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Sample records for australian bread wheat

  1. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on...... dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...... VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked...

  2. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  3. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  4. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  5. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) of bread is known to extend the microbial shelf-life. However, the effect of MAP on staling of bread is more questionable, and conflicting results are reported in the literature. To investigate the effect of BT AP, wheat bread was packed in modified atmosphere...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...

  6. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Tasleem A.; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfor...

  7. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Giménez; Jesús Blesa; Marta Herrera; Agustín Ariño

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column ...

  8. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał T.; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J.; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the t...

  9. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  10. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin;

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami", and...... "fresh grass" mostly characterized wheat endosperm. Low-extraction bread made from four different varieties also differentiated for five odour- and six flavour descriptors. These results indicate that variations in wheat flavour and odour directly affect bread flavour and odour even in low...

  11. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  12. Food label guide for whole wheat bread (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains, like the kind found in whole wheat bread, contain fiber and antioxidants such as Vitamin E and selenium, iron, magnesium, zinc and B vitamins. Fiber is a very beneficial nutrient that ...

  13. Organic bread-wheat in New England, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Mallory, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In October 2010, researchers, farmers and millers from Maine and Vermont, USA, organized a trip to Denmark, in order to learn about local bread wheat production, milling and use from their more experienced counterparts with climates similar to their own. They have received a grant over four years for the project antitled Enhancing Farmers’ Capacity to Produce High Quality Organic Bread Wheat in which they will carry out research, development and education to improve the production and qual...

  14. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  15. Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L

    2015-01-01

    Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads. PMID:24915406

  16. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB 25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response. PMID:25829607

  17. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Thomas; Sandve, Simen R; Heier, Lise; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Wulff, Brande B H; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic. PMID:25035499

  18. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited - tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat single-nucleotide polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hugo R.; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W; Leigh, Fiona J.; Lister, Diane L.; Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure...

  19. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M. Paste in Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aiming the evaluation of enriched bread for breakfast prepared with an addition of avocado paste (12% as a source of biologically active components in nutrition. Bread produced from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The seasoned bread for breakfast and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. Addition of avocado paste (AP in bread has improved physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  20. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  1. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Marcussen, T.; Sandve, S. R.; Heier, L.; Spannagl, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Rogers, J; Doležel, J. (Jaroslav); Pozniak, C.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C; Gill, B; Friebe, B; Lukaszewski, A. J.; Sourdille, P.; Endo, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor similar to 7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D geno...

  2. Acrylamide in relation to asparagine in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread.

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Christensen, Tue; Kann, Mette; Skibsted, Leif H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to the contents of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. The asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in a reduced acrylamide contents in the products. In wheat bread 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14g kg-1) was left after yeast fermentation and baking, while for rye bread 82% of the asparagine was left after sourdough fermentation and baking. The ...

  3. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

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    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  4. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eduardo; Ulf Svanberg; Jorge Oliveira; Lilia Ahrné

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  5. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

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    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  6. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer; Bruna Mattioni; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto; Flávio Martins Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues Gomes-Ruffi; Sílvia Biondi; Mariana Kilpp; Alicia de Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends) along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability) and also to verify the specific volume...

  7. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  8. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  9. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  10. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...

  11. The Relation between Dough Rheology and Bread Crumb Properties in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Horvat; Damir Magdić; Gordana Šimić; Krešimir Dvojković; Georg Drezner

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is focused on rheology dough properties of winter wheat cultivars in relation to bread crumb properties. The rheological characteristics of wheat fl our were evaluated by using Farinograph and Extensograph tests. The image analysis for bread crumb grain assessment was applied as alternative technique for more rapid and efficient measurement of bread characteristics. The highest significant positive correlation (P

  12. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

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    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  13. Making the Bread: Insights from Newly Synthesized Allohexaploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-li; Geng, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Lian-quan; Liu, Deng-cai; Mao, Long

    2015-06-01

    Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. PMID:25747845

  14. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

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    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  15. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  16. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    Чебаков, М. П.

    2008-01-01

    Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and hard (Triticum durum Desf.) are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  17. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability and also to verify the specific volume, crumb texture profile and digital imaging of bread loaves made with 60% whole wheat flour and 3% fat or fat replacer. Increasing the whole wheat flour percentage in the blends also increased levels of protein, ash and insoluble fiber. All the farinographic parameters were also increased. Enzymatically modified starch was found to be an effective fat replacer in whole wheat loaves. The loaves made using fat replacer had the same specific volume and higher cell density as those made with fat, but exhibited different texture profile parameters such as higher hardness value and lower springiness value.

  18. Induced variability for protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The negative correlation observed between seed weight and percentage of protein in the seeds of bread wheat is a function of the fact that increase in seed size is commonly associated with a disproportionately large deposition of starch relative to the protein. The present study, as well as our earlier analysis, shows that exceptional genotypes of bread wheat do exist in which increase in seed weight is associated with a relatively larger synthesis of protein. In the course of the present investigation on radiation-induced variability, genotypes showing more efficient synthesis of storage proteins in their seeds have been identified in the M2 and M3 generations. The induced variability, thus, makes it possible to break the negative correlation between seed weight and percentage of protein in the seed. Based on these findings, it has been suggested that in a protein improvement programme on bread wheat it should be useful to select in the segregating generation plants showing increase in seed size, some of which can be expected to be relatively more efficient in protein synthesis and give higher protein yields. (author)

  19. Investigation on Paste Property of Chinese Bread Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2002-01-01

    Starch viscosity is closely associated with noodle quality. RVA(rapid viscosity analyzer)was used to investigate the paste property of leading Chinese wheat varieties and 38 Australian wheat lines. Results showed that significant variability for RVA parameters was observed among Chinese wheat varieties, particularly among spring wheat varieties. In general, Australia wheat lines performed better paste characters than that of Chinese winter wheats. Genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction affected all paste traits. Correlation analysis indicated that peak viscosity correlated highly and significantly with viscosity, breakdown, setback, final viscosity, peak time, and falling number(r = 0.56-0.93, P < 0.01 ). However breakdown was not significantly associated with most paste properties. Paste characters increased from low to high latitude both in the north and south part of Yellow and Huai Valley.

  20. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  1. Chromosomal engineering and crop improvement in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bread wheat is not only the world's most important food crop but is also an excellent model system for genetic analysis of allopolyploid plants. Diploid nuclear and cytoplasm donors are now known for polyploid wheats. The origin of disomic allopolyploid species can be traced back to a single plant. Establishment of nucleocytoplasmic compatibility is critical in allopolyploid speciation. Polyploid wheats show disomic inheritance that is genetically controlled. Genetic expression arises from interactive and dosage dependent effects. Apart form polyploidy, the basic wheat genome (1n = 1x = 7) is also huge (5.3 x 109 bp). Because of the availability of a large number of cytogenic stocks, target mapping is possible. It shows that the gene rich, recombinogenic regions are restricted to the distal ends of the chromosome arms and gene cloning by chromosome landing is feasible. Because of polyploidy, the wheat genome is highly buffered and transfer of chromosome segments of large linkage blocks is more important than single genes. There are spectacular examples of alien chromosome segments transferred to wheat, either by physical means (irradiation) or by genetic manipulation, which have immensely improved productivity. Therefore, enhancing the efficiency of chromosome engineering protocols is a worthwhile goal in wheat improvement. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Qing; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-07-15

    Consumer acceptability of whole wheat foods is challenged by negative bitter flavour attributes. In this study, bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb were investigated. Utilising sensory-guided multi-dimensional fractionation techniques, the compounds with the highest bitterness intensity in the crumb were purified and identified by LC-MS-ToF and NMR techniques. The main bitter compounds were reported to be L-tryptophan, Wessely-Moser isomers apigenin-6-C-galactoside-8-C-arabinoside & apigenin-6-C-arabinoside-8-C-galactoside, and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid). Sensory recombination experiments of the bitter compounds formulated at the concentrations determined in expectorated saliva after bread mastication indicated pinellic acid had the greatest contribution to the bitterness perception of the crumb. Quantitative analysis of pinellic acid in the raw flour was reported to be inherently low compared to bread; the concentration increased more than 30-fold after flour hydration and baking. PMID:26948582

  3. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry. PMID:26396371

  4. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Mirjana M.; Demin Mirjana A.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.; Žarković Branka M.; Stikić Radmila I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was d...

  5. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L.) With Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Flours in Bread Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, H. A.; Mustafa, A. I.; Ahmed, A R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF) was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext.) to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling n...

  6. Drought Resistance in Bread Wheat Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Ali

    1998-01-01

    Development of drought-resistant cultivars is one of the major goals in plant breeding programs. Twentysix wheat genotypes were evaluated for drought resistance using the criteria of leaf relative water content (LRWC), leaf relative water loss (LRWL) and drought susceptibility index (DSI) under Erzurum conditions in the crop seasons of 1995-96 and 1996-97. The results showed that differences among the genotypes in LRWC, LRWL and DSI were significant. In rainfed condition; LRWC, LRWL and DSI ...

  7. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases. PMID:26088282

  8. Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Major Commercial Whole-wheat Breads in Nigerian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Ndife

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the nutritional, microbial and sensory profile of regularly consumed commercial whole wheat breads in Nigeria in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of these foods. Four major local brands of commercial whole wheat breads (samples A, B, C and D were evaluated. The normal white bread (sample E served as control. Results of the physical properties obtained, showed that the white bread (sample E had higher values for bread volume (2850 cm3 , specific volume (4.38 cm3, hydration capacity (4.50% and compressibility (45% than the whole wheat breads. No trace of bromate was found in all the bread samples. The proximate analyses for the whole wheat bread showed the moisture content to range from (30.64-38.74%, fat (3.5-5.0%, Fibre (2.5-3.5% higher than in white bread (26.40, 3.0 and 1.20% respectively. While the whole wheat breads had lower levels of protein (5.25-6.48%, carbohydrate (45.74-51.25% and energy (249-258 Kcal when compared to white bread of 9.00, 59.40% and 301 Kcal, respectively. The ash and mineral contents of the whole wheat breads were higher than that of white bread. While the viable microbial counts for the whole wheat breads (1.0×102-1.5×10 2 were lower than in the white bread (3.1×102. Generally, the bread samples were within the regulatory specifications and the whole wheat breads were nutritionally superior to the white bread while the white bread had better overall sensory preference than the whole wheat breads.

  9. Induced mutations for rust resistance in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seeds of variety ''Lalbahadur'' were treated with 0.04% NMH. M2 plants were inoculated with a mixture of pathotypes of each of the 3 Puccinia species (P. graminis, P. recondita, P. striiformis). Plants with simultaneous resistance to all 3 rusts were selected. Repeated testing in subsequent generations confirmed the resistance. The mutant lines are morphologically similar to the parent cultivar and therefore could be used as components of a multiline variety. Comparison of variety pattern against the Indian pathotypes of rusts suggests that the mutant genes are different from the ones known already in bread wheat. (author)

  10. Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Major Commercial Whole-wheat Breads in Nigerian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Ndife; James Obiegbunna; Simeon Ajayi

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the nutritional, microbial and sensory profile of regularly consumed commercial whole wheat breads in Nigeria in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of these foods. Four major local brands of commercial whole wheat breads (samples A, B, C and D) were evaluated. The normal white bread (sample E) served as control. Results of the physical properties obtained, showed that the white bread (sample E) had higher values for bread volume (2850 cm3 ), specific volume ...

  11. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Fresh and Stale Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; MA Chuan-xi; WU Rong-lin; KONG Zhi-you; ZHANG Bo-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Starch is the major component in the wheat kernel,which is mainly composed of amylose and amylopectin.The wheat without amylose in its endosperm was called"waxy wheat".Waxy wheat can be used to adjust the amylose content and improve the wheat-based food quality by adding to non-waxy wheat flour.In order to investigate the effect of waxy wheat flour on the quality of fresh and stale bread,waxy wheat flour was added into the flour of Canadian Spring Wheat 2 at 0.0,5.0,10.0,15.0,20.0,25.0,30.0,and 35.0% to make breads.The physicochemical properties were adjusted to suitability by adding Yangmai 158 flour,and breads were evaluated for sensory quality,crumb firmness,loaf volume and weight loss over a period of 0,2,4,and 6 days.The result showed that the best total score of fresh bread was 82.9 by adding waxy flour at 7.0%,though no significant difference was found among blends with 0.0-15.0% of waxy flour.Breads with the addition of 22.0% waxy flour had lower firmness,and decreasing loss of weight.Waxy wheat flour blend at 15.0% was optimal in retarding staling without significant decreasing fresh bread quality in comparison to the control.

  12. Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Iraqi Wheat Varieties and their Relationship with Bread Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results showed that the volume of the bread baked from wheat flour of Tammoze 3 was increased significantly compared to other wheat varieties. Maxiback flour gave the smallest bread volume; whereas Abugraib and Rabi'ah bread were not significantly different. Abugraib wheat was not significantly different from Rabi'ah bread. The taste panel results were compatible with baking results. Tammoze 3 was the highest in one thousand grain weight and total protein percentage. Rabi'ah wheat flour was superior in water absorption Among the tested wheat flour varieties, maxiback flour showed best fat content. Amylases and proteases activities were higher in wheat grains than in flour. Protease activity was the highest in Maxiback flour; whereas in Tammoze 3 it was the lowest. (Author's) 19 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Infuence of gamma radiation on the rheological and functional properties of bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on some biochemical, rheological and functional properties of bread wheats were studied. Two wheat cultivars were selected to represent medium-strong and weak dough mixing strengths. Falling number values were severely depressed at doses of 500 and 1000 krad. Rheological dough properties, as assessed with the mixograph and farinograph, were also investigated. Radiation at medium doses produced an increase in the farinograph water absorption for both wheats. Radiation decreased the amount of bound water as compared to the control sample. For the medium-strong wheat low levels of radiation produced bread with volumes and overall bread quality equal to or slightly better than those of the control flour, whereas for the weak wheat an improvement of the baking performance was obtained at all the low doses of radiation. However, the overall bread quality of both wheats was highly reduced at medium doses of radiation. (author)

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT GENES AND THEIR PRODUCTS IN THE COLLECTION OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is the second most cultivated crop on the world and is very important plant for feed not only mankind but also animals. Because of this is necessary to develop new varieties with better properties. Bread making quality of wheat grain is one of the most important paramaters for quality evaluation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of wheat storage proteins and allelic specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR are analysis suitable for identification, differentiation and characterization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. There were analysed 16 genotypes of new varieties of bread wheat in our work by SDS-PAGE and obtained results were verified by AS-PCR. Analysed genotypes of bread wheat genotypes were homogenous and single line with very good bread making quality. Our results confirmed hypothesis, that cultivated bread wheat genotypes are uniformed with high production and quality but there is a risk of sensitivity to environmental conditions. SDS-PAGE analyses of wheat grain proteins are fast and not very expensive technique, which provide us information of bread making quality of grains. However, there is possibility of environmental influence on protein synthesis and because of this is necessary to couple these analysis with analysis of DNA.

  15. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  16. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    R.F. Abdelghafor; A.I. Mustafa, A.M.H. Ibrahim and P.G. Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor) - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf.) composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticate...

  17. The Role of Sensory Experiences and Information on the Willingness to Pay for Organic Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Boxall, Peter C.; Cash, Sean B.; Wismer, Wendy V.; Muralidharan, Vijay; Annett, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the size and the determinants of the price premium a sample of Edmonton-area consumers was willing to pay for organic wheat bread. The development of these premiums included consideration of providing information on health or environmental advantages of organic production and consideration of sensory (taste) acceptance. To do this conventional and organic wheat was grown under similar conditions and milled and baked into 60% whole wheat bread under identical conditions. Sa...

  18. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kleef, van, G.A.; Vrijhof, M.N.; Polet, I.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, van, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelv...

  19. Yield stability in bread wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability for grain yield performance and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction was studied in twelve (nine advance genotypes and 3 checks) wheat genotypes evaluated at various locations having different agro-climatic conditions in Sindh province of Pakistan over two years. The combined and individual analysis of variance for locations and years was conducted. Pooled analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p<0.01) difference for genotypes, environments and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. A joint regression analysis was applied to grain yield data to estimate the stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), s.e. (b) and deviation from regression coefficients (S2d) for each genotype. Genotype MSH-14 produced the highest mean yield (5090 kg/ha) in all environments averaged for two years, and had regression coefficient (b) close to unity (0.86) and S2d close to zero (0.7923). This indicated wide adaptation and stability of performance of MSH-14 in all environments. Other high yielding genotypes MSH-03 and MSH-05 ranked second and third showing regression coefficient (b=0.78 and 0.69 respectively) and deviation from regression (S2d= 1.076 and 1.29 respectively) indicating specific adaptability of these genotypes to harsh (un favorable) environments. These findings suggested that both the genotypes could be used as stress tolerant genotypes under stressed environments (such as drought, heat and salinity stress). (author)

  20. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  1. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  2. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 6C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties

  3. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05. There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average, respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  4. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał T; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the three genomes, with much greater density observed on the A and B genomes than the D genome. This variation may be a result of substantial gene flow from the tetraploid Triticum turgidum, which possesses A and B genomes, during early co-cultivation of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In addition, we examined SNP density variation along the chromosome syntenic builds and identified genes in low-density regions which may have been selected during domestication and breeding. This study highlights the impact of evolution and breeding on the bread wheat genome and provides a substantial resource for trait association and crop improvement. All SNP data are publically available on a generic genome browser GBrowse at www.wheatgenome.info. PMID:25147022

  5. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Abdelghafor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf. composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticated sorghum flour produced acceptable pan and balady breads. Decreases, however, were noted in all sensory properties except odor.

  6. Characterization of Proteins from Grain of Different Bread and Durum Wheat Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroljub Barać

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical Osborne wheat protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins, as well as several proteins from each of the four subunits of gliadin using SDS-PAGE analyses, were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L. and five durum wheat (T. durum Desf. genotypes. In addition, content of tryptophan and wet gluten were analyzed. Gliadins and glutenins comprise from 58.17% to 65.27% and 56.25% to 64.48% of total proteins and as such account for both quantity and quality of the bread and durum wheat grain proteins, respectively. The ratio of gliadin/total glutenin varied from 0.49 to 1.01 and 0.57 to 1.06 among the bread and durum genotypes, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, bread wheat genotypes had a higher concentration of α + β + γ-subunits of gliadin (on average 61.54% of extractable proteins than durum wheat (on average 55.32% of extractable proteins. However, low concentration of ω-subunit was found in both bread (0.50% to 2.53% of extractable proteins and durum (3.65% to 6.99% of extractable proteins wheat genotypes. On average, durum wheat contained significantly higher amounts of tryptophan and wet gluten (0.163% dry weight (d.w. and 26.96% d.w., respectively than bread wheat (0.147% d.w. and 24.18% d.w., respectively.

  7. Pattern analysis of multi-environment trials in bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Kaya

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available To detect genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs, pattern analysis (PA was performed on yield data of 20 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes tested across nine environments during the 2001-2002 growing season in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Nine clusters of genotypes with similar patterns in performance, mostly reflecting their origin and pedigree, were identified. Most of the genotypes from the National Bread Wheat Improvement Program (NBWIP, Turkey, fell into one of the two broad genotypic clusters, whereas most of those from the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP, a collaborative breeding program among Turkey, CIMMYT and ICARDA, were clustered together in another cluster. Six clusters of the environments with similar trends in discriminating genotypes were identified; discrimination of the environments tested indicated that there existed two distinct main types of environments: rain-fed and irrigated. However, the rain-fed environment E2 (Eskisehir joined the irrigated environments, whereas the irrigated environment E9 (Haymana was clustered with the rain-fed environments. Irrigated environments E6 (Konya and E7 (Cumra contributed trivially to discrimination of the genotypes, as they exhibited a pattern that was almost identical to that of the irrigated environments. The first two principal components explained 53.3% of the total variation in GEI data. This study revealed that the genotypes with a common parent in their pedigree or with the same origin tended to be clustered together. All the genotypes from the NBWIP and one-third of genotypes from the IWWIP were stable; therefore, the NBWIP could be strengthened by introductions from the IWWIP. Environmental cluster analysis effectively identified trials that received rainfall and supplementary irrigation. It might be possible to reduce the number of test environments by eliminating one or more of those that differentiate among genotypes in a similar

  8. Initial Study on Applications of French Wheat in Chinese Steamed Bread and Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiangqing; Cao Jian; Chen Fusheng; Zhao Renyong; Gu Xin; Wang Shu

    2000-01-01

    the physical-chemical properties of four kinds of French commercial wheat and its flour and its dough rheological properties were analyzed in more detail .The suitability of French wheat flour in Chinese traditional food products such as ste2med bread and noodle was preliminarily studied in order to get and spread more infomation on how to utilize French wheat in Chinese food.

  9. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. PMID:24361837

  10. Physicochemical, rheological, thermal, and bread making properties of flour obtained from irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the methods that are nowadays used for food preservation derive from old times. Besides these methods, new non-thermal methods have been developed in order to improve food quality during its processing. Irradiation technology has a great contribution potential to improve preservation, storage and distribution of foods. Several studies from international literature have reported the efficiency of irradiation process on microbiological control of grains and their products. Due to the low technological quality of national wheat, Brazil depends on its import. Wheat is the main ingredient of bread which is one of the most important products of Brazilian people's diet. The objective of this work was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on wheat on physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of flour produced from this wheat, and consequently, its performance on bread making. All experiments were conducted on laboratory scale. Wheat was submitted to irradiation on different doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) and flour produced underwent physicochemical, rheological, thermal and microbiological analyses. Flour bread making performance was measured through quality of bread. None of the physicochemical, rheological or thermal parameters was influenced by irradiation, with the exception of Falling Number, which decreased significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, indicating the effect of irradiation on wheat starch, and consequently on dough's gelatinization. Bread quality parameters did also not show significant differences, and sensory analysis showed that bread produced from irradiated and non irradiated wheat did not present perceivable flavor. (author)

  11. Dosage effect of the short arm of chromosome 1 of rye on root morphology and anatomy in bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sundrish; DeMason, Darleen A.; Ehdaie, Bahman; Lukaszewski, Adam J.; Waines, J. Giles

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous translocation of the short arm of chromosome 1 of rye (1RS) in bread wheat is associated with higher root biomass and grain yield. Recent studies have confirmed the presence of QTL for different root morphological traits on the 1RS arm in bread wheat. This study was conducted to address two questions in wheat root genetics. First, does the presence of the 1RS arm in bread wheat affect its root anatomy? Second, how does root morphology and anatomy of bread wheat respond to diff...

  12. THE INULIN AND OLIGOFRUCTOSE EFFECT ON QUAL­ITY PARAMETERS OF BIG DARK AND WHEAT BREAD FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Koryachkina, S.; Matveeva, T.; Akhmedova, D.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the expediency of inulin and oligofructose use as an additive giving the bread functional properties, the effect of inulin and oligofructose on quality parameters of big dark and wheat bread.

  13. Evolution of bread-making quality of Spanish bread-wheat genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Aparicio, N.; Ruiz-Paris, E.; Oliete, B.; Caballero, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 36 Spanish wheat genotypes (five modern commercial cultivars, four cultivars introduced after the green revolution and 27 land races from northwestern Spain) were evaluated. Grain (yield, specific weight, protein content and falling number) and flour (yield, protein content, Zeleny index, wet gluten and gluten index) properties were analyzed. Dough behaviour during mixing (DoughLAB) and handling (alveograph) was also considered. An evolution in grain and flour properties was observed over time. In modern cultivars, grain yield was improved owing to higher grain production. In land races, higher grain yields were related to larger grain size. Unlike in land races, an inverse correlation between grain yield and protein content was found in modern cultivars. In addition, because of their high protein quality, modern cultivars surpassed land races in bread-making properties. Land races showed considerable variability in protein quality and scored lower curve configuration ratio values than other cultivars with similar strength. Cultivars introduced after the green revolution reached the highest levels of bread-making quality, a feature attributable to their high protein quality. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT / C-TRIM 20 BREAD: FORMULATION, PROCESSING AND TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-TRIM, a beta-glucan-rich fraction, was added to Hard Red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour in order to increase soluble fiber content of bread to a minimum of 0.75 g / bread serving, the minimum required for health claim as established by the FDA. Two blends FGT1 (flour, 25% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) and F...

  15. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon;

    2013-01-01

    rate of the brine shrimp larvae was found as a function of the replacement of wheat flour with PP in fortified bread providing a general screening method for the toxicological test of polyphenol fortified bread to be recommended for use in product development in addition to subjective evaluation. Based...

  16. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-08-01

    The intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA is highly variable, but is location specific in the nucleolar organizer region of the chromosomes. This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities between landraces. Some of the high molecular weight IGS allelic variants were also probed for their chromosomal localization by sequential silver nitrate staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, only the intergenic spacer allelic variant of 3.1 kb could be successfully hybridized, and was observed to be physically located on the chromosome pair 1B in the NOR loci of the cultivar ‘Magueija’.

