). These findings suggest that the blunted FMD observed in chronic smokers, likely due at least in part to reduced BH4 bioactivity and eNOS uncoupling, can be restored with smoking cessation. Post-cessation BH4 administration does not further improve endothelial function in chronic smokers, unlike the effect observed in nonsmokers, indicating a longer-term impact of chronic smoking on vascular function that is not acutely reversible. PMID:26606877

  15. Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Moysidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4 out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate

  16. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  17. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

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    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  18. Self-rated everyday prospective memory abilities of cigarette smokers and non-smokers: a web based study

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Tom; Buchanan, Tom; Ling, Jonathan; Parrott, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined self-ratings of two aspects of everyday memory performance: long-term prospective memory—measured by the prospective memory questionnaire (PMQ), and everyday memory—measured by the everyday memory questionnaire (EMQ). Use of other substances was also measured and used as covariates in the study. To ensure confidentiality and to expand the numbers used in previous studies, an Internet study was carried out and data from 763 participants was gathered. After controllin...

  19. PULMONARY LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS PRESENTING AS SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX IN A NON-SMOKER PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vaziri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH is a rare idiopathic disorder that primarily affects young adult cigarette smokers. Affected patients often present with cough and dyspnea and about 20% of patients present with or later develop pneumothorax. It is striking that more than 90% of patients are smokers. We report a very unusual case of PLCH in a 20-year- old male patient with no smoking history in whom a life- threatening complication such as simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax was the presenting feature. The final diagnosis was made by open surgical biopsy and recurrent pneumothoraces necessitated surgical management with pleurodesis. We emphasize the early use of pleurodesis in managing patients with PLCH and spontaneous pneumothorax.

  20. Social support as a buffer between discrimination and cigarette use in juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra; Zapolski, Tamika; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette use is a prominent problem in juvenile offenders, leading to negative health outcomes and substance use. One interesting precipitator of cigarette use in this population is discrimination. Social support could potentially buffer the positive relationship between cigarette use and discrimination in juvenile offenders, which could be dependent on the context in which the discrimination is experienced, such as peer, institutional (e.g., stores, restaurants), or educational contexts. The present study explored the relationship between three types of discrimination, social support, and smoking outcomes among 112 detained and probated juvenile offenders (mean age=16.24, SD=2.11, 29.2% female, 54.9% Caucasian, 40.4% detention, 53.8% smokers). Results indicated that the relationship between institutional discrimination (OR=-0.10, p=0.005) and peer discrimination (OR=-0.11, p=0.01) were significantly moderated by social support, with a higher likelihood of being a smoker, compared to a non-smoker at higher levels of peer and institutional discrimination. Further, based on a moderated regression analysis, results indicated that youth who experienced greater educational discrimination and lower levels of social support, they were at higher risk of nicotine addiction (b=-0.09, p=0.03). Overall, results indicate that varying avenues of social support, such as parent, peer, and teacher support, can mitigate negative effects of discrimination on juvenile offenders, particularly cigarette use. Addressing discrimination in smoking treatment and prevention in juvenile offenders may be of great utility. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms underlying the discrimination and cigarette use connection in juvenile offenders. PMID:27010849

  1. The 2009 US Federal Cigarette Tax Increase and Quitline Utilization in 16 States

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    Terry Bush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. On April 1, 2009, the federal cigarette excise tax increased from 39 cents to $1.01 per pack. Methods. This study describes call volumes to 16 state quitlines, characteristics of callers and cessation outcomes before and after the tax. Results. Calls to the quitlines increased by 23.5% in 2009 and more whites, smokers ≥ 25 years of age, smokers of shorter duration, those with less education, and those who live with smokers called after (versus before the tax. Quit rates at 7 months did not differ before versus after tax. Conclusions. Descriptive analyses revealed that the federal excise tax on cigarettes was associated with increased calls to quitlines but multivariate analyses revealed no difference in quit rates. However, more callers at the same quit rate indicates an increase in total number of successful quitters. If revenue obtained from increased taxation on cigarettes is put into cessation treatment, then it is likely future excise taxes would have an even greater effect.

  2. Design, recruitment, and retention of African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study

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    Mayo Matthew S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. Methods The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in the steady-state concentrations of bupropion and its three principal metabolites between African-American menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Study participation consisted of four visits at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC over six weeks. After meeting telephone eligibility requirements, phone-eligible participants underwent additional screening during the first two GCRC visits. The last two visits (pharmacokinetic study phase required repeated blood draws using an intravenous catheter over the course of 12 hours. Results Five hundred and fifteen African-American smokers completed telephone screening; 187 were phone-eligible and 92 were scheduled for the first GCRC visit. Of the 81 who attended the first visit, 48 individuals were enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study, and a total of 40 individuals completed the study (83% retention rate. Conclusions Although recruitment of African-American smokers into a non-treatment, pharmacokinetic study poses challenges, retention is feasible. The results provide valuable information for investigators embarking on non-treatment laboratory-based studies among minority populations.