  17. Transamidation of gluten proteins during the bread-making process of wheat flour to produce breads with less immunoreactive gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Sandoval, Nina Gisella; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María

    2014-08-01

    Due to an increasing incidence of celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders, different gluten-free breads have been developed using starches and additives as a substitute for gluten. Thus, patients miss not only the taste and aroma of wheat bread but also risk their sensitive intestines. Therefore, modifying gluten to avoid an immune response in CD and its application to baking is in progress. The aim of the study was to enzymatically modify gluten on wheat flour, during bread-making avoiding the use of additives, to reduce immunoreactivity, preserving its properties. Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) or chymotrypsin (ChT) was used to bind lysine or valine to gluten proteins in a model system. The best conditions were directly applied to wheat flour for bread-making with and without punching at 45 min. Subsequently, the rheological properties of the doughs, specific volume of the loaves, immunoreactive gluten content and modification of the extracted proteins were evaluated. ChT-treated breads presented a better appearance with a more homogeneous crumb, higher specific volume values (3.34-4.25 cm(3) g(-1)) and higher reactive gluten reduction (up to 71%) than the mTG-treated ones (1.23-2.66 cm(3) g(-1)) with only a 42% reactive gluten reduction. Thus, transpeptidation during bread-making is a promising technology, although it is necessary to improve the modification process to obtain the reactive gluten reduction required in breads for the treatment of CD patients and other gluten-related disorders. PMID:24917417

  18. Integrating Small Scale Farmers into Bread Wheat Marketing Chain through Contract Farming in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Getaneh, Wubalem; Bekabil, Fufa

    2008-01-01

    The treatment effect censored regression model results of this study showed that educational level, value of agricultural equipment and number of oxen owned affected the participation decisions of the farmers in bread wheat contract farming significantly. The most important factors that determine gross margin obtained from bread wheat production were contract farming experience, the number of oxen owned and participation in contract farming. However, technical efficiency differences and manag...

  19. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  20. QTL analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in bread wheat for 14 important traits utilizing data from four different mapping populations involving different approaches of QTL analysis. Analysis for grain protein content (GPC) suggested that the major part of genetic variation for this trait is due to environmental interactions. In contrast, pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) was controlled mainly by main effect QTL (M-QTL) with very little genetic variation due to environmental interactions; a major QTL for PHST was detected on chromosome arm 3AL. For grain weight, one QTL each was detected on chromosome arms 1AS, 2BS and 7AS. QTL for 4 growth related traits taken together detected by different methods ranged from 37 to 40; nine QTL that were detected by single-locus as well as two-locus analyses were all M-QTL. Similarly, single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses for seven yield and yield contributing traits in two populations respectively allowed detection of 25 and 50 QTL by composite interval mapping (CIM), 16 and 25 QTL by multiple-trait composite interval mapping (MCIM) and 38 and 37 QTL by two-locus analyses. These studies should prove useful in QTL cloning and wheat improvement through marker aided selection.

  1. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  2. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  3. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection from Australian wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Khanna; U. K. Bansal; R. G. Saini

    2005-12-01

    Wheat line CSP44, a selection from an Australian bread wheat cultivar Condor, has shown resistance to stripe rust in India since the last twenty years. Seedlings and adult plants of CSP44 showed susceptible infection types against stripe rust race 46S119 but displayed average terminal disease severity of 2.67 on adult plants against this race as compared to 70.33 of susceptible Indian cultivar, WL711. This suggests the presence of nonhypersensitive adult plant stripe rust resistance in the line CSP44. The evaluation of F1, F2 and F3 generations and F6 SSD families from the cross of CSP44 with susceptible wheat cultivar WL711 for stripe rust severity indicated that the resistance in CSP44 is based on two genes showing additive effect. One of these two genes is Yr18 and the second gene is not yet described.

  4. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. With Wheat (Triticum aestivum Flours in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext. to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling number, gluten quality and quantity, tannins and phytic acid were determined for the flour blends (Composite flour. Bread proximate composition, sensory evaluation and specific volume were determined as well. Decortication of pigeon pea led to decrease in moisture, ash, tannins and phytic acid and increase in the protein and carbohydrates contents. The falling number (alpha amylase activity significantly increased over the control with the increasing level of DPPF. There were also significant reduction (p#0.05 on gluten quantity (wet and dry gluten and quality (gluten index. No significant differences were found in bread specific volume up to 10% addition of DPPF. The protein, ash, fat contents and calorific values for the bread were significantly increased (p#0.05 with incorporation of DPPF. Increasing levels of the replacement of DPPF resulted in a decrease in the organoleptic quality of the bread. The bread containing up to 15% DPPF was found to be the best in overall acceptability.

  5. Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-07-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  6. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the micr

  7. Medical and biological estimation of bread made from a whole wheat grain with inclusion of root crops

    OpenAIRE

    Мардар, Марина Ромиківна; Кордзая, Натела Ревазовна

    2013-01-01

    Modern assortment of bakery products in Ukraine is formed mainly by the traditional grades of bread and rather limited in prophylactic one.One of the trends of expansion of assortment is production of bread made from a whole wheat grain, which is characterized by a high content of many essential nutrients: protein, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and others.The considerable content of fiber and coarse-fibered structure, make the bread made from a whole wheat grain an irritant for sensitive...

  8. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Lilei Yu; Trust Beta

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%). Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared ...

  9. The Effects on Gluten Strength and Bread Volume of Adding Soybean Peroxidase Enzyme to Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Ratia

    2007-01-01

    The Effects on Gluten Strength and Bread Volume of Adding Soybean Peroxidase Enzyme to Wheat Flour Ratia Kirby ABSTRACT Soy peroxidase enzyme obtained from isoelectic precipitation procedures was added to all-purpose flour (APF) to assess its effects on the rheological properties and consumer acceptability of yeast bread. A pH 4.8 isoelectrically precipitated fraction from soybeans was used because it produced the most precipitate and had about the same peroxidase activity as the...

  10. Chemical, Lutein and Zeaxanthin Composition of Wheat-yellow Maize Bread for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Innocentia Olaitan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of substitution of wheat flour with yellow maize flour on the Lutein, Zeaxanthin and proximate composition as well as sensory properties of their bread samples. Standard procedures were used in the production of yellow maize flour. The blend ratios of wheat-yellow maize composite flour used in the production of the bread samples were 100:0 (control, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50%, respectively. Results revealed that there were significant (p≤0.05 increases in the lutein 92.4 µg (100:0% to 132.4 µg (50:50% and zeaxanthin 225.0 &mug (100:0% to 580.3 &mug (50:50% content of the bread samples. The proximate composition of the bread samples however, revealed that the carbohydrate, protein and ash content of the bread samples decreased with increase in yellow maize flour. The increase in yellow maize flour however, significantly (p≤0.05 increased the fiber, fat and moisture content of the bread samples. Bread sample B (90:10 was generally the most accepted with an organoleptic score of 8.11, however, sample F (50:50 was the most preferred on the basis of color (7.78, flavor (7.78 and texture (7.58. It would be concluded that substitution of wheat flour with yellow maize flour could be employed to improve on the carotenoids composition of bread, increase their intake and confer protection on consumers against atherosclerosis. The low carbohydrate content of the bread samples could be employed to control spike in blood glucose levels, weight gain and in the management of diabetes. The high fibre content could be harnessed in the prevention and management of obesity and hyperlipideamia.

  11. Baking properties of irradiated wheat flour and their effects on the quality of hard crust bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on rheological characteristics and baking properties of hard wheat flour were studied in the range 0,5 kGy-2,0 kGy. Different quality parameters and the staling kinetics of hard bread produced with control and irradiated flours were also evaluated. Samples were stored before and after treatment at room temperature (160C-300C, 60%-98% R.H.). It is possible to make hard crust bread, the main bread consumed by the Cuban people, from irradiated flour (up to 2,0 kGy) two weeks after treatment. No changes due to irradiation of the flour in quality of bread were found. The Brabender maximum viscosity and the falling number of flour decreased in irradiated samples, but these results did not affect the quality of bread produced

  12. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  13. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  14. Evolutionary history of the mitochondrial genome in Mycosphaerella populations infecting bread wheat, durum wheat and wild grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Stefano F F; Brunner, Patrick C; McDonald, Bruce A

    2011-02-01

    Plant pathogens emerge in agro-ecosystems following different evolutionary mechanisms over different time scales. Previous analyses based on sequence variation at six nuclear loci indicated that Mycosphaerella graminicola diverged from an ancestral population adapted to wild grasses during the process of wheat domestication approximately 10,500 years ago. We tested this hypothesis by conducting coalescence analyses based on four mitochondrial loci using 143 isolates that included four closely related pathogen species originating from four continents. Pathogen isolates from bread and durum wheat were included to evaluate the emergence of specificity towards these hosts in M. graminicola. Although mitochondrial and nuclear genomes differed greatly in degree of genetic variability, their coalescence was remarkably congruent, supporting the proposed origin of M. graminicola through host tracking. The coalescence analysis was unable to trace M. graminicola host specificity through recent evolutionary time, indicating that the specificity towards durum or bread wheat emerged following the domestication of the pathogen on wheat. PMID:21145978

  15. Gamma rays induced variability in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was established in the experimental farm belonging to plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Inchas to study the effect of gamma ray (0.200 and 300 Gy) on means of yield and yield attributes for irradiated populations of Giza 164 and Sakha 92, varieties in comparison with untreated control, Moreover, genetic variation was studied by estimate phenotypic, genotypic, coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance under selection of bread wheat varieties (Giza 164 and Sakha 92). 1- In -M1- generation: (1995-1996) on plant with morphological change (dwarfness) was identified in 300Gy dose of Giza 164 variety. Moreover, this varient was confirmed and segregated in M2 generation into three types of segregants (dwarf-semidwarf and tall stem). 2- Results showed that mean values of yield and yield attributes of irradiated populations in M2 of Giza 164 and Sakha 92 varieties were insignificantly increased. High magnitudes of G.C-V.%, Hb% and Gs% for number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were obtained, however moderate magnitude was found for the weight of grains spike. The high values of heritability and genetic gains from selection for these triaits in the next generations. The correlation between grain yield and each of number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were positive and highly significant however, it was positive and significant for weight grain/spike. Some variants with morphological changes i.e. dwarf, semidward, tall stem, earlly maturity and brown spike were selected in M2 generations. These variants surpassed their mother varieties for one or more of yield attributes suggesting the importance of further evaluation and confirmation of this variants in the next generations

  16. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kopeć

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected minerals content, amino acid composition were measured. Five week-old Wistar rats (n = 30, male, were randomly divided into fi ve groups and fed with modifi ed AIN-93G diets containing experimental breads. In animal study the nutritional value of breads’ proteins and concentration of selected minerals in serum, liver and femoral bone, were measured. Results. The body weight gain, biological value (BV and net protein utilization (NPU were signifi cantly higher in rats fed with partially baked frozen wholemeal (PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins. The level of magnesium was signifi cantly lower in serum of animals fed with the diet containing PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins in comparison to rodents fed with conventional WM bread with sourdough. The content of iron was signifi cantly higher in liver of rats fed with PBF WM with sourdough bread in comparison to the groups fed with conventional WM and conventional WM with sourdough breads. Conclusions. Sourdough addition can be recommended in a production of whole wheat partially baked frozen bread but its use is further more benefi cial if it is fermented with whey proteins.

  17. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  18. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Confolent, Carole; Balzergue, Sandrine; Salse, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Background Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. Results We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat g...

  19. Reduced-Gliadin Wheat Bread: An Alternative to the Gluten-Free Diet for Consumers Suffering Gluten-Related Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Gil-Humanes; Fernando Pistón; Rossana Altamirano-Fortoul; Ana Real; Isabel Comino; Carolina Sousa; Cristina M. Rosell; Francisco Barro

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low conten...

  20. Effects of different priming applications on seed germination and some agromorphological characteristics of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Toklu, Faruk; BALOCH, FAHEEM SHAHZAD; Karaköy, Tolga; Özkan, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of some priming treatments on seed germination properties, grain yield, and several agromorphological characteristics of bread wheat. Two commonly grown bread wheat varieties, namely Adana-99 and Pandas, were selected for experimentation conducted during the 2007-08 and 2008-09 growing periods. The seeds of the Adana-99 and Pandas wheat varieties were primed with the following: (1) distilled water, (2) 100 ppm indole-3-acetic acid (I...

  1. Seed and Seedling Performance of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as Influenced by Rate and In-Season Nitrogen Application

    OpenAIRE

    Deressa, Haile; Nigussie-Dechassa, R.

    2013-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in the wheat growing belt of southeastern Ethiopia to assess effects of rate and in-season N application on seed and seedling performance of local and improved bread wheat varieties. For the field experiments, a factorial combination of four N levels, two bread wheat varieties, and three times of N application were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Laboratory tests were conducted in a Completely Randomized Des...

  2. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m−3 d−1 organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m−3 d−1 and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m−3 d−1 OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen

  3. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylan (AX is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm.

  4. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lilei Yu; Anne-Laure Nanguet; Trust Beta

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly ...

  5. Whole grain rye porridge breakfast improves satiety compared to refined wheat bread breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Hanna; Sundberg, Birgitta; Åman, Per; Fredriksson, Helena; Olsson, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies show that dietary fibre rich foods with low energy density have a stronger effect on satiety per calorie compared to more energy dense foods. Objective: To investigate subjective appetite and voluntary energy intake (24 h) after consumption of rye porridge breakfast and pasta lunch made from whole grain compared to iso-energetic reference meals made from refined cereals: wheat bread breakfast and wheat pasta lunch. Subjects: In all, 22 healthy subjects, 14 females...

  6. Genetic analysis of preharvest sprouting tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Thell.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yücel, Cemal; BALOCH, Faheem Shehzad; HATİPOĞLU, RÜŞTÜ; Özkan, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Rains during grain ripening in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can cause preharvest sprouting (PHS), which drastically affects the grain yield and the baking quality of flour. In the present study, to screen 7 cultivars and 4 lines of spring bread wheat for PHS, germination tests were conducted with seeds obtained from wet spikes harvested immediately after natural rainfall. Germination tests were carried out as 3 different treatments: 1) seeds immediately germinated after hand-threshing on samp...

  7. Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin Elyasi; Ezatollah Farshadfar; Mostafat Aghaee

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Signi...

  8. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein content, starch damage, swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particl...

  9. Characterization of cadmium binding, uptake, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Cd content in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) grain grown in the United States and Canada presents potential health and economic problems for consumers and growers. In an effort to understand the biological processes that result in excess Cd accumulation, root Cd uptake and xylem translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat cultivars were studied. Whole-plant Cd accumulation was somewhat greater in the bread wheat cultivar, but this was probably because of increased apoplastic Cd binding. Concentration-dependent 109Cd2+-influx kinetics in both cultivars were characterized by smooth, nonsaturating curves that could be dissected into linear and saturable components. The saturable component likely represented carrier-mediated Cd influx across root-cell plasma membranes (Michaelis constant, 20-40 nM; maximum initial velocity, 26-29 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1), whereas linear Cd uptake represented cell wall binding of 109Cd. Cd translocation to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar than in the durum cultivar because a larger proportion of root-absorbed Cd moved to shoots. Our results indicate that excess Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain is not correlated with seedling-root influx rates or root-to-shoot translocation, but may be related to phloem-mediated Cd transport to the grain

  10. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with...... a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy...... male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose...

  11. Effect of gamma-irradiation of wheat on voltile flavor components of bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative sensory and objective evaluations of bread prepared from wheat flour, irradiated at different doses, have been carried out. The preference of bread decreases with higher radiation dose (1 Mrad) due to increase in off-flavor intensity. Total carbonyl contents are increased in irradiated products. A significant inverse correlation between consumer preference and total carbonyls as well as GLC headspace vapor analysis, is established. An attempt has been made to postulate a mechanism for the excessive formation of volatiles, imparting off-flavor in bread from irradiated wheat. It is suggested that they may arise from the volatile degradation products of amino acids and proteins or by their interaction with reducing sugars, the ultimate radiation-induced breakdown product of starch

  12. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%. Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05 decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9% compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05 during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%. Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109% but decreased bound (2% to 3% phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC significantly (p < 0.05 decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05 decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05 increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  13. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  14. Analysis of the allohexaploid bread wheat genome (Triticum aestivum) using comparative whole genome shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The large 17 Gb allopolyploid genome of bread wheat is a major challenge for genome analysis because it is composed of three closely- related and independently maintained genomes, with genes dispersed as small “islands” separated by vast tracts of repetitive DNA. We used a novel comparative genomi...

  15. Biochemical and sensory evaluation of wheat bran supplemented sorghum kisra bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the effects of addition of wheat bran to sorghum flour (Dabar cultivar) at two levels extraction rates (72% and 80%). Samples were fermented for 14hr and the PH, titrable acidity, crude fibre, protein, total solid, total soluble solids and reducing sugars of fermented batter were determined at 2 hrs intervals. Results indicated that addition of wheat bran either before or after fermentation increased the PH there was decrease in titrable acidity. Reducing sugar contents decrease as a result of addition of wheat bran. Addition of wheat bran result in increasing protein content (15.7%m 19.0% and 20.7% for control, 80%S/WB and 72% S/WB. respectively at the end of fermentation) and also increase of crude fibre content. Addition of wheat bran to sorghum batter either before or after fermentation was accompanied by increase in viscosity ( from 145.1 cp for control to 203.1 cp and 209.8 cp fpr 80%S/WB and 72%S/WB blends respectively). Starch content was determined using iodine spectrophotometry, the moisture content of kisra bread containing wheat bran was significant higher compared with control and lower in available calories. Kisra bread containing wheat bran was lower in reducing sugars 7.42% for control to 5.2% and 4.2% and 4.5% for kisra containing wheat bran, a higher reduction in total carbohydrate were observed in samples containing wheat bran added after fermentation.Kisra containing wheat bran before fermentation gave significantly lower in vitro protein digestabilities. Addition of wheat bran after fermentation resulted in still lower decrease in IVPD compared to addition before fermentation. Sensory evaluation of kisra containing wheat bran indicated significant preference for kisra containing wheat bran compared to the control kisra

  16. Volume, texture, and molecular mechanism behind the collapse of bread made with different levels of hard waxy wheat flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physico-chemical properties of bread baked by partially replacing wild type wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour (15, 30, and 45%) with two waxy wheat flours having different dough properties were investigated. Substitution with waxy wheat flour resulted in higher loaf volume and softer loaves. Howeve...

  17. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  18. Optimization of durum wheat bread from a selenium-rich cultivar fortified with bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Maria Assunta; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Conte, Amalia; De Vita, Pasquale; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    In this work the effect of bran addition (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %) on sensory, nutritional and mechanical properties of bread made from a durum wheat semolina enriched with selenium (cultivar PR22D89) was addressed; traditional and whole-meal bread from the same cultivar PR22D89, without any further bran addition, were also investigated for comparative purpose. In order to improve the durum wheat functional bread, different structuring agents (agar agar, gellan gum, guar seed flour, hydroxy-propyl-cellulose, modified food starch-CAPSUL® and tapioca starch) were firstly screened and then optimized. Sensory, textural and nutritional properties of bread were studied in each step. Results showed that bread from PR22D89 cultivar with addition of bran up to 30 % was completely accepted from the textural, nutritional and sensory points of view with proper utilization of guar seed flour or modified food-starch (2 %). PMID:27162413

  19. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  20. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g). PMID:26396377

  1. EFFECT OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS ON DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BREAD CRUMB CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flour mill streams, obtained from three samples of Nekota, a hard red winter wheat, were used in this study. The objective was to assess the contribution of protein composition on dough rheological properties and bread crumb characteristics of bread made from the mill streams. Flour proteins were fr...

  2. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread. PMID:24230474

  3. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Nordlund; Kati Katina; Hannu Mykkänen; Kaisa Poutanen

    2016-01-01

    Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent ...

  4. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  5. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread s...

  6. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel; Camila Batista da Silva; Caroline Joy Steel; Yoon Kil Chang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour) on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme); however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All form...

  7. High molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat: qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to bread-making quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolster, P.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the poor bread-making quality of the wheat grown in The Netherlands, only a small part of production is used for baking of bread. Therefore quality improvement is a major aim of plant breeding. Unfortunately, breeding for breadmaking quality is hampered by its complexity. The suitability of wheat flour for the manufacture of bread depends on the composition of a large number of kernel components, such as lipids, starch and proteins, and this kernel composition in turn depends on ag...

  8. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  9. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  10. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  12. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  13. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranci...

  14. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M.) Paste in Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Man; Adriana Păucean; Ioana Daniela Călian Ianoş; Sevastiţa Muste

    2015-01-01

    Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This pa...

  15. Copper-65-absorption by men fed intrinsically and extrinsically labeled whole wheat bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six men were fed a diet composed of conventional foods with all bread as whole wheat bread. Intrinsically labeled 65Cu bread (containing 6.5 ppm Cu and 48 atom % 65Cu) was substituted for unlabeled bread for 3 days, and stools were collected for 24 days. Extrinsically labeled bread was then substituted for 3 days and another 24-day stool collection made. 65Cu excretion was measured by mass spectrometry. Mean Cu intake was 1.10 mg of Cu/day. Average Cu balance was /minus/0.06 /+-/ 0.08 mg/day. Average absorption of the intrinsic copper was 72.2 /+-/ 9.3% and of extrinsic Cu 64.2 /+-/ 5.8%. The ratio of extrinsic to intrinsic absorption was 0.906 /+-/ 0.164. Absorption of intrinsic and extrinsic tracers did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) by a paired t-test, and the ratio (E/I) was not significantly different from 1. Use of extrinsic Cu tracers to assess Cu absorption is supported by these results

  16. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  17. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Vira Drobot; Anastasiya Semenova; Jelyzaveta Smirnova; Larisa Mykhonik

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes) on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural an...

  18. Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole-genome shotgun sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Brenchley R.; Brenchley, Rachel; Spannagl M.; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer M; Pfeifer, Matthias; Barker, Gary L. A.; Barker G.L.A.; D'Amore R.; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Allen A.M.; Allen, Alexandra M.; McKenzie, Neil; McKenzie N.; Kramer, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20% of the calories consumed by mankind. We sequenced its large and challenging 17 Gb hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing and compared this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. Between 94,000-96,000 genes were identified, and two-thirds were assigned to the A, B and D genomes. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show the h...

  19. Drought Resistance and Mitotic Instability of Tritipyrum Compared with Triticale and Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    shahriari, zolfaghar; Mohammad Taghi ASSAD; Hosein Shahsavand HASANI

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the first data on the drought resistance pattern of seven new synthetic 6x primary Tritipyrum amphiploid linesand evaluates their mitotic instability. The primary Tritipyrum lines were crossed with Iranian 6x bread wheat ‘Navid’ cultivar and theirF1 and F2 progenies were obtained. Two experiments with complete randomized design were conducted under optimum and limitedwater conditions to evaluate Tritipyrum-derived genotypes for drought resistance in greenhouse. Under optim...

  20. Genetic control and heredity of harvest index and biological yield in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of genetic control, mode of inheritance, general and specific combining abilities and effect of drought stress on genetic parameters of harvest index and biological yield traits in bread wheat were achieved by using Diallel mating design. Parents (eight cultivars) along with F1 progenies (28 crosses) were sown in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications under stress condition in Karadj Agricultural Research Center. The data wer...

  1. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Fang; Yan, Liuling

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear), and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were pr...

  2. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Zheng

    Full Text Available ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2 and 7 (TaER1 of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55 and grain-filling (Z73 stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties, medium (27 varieties and low (16 varieties levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE- related traits, including stomatal density (SD, transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A, instant water use efficiency (WUEi and carbon isotope discrimination (CID, and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP. Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01, transpiration rate (P<0.05 and CID (P<0.01, while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01, A (P<0.05, WUEi (P<0.05, BYPP (P<0.01 and GYPP (P<0.01, with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that

  3. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of n...

  4. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust (stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F₈ recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant and Sakha-69 (susceptible were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR, eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  5. Mutational rectification for resistance to diseases in rice and bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutation breeding programme with a view to rectify the defects of severe susceptibility to important diseases of a few varieties of rice and bread wheat was undertaken using different mutagenic treatments with radiation (X-rays and gamma rays), chemical mutagens (EMS, NMU, NEU) and combination of radiation and chemical mutagens (gamma rays + EMS). In rice two mutant strains have shown moderate resistance to helminthosporiose, one strain to both helminthosporiose and blast and five strains resistant to bacterial leaf blight under artificial epiphytotic conditions. In bread wheat, out of large M2 population, derived from different mutagenic treatments, the frequencies of appearance of mutants resistant to rust diseases were observed to be 0.03 percent in H.D. 1944 from 0.2 percent EMS treatment, 0.06 percent in H.D. 1999 from 0.01 percent NEU treatment and 0.07 percent in Kalyan Sona from combined treatment with 20 krad gamma rays and 0.4 percent EMS. The mutants bred true for resistance upto M6 generations. A few of the mutants, resistant to different diseases in rjce and bread wheat, proved to be very promising in yield. An early (earlier to Kalyan Sona by 25 days) mutant, derived from Kalyan Sona, topped in yield out of 49 varieties tested in 1974l75 in Delhi and Pusa. The Kalyan Sona early tested in 1974-75 in Delhi and Pusa. The Kalyan Sona early mutant is having resistance to yellow and brown rusts. (author)

  6. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcussen, T.; Sandve, S. R.; Heier, L.; Spannagl, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C.; Gill, B.; Friebe, B.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Endo, T. R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Febrer, M.; Clissold, L.; Jakobsen, K. S.; Wulff, B.H.; Steuernagel, B.; Mayer, K. F. X.; Olsen, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014). ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : POLYPLOID WHEAT * HYBRID SPECIATION * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014

  7. Effect of Drought Stress on Some Physiological Traits of Durum (Triticum durum Desf. and Bread (Triticum aestivum L. Wheat Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofig Allahverdiyev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing wheat production and quality worldwide. We aimed to study adaptive changes in physiological parameters of 6 durum and 7 bread wheat genotypes under drought stress. Water stress caused reduction of leaf gas exchange parameters-photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate as well leaf area, dry mass, relative water content, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content were higher in flag leaf of bread wheat genotypes. Photosynthesis rate positively correlated with leaf area, dry mass and relative water content.

  8. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  9. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Nordlund

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent than the wheat breads, having more bread digesta particles with size over 2 or 3 mm. Microstructure of the digesta particles of rye sourdough bread revealed more aggregated and less degraded starch granules when compared to refined wheat bread. The postprandial insulin responses, but not those of glucose, to the 100% rye breads made with sourdough method were lower than the responses to the refined wheat bread. Addition of gluten or bran in rye sourdough bread increased insulin response. PCA (Principal Component Analysis analysis confirmed that the insulin response had a negative correlation with the number of larger particles after in vitro digestion as well as amount of soluble fiber and sourdough process. Since the high relative proportion of large sized particles after chewing and in vitro gastric digestion was associated with low postprandial insulin responses, the analysis of structural disintegration in vitro is proposed as a complementary tool in predicting postprandial physiology.

  10. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. PMID:25040090

  11. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  12. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  13. AMMI AND GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hintsa G. Hagos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genotype environment interaction manipulates the selection criteria in a multipurpose crop like wheat. Ten bread wheat genotypes were evaluated at five wheat growing locations of Tigray region in the year 2011. Yield data was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI and GGE biplot. The AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield detected significant effects for genotype, location and genotype by location interaction. Location effect was responsible for the greatest part of the variation, followed by genotype and genotype by location interaction effects. Based on AMMI stability value, G4, G10, G8 and G9 were the most stable genotypes, while G1, G2, and G3 were the most responsive genotypes. The GGE biplot also showed G1, G2, G3, and G4 have long vectors and located far away from the biplot origin and hence are considered to have larger contribution to GEI (specifically adapted genotypes. G10 however is widely adapted genotype. The ‘which won where’ feature of the GGE biplot identified G4 as the winning genotype at Samre, Hagereselam, and Atsbi, while G1 winning at Quiha and Wukro. The GGE biplot also identified two bread wheat mega-environments. This indicates that analysis of multi-location trail data using GGE and AMMI model is important for determining visual comparisons, adaptability/stability focusing on overall performance to identify superior genotypes.

  14. AMMI AND GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetien Abay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genotype environment interaction manipulates the selection criteria in a multipurpose crop like wheat. Ten bread wheat genotypes were evaluated at five wheat growing locations of Tigray region in the year 2011. Yield data was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI and GGE biplot. The AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield detected significant effects for genotype, location and genotype by location interaction. Location effect was responsible for the greatest part of the variation, followed by genotype and genotype by location interaction effects. Based on AMMI stability value, G4, G10, G8 and G9 were the most stable genotypes, while G1, G2, and G3 were the most responsive genotypes. The GGE biplot also showed G1, G2, G3, and G4 have long vectors and located far away from the biplot origin and hence are considered to have larger contribution to GEI (specifically adapted genotypes. G10 however is widely adapted genotype. The ‘which won where’ feature of the GGE biplot identified G4 as the winning genotype at Samre, Hagereselam, and Atsbi, while G1 winning at Quiha and Wukro. The GGE biplot also identified two bread wheat mega-environments. This indicates that analysis of multi-location trail data using GGE and AMMI model is important for determining visual comparisons, adaptability/stability focusing on overall performance to identify superior genotypes. 

  15. Genetic and ecophysiological dissection of tolerance to drought and heat stress in bread wheat: from environmental characterization to QTL detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bouffier, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    A stagnation of wheat yield was reported in France and other countries worldwide since the 1990’s, which incriminated mainly drought and heat stress. Improving the European wheat tolerance to them is of first importance. This study aimed to investigate the genetic determinism of the tolerance to such stresses. Three CIMMYT bread wheat populations combining complementary heat and drought adaptive habits were grown in Northern Mexico under irrigated, drought and heat-irrigated treatments from 2...

  16. Sodium exclusion QTL associated with improved seedling growth in bread wheat under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Y; Oldach, K; Verbyla, A P; Lott, G; Hassan, M; Tester, M; Wallwork, H; McDonald, G K

    2010-09-01

    Worldwide, dryland salinity is a major limitation to crop production. Breeding for salinity tolerance could be an effective way of improving yield and yield stability on saline-sodic soils of dryland agriculture. However, this requires a good understanding of inheritance of this quantitative trait. In the present study, a doubled-haploid bread wheat population (Berkut/Krichauff) was grown in supported hydroponics to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with salinity tolerance traits commonly reported in the literature (leaf symptoms, tiller number, seedling biomass, chlorophyll content, and shoot Na(+) and K(+) concentrations), understand the relationships amongst these traits, and determine their genetic value for marker-assisted selection. There was considerable segregation within the population for all traits measured. With a genetic map of 527 SSR-, DArT- and gene-based markers, a total of 40 QTL were detected for all seven traits. For the first time in a cereal species, a QTL interval for Na(+) exclusion (wPt-3114-wmc170) was associated with an increase (10%) in seedling biomass. Of the five QTL identified for Na(+) exclusion, two were co-located with seedling biomass (2A and 6A). The 2A QTL appears to coincide with the previously reported Na(+) exclusion locus in durum wheat that hosts one active HKT1;4 (Nax1) and one inactive HKT1;4 gene. Using these sequences as template for primer design enabled mapping of at least three HKT1;4 genes onto chromosome 2AL in bread wheat, suggesting that bread wheat carries more HKT1;4 gene family members than durum wheat. However, the combined effects of all Na(+) exclusion loci only accounted for 18% of the variation in seedling biomass under salinity stress indicating that there were other mechanisms of salinity tolerance operative at the seedling stage in this population. Na(+) and K(+) accumulation appear under separate genetic control. The molecular markers wmc170 (2A) and cfd080 (6A) are expected to

  17. Profitability of Contractual Bread Wheat Seed Production in Mecha District of Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit TSEGAYE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the profitability of contractual bread wheat seed production in Kudmi village of Mecha district in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from fourteen seed growers using structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed include descriptive statistics and average net farm income. Results revealed that the average total cost of production per hectare is Br 8,478.82 ($ 493.82; the average gross revenue per hectare is Br 17,783.72 ($ 1,035.74; and hence the average net profit per hectare is Br 9,304.90 ($ 541.93. The findings also showed that an index of 1.10 economic efficiency of certified bread wheat seed production indicating that contractual bread what seed production is a profitable venture in the study area. The study identified non- application or improper application of inputs (fertilizers and seed and not exercising the recommended management practices were the major problems in seed production. It is necessary to provide adequate extension service for farmers to promote better seed management technologies and efficient use of agricultural inputs.

  18. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in portoarterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat beta-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white...

  19. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the natural occurence of Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat, flour and bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was carried out to obtain data on the occurence of Fusarium mycotoxin in wheat and flour samples collected from local markets in Egypt and to study the influence of gamma-irradiation on controlling the occurrence of thesemycotoxins in wheat, flour and bread. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected in five samples of wheat at levels ranging from 103 to 287 ug/kg and one sample each of flour and bread concentrations 188 and 170 ug/kg. Zearaleone (ZEN) was detected in ten samples of wheat at levels from 28 to 42 ug/kg and four samples each of flour and bread at concentrations of 95 and 34 ug/kg, respectively. T-2 toxin was detected only in one sample each of wheat, flour and bread at concentrations of 2.9, 2.2, and 2.3 ug/kg, respectively. Gamma-irradiation at dose level of 6 kGy completely eliminated fungal flora in flour and wheat. DON, ZEN and T-2 toxin concentrations are reduced to 85, 20 and 2.0 ug/kg for wheat and to 125, 45, and 1.0 ug/kg for flour after 4 kGy exposure and a sharp drop in Fusarium toxin levels occured at 6 kGy and was eliminated at 8 kGy. Bread prepared from 6 kGy was contaminate4d with Fusarium toxin at levels below 5 ug/kg. It was noticed that gamme-irradiation reduce greatly the natural occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in bread

  20. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choulet, F.; Alberti, A.; Theil, S.; Glover, N.; Barbe, V.; Daron, J.; Pingault, L.; Sourdille, P.; Couloux, A.; Paux, E.; LeRoy, P.; Bellec, A.; Gaspin, Ch.; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Rogers, J.; Vandepoele, K.; Mayer, K.; Wincker, P.; Feuillet, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014). ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : hexaploid wheat * sequencing * meiotic recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25035497

  1. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Sergio O. Serna-Sáldivar; Janet A. Gutiérrez-Uribe

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and ph...

  2. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:26841492

  3. Antioxidant, nutritional and functional characteristics of wheat bread enriched with ground flaxseed hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Anders, Andrzej; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity, nutritional and functional quality of wheat bread supplemented with 1-5% flaxseed hull (FH) were studied. Analyses of the chemically-extractable fraction show that supplementation with 5% of FH increased (compared to control) phenolics content (by 93%), radicals scavenging ability (by 176%) and reducing power (by 220%). Furthermore, phenolic antioxidants were bioaccessible in vitro (samples after simulated digestion). Fortification had no significant influence on rapidly and slowly digestible starch, in vitro starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index; however, a decrease (up to 8%) of relative proteins digestibility was determined. Enrichment decreased loaf volume and increased crumb hardness. The results from sensory evaluation show that the incorporation of FH had a slightly unfavorable effect on bread sensory properties but ensured satisfactory consumer acceptability. In view of these facts, it is concluded that flaxseed hulls may be a beneficial food additive. PMID:27507444

  4. Effect of bambara groundnut flour (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) supplementation on chemical, physical, nutritional and sensory evaluation of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y; Ali, Ali O; Elkhalifa, Elamin A; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim E

    2012-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verdc) is a major source of vegetable protein in sub-Saharan Africa. And the aim of this study was to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread through the addition of bambara groundnut flour to wheat four. For this, bambara groundnut seeds were soaked in tap water, manually decorticated, sun dried and milled into fine flour. Proximate analysis of flours of de-hulled bambara groundnut and wheat were conducted. Flour of de-hulled bambara groundnut was used for bread supplementation in ratios of 5, 10 and 15%. Rheological properties of the control flour and wheat flour supplemented with 10% of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour were conducted. The total area and dough development time increased. However, water absorption, stability and extensibility respectively decreased, from 71.3; 8.5; 190 in the control flour to 71.0; 5.5; 180 in the 10% supplemented flour. The increases in the resistance to extension and proportional number from 260 to 280 and 1.37 to 1.56, respectively resulted in stiff dough. The most important effect of wheat bread supplementation was the improvement of protein quantity from 13.74 +/- 0.02% for the control bread to 15.49 +/- 0.02, 17.00 +/- 0.05 and 18.98 +/- 0.02% for the 5, 10 and 15% blending ratios, respectively. The in-vitro protein digestibility progressively increased from 84.33 +/- 0.03 in the control bread to 85.42 +/- 0.04, 86.57 +/- 0.04 and 87.64 +/- 0.03 in breads containing 5, 10 and 15% bambara groundnut flour. The sensory attributes of different types of bread showed that, a significant difference was observed in texture, colour and overall acceptability. However, the panelists gave higher score for 10% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour bread than bread made from other blends. The loaf weights, loaf volume and specific volume increased. However, while the loaf weight increased with addition of 15% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour, both of loaf volume and specific volume decreased

  5. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control. PMID:25190845

  6. Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Elyasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Callus Growth Rate (CGR, Relative Fresh Weight Growth (RFWG, Relative Growth Rate (RGR and Percentage of Callus Induction (PCI indicating the presence of genetic variability, different responses of bread wheat genotypes to callus induction and possible selection of callus induction at in vitro level using immature embryos. Mean comparison of the traits measured in callus induction showed that genotypes 1 and 6 had the highest PCI (100%. Analysis of variance for CGR, RFWG and RGR, Relative Water Content (RWC, Percent of Callus Chlorosis (PCC and Proline Content (PC exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters in the stress condition (15% PEG. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes (6, (19 and (1 as the most drought tolerant.

  7. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  8. Nutritional and technological quality of bread enriched with an intermediated pearled wheat fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Sovrani, Valentina; Marinaccio, Federico; Reyneri, Amedeo; Rolle, Luca; Giacosa, Simone; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2013-12-01

    A strategy to maximise the health benefits of wheat-based products enriched with refined flour and selected fractions of kernel, obtained by sequential pearling, has been tested. Five mixtures of refined commercial flour with an increasing replacement of a pearled wheat fraction were used to prepare bread and were compared with a control for the dough rheological properties (Mixolab® parameters), the bioactive compound content, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination and the physical properties (volume, crust colour, instrumental crunchiness and crumb texture profile analysis parameters). The antioxidant and dietary fibre contents increased linearly as the flour was enriched with the pearled fraction. The dietary fibre, β-glucan, total phenolic, alkylresorcinol content and the antioxidant activity increased significantly at a replacement level of 10%, while the technological properties were not significantly different from those of the control. It has been shown that refined flour could be enriched through the addition of a selected wheat pearled fraction and the bioactive compound content of composite bread could be improved, while few rheological and technological differences could be obtained and the risk for DON contamination could be limited. PMID:23870994

  9. Gluten characteristics imparting bread quality in wheats differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Devinder; Gupta, Raj Kumar

    2015-07-01

    High yielding genotypes differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus in national wheat programme of India were examined for bread loaf volume, gluten and protein contents, gluten strength, gluten index and protein-gluten ratio. Number of superior bread quality genotypes in four agro-climatically diverse zones of Indian plains was comparable in both categories of wheat i.e., 5 + 10 and 2 + 12. There wasn't any difference in average bread loaf volume and grain protein content either. 5 + 10 wheats showed better gluten strength and their gluten quality was also superior in the zones where protein content was high. 2 + 10 wheats exerted more gluten due to better protein-gluten ratio. Good bread making in 5 + 10 was derived by better gluten strength and also gluten quality in certain regions but bread quality in 2 + 12 wheats was channelized through higher gluten content as they were more efficient in extracting gluten from per unit protein. Difference in route to bread quality was apparent as gluten content and gluten strength were the key gluten attributes in 5 + 10 whereas protein content and gluten index were prominent in 2 + 12 types. Unlike 2 + 12, there was a ceiling in gluten harvest of 5 + 10 wheats as higher protein failed to deliver more gluten after some limit. PMID:26261410

  10. EVALUATION OF QUALITY INDICATORS RELATED TO QUALITY BREAD WHEAT PROMISING LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Munyanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bread waste is one of the important socio-economic's issues country now, the urgent need is feeling to improve the wheat quality. Therefore, using the methods of farming and breeding is necessary to improve the quality of this strategic product. As a result, tests of quality's traits in wheat promising lines in Isfahan climate took place. In this study, the choice 17 advanced lines of compare the performances,s experiments, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive cropping (2011-2012 at cultural experiment and research centre in Isfahan located in Kabutar Abad region. Randomized complete block designs with 3 replications were compared with Spring variety (for control. Traits including: 1000 grain weight, hectolitre weight, protein content, Zeleny sedimentation rate, bread volume, grain moisture content, grain hardness, water absorption, falling number, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, sedimentation rates were SDS.The results of the combined analysis of variance qualitative characteristics,s for two consecutive cropping showed that treatments with compare together and control variety had significant influence in 1% probability.Correlation coefficients of two years showed that the compound test significant positive correlation within grain hardness index and protein content, wet gluten and dry deposition rates of SDS. Also, significant positive correlation with the percentage of protein content of dry gluten. In view of the high correlation with protein content of dry gluten (quantity. However, grain hardness and relatively high correlation with SDS sedimentation as an important measure of protein quality. Therefore, the test results of dry gluten grains can be tough to choose in order to improve the quality of wheat bread may be used.

  11. Heritability estimates for yield and related traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of 22 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars were evaluated in in-irrigated and unirrgated environments with objectives to determine genetic and phenotypic variation and heritability estimates for yield and its traits- The two environments were statistically at par for physiological maturity, plant height, spikes m/sub -2/. spike lets spike/sup -1/ and 1000-grain weight. Highly significant genetic variability existed among wheat lines (P < 0.0 I) in the combined analysis across two test environments for traits except 1000- grain weight. Genotypes x environment interactions were non-significant for traits indicating consistent performance of lines in two test environments. However lines and check cultivars were two to five days early in maturity under unirrigated environment. Plant height, spikes m/sup -2/ and 1000-grain weight also reduced under unirrigated environments. Genetic variances were greater than Environmental variances for most of traits- Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for plant height, medium (0.31 to 0.56) for physiological maturity. spikelets spike/sup -1/ (unirrigated) and 1000-grain weight, and low for spikes m/sup -2/. (author)

  12. Quantitative aspects of the metabolism of lignans in pigs fed fibre-enriched rye and wheat bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle N; Mortensen, Marianne A; Hedemann, Mette S; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Penalvo, José L; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2009-01-01

    A diet rich in lignans has been suggested to be protective against a range of chronic diseases. The distribution and metabolic fate of lignans is, however, very poorly understood. We fed high-fibre wheat breads low in lignans (n 8) or high-fibre rye breads (n 9) rich in plant lignans to pigs for 58......, liver, breast and brain at a much higher level with rye than with wheat, but only in the form of enterolactone. The importance and implications of systemic exposure to plant lignans remain to be elucidated....

  13. Genetic Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium in Chinese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Revealed by SSR Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Ge, Hongmei; Dong, Yuchen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2011-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relativel...

  14. Evaluation of the Agronomical and Biochemical Characteristics of New Lines of Bread Wheat in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan DOGAN

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen new lines of bread wheat obtained from the CIMMYT/ICARDA and a standard cultivar were evaluated during three successive years (2003, 2004 and 2005). The experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Uluda? University in Bursa. The lines and the standard cultivar showed significant differences in plant height, number of seeds/spike, seed weight/spike, seed yield and a 1000-kernel weight. The lines numbered 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14 and 15 produced si...

  15. Induced variation for Pelshenke value and caryopsis weight in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the evidence of induced mutations for Pelshenke value and caryopsis weight. M2 population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Pak 70 derived from different doses of gamma rays (100, 150, 200 Gy) and fast neutrons (300, 450, 600 Rads) were screened. The coefficient of variation for Pelshenke value was considerably higher in Nf 450 Rads and 100 Gy gamma ray treatments in comparison with the untreated control. Gamma ray treatments were more effective than fast neutrons in increasing the caryopsis weight. Selection strategy based on highly heritable traits can result in breeding varieties with high yield and improved baking quality. (author)

  16. Induced mutations in Iraqi bread wheat cv. Saber Beg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Saber Beg'', is a local wheat cultivar important in the semi-arid zone of Iraq where the rainfall is less than 450 mm per year. This cultivar has a good baking quality, but is of low productivity, high susceptibility to common bunt (Tilletia spp.) and to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.), but only in the rainy season. A mutation breeding programme using gamma irradiation has been started in 1978 to improve this cultivar. Seeds of all main tillers from M1 plants were harvested and artificially inoculated with teliospores of Tilletia spp. All the seeds from healthy M2 plants were inoculated again and sown in the same area. Out of 22920 M3 plants, 244 resistant ones were selected. During subsequent screening for 4 generations, however, only 3 mutants were confirmed

  17. Characterization of Quantitative Loci for Morphological and Anatomical Root Traits on the Short Arm of Chromosome 1 of Rye in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sundrish

    2009-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the second most cultivated cereal crop after rice. Many present day bread wheats carry a centric rye-wheat translocation 1RS.1BL in place of chromosome 1B. The increased grain yield of translocation lines is positively associated with root biomass. To map loci controlling root characteristics, homoeologous recombinants of 1RS with 1BS were used to generate an integrated genetic map comprised of 20 phenotypic and molecular markers, with an average spacing ...

  18. Comparison of autoclave, microwave, IR and UV-C stabilization of whole wheat flour branny fractions upon the nutritional properties of whole wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Mustafa Kürşat; Elgün, Adem

    2011-01-01

    In this study, whole wheat bread (WWB) prepared by whole wheat flour (WWF) which its branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w whole flour) previously was stabilized with different processes. Branny fractions obtained by milling of two different Bezostaja-1 wheat samples (medium and high strong) at 65 ± 1% wheat flour extraction ratio. These fractions were stabilized using autoclave (AU), microwave (MW), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) methods. Then, WWF obtained by remixing of stabilized branny fr...

  19. Trends of mutation studies in bread wheat (Tricticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken in different wheat varieties to determine (a) the relative efficiency of different ionizing radiations in realising viable mutations; (b) effectiveness of acute VS chronic irradiation; (c) genotypic differences and varietal response to radiation damage and (d) fertility and survival in M1 as a parameter for mutation percentage in M2. The chemicals (ethyl methane sulphonate, nitroso methyl urethan and nitroso guanidine) and radiations (X-rays, gamma-rays, radio-isotopes P32 and S35 and neutrons) were used in different sets of treatments. The relative effect of these treatments on variable genotypes was studied, in relation to seed germination, growth, chromosome structure, pollen fertility an seed set in M1 and in M2 mutation frequency and spectrum. The treatments including higher sterility in M1, gave higher mutation percentage of phenotypic detectable types. In spite of the limited M2 population, the higher mutation frequency and mutation spectrum were maintained irrespective of the treatment and the genotype involved. (N.M.M.)

  20. Tissue Nitrogen and Fructan Translocation in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-liang; L.O'Brien; ZHONG Gai-rong

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of previously accumulated nitrogen and carbohydrates from vegetative tissue of the wheat plant is a major assimilate source for grain filling. This study was conducted to examine genotype differences in nitrogen and fructan translocation and their relationships to grain yield and protein content. Effects indicated that significant genotype differences existed for nitrogen accumulation at anthesis and fructan at milk stage and their translocation. Two high protein genotypes, Cunningham and PST90-19, accumulated more nitrogen before anthesis and had greater nitrogen translocation, but lower post-anthesis nitrogen uptake,than two low protein genotypes, SUN109A and TM56. Among plant parts, leaves were the major storage for tissue nitrogen and provided the overwhelming proportion of the total nitrogen translocation, whereas for fructan accumulation and translocation it was the stems. The two high protein genotypes had a higher percentage of their grain nitrogen derived from nitrogen translocation, while for the two low protein ones, it was from postanthesis nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Increasing nitrogen application increased nitrogen accumulation and translocation, but decreased fructan accumulation and translocation. High grain protein content was associated with high nitrogen translocation from leaves, stems and the total plant, while high grain yield was related to high fructan translocation from stems and the total plant. Fructan translocation was negatively correlated to grain protein content. Nitrogen and fructan translocation were not correlated with each other.

  1. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF DURUM (TRITICUM DURUM DESF.) AND BREAD (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) WHEAT GENOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Tofig Allahverdiyev

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing wheat production and quality worldwide. We aimed to study adaptive changes in physiological parameters of 6 durum and 7 bread wheat genotypes under drought stress. Water stress caused reduction of leaf gas exchange parameters-photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate as well leaf area, dry mass, relative water content, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content we...

  2. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    OpenAIRE

    Demin Mirjana A.; Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.; Laličić-Petronijević Jovanka G.; Rabrenović Biljana B.; Filipčev Bojana V.; Šimurina Olivera D.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The us...