  3. Properties of radioactive aerosols produced by interactions of indoor radon decay products with cigarette smoke and burning cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risks of lung cancer to smokers, attributable in part to exposure to indoor radon decay products, are dependent on properties of radon progeny-tagged smoke particles. The authors have investigated the properties and interactions of radon progeny-tagged smoke particles as they pass through burning cigarettes into mainstream smoke, using /sup 212/Pb-tagged smoke particles as tracers, cascade impactors for particle size determinations, and low-level β/sup -/ counting techniques. /sup 212/Pb-tagged particles of submicron size are destroyed in the burning zone of cigarettes. However, /sup 212/Pb-tagged smoke particles exceeding 1.0 μm diameter pass readily through the burning zone and tobacco rod into mainstream smoke. /sup 212/ Pb- tagged particles in mainstream smoke have an activity median aerodynamic diameter between 1.0 and 2.0 μm diameter. Particles > 2.0 μm diameter carry about 10 percent of the total activity, are selectively deposited at the carina of bifurcations, and are resistant to dissolution in lung fluid. These results indicate that indoor radon progeny on large particles in mainstream smoke can contribute substantially to the cumulative alpha radiation dose at ''hot spots'' in the bronchi of smokers

  4. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

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    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  5. Comparison of patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe between beginning and established smokers

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    Ward Kenneth D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers and café customers (established smokers in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students (total 587, 48.4% men, mean age 22 years, and waterpipe users among cafe' customers (total 268, 60% men, mean age 30 years in Aleppo, Syria. We used interviewer-administered questionnaire inquiring about pattern of waterpipe smoking (initiation, frequency, situational characteristics of use (partner, place, sharing, beliefs related to waterpipe smoking (harmful/addictive properties of waterpipe, attitudes related to waterpipe smoking (confidence in quitting, will to quit, motivation for quitting, past year quit attempt, and cigarette smoking. Results Daily and regular patterns of smoking become more prevalent with increased duration of smoking, but intermittent smoking remains the predominant pattern of waterpipe use. Women seem to be drawn later to the habit, which seem to escape the usual taboo against women's cigarette smoking. Patterns and context of waterpipe use tend to change with progress of the practice affecting frequency, setting, and sharing of waterpipe. Unlike beginners, established waterpipe smokers seem more smoking-method oriented, more hooked on the habit, less willing to quit, and less likely to foresee challenges to quitting. Conclusion Use patterns and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking evolve to accommodate the change in dependence and life circumstances of the smoker. Most of use features, beliefs, attitudes, as well as time-course seem unique to this smoking method requiring novel approach to intervention.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of a tailored group smoking cessation intervention for HIV-infected smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moadel, Alyson B.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Dolce, Eileen H.; Shuter, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in the US smoke cigarettes, and tobacco use is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in this group. Little is known about the efficacy of tobacco treatment strategies in PLWH. Design Randomized controlled trial comparing Positively Smoke Free (PSF), an intensive group therapy intervention targeting HIV-infected smokers, to standard care. Methods A cohort of 145 PLWH smokers, recruited from an HIV-care center in the Bronx, New York, were randomized 1:1 into the PSF program or standard care. All were offered a 3-month supply of nicotine replacement therapy. PSF is an eight session program tailored to address the needs and concerns of HIV-infected smokers. Sessions were co-facilitated by a graduate student and an HIV-infected peer. The primary outcome was biochemically-confirmed, seven-day point-prevalence abstinence at three months. Results In the intention to treat analysis, PSF condition subjects had nearly double the quit rate of controls (19.2% vs 9.7%, P=0.11). In the complete case, as-treated analysis, assignment to PSF was associated with increased odds of quitting (ORadj 3.55, 95% CI: 1.04– 12.0). Latino ethnicity and lower loneliness score were predictive of abstinence. Subjects in the PSF condition exhibited significant decreases in daily cigarette consumption and significant increases in self-efficacy and in motivation to quit. Attendance of ≥7 sessions was associated with higher quit rates. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect of PSF on cessation rates in PLWH smokers. Loneliness and self-efficacy are influential factors in the smoking behaviors of PLWH. PMID:22732470

  7. Relation of resistin levels with C-reactve protein, homocysteine and uric acid in smokers and non-smokers

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    Onur Esbah

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We found that smoking may have influence on resistin levels and in smokers, insulin resistance is related to resistin levels, but in smoker and non-smokers body mass may not have any association with resistin. Resistin also may not have a role in C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid levels both in smokers and non-smokers.