  3. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Brankovic; Vesna Dragičević; Dejan Dodig; Miroslav Zoric; Desimir Knežević; Sladana Žilić; Srbislav Denčić; Gordana Šurlan

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA), inorganic P (Pi), total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH), ...

  4. Heritability of Indirect Bread-making Quality Traits in Segregating Generations of Two Winter Wheat Crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lovrić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern wheat breeding programs aim to create cultivars with high genetic potential for yield and bread-making quality. The effectiveness of selection in segregating generations depends on the heritability of the traits under selection and on the correlations among traits. The aim of this study was to compare realized heritability of 1000 kernel weight and five indirect bread-making quality traits (grain protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, the Zeleny sedimentation value and Pelshenke value between segregating generations (F4 to F6 of two bi-parental wheat crosses, calculated using four different methods, and to estimate phenotypic correlations among these traits. Realized heritability of investigated traits, estimated as parent-off spring regression, ranged from 0.21 to 0.79. Realized heritability for wet gluten content, gluten index and Pelshenke value was much higher in comparison with other quality traits. Correlations between the four methods used to calculate realized heritability revealed the best agreement between heritability estimated as parent-off spring regression and that based on divergent screening, and the lowest agreement between realized heritabilities based on upward and downward screening. Strong positive correlations were observed among grain protein content, wet gluten content, and Zeleny sedimentation value; and strong negative correlations between gluten index on one side and grain protein content and wet gluten content on the other side.

  5. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  6. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread. PMID:26397032

  7. Heritability of Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat Advanced Lines Under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research was conducted with aim to identify the characters of utmost importance in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions that may be used as selection criteria in a wheat breeding program. The experimental material consisted of 13 wheat genotypes including 11 bread wheat advanced lines from two different sources, 1 synthetic hexaploid and its durum parent. Stress was imposed by withholding irrigation at three different growth stages of plant i.e. tillering, anthesis and grain filling. Experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement. Water regimes (irrigated and non-irrigated were allocated to the main plots and genotypes to the sub-plots. Morphological traits were recorded including days to heading, flowering, anthesis, physiological maturity, grain-filling period, flag leaf area, plant height, biomass, number of spikes, number of spikelets per spike, spike length, number of grains, grain yield, harvest index and 1000-grain weight. According to obtained results heritability among the traits under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions was estimated. Spike length exhibited highest heritability value of 0.89, 0.84 and 0.87 under irrigated, tillering and grain filling stress whereas grain yield had highest heritability value of 0.76 under anthesis stress. These traits therefore deserve more attention in future breeding programs for evolving better wheat for stress environments.

  8. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  9. Gamma Radiation Influence on Rheological and Technological Characteristics of Wheat Flour (misr-1) and Sensory Properties of Pan Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on rheological and technological characteristics of flour extraction from irradiated wheat grains (misr-1) with 3,6 and 9 kGy, also baking quality and sensory characteristics of pan breads made from this flour. The rheological properties of wheat flour 72% extraction were determined by farinograph parameter, extensograph parameter and measured by amylo graph paramete. Gamma radiation caused increase in water absorption and decrease dough development time, and dough stability time. The decrease percentage increased by increasing dose rate and increased the dough weakness, also γ-irradiation increased the elasticity, decrease extensibility and decrease dough strength (energy), whereas γ-irradiation on wheat grains (misr-1) decrease the maximum viscosity of flour, it indicate an increase in enzymatic activity as a result of the breakdown of starch and improve the gluten index %, this fact is beneficial for bread baking purposes. So γ-irradiation increased volume loaf especially at the dose 6 kGy,and no real differences of taste, texture, appearance and odor scores for sensory evaluation of pan bread made of flour extraction from irradiated and un-irradiated wheat grains. Mean while, irradiation particularly at higher doses (6 and 9 kGy)caused difference in the color (darkness) of pan bread. Gamma irradiation increased the baking quality, and improvement volume loaf especially at the dose 6 kGy.

  10. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  11. Allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. on germination & growth of cucumber, alfalfa, common bean and bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh BAKHSHAYESHAN-AGDAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is one of the important interactions among plants. Weeds can reduce crops productions in farms by their allelopathic effects. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. is the most common weed in Iran with well-known allelopathic potential. In the presented experiment, the allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed on germination and growth of four important crop species including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., common bean (Phaseulus vulgaris L. and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied. The effect of different concentrations of redroot pigweed leachate on seed germination and seedlings growth parameters of tested plants was significant, but not same in all studied species. Bread wheat and cucumber were more resistance in seed germination stage in comparison to common bean and alfalfa. Except alfalfa, all plant species showed certain rate of resistance in the most measured parameters. According to the obtained results, bread wheat and common bean were the most resistant species, cucumber was resistant at low concentration but sensitive at high concentration, and alfalfa was the most sensitive species to the redroot pigweed leachate treatments. Therefore, the cultivation of resistant plant species (such as bread wheat and common bean plants in the regions with redroot pigweed’s invasion is appropriate way in management of the farms.

  12. Reduced-gliadin wheat bread: an alternative to the gluten-free diet for consumers suffering gluten-related pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world.

  13. Transcriptome-scale homoeolog-specific transcript assemblies of bread wheat

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    Schreiber Andreas W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bread wheat is one of the world’s most important food crops and considerable efforts have been made to develop genomic resources for this species. This includes an on-going project by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium to assemble its large and complex genome, which is hexaploid and contains three closely related ‘homoeologous’ copies for each chromosome. This multi-national effort avoids the complications polyploidy entails for correct assembly of the genome by sequencing flow-sorted chromosome arms one at a time. Here we report on an alternate approach, a direct homoeolog-specific assembly of the expressed portion of the genome, the transcriptome. Results After assessment of the ability of various assemblers to generate homoeolog-specific assemblies, we employed a two-stage assembly process to produce a high-quality assembly of the transcriptome of hexaploid wheat from Roche-454 and Illumina GAIIx paired-end sequence reads. The assembly process made use of a rapid partitioning of expressed sequences into homoeologous clusters, followed by a parallel high-fidelity assembly of each cluster on a 1150-processor compute cloud. We assessed assembly quality through comparison to known wheat gene sequences and found that in ca. 98.5% of cases the assembly was sufficiently accurate for homoeologous triplets to be cleanly separated into either two or three separate contigs. Comparison to publicly available transcript collections suggests that the assembly covers ~75-80% of the complete transcriptome. Conclusions This work therefore describes the first homoeolog-specific sequence assembly of the wheat transcriptome and provides a reference transcriptome for future wheat research. Furthermore, our assembly methodology is transferable to other polyploid organisms.

  14. Transcriptome-wide identification of bread wheat WRKY transcription factors in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Sezer; Derelli, Ebru; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-01

    The WRKY superfamily of transcription factors was shown to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the major crops largely cultivated and consumed all over the world. Drought is an important abiotic stress resulting in a considerable amount of loss in agronomical yield. Therefore, identification of drought responsive WRKY members in wheat has a profound significance. Here, a total of 160 TaWRKY proteins were characterized according to sequence similarity, motif varieties, and their phylogenetic relationships. The conserved sequences of the TaWRKYs were aligned and classified into three main groups and five subgroups. A novel motif in wheat, WRKYGQR, was identified. To putatively determine the drought responsive TaWRKY members, publicly available RNA-Seq data were analyzed for the first time in this study. Through in silico searches, 35 transcripts were detected having an identity to ten known TaWRKY genes. Furthermore, relative expression levels of TaWRKY16/TaWRKY16-A, TaWRKY17, TaWRKY19-C, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61, and TaWRKY82 were measured in root and leaf tissues of drought-tolerant Sivas 111/33 and susceptible Atay 85 cultivars. All of the quantified TaWRKY transcripts were found to be up-regulated in root tissue of Sivas 111/33. Differential expression of TaWRKY16, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61 and TaWRKY82 genes was discovered for the first time upon drought stress in wheat. These comprehensive analyses bestow a better understanding about the WRKY TFs in bread wheat under water deficit, and increased number of drought responsive WRKYs would contribute to the molecular breeding of tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24748053

  15. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  16. Sensory Quality and Consumer Perception of Wheat Bread : Towards Sustainable Production and Consumption. Effects of Farming System, Year, Technology, Information and Values

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlberg, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the effect of production systems aimed at sustainability on product quality and of sensory and non-sensory factors on product acceptance – the effect of farming system, year, milling and baking techniques on the sensory qualities of wheat bread as a model product was investigated using a descriptive test, and the effect of information and values on liking of bread using consumer tests. Whole wheat and white breads were baked with wheat grown in six lots in established conven...

  17. Multi-element analysis of wheat flour and white bread by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the best source of feeding even for the human being as for animals are the Cereals. Although they are mainly energetic aliment, due to its composition in starch, they are a very important source of proteins and amino acids. They contribute mineral elements to the diet. Even those elements constitute a very small part of the total diet, they take a very important place in many human metabolic processes. To make a multielemental analysis of an aliment is very important that we are based on a very sensible analytic technique so we are able to find them, just as the Neutronic Activation. This Nuclear technique allows you to make a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the elements that are in a sample, but it does n't show the way in which the elements are presented. It is based in turning those elements into radioactive ones through its exposition to an uniform and constant fluid of neutrons, so then its radioactivity can be determined. The present work has as a main purpose to make a multielemental analysis of the wheat flour and white bread through the Neutronic Activation Technique, using the comparator method and establishing previously the most appropriate work conditions as much irradiation as digestion and measuring of the radioactivity of the sample. In this way, it was able to know that the wheat flour has potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese, rubidium and selenium elements in a concentration of 2000, 700, 500, 25, 18, 13, 5.5, 0.9 and 0.01 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. In an other hand it was found that the white bread has the same elements than the wheat flour but its concentration was: 1700, 9000, 400, 7000, 52, 13, 6, 1 and 0.05 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. (Author)

  18. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  19. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  20. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  1. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to cassava-maize-wheat breads. PMID:27386112

  2. Comparison of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria for implementation of fermented wheat bran in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prückler, Michael; Lorenz, Cindy; Endo, Akihito; Kraler, Manuel; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Hendriks, Karel; Soares da Silva, Francisco; Auterith, Eric; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Michlmayr, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    Despite its potential health benefits, the integration of wheat bran into the food sector is difficult due to several adverse technological and sensory properties such as bitterness and grittiness. Sourdough fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the sensory quality of bran without inducing severe changes to the bran matrix. Therefore, identification of species/strains with potential for industrial sourdough fermentations is important. We compared the effects of different representatives of species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on wheat bran. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Fructobacillus fructosus produced highly individual fermentation patterns as judged from carbohydrate consumption and organic acid production. Interestingly, fructose was released during all bran fermentations and possibly influenced the fermentation profiles of obligately heterofermentative species to varying degrees. Except for the reduction of ferulic acid by L. plantarum and L. pentosus, analyses of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols suggested that only minor changes thereof were induced by the LAB metabolism. Sensory analysis of breads baked with fermented bran did not reveal significant differences regarding perceived bitterness and aftertaste. We conclude that in addition to more traditionally used sourdough species such as L. sanfranciscensis and L. brevis, also facultatively heterofermentative species such as L. plantarum and L. pentosus possess potential for industrial wheat bran fermentations and should be considered in further investigations. PMID:25846933

  3. Some ENU Induced Mutations: A Resource for Functional Genomics in Bread Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutations have been extensively used in the past for crop improvement. More recently a renewed interest in induced mutations has been witnessed due to their utility in functional genomics research. In the present study eight different types of mutations that were induced in common wheat (Triticumaestivum) due to ENU (N-ethylN-nitrosourea) treatment were grouped into four classes (stem mutants, reproductive mutants, leaf mutant and spike mutants). Two of the stem mutants, namely axillary branching and reduced node (1-2), were novel and interesting. In silico studies were conducted using candidate genes that were reported to produce similar mutant phenotypes in other species. We identified six wheat genomic sequences that were considered orthologous to the sequences for branching genes from rice and maize. Similarly, using EST database we identified 11 unigenes which matched a gene responsible for reduction in number of nodes in maize. These sequences that are involved in axillary branching and reduced number of nodes may be used as candidates for further studies of above mutants in bread wheat. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Pakistani wheat germplasm for bread quality based on allelic variation in HMW glutenin subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy six Pakistani wheat genotypes including land races were investigated for Bread quality (BQ) based on allelic variation in HMW glutenin subunits at the Glu-1 loci through SDS- polyacrylamide gel electropherosis. Twenty five different allelic combinations were detected with a total of 14 Glu-1 loci. Highest polymorphism was revealed by Glu-B locus and some single/ rare sub units were also screened out. The frequencies of dominant subunits were 50% for 2*, 42.11% for subunit pair 17+18 and 48.68% for 5+10 and 2+12 respectively. The quality scores displayed a range from 4 to 10, however generally good quality score of eight was more frequent (39. 47%). The highest quality scores of 10 and 9 were observed in 22.36% and 19.74% of genotypes respectively. The UPGMA analysis grouped genotypes into three major with two additional sub clusters for each. The cluster 'a' 'b' and 'C' were separated at 73% genetic distance which was further differentiated at a genetic distance of 50% into their sub clusters. Pakistani wheat varieties/land races exhibited large variation in term of HMW-GS. The generated information will lead to the pyrimiding of sub units for high BQ through mission oriented marker assisted breeding programmes for quality improvement of wheat. (author)

  5. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Brankovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA, inorganic P (Pi, total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH, and also phytic acid P/Pi (Pp/Pi. The objective of this study was to quantify, for each trait the effects of environment, genotype, and their interaction; and the influence of climatic factors on the Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI by the use of the factorial regression. GEI (P < 0.001 prevailed as source of variation over genotype (P < 0.001 in determining PA content in bread and durum wheat (44.3% and 34.7% of sum of squares-SS, respectively, PSH content in bread and durum wheat (27% and 28.4% of SS, respectively and total soluble phenolic compounds content in durum wheat (35.5% of SS. The major contribution to the GEI represented climatic variables during stages of stem elongation for PA and phenolic compounds, and also flowering, fertilization, grain formation and grain filling for PSH. Total yellow pigment and Pi contents in bread and durum wheat were predominantly determined by genotype (P < 0.001. Models of climatic variables proved to be efficient in the explanation of more than 92% of the SS of GEI for PA and antioxidants contents.

  6. Production of low chlorogenic and caffeic acid containing sunflower meal protein isolate and its use in functional wheat bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchekoldina, Tatiana; Aider, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI) is a promising food additive in different matrices. However, the uses of SMPI are limited because of the presence of antinutritional compounds like polyphenolic substances. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are the dominants polyphenolics in the SMPI. These substances cause significant changes of the colour of the meal, proteins and food matrices during their extraction and use as food additives. Moreover, these substances lower the nutritional value of the end product due to their interaction with some amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Thus, the removal of these substances is important to enable the use of the SMPI and meal in general in a greater extent in food applications and replacing more expensive protein sources such as soy proteins. The aim of this work was to study the production of functional bread by supplementing wheat flour with sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI). SMPI with low content of chlorogenic and caffeic acid was usefully produced following alkaline extraction and purification with succinic acid. Purified SMPI showed well balanced amino acid profile and was characterized by high water and fat absorption capacities. It was incorporated to dough formula at 8-12 % of the total wheat flour. The results showed that production of bread supplemented with SMPI was technologically feasible. The supplemented bread had high mass volume and nutritional quality compared to the control bread. The optimal SMPI to incorporate into dough formula without significant alteration of the final bread colour was established at 10 %. This study will be helpful to find economic ways to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat bread and to improve the profitability of sunflower meal residue. PMID:25328173

  7. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  8. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  9. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m(-3) d(-1) organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m(-3) d(-1) and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m(-3) d(-1) OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen. PMID:25843354

  10. Induced mutations in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Kharchia 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through mutagenesis with gamma rays, mutants characterized by reduced plant height, square head, awnless ear, semisterile, amber seed colour and bold seeds were induced in bread wheat (Triticum aeastivum L.) cv. Kharchia 65. They were isolated in M2 derived from dry seeds treated with 20 kR, 30 kR and 40 kR of gamma rays of M1 population. In the M3 generation, some progenies with morphological mutants were also recovered. The pattern of segregation was found to be controlled by monogenic recessive control of mutant phenotypes, and showed a good fit for 3 normal: 1 mutant and 1 normal: 2 segregating and 1 mutant between and within the progenies respectively. (author)

  11. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. PMID:27041305

  12. Induced variability for yield contributing traits and protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain stable and promising mutants of bread wheat var. K-68 (induced by 15kR gamma rays at low seed moisture) were tested in M4 generation for yield contributing traits and total protein. They differed among themselves and from control with regard to all the characters except few. The reduction in plant height was upto 23.48 per cent and increase in protein was upto 25.31 per cent over the control value of K-68. To determine the magnitude and causes of induced variability various genetic parameters were studied. The high heritability accompanied with high genetic advance was observed for important characters like plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight, grain yield/plot and total protein. This indicated that these attributes were mainly controlled by additive gene action and thus selection could be effectively used for improvement of the genotypes. (author)

  13. Bread wheat selection against abiotic and biotic stresses in highland Balochistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) lines were screened in multi-location trials in highland Balochistan, Pakistan from 1982 (F2) to 1990 (fixed lines). Objective of the study was to select and evaluate desirable genotypes for winter planting, Of 816 entries, only four successfully passed through the observation nurseries and yield trials. After nine years of testing only genotype ICW81.1471 was selected for wide-scale agronomic testing. Although the yield potential of this genotype was not significantly higher than that of the local check, it had the important advantage of possessing good resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West) The results showed that exposure of segregating population to the prevailing environmental stresses of cold and drought was an effective selection procedure for identifying genotypes which are resistant to such stresses. Effective selection can be made for other desirable attributes such as disease and pest resistance, plant height and time to maturity. (author)

  14. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  15. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Phenotypic and Proline Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Tesfay, Samson; Tsilo, Toi J

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), productive tiller number (TN), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY) and proline content (PC). Analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding. PMID:27610116

  16. Morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characterization of a bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Lima-Brito; A. Carvalho; A. Martin; J. S. Heslop-Harrison; H. Guedes-Pinto

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characteristics of bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrids ($2n = 6x = 42$; AABBDHch) and their parents were analysed. Morphologically, these hybrids resembled the wheat parent. They were slightly bigger than both parents, had more spikelets per spike, and tillered more profusely. The hybrids are self-fertile but a reduction of average values of yield parameters was observed. For the cytological approach we used a double-target fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with total genomic DNA from Hordeum chilense L. and the ribosomal sequence pTa71. This technique allowed us to confirm the hybrid nature and to analyse chromosome pairing in this material. Our results showed that the expected complete homologous pairing (14 bivalents plus 14 univalents) was only observed in 9.59% of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) analysed. Some PMCs presented autosyndetic pairing of Hch and A, B or D chromosomes. The average number of univalents was higher in the wheat genome (6.8) than in the Hch genome (5.4). The maximum number of univalents per PMC was 20. We only observed wheat multivalents (one per PMC) but the frequency of trivalents (0.08) was higher than that of quadrivalents (0.058). We amplified 50 RAPD bands polymorphic between the F1 hybrid and one of its parents, and 31 ISSR polymorphic bands. Both sets of markers proved to be reliable for DNA fingerprinting. The complementary use of morphological and yield analysis, molecular cytogenetic techniques and molecular markers allowed a more accurate evaluation and characterization of the hybrids analysed here.

  17. Elemental characterization of bread and durum wheat by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cereals are by far the most significant agricultural crops, not only due to the sheer amount of their gross-tonnage production and prevalence in human diets worldwide, but also as food vehicles of important items for human nutrition and wellness at large-proteins, dietary fibers and oligoelements, such as selenium, calcium, zinc and iron, to name just a few. Still, some micronutrients feature an uneven distribution in the upper continental crust, and thus in cultivation soils deriving therefrom. Whether soils have always been poor in an essential element, or have just become deprived of it by intensive farming, the result is the same: insufficient soil-plant transfer, feeble-to-nonexistent plant uptake, and, therefore, unsatisfactory dietary distribution of that element through the food chain. Countries that implemented corrective measures or programs of crop biofortification and consumer education have been successful in dealing with some micronutrients' deficiencies. Given their relative weight in Portuguese diets, cereals are obvious candidates for crop-supplementation strategies that may contribute to an upgrade in the health status of the whole population. A good knowledge of element-baseline data for major cereal varieties (plants) and main production areas (soils) is a pre-requisite though. The present work was aimed at an elemental characterization of cereals and soils from relevant wheat-producing areas of mainland Portugal. This paper is focused on wheat samples-bread and durum wheats; Triticum aestivum L. (Farak and Jordao cultivars) and Triticum durum Desf. (Don Duro and Simeto cultivars), respectively-from the 2009 campaign, collected at Tras-os-Montes, Alto Alentejo and Baixo Alentejo (inland regions). Elemental concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k0-variant), and assessed with the k0-IAEA software. Quality control was asserted through the analysis of NIST-SRMR 1567a (Wheat Flour), NIST-SRMR 1568a (Rice

  18. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg-1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg-1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  19. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A

    OpenAIRE

    Poursarebani, N.; Nussbaumer, T.; Šimková, H. (Hana); Šafář, J.; Witsenboer, H.; van Oeveren, J.; Doležel, J. (Jaroslav); Mayer, K. F. X.; N. Stein; Schnurbusch, T.

    2014-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP (TM)). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools FINGERPRINT...

  20. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking. PMID:25286188

  1. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ricci, Andrea; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara Giulia; Noli, Enrico; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Akhunov, Eduard; Scalabrin, Simone; Vendramin, Vera; Ammar, Karim; Blanco, Antonio; Desiderio, Francesca; Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Fahima, Tzion; Faris, Justin; Korol, Abraham; Massi, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; N'Diaye, Amidou; Xu, Steven; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30 144 markers (including 26 626 SNPs and 791 SSRs) half of which were present in at least two component maps. The final map spanned 2631 cM of all 14 durum wheat chromosomes and, differently from the individual component maps, all markers fell within the 14 linkage groups. Marker density per genetic distance unit peaked at centromeric regions, likely due to a combination of low recombination rate in the centromeric regions and even gene distribution along the chromosomes. Comparisons with bread wheat indicated fewer regions with recombination suppression, making this consensus map valuable for mapping in the A and B genomes of both durum and bread wheat. Sequence similarity analysis allowed us to relate mapped gene-derived SNPs to chromosome-specific transcripts. Dense patterns of homeologous relationships have been established between the A- and B-genome maps and between nonsyntenic homeologous chromosome regions as well, the latter tracing to ancient translocation events. The gene-based homeologous relationships are valuable to infer the map location of homeologs of target loci/QTLs. Because most SNP and SSR markers were previously mapped in bread wheat, this consensus map will facilitate a more effective integration and exploitation of genes and QTL for wheat breeding purposes. PMID:25424506

  2. The effect of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption on serum lipids in healthy normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic adults depends on presence of the APOE E3/E3 genotype: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bakovic Marica; Graham Terry E; Robinson Lindsay E; MacKay Kathryn A; Tucker Amy J; Duncan Alison M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies associate consumption of whole grain foods, including breads, with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, few studies have compared wheat whole grains with wheat refined grains. Methods This study investigated effects of 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread in comparison to white bread on fasting serum lipids in normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14) adults. The i...

  3. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

  4. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshe, Genet Gebremedhin; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu

    2016-07-01

    The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations. PMID:27386103

  5. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  6. [Substitution of wheat flour by defatted palm meal flour, rich source of dietetic fiber in the preparation of cookies and breads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco de Delahaye, E; Cedres, M; Alvarado, A; Cioccia, A

    1994-06-01

    A flour from defatted oil palm kernels was used for substitution of wheat bran for the preparation of dietary fiber-rich wheat cookies and bread. The flour, containing 71% insoluble dietary fiber, 2% soluble dietary fiber and 19% protein (dry basis), was used at three different levels (3%, 4.5% or 6%) for the formulation of cookies, and at 2.5% and 5% for the preparation of bread. Commercial samples containing 6% and 5% wheat bran for the cookies and bread, respectively, were used as reference products. The dietary fiber content ranged between 6.8 and 10.1% for the experimental cookies and between 5.1 and 7% for the corresponding breads. Both types of products showed lower starch content (42-50% for cookies and 34-36% for breads) than the reference samples. Protein quality, as assessed by true and apparent digestibility, PER and NPR, was similar for experimental and reference cookies and breads. The final product texture (increased/decreased) as dietary fiber level increased. Flavor tests performed with both an untrained panel and the cookie senior chef indicated preference for the 3% palm flour cookies and the 2.5% flour bread. No change in pH regulating compounds was observed in either experimental or reference cookies, although a slight increase in humidity was recorded for the palm flour-based cookies. The experimental bread whiteness decreased as the palm flour level increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7733791

  7. An approach to breeding for higher protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the development of a suitable experimental approach for improving the protein content of seeds in bread wheat. It has been found that scoring of protein content on a per seed basis rather than as a percentage of seed weight gives better results. In the first place, the heritability of protein content increases nearly three times when scoring is done on the basis of seed number. Also, protein content scored in this way showed a significant positive correlation with seed size. Correlation between seed size and percentage of protein in the seed is negative. An important implication of these findings is that scoring of protein content on the basis of seed number should help to avoid selection of genotypes showing reduced starch synthesis and, therefore, a lower yield of grains as well as protein on a per acre basis. Also, the observations suggest that selection for larger seed size may be an important means of improving the protein content of wheat. These and other implications are discussed. (author)

  8. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  9. The Wheat Black Jack: Advances Towards Sequencing the 21 Chromosomes of Bread Wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choulet, F.; Caccamo, M.; Wright, J.; Alaux, M.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; LeRoy, P.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Rogers, J.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C.

    Volume 1. Managing, sequencing and mining genetic resources. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014 - (Tuberosa, R.; Graner, A.; Frison, E.), s. 405-438 ISBN 978-94-007-7571-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Wheat * Polyploid * Chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  11. Genetic Analysis and Gliadin Banding Patterns in Some Bread Wheat Varieties Grown in Turkey and Their Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Sibel; ASAL, Sevinç; KAVUNCU, Orhan

    1999-01-01

    In this study, 20 individual kernels of "Gün 91", "Kırkpınar 79", "Atay 85", "Kıraç 66", "Bolal 2973", "Bezostaya 1" and "Gerek 79" bread wheat cultivars that are grown in Turkey and their half diallel F 1 hybrids were analysed using polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in order to determine gliadin band patterns and to show homogeneity and/or heterogeneity. Result of electrophoretic analysis showed that there is a dete...

  12. The Respons of Bread Wheat Genotypes in Different Drought Types I. Grain Yield, Drouhgt Tolerance and Grain Yield Stability

    OpenAIRE

    AYRANCI, Ramazan; SADE, Bayram; SOYLU, Süleyman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine bread wheat genotypes with high yield potential and stability under controlled field conditions which resembled drought types exist in different plant growth stages in the Central Anatolia Region.This study was conducted using split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with four replications, the main plots were five drought treatments (D1: the general drought that represents the long term drought in region, D2:drought from the initia...

  13. Sourdough Bread Made from Wheat and Nontoxic Flours and Started with Selected Lactobacilli Is Tolerated in Celiac Sprue Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Auricchio, Salvatore; Greco, Luigi; Clarke, Charmaine; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Landolfo, Francesca; Parrilli, Giampaolo; Minervini, Fabio; Arendt, Elke; Gobbetti, Marco

    2004-01-01

    This work was aimed at producing a sourdough bread that is tolerated by celiac sprue (CS) patients. Selected sourdough lactobacilli had specialized peptidases capable of hydrolyzing Pro-rich peptides, including the 33-mer peptide, the most potent inducer of gut-derived human T-cell lines in CS patients. This epitope, the most important in CS, was hydrolyzed completely after treatment with cells and their cytoplasmic extracts (CE). A sourdough made from a mixture of wheat (30%) and nontoxic oa...

  14. Physicochemical effects of chia (Salvia Hispanica) seed flour on each wheat bread-making process phase and product storage

    OpenAIRE

    Verdú Amat, Samuel; Vasquez, Francisco; Ivorra Martínez, Eugenio; Sánchez Salmerón, Antonio José; Barat Baviera, José Manuel; Grau Meló, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Some chia seed flour effects relating to different bread-making process phases and variables were studied by distinct image analysis and physicochemical techniques. Wheat flours with three different degrees of substitution (5%, 10% and 15%) were tested. In technological terms, the aim was to study the influence and properties of chia flour on several relevant parameters, such as pasting properties, growth kinetics and internal crumb structure during dough fermentation; and baking ...

  15. A Proteomic Study of the Response to Salinity and Drought Stress in an Introgression Strain of Bread Wheat*

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zhenying; Wang, Mengcheng; Li, Fei; Lv, Hongjun; Li, Cuiling; Xia, Guangmin

    2009-01-01

    The effect of drought and salinity stress on the seedlings of the somatic hybrid wheat cv. Shanrong No. 3 (SR3) and its parent bread wheat cv. Jinan 177 (JN177) was investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of a set of 93 (root) and 65 (leaf) differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), 34 (root) and six (leaf) DEPs were cultivar-specific. The remaining DEPs were salinity/drought stress-responsive but not cultivar-specific. Many of the DEPs were expressed unde...

  16. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix s...

  17. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, Irena; Reis, Diana; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Järve, Kadri; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Flowering time variation was identified within a mapping population of doubled haploid lines developed from a cross between the introgressive line 8.1 and spring bread wheat cv. Tähti. The line 8.1 carried introgressions from tetraploid Triticum militinae in the cv. Tähti genetic background on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 4A, 5A, 7A, 1B and 5B. The most significant QTL for the flowering time variation was identified within the introgressed region on chromosome 5A and its largest effect was associated with the VRN-A1 locus, accounting for up to 70% of phenotypic variance. The allele of T. militinae origin was designated as VRN-A1f-like. The effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele was verified in two other mapping populations. QTL analysis identified that in cv. Tähti and cv. Mooni genetic background, VRN-A1f-like allele incurred a delay of 1.9-18.6 days in flowering time, depending on growing conditions. Sequence comparison of the VRN-A1f-like and VRN-A1a alleles from the parental lines of the mapping populations revealed major mutations in the promoter region as well as in the first intron, including insertion of a MITE element and a large deletion. The sequence variation allowed construction of specific diagnostic PCR markers for VRN-A1f-like allele determination. Identification and quantification of the effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele offers a useful tool for wheat breeding and for studying fine-scale regulation of flowering pathways in wheat. PMID:26899284

  18. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WINTER BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. SSP. VULGARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Petrović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity was analyzed based on agronomic and morphologic traits and molecular data. The main objectives of this study were: 1. to estimate genetic diversity of wheat germplasm using agronomic and morphologic traits and molecular markers, 2. to investigate the existence of genetic erosion within tested wheat germplasm, 3. to explore potential utilization of combination of agronomic, morphologic and molecular markers in plant breeding. Forty winter bread wheat varieties were used originating from Croatia, Austria, France, Italy and Russia. Field trial was conducted during two vegetation years (2007/2008, 2008/2009 in three replications according to randomized block design. Ten traits were included in agronomic and morphologic analysis. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW GS was evaluated for 16 varieties, whereas literature data are used for the rest. Starch composition analysis was based on amylose and amylopectin isolation, their quantity and ratio. For the SSR analysis 26 microsatellite primers were used, and for the AFLP analysis four primer combinations. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS Software 9.1.3, NTSYS ver.2.2., Arlequin ver2.0. and Powermarker ver.3.25. Analyzed varieties displayed highly significant differences (p<0,001 for all agronomic traits and for amylose/amylopectin ratio. High variability of HMW GS was found among varieties. Estimation of genetic diversity based on morphologic and molecular data were used to construct dendograms. AMOVA was used to evaluate variability based on molecular data. Genetic diversity was estimated among and within morphologic and molecular data. SSR and AFLP markers showed efficient discrimination power between highly related genotypes. Significant correlation was found out between two molecular methods which showed more accurate estimate of genetic diversity than by agronomic and morphologic data.

  19. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. PMID:26213066

  20. Determination of Root Traits in Wild, Landrace and Modern Wheats and Dissection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Root Characters in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    BEKTAS, HARUN

    2015-01-01

    Bread wheat is an allohexaploid crop with a large and complex genome structure. It was one of the first crops domesticated by human beings in the Near East and it had dramatic effects on human history. The amount of energy gained per hour of work from wheat was much higher than hunting and gathering. Ancient farmers continuously selected it to increase seed size, grain yield, and straw yield to feed a growing population; this scenario has not changed for thousands of years. Plant scientists, ...

  1. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  2. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR mar...

  3. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) sho

  4. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    OpenAIRE

    Đukić Dragutin A.; Radović Milorad M.; Mandić Leka G.; Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method) on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40) and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved t...

  5. Radioactivity of flour, wheat, bread improvers and dose estimates in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady rise in the use of isotopes and nuclear technology in various purposes in human life, both agro-industrial military, medical, may increase the chances of radioactive contamination that increases the exposure of ionizing radiation which raise awareness in increasing the need to know how to assess that exposure. Control of imported foodstuffs to ensure that not contaminated with radioactive materials is very important at this stage. The present study aims to investigating radioactivity in foodstuff consumed in Sudan to measure radionuclide in wheat flour, bread improvers specific objectives to measure radioactive contaminants and to estimate radiation dose from this consumption. The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in 30 samples of foodstuff. collected in the Port Sudan on the red sea, the radioactivity tracer of K-40, U-238 and Th-232 were measured by gamma ray spectrometry employing an using Nal (Ti) calibration process carried out for gamma spectrometry using MW652 as a reference source which recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) including source Cs-137 and Co-60 with two energy levels. The K-40 activity concentration in the flour samples, rang (303.07-40.48) (Bq/kg), 238U (4.81-1.95) (Bq/kg), Th-232 (7.60-1.61) Bq/kg) wheat samples range k-40 (250.62-27.22) (Bq/kg), U-238 (4.92-190) (Bq/kg), Th-232 (5.74-1.61) (Bq/kg) and bread improvers samples k-40 (68.60-13.61 (Bq/kg) U-238 (5.73-194) (Bq/kg). The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was found in to flour be 2.35±7.12 mSv/y, 1.15±0.95 mSv/y, 1.65±2.02 mSv/y, the maximum dose values obtained were 6.01 mSv/y, 1.95 mSv/y, 1.57 mSv/y. The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was found in to wheat 1.58±6.85 mSv/y 1.16±1.33 mSv/y, 0.48±1.14 mSv/y, the maximum dose values obtained were 4.14 mSv/y, 1.66 mSv/y, 0.99 mSv/y. The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was

  6. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Kopeć; Barbara Borczak; Mirosław Pysz; Elżbieta Sikora; Marek Sikora; Duska Curic; Dubravka Novotni

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM) bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected miner...

  7. 彩粒小麦面包品质评价%Bread Quality Evaluation of Color Wheat Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓珍; 董玉秀; 位思清; 张宪省; 孙兰珍; 尹燕枰

    2009-01-01

    彩粒小麦富含蛋白质、氨基酸和对人体有益的微量元素或矿物质,具有较高的营养保健作用和加工品质,从而成为食品加工中的特殊原料,可被制成各种高营养功能食品.为了考察我校培育的5个彩粒小麦的面包加工品质,以同一试验田同时种植、采收、加工的济麦19为对照,根据GB/T14611-1993进行了5个彩粒小麦品系的面包制作及其感官品质评价,并采用质构分析法评价了面包的质构特性.结果显示,绿麦面包感官总分最高,D_4红次之,二者高于对照济麦19,而质构品质各有特色.感官和质构评价结果都显示,红5、黑3、红6的面包品质低于济麦19,其中红5较差,黑3更差,红6最差.面包质构品质评价与感官评价结果基本一致,说明可以采用质构特性值辅助评价面包加工品质,可避免感官评价的主观性.%The color wheat contains high percentages of protein, amino acids and minerals beneficial to human body, so possesses high nutrition value and processing quality and becomes a sort of special material for making functional foods. To evaluate the bread processing quality of 5 color wheat lines bred by specialists of our University, a common wheat cultivar, Jimai 19, planted in the same experimental field and harvested, processed at the same conditions with the color wheat lines, was used as control, and bread baking, bread sensory quality according to GB/ T14611 - 1993, and texture profile analysis (TPA) were carried out for the 5 color wheat lines and the common wheat cultivar. Results: The green wheat exhibits the best bread sensory quality, Red D_4 the second; both of them are better than Jimai 19 in bread sensory quality; each of them has its special TPA characters, and hard to be compared with others' In the evaluation of bread sensory quality and TPA characters, Red 5 is worse than Jimai 19, black 3 is worse than Red 5, and Red 6 is the worst. The result of TPA character evaluation

  8. An Evaluation of the Effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Targets on the Sodium Content of Bread, Breakfast Cereals and Processed Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Wu, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats) to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squar...

  9. An Evaluation of the Effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Targets on the Sodium Content of Bread, Breakfast Cereals and Processed Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Trevena; Bruce Neal; Elizabeth Dunford; Jason H Y Wu

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats) to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squ...

  10. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  11. Global commodity price peaks and governmental interventions: The case of the wheat-to-bread supply chain in Serbia – Did consumers really benefit?

    OpenAIRE

    Djuric, Ivan; Gotz, Linde; Glauben, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We analyze how the governmental market interventions, during the commodity price peaks 2007/2008 and 2010/2011, have affected the transmission of price changes along the wheat-to-bread supply chain in Serbia. We aim to investigate if consumers benefitted from the wheat and flour export restrictions or if other members along the supply chain were able to gain advantage. Our analysis of price dynamics between wheat and flour prices within a Markov Switching Vector Error Correction Model suggest...

  12. Wheat growing, flour milling and bread baking: A case study of a domestic agricultural industry adapting to overseas competition. Report to the foundation for Research Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pickford, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The wheat growing, flour milling and bread baking industries (henceforth, for the sake of brevity, 'the industries') are closely interrelated in various ways. [...] In New Zealand most wheat is grown to be milled into flour, with individual farmers usually contracting directly with particular millers for sale of their crop prior to sowing the seed. As the country is not self-sufficient in wheat, the local crop has to be supplemented by substantial imports, mostly from Australia. The bulk of t...

  13. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M1, especially with low exposure

  14. Heritability studies of yield and yield associated traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heritability studies provide valid information about the traits that are transmitted from parents to offspring and also to the successive generations. Such studies help plant breeders to predict a successful cross with high heritability transmission to the progeny and thus are useful in the incorporation of characters into the offspring. Heritability study was conducted in F5 segregating generation of a cross between HT5 (female) and HT 37 (male) of bread wheat. The genetic parameters calculated were genetic variance (Vg,), environmental variance (Ve) and heritability percentage in broad sense (h2%), genetic advance (GA) and heritability coefficient (H). The highest heritability was observed for spike length (79.3%), number of grains per spike (54.5%) and main spike yield (69.5%) associated with high genetic advance (2.8, 22.8 and 1.5 respectively). Moderate to high heritability were recorded for peduncle length (48.75%) and number of grains per spikelet (47.2%) which associated with high genetic advance (2.3 and 0.68 respectively). However awn length and plant height had shown acceptable heritability values. The present finding suggests that most of the yield associated traits have been successfully transmitted. The information generated will be helpful for better understanding and selection of suitable, desirable material especially in advance generations. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the Agronomical and Biochemical Characteristics of New Lines of Bread Wheat in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan DOGAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen new lines of bread wheat obtained from the CIMMYT/ICARDA and a standard cultivar were evaluated during three successive years (2003, 2004 and 2005. The experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Uluda? University in Bursa. The lines and the standard cultivar showed significant differences in plant height, number of seeds/spike, seed weight/spike, seed yield and a 1000-kernel weight. The lines numbered 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14 and 15 produced significantly higher seed yields than the standard cultivar. Therefore, they formed the highest group (a of seed yield. Similarly, these lines had a higher number of seeds/spike value than the standard cultivar. However, lines 6 and 11 produced higher seed yields than lines 4, 7, 9, 14 and 15. In particular, the gluten composition and the zeleny sedimentation test values of whole flours revealed that lines 6 and 11 could be suitable for high-quality pasta production with good sensory characteristics. To summarize, there were significant differences between the lines with respect to agronomic and biochemical characteristics. In particular, lines 6 and 11 had better performance than both the other lines and the standard cultivar because of their seed yield and quality.

  16. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  17. The Bo1-specific PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of boron tolerance status in a range of exotic durum and bread wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2008-12-01

    High soil boron (B) constitutes a major soil problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low-rainfall areas and land under irrigation. Low accumulation of B in the shoot or grain of cereal crops is correlated with the maintenance of biomass production and grain yield under high B conditions, suggesting that this trait is an important component of field tolerance. A novel screening protocol to measure B accumulation in aerated and supported hydroponics was validated using a set of known and exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) accessions. Furthermore, B accumulation in two Triticum urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan and 54 Triticum monococcum L. accessions was measured and showed considerable phenotypic variation. However, B accumulation in these lines was higher than that observed in the most tolerant durum or bread wheats. Mapping of high B tolerance in the durum population AUS14010/Yallaroi revealed a locus possibly allelic to Bo1, a major source of B toxicity tolerance previously identified in bread wheat. Here, we show that the Bo1-specific codominant PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of B tolerance status among exotic durum and bread wheat accessions. All tolerant durum accessions assayed carried very similar AWW5L7 marker fragments, indicating wide distribution of this allele among tolerant durum wheats. Three bread wheat accessions had tolerance that was independent of Bo1 and is probably located on chromosome 4A. These lines represent a valuable genetic resource for B toxicity tolerance breeding in wheat. PMID:19088810

  18. Determination of selenium in bread-wheat samples grown under a Se-supplementation regime in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, yet it is deficient in at least one billion people worldwide. Plants and plant-derived products transfer the soil-uptaken selenium to humans; therefore, the cultivation of plants enriched in selenium can be an effective way to improve the selenium status on humankind. This paper focuses on determining the ability of bread wheat to accumulate selenium after supplementation. One of the methods for supplementing this element in plants is foliar application with selenium solutions. These supplemented crop of wheat samples - bread wheat; Triticum aestivum L. - were used to determine if there is an increase of selenium content in cereal grains by comparing them with cereals cultivated in 2009 and harvested in 2010 with no supplementation. The experiments were done using sodium selenate and sodium selenite at three different selenium concentrations: 4, 20 and 100 g per hectare. Total Se is assessed by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), through short irradiations on the fast pneumatic system (SIPRA) of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI-ITN). The short-lived nuclide 77mSe, that features a half-lifetime of 17.5 s, was used to determine the Se content in SIPRA. The experiment was successful, since the selenium concentration increased in the cropped grains and reached values up to 35 times the non-supplemented ones. (author)

  19. MOLECULAR SCREENING OF LEAF RUST AND STRIP RUST RESISTANCE GENES IN F5 BREAD WHEAT IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham M. Abd El-Azeem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly wheat production in Egypt is constrained due to many diseases. Rust and stripe (yellow rust diseases consider from the most important wheat diseases in Egypt. Thus, molecular screening of genetically resistant cultivars, varieties, accessions and hybrids offspring through many generations, is one of the most sustainable solutions to overcome these diseases. The objective of this study is screening strip (yellow rust and leaf rust resistance genes in the three parents varieties, and F5 bread wheat families resulting from two hybrids: (Debeira x Sahel1 and (Sids6 x Sahel1. This was established by using Yr10 and Yr15 SSR markers for screening (yellow rust resistance genes, and Lr9, Lr19, Lr24 and Lr26 as STS and SCAR markers for screening leaf rust resistance genes. The obtained results showed that, none of the studied wheat families had all the screened resistance genes. Where, families resulting from (Debeira x Sahel1 did not have any of the studied rust resistance genes. While, the families resulting from (Sids6 x Sahel1 had both SSR markers except family no. 22 had Yr10 only. For the Lr genes, all the studied families of both hybrids had the Lr9 resistance gene. There were variations between families in having the Lr19 resistance gene. The SCAR marker for Lr24 resistance gene was found in Debeira parent and families no. 17, 18,20 ,24 ,30 and 39 of its hybrid. No bands of this marker were found in any of the parents or families of (Sids6 x Sahel1 hybrid. Finally the Lr26 STS marker was not found in any of the studied bread wheat families

  20. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2014-01-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more hom...

  1. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. PMID:27505458

  2. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression profiling of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone BiP genes from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiantang; Hao, Pengchao; Chen, Guanxing; Han, Caixia; Li, Xiaohui; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai LK; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Background The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone binding protein (BiP) is an important functional protein, which is involved in protein synthesis, folding assembly, and secretion. In order to study the role of BiP in the process of wheat seed development, we cloned three BiP homologous cDNA sequences in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), completed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and examined the expression of wheat BiP in wheat tissues, particularly the relationship between BiP expres...

  3. Genetic variability, path-coefficient and correlation studies in twenty elite bread-wheat (triticum aestivum L.) lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty bread-wheat elite lines of diverse origin, developed by various research institutes in the country, were tested and evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) under optimum irrigated conditions. Significant variation was observed for all the traits studied viz: days to heading, days to maturity, kernel weight, test weight and grain yield. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations were computed and the direct and indirect contributions of each trait towards grain-yield were determined. Grain-yield showed significant association with test weight and kernel weight. Direct positive effects of kernel weight and test weight towards grain-yield suggest the effectiveness of these traits to select and identify the desirable wheat- genotypes for a target environment. (author)

  4. Implications of Recent Australian Wheat Industry Developments for Domestic and Overseas Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Lobb, Alexandra E.; Fraser, Rob W.

    2003-01-01

    This study is motivated by the proposition that the objectives of the AWB Ltd have changed since semi-privatisation of the Australian Wheat Board under the Wheat Marketing Act, 1989. Conceptualising this change of objectives as a shift from revenue maximization to profit maximization, this study examines the impact of such a change on the pricing policies of a multi-market price-setting firm. More specifically, this paper investigates, using two hypothetical objective functions, a risk averse...

  5. Improvement of a headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of wheat bread volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Antonio; Carcea, Marina; Castagna, Claudia; Magrì, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    An improved method based on headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was proposed for the semi-quantitative determination of wheat bread volatile compounds isolated from both whole slice and crust samples. A DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre was used to extract volatiles from the headspace of a bread powdered sample dispersed in a sodium chloride (20%) aqueous solution and kept for 60min at 50°C under controlled stirring. Thirty-nine out of all the extracted volatiles were fully identified, whereas for 95 other volatiles a tentative identification was proposed, to give a complete as possible profile of wheat bread volatile compounds. The use of an array of ten structurally and physicochemically similar internal standards allowed to markedly improve method precision with respect to previous HS-SPME/GC-MS methods for bread volatiles. Good linearity of the method was verified for a selection of volatiles from several chemical groups by calibration with matrix-matched extraction solutions. This simple, rapid, precise and sensitive method could represent a valuable tool to obtain semi-quantitative information when investigating the influence of technological factors on volatiles formation in wheat bread and other bakery products. PMID:26118802

  6. Down-Regulating γ-Gliadins in Bread Wheat Leads to Non-Specific Increases in Other Gluten Proteins and Has No Major Effect on Dough Gluten Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Piston, Fernando; Gil Humanes, Javier; Rodriguez De Quijano Urquiaga, Marta; Barro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gliadins are a major component of gluten proteins but their role in the mixing of dough is not well understood because their contribution to wheat flour functional properties are not as clear as for the glutenin fraction. Methodology/Principal Findings: Transgenic lines of bread wheat with γ-gliadins suppressed by RNAi are reported. The effects on the gluten protein composition and on technological properties of flour were analyzed by RP-HPLC, by sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentati...

  7. A comparative gene analysis with rice identified orthologous group II HKT genes and their association with Na+ concentration in bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyarathna, H. A. Chandima K.; Oldach, Klaus H; Francki, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the HKT transporter genes ascertain some of the key determinants of crop salt tolerance mechanisms, the diversity and functional role of group II HKT genes are not clearly understood in bread wheat. The advanced knowledge on rice HKT and whole genome sequence was, therefore, used in comparative gene analysis to identify orthologous wheat group II HKT genes and their role in trait variation under different saline environments. Results The four group II HKTs in rice identifi...

  8. Genetic characterization of Moroccan and the exotic bread wheat cultivars using functional and random DNA markers linked to the agronomic traits for genomics-assisted improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Henkrar, Fatima; El-Haddoury, Jamal; Ouabbou, Hassan; Bendaou, Najib; Udupa, Sripada M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most importan...

  9. A comprehensive study on dehydration-induced antioxidative responses during germination of Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) cultivars collected from different agroclimatic zones

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Bharti; Jaiswal, Jai P.; Misra, Shrilekha; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    To explore the adaptability of bread wheat to dehydration stress, we screened 28 cultivars collected from different agroclimatic zones, on the basis of malonaldehyde content as biochemical marker in roots of wheat seedlings during germination and classified them as highly tolerant, tolerant, sensitive and highly sensitive. From this primary screening, ten cultivars that showed differential responses to dehydration stress were selected to understand the biochemical and physiological basis of s...