  8. Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

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    Ebert Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, cognitive factors (sense of coherence and self-efficacy, coping resources (family and friend social support and demographic factors (gender and ethnicity on cigarette smoking behaviors (initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students. A total of 161 U.S. college students, aged 18–26, who enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed self-report questionnaires. The majority of the students had tried smoking (55%; among those who had tried, 42% were current smokers. The majority (77% who had smoked a whole cigarette did so at age 16 years or younger. Students who reported lower levels of conscientiousness and self-efficacy had a greater likelihood to had tried cigarette smoking. Also, students who had lower levels of self-efficacy reported smoking more frequently and greater quantities of cigarettes than students with higher levels of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of smoking behaviors. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Marieke; Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Vries, Hein; van Schayck, Constant P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 years with an email address and capable of understanding Dutch can become a member. Participants 587 of 711 Dutch smokers aged ≥18 years, daily smokers for ≥5 years and smoke on average ≥10 cigarettes/day (response rate=83%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Smokers' knowledge, attitudes and preferences and their intention to undergo genetic testing for smoking cessation. Results Knowledge on the influence of genetic factors in smoking addiction and cessation was found to be low. Smokers underestimated their chances of having a genetic predisposition and the influence of this on smoking cessation. Participants perceived few disadvantages, some advantages and showed moderate self-efficacy towards undergoing a genetic test and dealing with the results. Smokers were mildly interested in receiving information and participating in genetic testing, especially when offered by their general practitioner (GP). Conclusions For successful implementation of genetic testing for smoking in general practice, several issues should be addressed, such as the knowledge on smoking cessation, genetics and genetic testing (including advantages and disadvantages) and the influence of genetics on smoking addiction and cessation. Furthermore, smokers allocate their GPs a crucial role in the provision of information and the delivery of a genetic test for smoking; however, it is unclear whether GPs will be able and willing to take on this role. PMID:22223839

  10. Chronic cigarette smoking alters erythrocyte membrane lipid composition and properties in male human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathi, Pannuru; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Kavitha, Godugu; Paramahamsa, Maturu; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2010-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle factor influencing the health of human beings. The present study investigates smoking induced alterations on the erythrocyte membrane lipid composition, fluidity and the role of nitric oxide. Thirty experimental and control subjects (age 35+/-8) were selected for the study. Experimental subjects smoke 12+/-2 cigarettes per day for 7-10 years. In smokers elevated nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma and red cell lysates were observed. Smokers showed increased hemolysis, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, C/P ratio (cholesterol and phospholipid ratio), anisotropic (gamma) value with decreased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and sulfhydryl groups. Alterations in smokers erythrocyte membrane individual phospholipids were also evident from the study. Red cell lysate nitric oxide positively correlated with C/P ratio (r=0.565) and fluorescent anisotropic (gamma) value (r=0.386) in smokers. Smoking induced generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species might have altered erythrocyte membrane physico-chemical properties. PMID:20561918

  11. Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with a Lower Concentration of CD105+ Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

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    Shaul Beyth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is associated with musculoskeletal degenerative disorders, delayed fracture healing, and nonunion. Bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs, known to express CD105, are important in local trophic and immunomodulatory activity and central to musculoskeletal healing/regeneration. We hypothesized that smoking is associated with lower levels of BMPC. Iliac bone marrow samples were collected from individuals aged 18–65 years during the first steps of pelvic surgery, under IRB approval with informed consent. Patients with active infectious or neoplastic disease, a history of cytotoxic or radiation therapy, primary or secondary metabolic bone disease, or bone marrow dysfunction were excluded. Separation process purity and the number of BMPCs recovered were assessed with FACS. BMPC populations in self-reported smokers and nonsmokers were compared using the two-tailed t-test. 13 smokers and 13 nonsmokers of comparable age and gender were included. The average concentration of BMPCs was 3.52 × 105/mL ± 2.45 × 105/mL for nonsmokers versus 1.31 × 105/mL ± 1.61 × 105/mL for smokers (t= 3.2, P=0.004. This suggests that cigarette smoking is linked to a significant decrease in the concentration of BMPCs, which may contribute to the reduced regenerative capacity of smokers, with implications for musculoskeletal maintenance and repair.

  12. Cigarette smoking in military pilots and intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovelić Stojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that smoking is associated with an increase in arterial wall thickness. However, most studies of this problem have been undertaken in age and sex heterogeneous groups, as well as in patients with already present other conventional risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cigarette smoking on arterial wall thickness of the common carotid artery in asymptomatic pilots. Methods. The imaging of intima−media thickness of the posterior wall of the distal 1 cm of both common carotid arteries was performed using a B mode ultrasound device, in 39 pilots (37.05 ± 6.66 years, for whom smoking was the single cardiovascular risk factor. Comparisons were made with 49 non-smokers (35.12 ± 7.39 years. Results. The posterior walls of both common carotid arteries were thicker in smokers (left, p < 0.05; right, p > 0,05. Intima-media thickness was significantly lower on the right side than on the left side in both smokers and nonsmokers (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Cigarette smoking as the single cardiovascular risk factor was associated with the wall thickness of the carotid arteries in our study. This finding indicated that early atherosclerosis was already present in pilots - smokers entering middle age.

  13. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend;

    1999-01-01

    changes in their own smoking behaviour such as avoiding smoking in the presence of non-smokers. In general practice settings, these percentages were higher among smokers. Smokers who were thinking of stopping smoking in the near future were in addition more likely to take and to read smoking related...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...

  14. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

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    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  15. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking among adolescents in Estonia: HBSC survey results, 1994–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pärna Kersti

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major single cause of preventable morbidity and premature mortality. Tobacco use among adolescents is a significant public health problem as smoking behaviour is undeniably established in adolescence. While cigarette smoking among adolescents has been a significant public health problem for years, waterpipe smoking is considered to be a new global public health threat. The objectives of this study were to describe trends of cigarette smoking and the prevalence of waterpipe smoking and to study the association between cigarette and waterpipe smoking among adolescents in Estonia. Methods This study was based on a four-yearly HBSC survey of health behaviour among school-aged children conducted in 1994–2006 in Estonia. It was a school-based survey of a nationally representative sample using standardized methodology. The target group of the survey were 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old schoolchildren (N = 13826, 6656 boys and 7170 girls. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking was determined on a 4-stage scale: every day, at least once a week, less than once a week, not smoking. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine gender- and age-specific smoking trends and to study the association between cigarette and waterpipe smoking. Results Prevalence of smoking was higher among boys than girls in all age groups during the whole study period. The prevalence of cigarette smoking increased in 1994–2002 and then slightly decreased in both genders. The increase in smoking was larger among girls. Among girls, daily smoking increased during the whole study period. Among 15-year-old schoolchildren one-third of the boys and one quarter of the girls were cigarette smokers, 21% of the boys and 12% of the girls were daily smokers in 2006. One fourth of the boys and one sixth of the girls were waterpipe smokers. A logistic regression analysis revealed a strong association between cigarette and waterpipe smoking among schoolchildren

  16. Estimating the impact of different cigarette package warning label policies: the auction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Rousu, Matthew C; Anaya-Ocampo, Rafael; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2007-12-01

    The study estimated the reduction in demand associated with implementing cigarette package warning labels that contain imagery illustrating the consequences of smoking. The experimental auction method was used, wherein adult smokers in Mexico (n=89) placed separate bids on two packs of cigarettes: one with a text-only warning label and the other with a warning label that included text and a graphic image. Differences in the values attributed to each pack were assessed using t-tests and multivariate regression. The pack with the graphic image had a mean attributed value which was 17% lower ($3.21 pesos) than the pack with the text-only warning, and this difference remained statistically significant within subgroups defined by sociodemographics, amount of smoking, number of quit attempts, and levels of perceived smoking risks. In the multivariate model, the difference in attributed values was greater among females than males, but no such differences were found for other sociodemographic or smoking-related variables. The consistently lower value that smokers attributed to cigarette packages with the graphic warning label indicates that these labels are likely to reduce cigarette demand. PMID:17630221

  17. Effects of plain packaging on decision-making and reward for nicotine cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin LE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura E Martin1,21Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Efforts to reduce smoking prevalence include changes to policies that are expected to have impacts on smoking behaviors. Plain packaging has been introduced as a method to reduce the appeal of smoking by removing such branding information as pack colors and brand logos from cigarette packages. Behavioral studies of plain packaging demonstrate reductions in the appeal of cigarette packages, changes in smoking behaviors, and expected reductions in smoking initiation. Neuroimaging studies of branding demonstrate that the neural systems of rewards and cognitive control are associated with processing brand information (eg, logos. Neuroimaging studies in smokers demonstrate that the neural systems of reward respond to images of cigarettes and are associated with reductions in cognitive control responses. The current review discusses the state of research on plain packaging in terms of a biopsychosocial model of addiction in which behavioral studies of plain packaging can identify psychological and social changes related to packaging, whereas neuroimaging studies can identify biological changes underlying the psychological and social impacts of packaging. Together, these studies show that plain packaging may reduce positive perceptions of smoking by reducing related reward responses in the brain, thus increasing the likelihood that smokers will be able to resist the urge to smoke, and perhaps quit smoking altogether.Keywords: smoking, plain packaging, neuroimaging, branding, reward

  18. Neural circuitry of impulsivity in a cigarette craving paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StephanePotvin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity has been shown to play a pivotal role in the onset, pattern of consumption, relapse and, most notably, craving of illicit and licit drugs such as cigarette smoking. The goal of this study was to examine the neurobiological influence of trait impulsivity during cue-induced cigarette craving. Thirty-one chronic smokers passively viewed appetitive smoking-related and neutral images while being scanned and reported their feelings of craving. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a measure of trait impulsivity. We conducted functional connectivity analyses using the psycho-physiological interaction method. During the processing of smoking stimuli, participants presented increased activations in the cingulate and prefrontal cortices, as well as in the limbic system. We observed a significant positive relationship between impulsivity scores and reported craving. A negative correlation was observed between the impulsivity score and activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. The insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as well as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC presented a negative connectivity with the PCC. Consistent with the view that the PCC is related to the ability to resist cigarette craving, our results suggest that high impulsive smokers have greater difficulty in controlling their cravings, and that this weakness may be mediated by lower PCC activity. Moreover, we argue that the less PCC activity, the greater the probability of a stronger emotional, physiological and biased attentional response to smoking cues mediated by insula, dACC and DLPFC activity. This is the first study on this topic, and so, results will need to be replicated in both licit and illicit drug abusers. Our findings also highlight a need for more emphasis on the PCC in drug addiction research, as it is one of the most consistently activated regions in fMRI studies examining the neural correlates of cue-induced alcohol, drug and