  10. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  11. The Effect of Grazing Applied in the Different Phenological Stages on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat and Triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balkan M. L. Özdüven İ. Nizam E. E. Teykin M. Tuna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during two growing seasons, 2003-04 and 2004-05, at experimental farm of Field Crops Department of Agricultural Faculty of Namik Kemal University of Turkey. In the study, the effects of grazing regimes (a. control, b. 1 time grazing. c. 2 times grazing and d. 3 times grazing on grain yield and related characteristics of 2 bread wheat and 2 triticale cultivars were investigated. The experimental design was split plot on randomized blocks, with cultivars as the main plot and grazing regimes as subplot. Grazing was simulated by lawn cutter. According to the results of the study, grazing regimes significantly reduced grain yield and related characteristics. The average reduction in grain yield was 8.43% in only one time grazed, 16.47 % in 2 times grazed and 52.57% in 3 times grazed plots. The reduction in grain yield varied according to year, species, cultivars and grazing date. The results of the study indicate that approximately 12 weeks after sowing, bread wheat and triticale can be grazed one time in the years when there is a shortage of forage

  12. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoguang Li; Dongyun Ma; Dexiang Sun; Chenyang Wang; Jian Zhang; Yingxin Xie; Tiancai Guo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content (659.8μg gallic acid equivalents g−1), total flavonoid content (319.3μg rutin equivalents g−1), and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content (236.2μg rutin equivalents g−1) and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour (P<0.05). Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities (by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay) of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  13. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoguang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content (659.8 μg gallic acid equivalents g− 1, total flavonoid content (319.3 μg rutin equivalents g− 1, and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content (236.2 μg rutin equivalents g− 1 and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour (P < 0.05. Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities (by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  14. Staling of white wheat bread crumb and effect of maltogenic α-amylases. Part 1: Spatial distribution and kinetic modeling of hardness and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Del Olmo Alvarez, Arantxa; Engelsen, Merete Møller; Lundkvist, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-10-01

    Bread staling is one of the most costly food deterioration processes. This study presents an in-depth, multivariate, statistical assessment of the differences in the staling process of white wheat bread as a function of storage time, usage of maltogenic α-amylases and spatial position in the loaf by texture measurements and non-linear fitting (Avrami). This study demonstrates the effects of anti-staling enzymes upon bread staling, where significant changes in the spatial staling kinetics occur. While the spatial development of staling is reduced in the outer crumb by anti-staling enzymes, the staling is retarded in the middle. The Avrami model suggests that this happens by two different competing mechanisms: one which increases the initial staling rate, and one which slows the convergence towards the limiting hardness. The two enzyme treated breads differed widely in early and ultimate resilience, despite the fact that they were adjusted to provide the same ultimate hardness. PMID:27132856

  15. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli;

    2016-01-01

    substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma...... concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB....... Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P < 0.005). A clear postprandial increase in plasma conjugated bile acids was observed after both meals. CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of 85 % wheat flour by broken kernels in bread did not result in a...

  16. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poursarebani, N.; Nussbaumer, T.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Witsenboer, H.; van Oeveren, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, K. F. X.; Stein, N.; Schnurbusch, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 334-347. ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bread wheat chromosome 6A * whole -genome profiling * LINEAR TOPOLOGICAL CONTIGS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  17. Relationships of Polymeric Proteins with Dough and Bread-making Quality in a Recombinant Inbred Population of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) polymeric proteins is known to be associated with grain quality. In this study, our objective was to investigate the composition of polymeric proteins and their associations with dough mixing strength and bread-making characteristics in a segregating populat...

  18. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2014-01-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. ...

  19. Genetic variability and correlation analysis of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) accessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental plot was conducted to test the variation with correlation of one hundred bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasms under the area of Plant Breeding and Genetics department, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, in the year 2006. All the germplasms were evaluated for the traits, spike length (cm), number of spike lets spike/sup -1/, grain yield plant/sup -1/sup (gm), 1000-grain weight (gm) and grain yield (Kg ha/sup -1/). Genetic diversity was statistically found for all the traits. Two germplasm [PARC/JICA 004275 (01)] had maximum spike length (cm) i.e., 22.4 (cm). Maximum variations were observed among the accessions for spike length (cm) with coefficient of variation 17.89%. The accession [PARC/JICA 004280 (01)] has maximum 31.8 number of spike lets spike/sup -1/ with coefficient of variation 18.45%. The entry [PARC/JICA 003845 (01)], [PARC/JICA 004279 (05)], [PARC/JICA 004274 (01)] and [PARC/JICA 004266 (04)] having greatest 1000-grain weight (g) i.e. (46.2, 46.1, 45.6 and 45.1 g) having greatest 1000-grain weight (g) with coefficient of variation 21.39%. The genotypes [PARC/JICA 004280 (01)], [PARC/JICA 004266 (05)] and [PARC/JICA 004267 (02)] had a maximum grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/) i.e., (5185, 5061 and 5051 kg ha/sup -1/) with coefficient of variation 11.75%. The spike length shows positive significant correlation with number of spike lets spike/sup -1/, grain yield plant-1 and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). While positive correlation was observed from spike length and 1000-grain weight. Number of spike lets spike/sup -1/ had highly significant correlation with grain yield plant/sup -1/and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). High significantly positive correlation was depicted from grain yield plant/sup -1/ and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/) while, 1000-grain weight had positive highly significant correlation with grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). (author)

  20. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

  1. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40 and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved the monitoring of the following: microbial characterristics of the flour and dough (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and of the bread (presence of Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds; chemical properties of the dough and the bread (pH and degree of acidity; organoleptic attributes of bread (volume, porosity according to Dallman, crumb elasticity, pore structure fineness, bread crumb score, external appearance, crumb appearance, flavour of both the crust and the crumb. The results showed the highest counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the indirect bread dough mixing method using rye flour scalding. The rye/wheat bread made with sourdough had a mild sourish flavour, an intense aroma, a prolonged shelf life, and reduced crumbliness. The study suggests that the technological process of sourdough-type rye/wheat bread making is an important requirement in improving bread quality and assortment that can be used in any bakery facility.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31057 i br. III 46009

  2. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin...... high-fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis......-peptide responses to the rye breads were found. Glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to the rye breads were not significantly different from those to the control, except at 150 and 180 min. In vitro starch hydrolysis was slower in all rye breads than in the control, and the structure of continuous matrix...

  3. Identification of New Aquaporin Genes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, B.; P.Sharma; Pandey, D.M.; I Sharma; Chatrath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Major facilitators of water movement through plant cell membranes include aquaporin proteins. Wheat is among the largest and most important cereal crops worldwide; however, unlike other model plants such as rice, maize and Arabidopsis, little has been reported on wheat major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). This study presents a comprehensive computational identification of 349 new wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs), encoding 13 wheat aquaporin genes. Identified aquaporins consist of 6 plasma mem...

  4. Selenium levels in breads from Sakarya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülfen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important trace element for human and animal health. It accumulates in wheat and corn, which is consumed mostly as bread. The Turkish population consumes mainly white wheat, whole wheat (brown bread) and corn breads. In this study, samples of these breads were collected from six different bakeries in the city of Sakarya, and their selenium levels were determined by ICP-OES after a chemical digestion. It was found that average selenium levels in white wheat, whole wheat and corn breads were 1149, 1204 and 2023 µg/kg, respectively. The results are compared with daily recommended intake and upper tolerable levels for selenium. PMID:24779690

  5. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar; Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Anshika Tyagi; Poonam Mishra; Anupama Priyadarshini; Anupam Singh

    2011-04-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization-independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  6. Optimization of image analysis techniques for quality assessment of whole-wheat breads made with fat replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The cellular structure of healthy food products, with added dietary fiber and low in calories, is an important factor that contributes to the assessment of quality, which can be quantified by image analysis of visual texture. This study seeks to compare image analysis techniques (binarization using Otsu’s method and the default ImageJ algorithm, a variation of the iterative intermeans method for quantification of differences in the crumb structure of breads made with different percentages of whole-wheat flour and fat replacer, and discuss the behavior of the parameters number of cells, mean cell area, cell density, and circularity using response surface methodology. Comparative analysis of the results achieved with the Otsu and default ImageJ algorithms showed a significant difference between the studied parameters. The Otsu method demonstrated the crumb structure of the analyzed breads more reliably than the default ImageJ algorithm, and is thus the most suitable in terms of structural representation of the crumb texture.

  7. Manufacture of gluten-free specialty breads and confectionery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    People suffering from celiac disease, wheat allergies or wheat intolerances require breads not containing any wheat or related cereals like rye and barley. The manufacture of these so-called gluten-free breads is not well understood and much less literature is available than on wheat breads. On the ...

  8. Evaluation on Chinese Bread Wheat Landraces for Low pH and Aluminum Tolerance Using Hydroponic Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shou-fen; YAN Ze-hong; LIU Deng-cai; ZHANG Lian-quan; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum (A1) toxicity often takes place in acidic soils with a pH of 5.5 or lower. Breeding and cultivation of A1 tolerance wheat can partially protect wheat escaping from AI toxicity. The scarcity of the tolerant sources impedes the wheat breeding.In order to find new AI tolerance sources, we screened 173 bread wheat landraces from Tibet of China using hydroponic screening. It was indicated that: (1) There were diversities on the root regenerate length (RRL). The RRL of a large of landraces were longer than 7.00 cm in pH 7 (58.38%) and pH 4.5 (66.47%), but shorter than 5.00 cm in pH 4.5 +50 μM Al3+(80.93%). The low pH showed either promotion or restraining effects depend on landraces, but AI toxicity under low pH only showed restraining effects on the root elongation. (2) There were also diversities on root tolerance index of low pH (RTI 1) or root aluminum tolerance index (RTI2) among cultivars. The RTI1 varied from a narrow range but with relatively high value (0.8722-1.2953) in comparison with that of RTI2 (0.3829-1.0058), and the RTI1 of approximately 60% landraces was higher than 1.0000, the RTI2 of only 19.07% landraces was higher than 0.7000, suggesting that A1 toxicity acted as an important factor for the reduction of the root elongation under acidic soils. (3) The RTI 1 of many wheats was higher than 1.0000, and As2256 and As2295 were the most tolerant for low pH, with RTI1 1.2953 and 1.2925, respectively. (4) Based on RTI2, seven wheats showed similar or higher tolerance to AI toxicity than Chinese Spring (CS), a known tolerance wheat. Much better tolerance existed in landraces of As1543 and As1242, which can be used as the new parents for AI tolerant breeding.

  9. Effect of multiple fortification on the bioavailability of minerals in wheat meal bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Farooq, Umar; Akhtar, Saeed; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2012-12-01

    Bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) @ 1,000, 40 and 20 mg kg(-1) respectively from fortified bread of 72% extraction straight grade flour was assessed. Fortified bread diets were fed to 64 female Sprague-Dawley Albino rats for a period of 28 days. The retention of Ca, Fe and Zn was measured in plasma, femur and liver tissues of rats. The results showed that the feed intake and live body weight of the experimental animals increased significantly with the time period. The Ca levels in plasma and liver did not change significantly while in femur, Ca retention changed significantly with changing type of the fortificants. Similarly, the results for percent apparent absorption (AA) of Ca also remained unchanged (P < 0.05). The Fe and Zn levels were significantly higher in the plasma, liver and femur of rats fed Fe and Zn fortified bread. Interaction of Ca, Fe and Zn resulted in their decreased bioavailability. However Ca, Fe and Zn absorption was higher in the rats fed triple fortified diet compared with those fed unfortified bread diet. This negative interaction did not appear to be great enough to discourage multiple fortification of flour to address minerals malnutrition in the vulnerable groups. PMID:24293693

  10. The TaDREB3 transgene transferred by conventional crossings to different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat improves drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Baho, Manahil; Lopato, Sergiy; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance of the wheat cultivar Bobwhite was previously enhanced by transformation with a construct containing the wheat DREB3 gene driven by the stress-inducible maize Rab17 promoter. Progeny of a single T2 transgenic line were used as pollinators in crosses with four elite bread wheat cultivars from Western Australia: Bonnie Rock, IGW-2971, Magenta and Wyalkatchem, with the aim of evaluating transgene performance in different genetic backgrounds. The selected pollinator line, BW8-9-10-3, contained multiple transgene copies, had significantly improved drought tolerance compared with wild-type plants and showed no growth and development penalties or abnormalities. A single hybrid plant was selected from each cross-combination for three rounds of backcrossing with the corresponding maternal wheat cultivar. The transgene was detected in all four F1 BC3 combinations, but stress-inducible transgene expression was found in only three of the four combinations. Under well-watered conditions, the phenotypes and grain yield components of the F2 BC3 transgene-expressing lines were similar to those of corresponding recurrent parents and null-segregants. Under severe drought conditions, the backcross lines demonstrated 12-18% higher survival rates than the corresponding control plants. Two from four F3 BC3 transgenic lines showed significantly higher yield (18.9% and 21.5%) than control plants under limited water conditions. There was no induction of transgene expression under cold stress, and therefore, no improvement of frost tolerance observed in the progenies of drought-tolerant F3 BC3 lines. PMID:25940960

  11. The three pistils mutation enables to produce three kernels in a floret in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous mutation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) producing three pistils (TP) in a floret is presented. The TP mutant was found in a spring Chinese landrace and can form up to three kernels in a floret and thus to increase grain number per spike. Restricted space in florets causes kernel flattening. Doublets or triplets of kernels form clusters where the basal parts arise from the receptacle and ventral groove of kernels is outside oriented. In some cases, these groups of kernels are visible after threshing. The TP mutant is determined by the dominant Pis1 gene located on long arm of chromosome 2D. The original Chinese landrace was grown in field tests at Kromeriz (Czech Republic) in 2007. Its yield was only 44 % in comparison with mean yield of check registered cultivars of spring wheat Vanek, Granny and SW Kadrilj (6.46 t.ha-1). TP wheat exhibited low resistance to fungal pathogens, low 1000-kernel weight (TKW) (27.9 g), low volume weight (75.4 kg.hl-1), lower germination vigour, high protein content (17.7 %) and was 10 and 7 days earlier at heading and maturity, respectively. The TP mutant was crossed to significant cultivars of winter wheat aiming to transfer the gene Pis1 to the genetic background of currently grown cultivars. TKW of the harvested F1 plants was around the average of parents. The TP can be used as a potential gene resource for increasing reproductive spike capacity (a kernel number per spike) and spike sink capacity. The significance of the Pis1 gene cannot be exactly evaluated unless the comparison of near-isogenic lines distinguishing in the TP trait and identical in genetic background is carried out. (author)

  12. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    OpenAIRE

    Литвиненко, М. А.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016) period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Departme...

  13. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK; Alexander Lvovivh SECHNYAK

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were di...

  14. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were discovered. The most resistant to herbicides was variety Fantasya Odesskaya, and the most sensitive – Nikoniya, while the most harmful herbicide for wheat was Napalm.

  15. CD 123 - Wheat bread for white flour in cool regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivar CD 123 is recommendable for the wheat-growing regions 1, 2 and 3 of the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. It is a white flour wheat destined for production in cooler regions. The mean potential yield is 3514 kg ha-1, exceeding that of the control cultivars by 5%.

  16. Resistance to Ug99 stem rust in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 80% of wheat area worldwide is currently grown to varieties that are susceptible to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust fungus. Wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk and Ripper were resistant to Ug99 at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations...

  17. Yellow berry, protein and agronomic characteristics in bread wheat under different conditions of nitrogen and irrigation in northwest mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and number of irrigations on the YB disorder of wheat cultivar Tarachi, as well as its relationship with protein content, and the agronomic characteristics. The experiment was conducted in northwestern Mexico, during the fall-winter season, 2009-2010. Three levels of nitrogen (75, 150 or 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of irrigation (3, 4 or 5 irrigations) were studied. Increasing the nitrogen rate decreased the YB content, the thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight; and increased the protein content and the number of grains per spike. The number of irrigations did not affect the number of grains per spike. However, increasing the number of irrigations increased the YB content, the thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight; on the other hand, the protein content decreased. A negative correlation between protein content and percentage of YB was presented. It was concluded that the presence of the disorder YB in bread wheat, Tarachi, is due to a low nitrogen rate in the soil and an increase in number of irrigations. (author)

  18. Radiotracing selenium in bread-wheat seeds for a Se-biofortification program. An optimization study in seed enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health, but its deficiency may affect at least one billion people worldwide. Plants and plant-derived products transfer the soil-uptaken Se to humans through the food chain, which is hardly enough when soils have been always poor or already exhausted in bioavailable Se species. Other than agronomic approaches for enhancing Se levels in cereals, such as soil and foliar supplements, seed enrichment may be viewed as an alternative Se-biofortification technique. This study addresses the protocol for preparing Se-enriched wheat seeds, with the specific purpose of optimizing the administration of Se to the seeds prior to sowing. The first step was to soak an amount of bread-wheat seeds in an active Se solution, made with irradiated [Na2O4Se], and then monitoring 75Se in periodically-retrieved samples from that original amount. To avoid losing Se to soil (after sowing), and, especially, to ensure that Se gets really absorbed into the seeds - and not just adsorbed onto them - the washing time of the seeds should be optimized as well. This was carried out by washing Se-treated seeds several times, until no significant amount of the radiotracer could be detected in the washing water. In what concerns the full optimization procedure, the overall results of the present study point to an optimum time of 48 h for soaking and 24 h for washing. (author)

  19. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions. PMID:25583343

  20. A multidisciplinary approach to improve the quality of organic wheat-bread chain

    OpenAIRE

    Abecassis, Joël; David, Christophe; Fontaine, Laurence; Taupier-Létage, Bruno; Viaux, P.

    2008-01-01

    The main challenge for organic farmers, millers and bakers is to fulfill consumers’ expectations of providing healthy and safe products. The quality of organic grain can be modulated by agronomic modifications on genotypes, crop management, crop rotation and soil fertility, but the milling process and finally the baking process are also key factors in producing bread of high baking quality, nutritional value, taste and flavour. Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient in achieving acceptable yield leve...

  1. Identification of new aquaporin genes and single nucleotide polymorphism in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B; Sharma, P; Pandey, D M; Sharma, I; Chatrath, R

    2013-01-01

    Major facilitators of water movement through plant cell membranes include aquaporin proteins. Wheat is among the largest and most important cereal crops worldwide; however, unlike other model plants such as rice, maize and Arabidopsis, little has been reported on wheat major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). This study presents a comprehensive computational identification of 349 new wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs), encoding 13 wheat aquaporin genes. Identified aquaporins consist of 6 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) and 1 TIP showing high sequence similarity with rice aquaporins. We also identified 4 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIP) and 2 SIP members that showed more divergence. Further, expression analysis of the aquaporin genes using the available EST information in UniGene revealed their transcripts were differentially regulated in various stress- and tissue-specific libraries. Allele specific Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were designed using PIP as the target gene and validated on a core set of Indian wheat genotypes. A 3D theoretical model of the wheat aquaporin protein was built by homology modeling and could prove to be useful in the further functional characterization of this protein. Collectively with expression and bioinformatics analysis, our results support the idea that the genes identified in this study signify an important genetic resource providing potential targets to modify the water use properties of wheat. PMID:24250219

  2. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C.; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers’ practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two c...

  3. Marker-assisted selection of highmolecular weight glutenin alleles related to bread-making quality in Iranian common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi

    2012-08-01

    Bread-making quality in hexaploid wheats is a complex trait. It has been shown that the amount and composition of protein can influence dough rheological properties. The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are encoded by a complex locus, Glu-1, on the long arm of group-1 homoeologus chromosome of the A, B and D genomes. In this work we used PCR-based DNA markers as a substitution tool to distinguish wheat bread-making quality. We detected PCR-based DNA markers for coding sequence of Glu-A1x, Glu-B1x and Glu-D1x to be 2300 bp, 2400 bp and 2500 bp respectively. DNA markers related to coding sequence of Glu-A1y, Glu-B1y and Glu-D1y were; 1800 bp, 2100 bp and 1950 bp, however, the repetitive region of their coding sequence were shown to be about 1300 bp, 1500 bp and 1600 bp. The results demonstrate that the size variation was due to different lengths of the central repetitive domain. Good or poor bread-making quality in wheat is associated with two allelic pairs of Glu-D1, designated 1Dx5-1Dy10 and IDx2-1Dy12. The 1Bx7 allele has moderate-to-good quality score. The specific DNA markers, of 450 bp, 576 bp, 612 bp and 2400 bp respectively were characterized for 1Dx5, 1Dy10, 1Dy12 and 1Bx7 alleles. These markers are very important in screening of wheat for bread-making quality.

  4. Antifungal Activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during Sourdough Fermentation: Identification of Novel Compounds and Long-Term Effect during Storage of Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/sal...

  5. An Evaluation of the Effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Targets on the Sodium Content of Bread, Breakfast Cereals and Processed Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar’s tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p < 0.001, and the proportion reaching target rose from 42% to 67% (p < 0.005. The mean sodium content of breakfast cereals also fell substantially from 316 to 237 mg/100 g (25% lower, p < 0.001 over the study period. The decline in mean sodium content of bacon/ham/cured meats from 1215 to 1114 mg/100 g (8% lower, p = 0.001 was smaller, but associated with a rise in the proportion meeting the target from 28% to 47%. Declines in mean sodium content did not appreciably differ between companies that did and did not make public commitments to the targets. These data show that the Australian food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD process.

  6. Effect of N fertilization on the yield, N and water use efficiencies of winter wheat (durum and bread) varieties under Central Anatolian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main limiting factor to obtaining an optimum wheat yield is the lack of definite information on the efficient use of N fertilizer in the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) the influence of N rates on the yield, the N derived from fertilizer (%Ndff) and the N use of efficiency (NUE) of durum and bread wheat varieties under rain fed conditions in the region using the 15N method; and (b) the water use efficiency (WUE) under different N rates. 2 refs, 2 figs

  7. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters. PMID:25823882

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation, evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants on grain yield, nutrient uptake and moisture-use efficiency on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field trial was conducted on 'Malaviya 37' bread wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend. Fiori and Paol.) in 1982-83 and 1983-84. It included 4 dos es of gamma irradiation of seeds (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 kR) and 5 treatments of evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants, viz. control, rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) straw, wheat straw, rice straw + phenyl mercuric acetate (150 ppm) and wheat straw + kaolin (6 per cent). Seed irradiation with gamma-rays at 6.5 kR and wheat straw + kaolin gave 11.76 and 61.37 per cent higher yield than the control respectively. For moisture-use efficiency and NPK uptake these treatments also showed the same trend. (author). 12 refs

  9. Production of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase by a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 in cane molasses medium and its applicability in making whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2014-06-01

    A high titre of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase was attained in cane molasses medium. When the culture variables for endoxylanase production were optimized [cane molasses 7 %, soluble alkaline extract of wheat bran (SAE-WB) 37 % and ammonium chloride 0.30 %], a 4.5-fold enhancement in xylanase production (69 U ml(-1)) was achieved as compared to that in the unoptimized medium (15 U ml(-1)). The enzyme titre attained in shake flasks could be sustained in a 7-l laboratory bioreactor. An activity band corresponding to 40 kDa was visualized on SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis. The enzyme has broad range of pH and temperature for activity with optima at 9.0 and 80 °C, and stable between pH 4.0 and 11.0 with 85 % retention of activity. It has T 1/2 of 40 and 15 min at 70 and 80 °C. The enzyme is halotolerant since it displays activity in the presence of salt up to 15 %, and remains 100 % active in the absence of salt. The supplementation of whole wheat dough with xylanase improves antistaling property, reducing sugar content, bread volume with prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in bread. This is the first report on xylanase production in cane molasses medium with SAE-WB as the inducer and its applicability in whole wheat bread making that improves human health. PMID:24297158

  10. Irradiated and stored potato flour as substitute for portion of wheat flour in Shamy bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flour obtained from potato cv. Alpha tubers irradiated with 0, 50 or 150 Gy was combined in 0-15% mixtures with wheat flour, stored for 6 months, then analysed at 3-month intervals for nutrient content. Potato flour contained twice the lysine content of wheat flour, but protein levels fell as irradiated or unirradiated potato flour levels in the mixture were increased; this was attributed to enzyme activity

  11. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Guangfang; Lv Dongwen; Yan Xing; Subburaj Saminathan; Ge Pei; Li Xiaohui; Hu Yingkao; Yan Yueming

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Results Proteome characterization during gra...

  12. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  13. Rupanco - INIA: Una nueva variedad de trigo alternativoa de pan Rupanco-INIA: a new alternative bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Hewstone M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Rupanco-INIA es una nueva variedad de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. alternativo creada por el Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Trigo del Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA. La cruza fue: X-101,2 Alt. 94B/ X-104 Alt. 94M. Su pedigrí es TG-688-t-1t-2t y su denominación interna en el Proyecto es Temu 2618-00. Rupanco-INIA tiene un hábito de desarrollo alternativo y una caña corta, con un promedio de 93 cm de alto. Posee espiga semicompacta, con barbas, y corrientemente presenta cierto grado de melanosis. El grano es semiduro, rojo, con un promedio de peso de 1000 granos de 39 g, 79,4 kg de peso de hectolitro, 12,7% de proteína y 886 cm³ de volumen de pan, en ensayos efectuados en 2000 y 2001 desde Traiguén hasta Purranque. Es moderadamente resistente al ataque de polvillo estriado (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici y polvillo de la hoja (Puccinia triticina Erikss.. Su rendimiento fue alto, con un promedio de 9,79 t ha-1, en tres años de ensayos en cuatro localidades.Rupanco-INIA is a new alternative bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar released by the Wheat Breeding Project at Carillanca Research Center of the National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA. The cross was: X-101,2 Alt.94B/X-104 Alt.94M. The pedigree is TG-688-t-1t-2t, and its internal name in the Project is Temu 2618-00. Rupanco-INIA has a facultative growth habit and short straw, with a mean height of 93 cm. The spike is semi-compact, awned, and usually shows some brown necrosis. The grain is semi-hard, red, with a 1000 grain weight of 39 g, 79.4 kg hectoliter weight, 12.7% protein percentage, and 886 cm³ bread volume. It is moderately resistant to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss.. Its yield was high, with a mean of 9.79 t ha-1 in three years of trials at four locations.

  14. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amandeep Kaur Riar; Satinder Kaur; H. S. Dhaliwal; Kuldeep Singh; Parveen Chhuneja

    2012-08-01

    Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ever evolving pathogens. The germplasm of nonprogenitor Aegilops species with substantial amount of variability has been exploited to a limited extent. In the present investigation introgression, inheritance and molecular mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene of Ae. caudata (CC) acc. pau3556 in cultivated wheat were undertaken. An F2 population derived from the cross of Triticum aestivum cv.WL711 – Ae. caudata introgression line T291-2 with wheat cultivar PBW343 segregated for a single dominant leaf rust resistance gene at the seedling and adult plant stages. Progeny testing in F3 confirmed the introgression of a single gene for leaf rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis using polymorphic D-genome-specific SSR markers and the cosegregation of the 5DS anchored markers (Xcfd18, Xcfd78, Xfd81 and Xcfd189) with the rust resistance in the F2 population mapped the leaf rust resistance gene (LrAC) on the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D. Genetic complementation and the linked molecular markers revealed that LrAC is a novel homoeoallele of an orthologue Lr57 already introgressed from the 5M chromosome of Ae. geniculata on 5DS of wheat.

  15. Cause and effect relationship for some biometric traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotypic and phenotypic correlations and path coefficient analysis were conducted for grains yield and some biometric traits in 25 cross-combinations of break wheat under the rain fed conditions. Significant positive genotypic and phenotypic association was observed between grain yield per plant, and the yield components, such as productive tillers per plant, spike-length, spike lets per spike, grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. The path coefficient analysis revealed that the number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight had the maximum direct effect on grain yield. These traits may be considered as the selection criteria for developing highly yielding wheat genotypes for rain fed areas. (author)

  16. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Simková, Hana; Safář, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the 'decoration' of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. PMID:24813060

  17. The Dıfferences of Spike Development on Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Em Thell. in the Tekirdağ Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Atılgan Helvacıoğlu , S. Şehirali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in experiment fields of Field Crop Department of Tekirdağ Ağricultural Faculty at Trakya University in growing seasons of 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 based on random block of experiment desing with four replications. Two bread wheat cultivars (Pehlivan and Sana were used as the material in this research. The main stem length, tiller numbers, apex developments and the number of circles on apex were measured as physical properties. In the physical properties the difference of bread wheat varieties on main stem development, tiller numbers, apex developments and the number of circles on apex were significant. Achived data evince that earlyriser and mid-riser wheat varieties which complete apex growing more faster, are more convenient for Trakya Region. However, it is determined that wheat varieties which completes apex growing more later, are not convenient for this region. In apex growing the exess number of circles on apex shows that spikelet numbers will be more.

  18. GA-responsive dwarfing gene Rht12 affects the developmental and agronomic traits in common bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available Opportunities exist for replacing reduced height (Rht genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b with alternative dwarfing genes, such as the gibberellin-responsive gene Rht12, for bread wheat improvement. However, a comprehensive understanding of the effects and mode of action of Rht12 is lacking. In the present study, the effects of Rht12 were characterized by analyzing its effects on seeding vigour, seedling roots, leaf and stem morphology, spike development and carbohydrate assimilation and distribution. This was carried out in the four genotypes of F2:3 lines derived from a cross between Ningchun45 and Karcagi (12 in two experiments of autumn sowing and spring sowing. Rht12 significantly decreased stem length (43%∼48% for peduncle and leaf length (25%∼30% for flag leaf while the thickness of the internode walls and width of the leaves were increased. Though the final plant stature was shortened (40% by Rht12, the seedling vigour, especially coleoptile length and root traits at the seedling stage, were not affected adversely. Rht12 elongated the duration of the spike development phase, improved the proportion of spike dry weight at anthesis and significantly increased floret fertility (14% in the autumn sowing experiment. However, Rht12 delayed anthesis date by around 5 days and even the dominant Vrn-B1 allele could not compensate this negative effect. Additionally, grain size was reduced with the ability to support spike development after anthesis decreased in Rht12 lines. Finally, grain yield was similar between the dwarf and tall lines in the autumn sowing experiment. Thus, Rht12 could substantially reduce plant height without altering seeding vigour and significantly increase spikelet fertility in the favourable autumn sowing environment. The successful utilization of Rht12 in breeding programs will require careful selection since it might delay ear emergence. Nonetheless, the potential exists for wheat improvement by using Rht12.

  19. Genetic diversity and structure found in samples of Eritrean bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desta, Zeratsion Abera; Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    sequence repeat markers. A total of 539 alleles were detected. The allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 21, with a mean allele number of 9.2. The average genetic diversity index was 0.66, with values ranging from 0.01 to 0.89. Comparing the three genomes of wheat, the B genome had the highest genetic...

  20. Impact of bran components on the quality of whole wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains contain components, such as dietary fiber, starch, fat, antioxidant nutrients, minerals, vitamin, lignans, and phenolic compounds, which are beneficial to human health. Most of the beneficial components are found in the germ and bran as part of a wheat kernel, which are reduced in the ...

  1. Realtionship between protein content, bread-making quality and wheat endosperm microstructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, I.; Dvořáková, P.; Hřivna, L.; Mika, Filip

    Zlín: Univerzita Tomáše Bati, 2011, s. 36-39. ISBN 978-80-7454-022-6. [Proteiny 2011 /4./. Zlín (CZ), 03.05.2011-04.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : wheat * microstructure * quality * endosperm Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. A physical map of the 1-gigabase bread wheat chromosome 3B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paux, E.; Sourdille, P.; Salse, J.; Saintenac, C.; Choulet, F.; LeRoy, P.; Korol, A.; Michalak, M.; Kianian, S.; Spielmeyer, W.; Lagudah, E.; Somers, D.; Kilian, A.; Alaux, M.; Vautrin, S.; Bergès, H.; Eversole, K.; Appels, R.; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bernard, M.; Feuillet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 322, č. 5898 (2008), s. 101-104. ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : RUST RESISTANCE GENE * TRITICUM-AESTIVUM * HEXAPLOID WHEAT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 28.103, year: 2008

  3. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  4. Path coefficient and correlation of yield and yield associated traits in candidate bread wheat (triticum aestivum l)lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield and yield contributing traits were studied in candidate bread wheat lines to find out the genetic contribution of the different characters towards grain yield at NIFA, Peshawar during 2001-02. All the characteristics studied differed significantly from each other. Days to heading showed negative and significant correlation with harvest index and grain yield but was negative and non-significant with the biological yield. Days to maturity were negatively correlated at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with biological yield; harvest index and grain yield and level of correlations were significant with harvest index and grain yield. Plant height showed negative genotypic and phenotypic correlation with harvest index and grain yield. Biological yield had positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with harvest index and grain yield. Harvest index had positive and highly significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation with grain yield. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients revealed that important characters influencing grain yield are harvest index and biological yield. Path analysis showed the importance in order of harvest index, biological yield, plant height, days to maturity and days to heading with grain yield. (author)

  5. Estimation of variability for yield parameters in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in Gangetic West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badole Sachin Shankarrao, Subhra Mukherjee, A.K. Pal and D.K. De

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty eight genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collected from DWR, Karnal, Haryana were evaluated inRandomized Block Design with three replications at the Teaching Farm of the Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya in2008-09 crop season. Observations for eighteen different yield contributing characters viz., plant height, days to heading,flowering, maturity, tiller number per plant, length of spike, number of spikes per plant, and per meter square, number ofspikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike, chlorophyll-a, b and total chlorophyll content, thousandgrain weight, grain protein content, yield per plant and grain weight per meter square were recorded. The genotypes exhibitedsignificant variation for all the characters studied. The estimate of PCV in all the traits studied were greater than those of theGCV, The close proximity between PCV and GCV values for most of the characters indicated less influence of environmenton the expression of the characters under study. Considering heritability, most of the characters showed high values. Highheritability coupled with high genetic advance (in % of mean were recorded for the grain weight per spike, per plant and permeter square, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight and the grain protein content indicating the characters to beunder additive genetic control and also scope of improvement through direct selection.

  6. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption. PMID:25704711

  7. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extract from Amaranthus spp. seeds during storage of gluten-free and wheat flour breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe Rizzello, Carlo; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Carnevali, Paola; Gobbetti, Marco

    2009-05-31

    This study aimed at investigating the use of the water-soluble extract of amaranth seeds for extending the shelf-life of gluten-free and wheat flour breads. The antifungal activity of the amaranth water-soluble extract was shown by agar diffusion, conidia germination and dry biomass assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. The crude water-soluble extract had minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5 mg of peptides/ml and showed inhibition towards a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Four novel antifungal peptides, encrypted in amaranth agglutinin sequences, were identified from the water-soluble extract by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). The water-soluble extract of amaranth was used as an ingredient for the manufacture of gluten-free and wheat flour breads and the inhibitory activity was confirmed during long-term shelf-life under pilot plant conditions. The effect of the water-soluble extract on gluten-free bread rheology and sensory properties was also shown. PMID:19328576

  8. Mapping of adult plant stripe rust resistance genes in diploid A genome wheat species and their transfer to bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhuneja, Parveen; Kaur, Satinder; Garg, Tosh; Ghai, Meenu; Kaur, Simarjit; Prashar, M; Bains, N S; Goel, R K; Keller, Beat; Dhaliwal, H S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2008-02-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis West. f.sp. tritici, is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. Forty genes for stripe rust resistance have been catalogued so far, but the majority of them are not effective against emerging pathotypes. Triticum monococcum and T. boeoticum have excellent levels of resistance to rusts, but so far, no stripe rust resistance gene has been identified or transferred from these species. A set of 121 RILs generated from a cross involving T. monococcum (acc. pau14087) and T. boeoticum (acc. pau5088) was screened for 3 years against a mixture of pathotypes under field conditions. The parental accessions were susceptible to all the prevalent pathotypes at the seedling stage, but resistant at the adult plant stage. Genetic analysis of the RIL population revealed the presence of two genes for stripe rust resistance, with one gene each being contributed by each of the parental lines. A linkage map with 169 SSR and RFLP loci generated from a set of 93 RILs was used for mapping these resistance genes. Based on phenotypic data for 3 years and the pooled data, two QTLs, one each in T. monococcum acc. pau14087 and T. boeoticum acc. pau5088, were detected for resistance in the RIL population. The QTL in T. monococcum mapped on chromosome 2A in a 3.6 cM interval between Xwmc407 and Xwmc170, whereas the QTL from T. boeoticum mapped on 5A in 8.9 cM interval between Xbarc151 and Xcfd12 and these were designated as QYrtm.pau-2A and QYrtb.pau-5A, respectively. Based on field data for 3 years, their R2 values were 14 and 24%, respectively. T. monococcum acc. pau14087 and three resistant RILs were crossed to hexaploid wheat cvs WL711 and PBW343, using T. durum as a bridging species with the objective of transferring these genes into hexaploid wheat. The B genome of T. durum suppressed resistance in the F1 plants, but with subsequent backcrossing one resistance gene could be transferred from one of the RILs to the hexaploid wheat

  9. The effect of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption on serum lipids in healthy normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic adults depends on presence of the APOE E3/E3 genotype: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakovic Marica

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies associate consumption of whole grain foods, including breads, with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD risk; however, few studies have compared wheat whole grains with wheat refined grains. Methods This study investigated effects of 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread in comparison to white bread on fasting serum lipids in normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14 and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14 adults. The influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 3 within the APOE gene (E2, E3, E4 and 2 within the hepatic lipase gene promoter (LIPC -514C>T, LIPC -250G>A were considered. Results At baseline, HGI participants had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference, body fat, and fasted glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol, compared to NGI participants; however, none of these in addition to none of the other serum lipids, differed between bread treatments, within either participant group. For participants with the APOE E3/E3 genotype, LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.02 increased in the NGI group (n = 7, and TAG (P = 0.03 and TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.04 increased in the HGI group (n = 10, following consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough compared to white bread. Conclusions In summary, 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread did not significantly modulate serum lipids in NGI or HGI adults; however, it significantly increased LDL-cholesterol, TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol in participants with the APOE E3/E3 genotype. These data add to limited literature comparing wheat whole grains to wheat refined grains on CVD risk and highlight the need to consider genetic variation in relation to lipoprotein lipid content and CVD risk.

  10. Whole-genome mapping of agronomic and metabolic traits to identify novel quantitative trait Loci in bread wheat grown in a water-limited environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Camilla B; Taylor, Julian D; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-07-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat. PMID:23660834

  11. Dissecting large and complex genomes: flow sorting and BAC cloning of individual chromosomes from bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Janda, Jaroslav; Bellec, A.; Kubaláková, Marie; Valárik, Miroslav; Pateyron, S.; Weiserová, Jitka; Tušková, Radka; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Vrána, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Faivre-Rampant, P.; Sourdille, P.; Caboche, M.; Bernard, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Chalhoub, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2004), s. 960-968. ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0354; GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA MZe QC1336 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : wheat * flow sorting * DNA library Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.367, year: 2004

  12. Genetic Association between Grain Yield of Bread Wheat and Carbon Isotope Discrimination under Drought in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of the wheat plant to discriminate against the carbon-13 isotope during photosynthesis, in favor of the lighter carbon-12 isotope, has been found to correlate with grain yield in many studies. This hypothesis was tested under four contrasting environments in Morocco during 2003-2006 using three sets of elite wheat genotypes. Significant positive correlations were found between carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C or Δ) and grain yield, and were higher under more water stressed environments at Douyet and Jemaa Sahim, indicating that high Δ is associated with high yield under drought stress. Selection based on yield appeared to have indirectly acted on Δ as well, since the correlation was significant and remained relatively unchanged across years of selection. This indicates a possible genetic linkage between yield and Δ. Also, transgressive segregation occurred for most agronomic and physiological traits, including Δ, offering a potential genetic variation for selection. At the molecular level, CID was found to be linked to a molecular marker at the gwm095 region of chromosome 2A, and to a thousand kernel weight marker at the gwm071 region, distant by 20-30 cent Morgan (cM). A poor QTL associated with grain yield was detected at chromosome 5A, similar to the one detected at CIMMYT in Obregon (Mexico) and northern Australia. From these results, it can be concluded that CID may be used as a new selection criterion to enhance wheat grain yield potential under drought in Morocco. (author)

  13. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma McMahon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal. Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability. Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA. Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change.

  14. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  15. Development and Shelf-life Evaluation of Waxy Wheat Flour Bread%糯小麦面包的研制及货架期预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张焕新

    2015-01-01

    Waxy wheat flour have some specific physicochemical properties compared with those of normal wheat starch, it was used to extend the shelf-life of bread in this paper. With the organoleptic score as the index, single-factor and orthogonal experiments were carried out to design the optimum formula of resistant starch bread as follows:waxy wheat flour, 12.0%;yeast, 1.6%;sugar, 7.0%;cream, 4.0%, the proportion of waxy wheat flour and yeast have significant influence to the sensory quality of bread. The organoleptic , physicochemical, and health indices of the bread produced using the optimum formula were measured. The results showed that the resistant starch biscuits had the advantages of uniform color (golden yellow), intact appearance, pure flavor, soft and delicate taste, no sticking to teeth, and no grainy taste. All the physicochemical and health indices met national standards. The shelf-life of bread was measured by the method of accelerated shelf-life testing, and it was approximately13 d, and the results indicated the waxy wheat flour prolong the shelf-life of bread significantly compared with the white bread (<7 d).%糯小麦粉具有独特的理化特性,将其添加到面包中可以制作出货架期较长的面包。以面包的感官品质为评价指标,考察糯小麦粉、酵母、白砂糖、奶油添加量对糯小麦面包品质的影响,通过单因素和正交试验设计优化糯小麦面包的最佳配方,结果表明:糯小麦粉对面包感官品质影响最大,其次是酵母、奶油和白砂糖。糯小麦面包的最佳配比为:糯小麦粉12.0%、酵母1.6%、白砂糖7.0%、奶油4.0%。由此配比制得的糯小麦面包表面金黄、色泽均匀、形态饱满、口感纯正、松软可口,各项指标均符合国家标准。通过ASLT法预测糯小麦面包的货架期得出:储藏温度20℃和湿度60%的条件下,糯小麦面包的货架期大约为13 d,比市售白面包的货架期(<7 d)有显著提高。

  16. Relationships between storage protein composition, protein content, growing season and flour quaility of bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergestad, E.M.; Flaete, N.E.S.; Magnus, E.M.; Hollung, K.; Martens, Harald; Uhlen, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The storage protein composition from the Glu-1, Glu-3 and Gli-1 loci encoding high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) and gliadins, respectively, was determined on 30 wheat (T aestivum L) genotypes from three growing seasons. The gliadins and the LMW-GS were identified...... the protein alleles, the protein content and the growing seasons are related to flour quality. The year of growth had a large impact on mixograph peak time. When predicting mixograph peak time from the presence or absence of significant proteins and the year of growth, 70% of the variability in...

  17. EFFECT OF BORON AND ETHEPHON IN GROWTH AND YIELD OF BREAD WHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Al-Naqeeb; Hashim, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at the farm of field of Crops Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 seasons to study the effect of boron elements and ethephon on some growth characteristics and the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Abu Ghraib-3 var. A split plot arrangement according to RCBD was used with four replications. The boron spray with three concentrations (50, 75 and 100) mg B.L-1 in addition to control treatment (...

  18. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K. F. X.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Feuillet, C.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Choulet, F.; Stein, N.; Praud, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014). ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * POLYPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000339400700040

  19. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    functionality, therefore, its physiological relevance in terms of overall plant performance was validated under moderate heat stress (36°C for a week) mimicking natural heat waves. Interestingly, the wheat cultivars previously selected for high Fv/Fm also showed higher net photosynthesis,chlorophyll content......, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, suggesting that the tolerant cultivars had better evaporative cooling and stay green characteristics under heat stress. Further, cultivar Fv/Fm and dry matter content also showed a significant positive correlation. Tier 3: Linking phenotypic differences to QTLs...

  20. Response of Different Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes to Post-Anthesis Water Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI KAZEMI

    2010-01-01

    Resources of water are limited in many agricultural areas of West Asia. Therefore, effective use of this scarce resource is very important in this region. So, this research was conducted in 2009-2010 growing season at Research Farm of Agricultural Researches Center of Khuzestan, Iran, to investigate the effects of two irrigation regime (I1: normal irrigation and I2: no irrigation in post-anthesis growth stage) on grain yield of five wheat cultivars (�Chamran�, �S-78-11�, �A�, �S-80-18� and �S...

  1. Gene action in some yield attributes of bread wheat under two water regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeders are always interested in the task of developing new varieties for changing environments. Thus, they have to deal with new crosses to select desired combinations. Grain yield is a complex character that is influenced by the fluctuating behavior of the environment. To overcome this situation, it is necessary to breed wheat varieties which perform better than existing ones under diverse conditions. A complete diallel cross was prepared from eight parental wheat accessions with a range of tolerance to drought. F1 hybrids and parents were grown at Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal. At maturity peduncle length, number of spike lets per spike, number of grains per spike, dry weight per plant at maturity and harvest index were recorded. Over-dominance genetic effects were important for the expression of number of spike lets per spike, number of grains per spike, dry weight per plant at maturity and harvest index under irrigated and rain fed conditions while additive type of gene action were important for the expression of peduncle length under irrigated and rain fed conditions. Average degree of dominance for peduncle length is 0.683 and 0.829 under irrigated and rain fed conditions respectively. Average degree of dominance for peduncle length was less than unity showing partial dominance and greater than unity showing over dominance in all characters under both irrigated and rain fed conditions. (author)

  2. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  3. Adaptation of bread-wheat lines across different environment of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten advance wheat-lines developed by National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, were evaluated for stability of grain-yield over five locations. The experiment was conducted during 2006-07 at NARC, Islamabad, AARI, Faisalabad, RARI, Bahawalpur, CCRI, Pirsabak and NIFA, Peshawar, by following randomized complete block design with three replications. At maturity, grain-yield was taken from standard plot and data were analyzed statistically. Genotypes x locations interactions were found highly significant. Predictable (linear) portion of variation was important, but non-linear component was non significant. None of the regression coefficients differ significantly from unity. Hence deviation from regression and average grain-yield was used to identify superior genotypes. Above average grain-yields were observed in five genotypes. V4 and V8 were stable across environments with low deviation from regression and gave above-average yield. The study provides valuable information for selecting advance wheat-lines under different locations of the country, to be considered potential as breeding material for release as varieties. (author)

  4. Morphological Characteristics and Protein Patterns for some Bread Wheat Mutants Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation was conducted during the three successive growing seasons 2002/2003, 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 at the experimental farm of Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, in order to select some mutants from the local wheat cultivar Gemmiza 9 after gamma irradiation with dose of 150, 250, 350, 450 and 550 Gy as well as to determine differences in seed protein patterns between Gemmiza 9 and selected mutants in M3 generation. 1- In M2 generation some variants with morphological changes i.e., dwarf, semidwarf, early heading, long grain, and grain yielding were selected. 2- In M3 progeny test, most of the offspring appeared the some characters those of their M2 selections. Therefore, they are considered as breed true. 3- Results showed that protein electrophoresis patterns were varied in the number, position and bands intensity from genotype to another, the all genotype had 58.4 KD. While, dwarf mutant was characterized by absent of four bands (116, 81, 45 and 28.8 KD). Mutants No.4, 6, 7 and 8 showed an increase in the band intensity of 45 KD with compared Gemmiza 9 wheat cultivar. This indicated that the selected lines have different genotypes

  5. Exopolysaccharides from co-cultures of Weissella confusa 11GU-1 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS15 act synergistically on wheat dough and bread texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzl-Malang, Saskia Katharina; Rast, Peter; Grattepanche, Franck; Sych, Janice; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    The storage of bread is limited by both physical (staling) and microbial (mainly fungal) spoilage. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and organic acids from propionibacteria (PAB) have been used to enhance texture and extend shelf-life of bakery products. In this study the functionality of EPS of Weissella confusa A3/2-1 (dextran), W. confusa F3/2-2 (dextran and levan), W. confusa 11GU-1 (dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide) was evaluated in wheat bread. Two strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii (Pf), shown to produce a heteropolysaccharide (Pf JS15) or a β-glucan (Pf DF30), were tested in single and mixed cultures with W. confusa (Wc). The EPS fermentates were prepared by batch fermentation of cereal- or malt-based medium using sucrose (Wc) or lactic acid (Pf) as carbon source. Incorporation of EPS from single culture fermentates and 1:1 Weissella-Propionibacterium fermentate mixtures revealed strong positive effects of dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide produced by Wc 11GU-1 on bread staling retardation, with synergistic effects of EPS mixture from Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15. A co-fermentation of Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 was developed to produce EPS together with antifungal organic acid mixture (acetate and propionate) in a single step process. The addition of 15% (w/w flour base) co-culture, yielding EPS, acetate and propionate concentrations of 1.5, 0.5 and 1g/kg dough, respectively, resulted in improved bread texture, increased loaf volume and decreased crumb firming during storage for 3days compared with control breads and breads supplemented with equivalent levels of chemical organic acids. Our data showed that EPS could compensate for the negative effects of chemical acetate and propionate in a concentration range exerting antifungal effects. The natural bioingredient produced by Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 has potential for applications as antifungal, texture-building and anti-staling agent in breads, consistent with

  6. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat to accumulate selenium (Se) via a soil-addition procedure at sowing time. Total Se in mature-grain samples was determined by neutron activation analysis (cyclic and radiochemical). Results show that Se-supplementation at the top rate (100 g Se ha-1) can increase Se contents up to 2, 16, 18 and 20 times for Jordao, Roxo, Marialva and Celta cultivars, respectively, when compared to their unsupplemented crops. These findings do not preclude the need for weighing up an eventual trade-off between agrochemical costs, field logistics and Se recovery for alternative Se-biofortification methods. (author)

  7. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more homogeneous size and a better distribution of starch granules were developed into SF-dough. Crumb hardness (3.25-4.78 N) and chewiness (0.31-0.81 N) of SF-rolls were lower than the control experiment (3.99-5.81 N and 0.35-1.01 N respectively). Springiness for all treatments was constant (1.0) compared with the control (1.02-0.87) for 2 days of storage. The lowest cohesiveness values (0.24-014) were computed by IF treatment for a similar storage time. The specific crumb volume increased by 12.46, 9.03 and 1.10 % by the addition of SF, TF and IF respectively. The lowest rate of staling was shown by SF-rolls (0.199) and it was followed by TF (0.296), IF (0.381) and control (0.458) treatments. As a result, the highest scores on quality (9.3 out of 10) and sensorial attributes (from 8.9 up to 9.7) were assigned to SF-rolls. PMID:25892800

  8. Genetic Analysis for Some of Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat under Drought Stress Condition Using Generations Mean Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Abedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perception of genes action controlling of quantitative traits is very important in genetic breeding methods the plant populations. to study and estimate the parameters of genetic and appointment the best genetically model for justification the genetic changing some of traits the bread wheat under drought stress condition, parents (P1 & P2 and F3, F4, F5 generations together the four control cultivars (Kharchia, Gaspard, Moghan and Mahuti were evaluated by generation mean analysis using a agoment design including six blocks. Generation mean analysis was performed for all traits with Mather and Jinks model using joint scaling test. Three parameter model [m d h] provided the best fit for all traits expect harvest index, main spike grain weight, number of grain per plant, Total spike weight of plant with significant at 5% and 1% levels . Though additive and dominance effect both had interfered in controlling often the traits but with attention to difference effects and variety component was determined that dominance is more impressive than additive effect for traits of number of tiller, main spike weight, grain yield and grain number of main spike. Therefore will benefit using of these traits in the collection and to improve these traits hybridization would be much efficient than the selection strategies. In this study additive Ч additive epistasis effect only observed for traits of Total spike weight of plant, number of grain per plant, main spike grain weight and harvest index and other traits hadn’t any epistasis effect that it was demonstration lack of existence the genes reciprocal effect in the inheritance studied traits. Therefore we can suggest that the selection strategies perform in terminal generations and additive Ч additive epistasis effect would be confirmed in selection under self-pollination condition.