  19. [Cigarette and advertising poster: history of a dangerous connection in the post-war economic boom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jacques

    2013-11-27

    The advertising poster's main characteristic is the ability to convey a commercial message quickly and publicly thanks to its straightforward image and text. The young people, being the tobacco industry's principal target, are particularly exposed to these messages. This kind of advertisement becomes a mean of counterstroke as soon as the cigarette's harmfulness is acknowledged. Some of the cigarette industry's strategies can be revealed by the historical analysis of a 253 posters corpus selected among the main cigarette manufacturers in Switzerland at the time of the post-war economic boom. With the misuse of sport's theme, the overvaluation of the filter's efficiency, the use of a vocabulary that implies lightness and by erasing the image of smoke in its advertisement, the industry tries to reassure the smoker wrongly. PMID:24383250

  20. EL CIGARRILLO: IMPLICACIONES PARA LA SALUD CIGARETTE SMOKE HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Ballén

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El consumo de cigarrillo, según cálculos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, es la causa de por lo menos cuatro millones de muertes al año. Las consecuencias de fumar cigarrillo van desde cambios fisiopatológicos en los sistemas respiratorio, cardiovascular y digestivo, hasta trastornos mentales asociados a la dependencia a la nicotina. Objetivo. Realizar una revisión narrativa de la literatura médica mostrando los efectos del consumo de cigarrillo sobre la salud física y mental en los fumadores activos y pasivos. Material y métodos. El artículo se basa en la revisión de artículos a través de la base de datos del MEDLINE y de la biblioteca Virtual de la OMS. Se emplearon en la búsqueda las palabras clave “Cigarette Smoke”, “Cancer AND smoke”, “COPD AND smoke”, “Nicotine Dependence”. Se escogieron artículos y libros publicados en idioma inglés entre los años 1994 y 2006, realizando una lectura crítica (análisis de posibles conflictos de interés y errores de diseño. Conclusión. El humo del cigarrillo contiene partículas potencialmente peligrosas para la salud de quien está expuesto a ellas. De este modo, fumar cigarrillo se convierte en un factor etiológico común a muchos tipos de cáncer. Además los componentes del cigarrillo están relacionados con el desarrollo de otros estados patológicos (enfermedad cardiovascular y enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. La nicotina, uno de sus componentes, es un potente agente adictivo. Todo esto en su conjunto hace del cigarrillo un importante problema de salud pública.Background. According to World Health Organization (WHO, cigarette smoke causes four million deaths each year. The consequences of cigarette smoke are phatophysiological changes in pulmonary cardiovascular and digestive systems, and mental dysfunctions associated to nicotine dependence. Objective. To show the effects of cigarette smoke in active and passive smokers

  1. Dose-dependent positive association between cigarette smoking, abdominal obesity and body fat: cross-sectional data from a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Vidal Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokers tend to have a lower body-mass index than non-smokers, smoking may favour abdominal body fat accumulation. To our knowledge, no population-based studies have assessed the relationship between smoking and body fat composition. We assessed the association between cigarette smoking and waist circumference, body fat, and body-mass index. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured among 6,123 Caucasians (ages 35-75 from a cross-sectional population-based study in Switzerland. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women. Body fat (percent total body weight was measured by electrical bioimpedance. Age- and sex-specific body fat cut-offs were used to define excess body fat. Cigarettes smoked per day were assessed by self-administered questionnaire. Age-adjusted means and odds ratios were calculated using linear and logistic regression. Results Current smokers (29% of men and 24% of women had lower mean waist circumference, body fat percentage, and body-mass index compared with non-smokers. Age-adjusted mean waist circumference and body fat increased with cigarettes smoked per day among smokers. The association between cigarettes smoked per day and body-mass index was non-significant. Compared with light smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for abdominal obesity in men was 1.28 (0.78-2.10 for moderate smokers and 1.94 (1.15-3.27 for heavy smokers (P = 0.03 for trend, and 1.07 (0.72-1.58 and 2.15 (1.26-3.64 in female moderate and heavy smokers, respectively (P P = 0.75 for trend and 1.34 (0.89-2.00 and 2.11 (1.25-3.57, respectively in women (P = 0.07 for trend. Conclusion Among smokers, cigarettes smoked per day were positively associated with central fat accumulation, particularly in women.

  2. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyemi Kolawole S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans experience significant tobacco-related health disparities despite the fact that over half of African American smokers are light smokers (use ≤10 cigarettes per day. African Americans have been under-represented in smoking cessation research, and few studies have evaluated treatment for light smokers. This paper describes the study design, measures, and baseline characteristics from Kick It at Swope III (KIS-III, the first treatment study of bupropion for African American light smokers. Methods Five hundred forty African American light smokers were randomly assigned to receive bupropion (150mg bid (n = 270 or placebo (n = 270 for 7 weeks. All participants received written materials and health education counseling. Participants responded to survey items and provided blood samples for evaluation of phenotype and genotype of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 enzymes involved in nicotine and bupropion metabolism. Primary outcome was cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at Week 26 follow-up. Results Of 2,628 individuals screened, 540 were eligible, consented, and randomized to treatment. Participants had a mean age of 46.5 years and 66.1% were women. Participants smoked an average of 8.0 cigarettes per day, had a mean exhaled carbon monoxide of 16.4ppm (range 1-55 and a mean serum cotinine of 275.8ng/ml. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence was 3.2, and 72.2% of participants smoked within 30 minutes of waking. The average number of quit attempts in the past year was 3.7 and 24.2% reported using pharmacotherapy in their most recent quit attempt. Motivation and confidence to quit were high. Conclusion KIS-III is the first study designed to examine both nicotine and bupropion metabolism, evaluating CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 phenotype and genotype in conjunction with psychosocial factors, in the context of treatment of African American light smokers. Of 1629 smokers screened for study participation, only

  3. Evaluation of Cigarette Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Students of a State High School in İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate smoking habits of students, reasons of smoking and students’ level of knowledge on the adverse effects of smoking in a state high school in İstanbul. Methods: A 15-item questionnaire was administered to the students attending a state high school in İstanbul to evaluate their attitudes and behaviors towards cigarette smoking. The questionnaire was completed by each class of students at the same class period under the supervision of their teachers. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 415 students at the respective school. While 349 students (84% never smoke, 66 (15.9% students were either current smokers or quitters. Fifty five of the students (13.2% were active smokers. When we looked at the reasons of smoking, they reported that 63.6% smoked cigarettes because their friends did; 47.2% smoked cigarettes due to exam-related stress; and 40% smoked cigarettes due to family problems. The rate of smoking friends in the smoker group was significantly higher than in the non-smoker group (p=0.0001. A logistic regression analysis showed that having smoking friends was associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of smoking compared to having no smoking friends. Conclusion: The most common reasons of smoking at the school were friends who were smokers, exam-related stress and family problems. Having friends who smoke was associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of smoking. We believe that counselling services’ close engagement with family problems of students and exam-related stress issues and helping them to cope with these problems may prevent their vulnerability to toxic substances.

  4. Cigarette use and the estimation of lung cancer attributable to radon in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residential exposure to radioactive radon and its decay products has been estimated to account for 10-12% of all lung cancer deaths in the US. It has been difficult to evaluate fully the impact of cigarette smoking, the most important cause of lung cancer, on this estimate, because factors for patterns of tobacco use have not been included in the risk models, since risk models are derived from studies of underground miners exposed to radon and detailed data on smoking are limited. Lung cancer risk estimates for exposure to radon progeny in smoker and non-smoker populations are obtained by applying the same risk model to each population group, thereby assuming the joint effects of smoking and exposure to radon progeny are multiplicative. However, in miners, joint relative risks (RR) for the two exposures are most consistent with an intermediate relationship between multiplicative and additive, so that the present approach likely results in an overestimate of risk in smokers and an underestimate of risk in nonsmokers. One approach for adjusting risk models to incorporate smoking status is based on the relative magnitude of the effects of radon progeny in smokers and nonsmokers and therefore may not be applicable to non-miner populations if the proportion of smokers and the RR for smoking differ. We show that the modification can be derived explicitly by assuming an arithmetic mixture model for the joint RR for smoking and exposure to radon progeny. In this way, smoking parameters in the population of interest (the proportion of smokers and the RR of smoking) can be used directly to adjust radon progeny risk models and obtain risk estimates that are specific for smokers and nonsmokers. With an intermediate RR relationship for smoking and radon progeny, the attributable percentage of lung cancer deaths from residential radon may be twofold greater in nonsmokers than in smokers. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Electronic cigarettes in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a "healthier alternative" to traditional cigarettes and their use as a "smoking cessation aid" are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  6. Electronic cigarettes in the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a “healthier alternative” to traditional cigarettes and their use as a “smoking cessation aid” are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  7. Significant elevation of tumour-associated isoforms of soluble CD44 in serum of normal individuals caused by cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, E M; Ruckser, R; Rech-Weichselbraun, I; Hinterberger, W; Bauer, K

    1997-02-01

    While performing a prospective study on sCD44 variant isoforms as tumour markers in certain malignancies, we detected relevant differences in the control group between non-smokers and smokers. For a detailed evaluation of these findings, serum levels of sCD44 variant proteins, including sequences encoded by exon v5 and exon v6, respectively, were adjusted to sex, age and smoking habit. We were able to demonstrate a significant elevation of serum levels of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 in normal individuals due to cigarette smoking (non-smokers to smokers: sCD44v5: 33 +/- 11 microg/l to 62 +/- 30 microg/l; sCD44v6: 142 +/- 34 microg/l to 232 +/- 86 microg/l). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis of the concentrations of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 on the possible influence factors sex, age and smoking habit revealed cigarette smoking as the only factor influencing these isoforms (both p < 0.001). Further investigations have to elucidate a possible clinical importance of these findings in smokers. However, in patients with suspected or proven malignancy the diagnostic specifity of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 is diminished due to this observation. PMID:9056747

  8. The role of psychosocial and belief factors in self-reported cigarette smoking among university students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Al-Dubai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (P<0.05. In multivariate modeling, being male and a non-medical student, did not exercise, having a smoker father and brother or sister, suffering from financial difficulties and having the belief that smokers had more friends, all had statistically significant associations (P<0.05 with self-reported cigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students’ beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation.

  9. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ≥20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  10. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and...

  11. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: sumsun.naher@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  12. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01–0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Long-Term Alcohol and Drug Treatment Outcomes: A Telephone Follow-Up at Five Years

    OpenAIRE

    Satre, Derek; Kohn, Carolyn; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and 5-year substance abuse treatment outcomes. Of 749 individuals who began private outpatient treatment, 598 (80%) were re-interviewed by telephone at 5 years. At 5-year follow-up, 53% reported smoking cigarettes in the prior 30 days. Smokers were less likely to be abstinent from alcohol and drugs in the prior 30 days (48.3% vs. 64.0%); had higher Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores in employment, alcohol, drug, psy...

  14. Youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Dan; Brucks, Merrie; Wallendorf, Melanie; Boland, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses two questions: (1) when youths are exposed to advertisements for cigarettes, do they primarily see advertisements for brands or products, and (2) is there a relationship between youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements and their susceptibility to smoking? A sample of 271 participants ranging in age from 7 to 12 viewed a series of print advertisements that included cigarette and non-tobacco-related ads. While viewing each ad, participants were asked to indicate what they thought the advertisement was trying to sell. Responses were coded into one of three categories reflecting important differences in participants' comprehension of each advertisement - no understanding, product category understanding, or brand understanding. Results show that youths typically understand the type of product an advertisement is promoting; however, the levels of brand understanding observed for cigarette advertisements were low in an absolute sense, and significantly lower than brand understanding of non-tobacco-related advertisements. Results also show that understanding cigarette ads as promoting specific brands of cigarettes is positively related to susceptibility to smoking. Taken together, these findings provide a glimpse of the psychological mechanisms that may underlie the well established link between exposure to cigarette advertising and youth smoking. PMID:18812253

  15. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (padvertising and promotion, controlling access to tobacco products, and promoting cessation assistance for smokers to quit, as well as continuing and implementing mass media campaigns that contain graphic anti-smoking ads, such as the Tips from Former Smokers (TIPS) campaign. PMID:25996096

  16. Telephone Counselling for Pregnant Smokers: Essential Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Sharon E.; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Anderson, Christopher M.; Quinlan-Downs, Raechelle; Harris, Patricia; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Counselling pregnant smokers to quit is as difficult as it is essential. This article discusses a telephone counselling protocol designed to promote tobacco cessation among pregnant smokers. The protocol, validated in a large randomised, controlled trial, addresses three key elements of change for addictive behaviour —motivation, cognition and skill building — in ways tailored to pregnant smokers’ unique needs. Details concerning scheduling, counsellor training and broader applicability are a...

  17. Prevalence and social environment of cigarette smoking in Cyprus youth

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    Jones Nathan R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Limited data exist regarding the extent of the problem among Cyprus youth. We use the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among middle and high school students as well as the social environment in which this is taking place. Methods The survey was conducted by the Cyprus International Institute for the Environment and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to select a representative sample of students from middle and high schools registered with the Republic of Cyprus in 2005–2006. The study questionnaire consisted of 99 questions and participation in the survey was voluntary. Statistical analyses were performed taking into consideration the specific design of the study and the sample weights associated with each completed questionnaire. Results The prevalence of current smoking, defined as having smoked cigarettes on one or more days of the past 30 days, is 13% among boys and 7% among girls in middle schools, and 36% among boys and 23% among girls in high schools. Furthermore, 16% of middle school students and more than 24% of high school students that had never smoked indicated that they are likely to initiate smoking within the next year. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is also very high with 91% of students reporting being exposed to smoke in places outside home. In addition, more than 95% of current smokers reported that they had bought cigarettes in a store during the past month and were not refused cigarettes because of their age. Conclusion Smoking prevalence among Cyprus middle and high school students is high and there are indications of an increase in the prevalence of smoking among girls over the last few years. Susceptibility rates, exposure to second-hand smoke, and access to and availability of cigarettes to

  18. Effect of Trace and Toxic Elements of Different Brands of Cigarettes on the Essential Elemental Status of Irish Referent and Diabetic Mellitus Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brabazon, Dermot

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoking interferes with the metal homeostasis of the human body, which plays a crucial role for maintaining the health. A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In the present study, the relationship between toxic element (TE) exposure via cigarette smoking and diabetic mellitus incidence in population living in Dublin, Ireland is investigated. The trace [zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se)] and toxic elements arsenic (As), aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of patients diagnosed with diabetic mellitus, who are smokers living in Dublin, Ireland. These results were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy, nonsmokers controls. The different brands of cigarette (filler tobacco, filter, and ash) consumed by the studied population were also analyzed for As, Al, Cd, Ni, Hg, and Pb. The concentrations of TEs in biological samples and different components of cigarette were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials (CRM). The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 96.4-99.7% in certified reference materials. The filler tobacco of different branded cigarettes contains Hg, As, Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb concentrations in the ranges of 9.55-12.4 ng/cigarette, 0.432-0.727 μg/cigarette, 360-496 μg/cigarette, 1.70-2.12 μg/cigarette, 0.715-1.52 μg/cigarette, and 0.378-1.16 μg/cigarette, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Al, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of diabetic mellitus patients in relation to healthy controls, while the difference was significant in the case of smoker patients (p < 0.001). The levels of all six toxic elements were twofolds to

  19. Effects of smoking regimens and test material format on the cytotoxicity of mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Shang, Pingping; Peng, Bin; Nie, Cong; Zhao, Le; Liu, Huimin; Xie, Jianping

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of test material format and smoking regimens on comparative toxicity testing of cigarette smoke. Total particulate matter (TPM) or whole smoke (WS) generated from three test cigarettes under International Organization for Standardization (ISO) or Health Canada Intensive (HCI) regimens were assessed for cytotoxicity using the neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assay. Under both ISO and HCI regimens, the relative differences of cytotoxicity among the test cigarettes indicated by the EC50 values in WS were significantly higher than those in TPM. For TPM testing, cytotoxicity was decreased going from ISO regimen to HCI regimen, consistent with the reported reductions of toxicant output on a per unit of TPM basis under the HCI regimen. For WS, cytotoxicity increased for the two lower TPM cigarettes, and decreased for the higher TPM cigarette going from HCI regimen to ISO regimen. Results from this study demonstrated WS should be the preferable test material format for smoke toxicity testing whenever possible. Intensive smoking regimens, such as HCI, are less likely to underestimate smoke toxicant intakes by smokers, and should be included in the comparative toxicological testing strategy. PMID:22198610

  20. Patterns of electronic cigarette use in current and ever users among college students in France: a cross–sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Vasiliu, Anca; Romo, Lucia; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence; Ladner, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is sparse information on electronic cigarette use and health behaviours among college student populations. Our objectives were to identify the patterns of electronic cigarette use in current and ever users among college students in France. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted on two major campuses in France. Students filled in an anonymous questionnaire on their use of electronic cigarettes and on targeted behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, use of cannabis, practice of sport and eating disorders. Ever use of electronic cigarettes was defined as use but not during the previous 30 days, and current use of electronic cigarettes as any use in the previous 30 days. The opinions and motivations of electronic cigarette users were also sought and collected. Participants 1134 college students between October 2014 and February 2015. Results The 1134 students included had a mean age of 20.8 years. The prevalence of ever use and current use of electronic cigarettes was 23.0% (95% CI (20.5% to 25.3%)) and 5.7% (95% CI (4.4% to 7.1%)), respectively. The prevalence of the combined use of conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes was 14.5%. Almost half (45.8%) of the ever users of electronic cigarettes had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Behaviours associated with ever use of electronic cigarettes were current cigarette smoking (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.97, 95% CI 2.71 to 5.83), former smoking (AOR=2.56, 95% CI 1.42 to 4.61), cannabis use (AOR=2.44, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.51) and occasional binge drinking (AOR=1.83, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.64). The only behaviour associated with current use of electronic cigarettes was conventional smoking, either previously (AOR=4.85, 95% CI 1.53 to 15.34) or currently (AOR=14.53, 95% CI 6.81 to 31.02). Conclusions The ever users have an experimenter's profile with sensation-seeking while the current users are mostly smokers with intention to quit

  1. Evaluation of endothelium-dependent myocardial perfusion reserve in healthy smokers; cold pressor test using H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much evidence suggests long-term cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. In this study, we applied nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), an unsupervised learning algorithm, to CO-less H215O-PET to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction caused by smoking noninvasively. This study enrolled eighteen young male volunteers consisting of 9 smokers (23.8±1.1 yr; 6.6±2.5 pack-years) and 9 nonsmokers (23.8±2.9 yr). They do not have any cardiovascular risk factor or disease history. Myocardial H215O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5.deg.C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular blood pool and myocardium were segmented on dynamic PET data by NMF method. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was calculated from input and tissue functions by a single compartmental model with correction of partial volume and spillover effects. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between the two groups (Smokers: 1.43 0.41ml/g/min and non-smokers: 1.37±0.41 ml/g/min; p = NS). during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25±0.34 ml/g/min vs 1.59±0.29 ml/g/min ; p = 0.019). The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to resting MBF between the two groups was also significant (p=0.024; 90±24% in smokers and 122±28% in non-smokers.). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81±1.99 ml/g/min vs 5.11±1.31 ml/g/min ; p=NS). In smokers, MBF during cold pressor stimulation was significantly lower compared with nonsmokers, reflecting smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction. However, there was no significant difference in MBF during adenosine-induced hyperemia between the two groups

  2. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  3. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Bommelé

    Full Text Available Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers.A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way.We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. 'Receptive' hardcore smokers (36% perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. 'Ambivalent' hardcore smokers (59% were rather undecided towards quitting. 'Resistant' hardcore smokers (5% saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of 'receptive' smokers (30% and 'ambivalent' smokers (54%. However, a third group consisted of 'disengaged' smokers (16%, who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting.Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers.

  4. Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Participants were 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discuss