  9. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat–sheep production zone from 1991–2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  10. Radiation-induced chromosome breakages in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiosis and pollen fertility were studied in the M2 generation in four varieties of hexaploid wheat. Meiosis was characterized by the formation of interchange configurations, such as rings and chains of four chromosomes in several cells. Chromosomal aberrations showed linear relationship with gamma irradiation; 45 kR dose induced the highest chromosomal abnormalities. Most multivalents were interchange rings of four chromosomes. Translocations involving two pairs of homologous or nonhomologous chromosomes seemed to be higher in frequency than those involving more than two pairs of chromosomes. Anaphase abnormalities, such as laggards, bridges and fragments and unequal segregation of chromosomes, were frequently observed. Pollen fertility was considerably reduced in the M2 plants arising form the treatments of higher doses of gamma rays because of the induced chromosome interchanges. (author)

  11. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrod A; Mascher, Martin; Buluç, Aydın; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yelick, Katherine A; Scholz, Uwe; Waugh, Robbie; Poland, Jesse A; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Stein, Nils; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible to construct a mapping population. PMID:25637298

  12. Protein profiles and organoleptic properties of bread from wheat flour and full-fat or defatted fermented cocoa bean powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, C Y; Agiang, M A; Ayatse, J O

    1995-12-01

    This study has shown that the protein in bread may be quantitatively increased significantly by addition of full-fat or defatted cocoa powder to white flour. The recipe in which white flour is incorporated with up to 10 percent defatted cocoa powder gives bread that is nearly as well accepted as white bread, but with a significantly higher protein content than the latter. However, organoleptic acceptability drops with increasing percentage of cocoa supplementation. The bitter taste of theobromine, which is normally present in high amounts in cocoa bean, is thought to be responsible for this problem of poor acceptability of high cocoa breads. This problem will have to be addressed in order to enhance the scope of increasing bread protein by cocoa supplementation. PMID:8882367

  13. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions. PMID:26787973

  14. Genome distribution of differential homoeologue contributions to leaf gene expression in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Andrea L; Trick, Martin; He, Zhesi; Clissold, Leah; Fellgett, Alison; Griffiths, Simon; Bancroft, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Using a combination of de novo transcriptome assembly, a newly developed 9495-marker transcriptome SNP genetic linkage map and comparative genomics approaches, we developed an ordered set of nonredundant transcripts for each of the subgenomes of hexaploid wheat: A (47 160 unigenes), B (59 663 unigenes) and D (40 588 unigenes). We used these as reference sequences against which to map Illumina mRNA-Seq reads derived from young leaf tissue. Transcript abundance was quantified for each unigene. Using a three-way reciprocal BLAST approach, 15 527 triplet sets of homoeologues (one from each genome) were identified. Differential expression (P < 0.05) was identified for 5248 unigenes, with 2906 represented at greater abundance than their two homoeologues and 2342 represented at lower abundance than their two homoeologues. Analysis of gene ontology terms revealed no biases between homoeologues. There was no evidence of genomewide dominance effects, rather the more highly transcribed individual genes were distributed throughout all three genomes. Transcriptome display tile plot, a visualization approach based on CMYK colour space, was developed and used to assess the genome for regions of skewed homoeologue transcript abundance. Extensive striation was revealed, indicative of many small regions of genome dominance (transcripts of homoeologues from one genome more abundant than the others) and many larger regions of genome repression (transcripts of homoeologues from one genome less abundant than the others). PMID:26442792

  15. ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS IN DIFFERENT CROSSES OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMTA SINGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report some of the heterotic wheat crosses produced by crossing fifteen parents in a line x tester mating scheme. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance among the genotypes. Manifestation of heterosis was done over mid parent, better parent and the two standard checks i.e. UP 2684 and PBW 343. The generated data registered JUPIBJY/URES X UP 2572 as the best heterotic hybrid for harvest index against the checks UP 2684 and PBW 343 with the values of 27.39% and 50.54% respectively. Likewise HP 1749 X UP 2572 showed maximum heterosis (18.66% over the check PBW 343. The data provides information on heterotic advantage of important yield and associated components. The highest heterotic genotypes can be exploited in future breeding programs to attain self-sufficiency in food grains. However, comprehensive field evaluation over locations and years is advocated for the crosses having significant heterosis before their commercial exploitation.

  16. Assessment of Triticale (Triticosecale ) X Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Based on Morpho-Physiological, Grain Yield and Drought Tolerance Indices Under Non-Irrigated and Irrigated Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar S; Mittal R K; Dhiman R; Gupta D

    2014-01-01

    Wheat being important staple crop urges the need to evaluate and develop new drought-tolerant varieties to sustain its productivity under changing climatic conditions. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the differential morpho-physiological, grain yield and drought tolerance indices responses of 27 triticale x bread wheat genotypes along with eight checks under non-irrigated and irrigated environments in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data ...

  17. INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY AND SELECTION FOR HIGH YIELDING MUTANTS IN BREAD WHEAT(TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the two winter seasons of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 at the experimental farm belonging to Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, AEA, Egypt.The aim of this study is to determine the effect of gamma rays(150, 200 and 250 Gy) on means of yield and its attributes for exotic wheat variety (vir-25) and induction of genetic variability that permits to perform visual selection through the irradiated populations, as well as to determine difference in seed protein patterns between vir-25 parent variety and some selectants in M2 generation.The results showed that the different doses of gamma rays had non-significant effect on mean value of yield/plant and significant effect on mean values of it's attributes. 0n the other hand, the considered genetic variability was generated as result of applying gamma irradiation. The highest amount of induced genetic variability was detected for number of grains/ spike, spike length and number of spikes/plant. Additionally, these three traits exhibited strong association with grain yield/plant, hence, they were used as a criterion for selection.Some variant plants were selected from radiation treatment 250 Gy, with 2-10 spikes per plant.These variant plants exhibited increasing in spike length and number of gains/spike.The results also revealed that protein electrophoresis were varied in the number and position of bands from genotype to another and various genotypes share bands with molecular weights 31.4 and 3.2 KD.Many bands were found to be specific for the genotype and the nine wheat mutants were characterized by the presence of bands of molecular weights: 151.9, 125.7, 14.1 and 5.7 KD at M-167.4, 21.7 and 8.2 at M-299.7 KD at M-3136.1, 97.6, 49.8, 27.9 and 20.6 KD at M-4 135.2, 95.3 and 28.1 KD at M-5 135.5, 67.7, 47.1, 32.3, 21.9 and 9.6 KD at M-6 126.1, 112.1, 103.3, 58.8, 20.9 and 12.1 KD at M-7 127.7, 116.6, 93.9, 55.0 and 47.4 KD at M-8 141.7, 96.1, 79.8, 68.9, 42.1, 32.7, 22.0 and 13

  18. Molecular Characterization and Global Expression Analysis of Lectin Receptor Kinases in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lectin receptor kinases (LRKs) play a critical role in plants during development and stress conditions, but a comprehensive analysis at genome level is still not carried out in Triticum aestivum. Herein, we performed the genome wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of these genes in T. aestivum (TaLRK). In-total 263 TaLRK genes were identified, which were further classified into three groups based on the nature of lectin domain. We identified, two TaLRKs consisted of calcium-dependent lectin (C-LRK), while 84 legume-lectin (L-LRK) and 177 bulb-lectin (B-LRK) domains. The L-LRK and B-LRK genes were distributed throughout the genome of T. aestivum. Most of the TaLRKs were clustered as homologs, which were distributed either in proximity on same chromosome or on homoeologous chromosomes of A, B and D sub-genomes. A total of 9 and 58 duplication events were also predicted in L-LRK and B-LRK, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated conserved evolutionary relationship of homologous and orthologous genes from multiple plant species. Gene ontology analysis indicated TaLRKs role in binding, signaling and receptor activities. Most of the TaLRKs consisted of a trans-membrane domain and predicted to be localized in the plasma-membrane. A diverse expression pattern of TaLRK genes was found in various developmental stages and stress conditions. Some TaLRKs were found to be highly affected during a particular stress, which indicated a specialized role of each LRK gene in a specific stress condition. These results described various characteristic feature and expression pattern of TaLRK genes, which will pave the way for functional characterization in wheat. PMID:27111449

  19. Induced mutations in bread wheat variety VL404 and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations were induced in a leaf rust resistant Indian wheat cultivar VL404 using 0.4% Ethymethane sulphonate treatment for 16 hrs. Highest frequency of 1.94 chlorophyll mutations/100 M1 spikes was obtained. Frequency of different viable mutations varied from 1.20 mutations/100 M1 spikes to 2.61 mutations/100 M1 spikes. Of the 161 viable mutants isolated, seventy six mutants showed stable expression in M3 and M4 generations. These were characterized for important characteristics. Three mutants having height more than and 58 mutants having height less than VL404 were observed. The spike length of mutants varied from 3.5 to 12 cm, compared to 8.5 cm of VL404. VL404 had 21 spikelets on an average in a spike, whereas 9 mutants had 23 spikelets/spike. Large variation (10 to 69 grains) in the number of grains per ear was observed in the mutants as compared to VL404 (65 grains). Mutants having up to 35 tillers were obtained as compared to 19 tillers of VL404 on an average. Cultivar VL404 has oblong grains whereas four mutants have round grains. Four mutants each having compact and sub-compact ears and twelve mutants having lax ears were recovered. VL404 has speltoid ears. Of the 76 mutants characterized, 18 showed light red to red and 3 mutants showed yellow grain colour as compared to the amber seeds of cultivar VL404. Mutants growing slower than VL404 were also recovered. A mutant bearing measled leaves with similarity to disease lesion mimics was recorded. Three mutants with waxy leaves having cup-shaped leaf tip were obtained. Twenty three of the 76 characterized mutants produced susceptible infection types on adult plants of VL404 indicating break down of resistance of VL404 to leaf rust. Origin of sequence variation in chromosomes 2A and 4B was observed when mutants were tested using 56 SSR markers specific to these chromosmes. (author)

  20. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. PMID:26920275

  1. INVESTIGATION OF SODIUM CONTENT IN THE WHOLE WHEAT BREAD ON THE MARKET OF MUNICIPALITIES BIJELJINA, ZVORNIK AND EAST SARAJEVO

    OpenAIRE

    Vukić, Milan; Kenjić, Predrag; Mastilović, Jasna; Kevrešan, Žarko; Grujić, Radolsav

    2013-01-01

    Medical studies demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between daily diet, intake of salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main foodstuffs in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation. The sodium content was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) following wet digest...

  2. Starch molecular fractionation of bread wheat varieties Fraccionamiento molecular del almidón de variedades trigo pan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Corcuera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch composition of bread making wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. vulgare of the Argentine commercial varieties Buck Charrua, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel and Buck Poncho was analyzed by two different methods. One of these depends on the differential solubility of amylose and amylopectin in a water:butanol mixture whilst the other process is based on the use of the lectin Concanavalin A. These methods were complemented by spectrophotometric determinations to enable the identification of the á-D- glucanes and also improved the comparative quantitation of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. As a result of this, no significant variations for starch content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 0.7; p ≥ 0.05 were found among these varieties, although strong differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F4- 8= 44.4; p ≥ 0.01 and amylopectin content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 77.1; p ≥ 0.01. These results and the fact that no differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F2- 8= 0.3 and amylopectin among years within the same variety (ANOVA, F2- 8:0.8 at p ≥0.01 led to the conclusion that the diverse properties and end-uses of the starch mainly depend on the genotype, and that starch quality is null or scarcely influenced by the environment. This knowledge must be taken into account for wheat breeding purposes.Se analizó la composición del almidón de granos de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum subsp. v u l g a r e de las variedades comerciales argentinas Buck Charrúa, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel y Buck Poncho mediante dos métodos diferentes. Uno de ellos depende de la solubilidad diferencial de la amilosa y amilopectina en una mezcla de agua:butanol, mientras que el otro proceso está basado en el uso de la lectina Concanavalina A. Estos métodos fueron complementados mediante determinaciones espectrofotométricas que facilitaron la identificación de los á-D-glucanos y también permitieron mejorar la cuantificación comparativa de las fracciones

  3. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z. Islam; M Shams

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  4. The perils of technology transfer : the Australian wheat/medic System in the Near East/North Africa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risopoulos, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields and production of rainfed areas in the Near East and North Africa are stagnating. The Australian wheat-medic system has been tried out in several countries of the region, Increases in soil fertility and yields were expected as well as better crop-livestock integration. Difficulties were more serious than foreseen. The farmer of the region differs from his Australian counterpart by the much smaller size of his farm and by his preference for keeping his land-use options open to match climatic variability.

  5. Genetic diversity in elite lines and landraces of CIMMYT spring bread wheat and hybrid performance of crosses among elite germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Dreisigacker, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the major cereals in the world. During the past years, the world consumption of wheat increased up to nearly 600 million tones, whereas wheat production continuously decreased. Due to land limitations, new production gains must be achieved from improved plant management systems as well as from the development of high yielding varieties. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) employs different strategies to enhance yield potential in w...

  6. Overexpression of TaNAC69 Leads to Enhanced Transcript Levels of Stress Up-Regulated Genes and Dehydration Tolerance in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-Ping Xue; Heather M. Way; Terese Richardson; Janneke Drenth; Priya A. Joyce; C.Lynne Mclntyre

    2011-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors and enriched with members involved in plant response to drought stress. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiles of TaNAC69 in bread wheat using Affymetrix Wheat Genome Array datasets and quantitative RT-PCR. TaNAC69 expression was positively associated with wheat responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses and was closely correlated with a number of stress up-regulated genes. The functional analyses of TaNAC69 in transgenic wheat showed that TaNAC69 driven by a barley drought-inducible HvDhn4s promoter led to marked drought-inducible overexpression of TaNAC69 in the leaves and roots of transgenic lines. The HvDhn4s:Ta-NAC69 transgenic lines produced more shoot biomass under combined mild salt stress and water-limitation conditions,had longer root and more root biomass under polyethylene glycol-induced dehydration. Analysis of transgenic lines with constitutive overexpression of TaNAC69 showed the enhanced expression levels of several stress up-regulated genes.DNA-binding assays revealed that TaNAC69 and its rice homolog (ONAC131)were capable of binding to the promoter elements of three rice genes (chitinase, ZIM, and glyoxalase I)and an Arabidopsis glyoxalase I family gene, which are homologs of TaNAC69 up-regulated stress genes. These data suggest that TaNAC69 is involved in regulating stress up-regulated genes and wheat adaptation to drought stress.

  7. BRS Guamirim: cultivar de trigo da classe pão, precoce e de baixa estatura BRS Guamirim: bread wheat cultivar, early cycle and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar de trigo BRS Guamirim foi desenvolvida pela Embrapa e resultou de um cruzamento entre os genitores Embrapa 27/Buck Nandu e PF 93159. Possui ciclo precoce, baixa estatura de planta e intenso afilhamento. Apresenta equilibrada reação às principais moléstias do trigo, pertence à classe pão e demonstra adaptabilidade às diferentes regiões tritícolas do país, com estabilidade de produção. Seu potencial de rendimento é superior a 5 t ha-1.Wheat cultivar BRS Guamirim was developed by Embrapa and resulted from a cross among Embrapa 27/Buck Nandu and PF 93159. BRS Guamirim has early cycle, short plant stature and high tillering. It shows equilibrate behaviour to mainly wheat deseases, belongs to bread class and is adapted to different wheat regions, showing production stability. Its grain yield potential is higher than 5 t ha-1.

  8. Regions of the bread wheat D genome associated with variation in key photosynthesis traits and shoot biomass under both well watered and water deficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, Svetlana; Permyakov, Alexey; Permyakova, Marina; Pshenichnikova, Tatyana; Verkhoturov, Vasiliy; Rudikovsky, Alexandr; Rudikovskaya, Elena; Shishparenok, Alexandr; Doroshkov, Alexey; Börner, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach was taken to reveal the genetic basis in wheat of traits associated with photosynthesis during a period of exposure to water deficit stress. The performance, with respect to shoot biomass, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment content and the activity of various ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and catalase, of a set of 80 wheat lines, each containing a single chromosomal segment introgressed from the bread wheat D genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii, was monitored in plants exposed to various water regimes. Four of the seven D genome chromosomes (1D, 2D, 5D, and 7D) carried clusters of both major (LOD >3.0) and minor (LOD between 2.0 and 3.0) QTL. A major QTL underlying the activity of glutathione reductase was located on chromosome 2D, and another, controlling the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, on chromosome 7D. A region of chromosome 2D defined by the microsatellite locus Xgwm539 and a second on chromosome 7D flanked by the marker loci Xgwm1242 and Xgwm44 harbored a number of QTL associated with the water deficit stress response. PMID:26374127

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  10. Selecting wheat varieties for tortilla production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat flour tortillas are the second most consumed bread product behind white pan bread. Manufactured tortillas are formulated with highly viscoelastic hard red wheat flours selected and grown for bread making. However, the inherent properties of the bread making flours require costly reducing agent...

  11. Impact of Wheat Bran Hydration Properties As Affected by Toasting and Degree of Milling on Optimal Dough Development in Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Pieter J; Bogaerts, Silke; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-05-11

    The impact of the hydration capacity and hydration rate of wheat bran on optimal bread dough development and loaf volume was investigated using coarse bran, both native as well as after toasting, milling, presoaking, and combinations of the latter. It was found that toasting reduces bran's hydration rate, which, during mixing, results in a temporary excess of water in which dough development takes place inefficiently and hence requires additional time. This mechanism was further substantiated by the observation that delayed dough development can be counteracted by the presoaking of bran. Milling of bran increases its hydration rate and results in faster optimal dough development. Presoaking of nonmilled bran, however, did not result in faster dough development. Smaller bran particles do lead to faster dough development, probably due to increased proper contacts between flour particles. Optimal loaf volumes did not change upon milling and toasting. PMID:27092966

  12. Exploring the tertiary gene pool of bread wheat: sequence assembly and analysis of chromosome 5M(g) of Aegilops geniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Wang, Shichen; Danilova, Tatiana; Koo, Dal Hoe; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Hribova, Eva; Rawat, Nidhi; Kalia, Bhanu; Singh, Narinder; Friebe, Bernd; Doležel, Jaroslav; Akhunov, Eduard; Poland, Jesse; Sabir, Jamal S M; Gill, Bikram S

    2015-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a powerful tool for the discovery of important genes and alleles in crop plants and their wild relatives. Despite great advances in NGS technologies, whole-genome shotgun sequencing is cost-prohibitive for species with complex genomes. An attractive option is to reduce genome complexity to a single chromosome prior to sequencing. This work describes a strategy for studying the genomes of distant wild relatives of wheat by isolating single chromosomes from addition or substitution lines, followed by chromosome sorting using flow cytometry and sequencing of chromosomal DNA by NGS technology. We flow-sorted chromosome 5M(g) from a wheat/Aegilops geniculata disomic substitution line [DS5M(g) (5D)] and sequenced it using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 system at approximately 50 × coverage. Paired-end sequences were assembled and used for structural and functional annotation. A total of 4236 genes were annotated on 5M(g) , in close agreement with the predicted number of genes on wheat chromosome 5D (4286). Single-gene FISH indicated no major chromosomal rearrangements between chromosomes 5M(g) and 5D. Comparing chromosome 5M(g) with model grass genomes identified synteny blocks in Brachypodium distachyon, rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Chromosome 5M(g) -specific SNPs and cytogenetic probe-based resources were developed and validated. Deletion bin-mapped and ordered 5M(g) SNP markers will be useful to track 5M-specific introgressions and translocations. This study provides a detailed sequence-based analysis of the composition of a chromosome from a distant wild relative of bread wheat, and opens up opportunities to develop genomic resources for wild germplasm to facilitate crop improvement. PMID:26408103

  13. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour Influência da adição de xilanase nas características de pão de forma preparado com farinha de trigo comum ou farinha de trigo de grão inteiro

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel; Camila Batista da Silva; Caroline Joy Steel; Yoon Kil Chang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour) on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme); however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All form...

  14. ASCORBIC ACID CONTROLS MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA IN BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT THROUGH DIRECT EFFECT ON THE PATHOGEN AND INDIRECT ACTION VIA PLANT DEFENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Magnin-Robert, M; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on wheat. Due to the emergence of fungicide-resistant M. graminicola strains and in an effort to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, considerable interest has been devoted to alternative control strategies. The use of natural products, especially through a defense-activating effect on the host, could be considered. Acid ascorbic (AA) is synthesized by plants and most animal cells with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at: (i) assessing the protective effect of an AA-based product on bread (BW) and durum (DW) wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum, respectively) susceptible cultivars against M. graminicola and (ii) investigating the mechanisms involved in wheat protection. Therefore, the foliar application of a formulated AA-based product (50 mg L-) on 3-week-old wheat plants reduced the infection level by more than 75% for both BW and DW. In vitro experiments revealed that AA induced a strong inhibition of spore germination (at 50 mg L.(-1)) and hyphal growth (at 16 mg L.(-1)) for both M. graminicola strains, infecting either BW or DW. Used as a preventive foliar spray on wheat leaves, microscopic observations revealed that AA inhibits in planta spore germination, hyphal growth, leaf penetration, substomatal colonization and eventually sporulation. Moreover, AA treatment also decreased fungal protease and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, putative pathogenicity determinants of M. graminicola. In addition to these effects on the fungus, AA induced defence reactions in both BW and DW. Indeed, in non-inoculated context, eliciting effect was observed on (i) stimulation of enzymatic activities such as lipoxygenase, peroxydase and catalase and (ii) transcript accumulation of genes encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (chitinase class IV, peroxidase). In inoculated condition, accumulation of H2O2 and phenolic compounds

  15. Comparison of Responses to Mn Deficiency Between the UK Wheat Genotypes Maris Butler, Paragon and the Australian Wheat Genotype C8MM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhi Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Wheat grown in Mn-deficient soil has been widely observed to produce much reduced yields. Breeding for Mn-efficient wheat genotypes adapted to Mn-deficient soils would represent a long-term solution for wheat agronomy, To characterize the physiological basis of Mn efficiency in wheat genotypes would facilitate the breeding programs for producing Mn-efficient wheat. Using a solution culture and a soil culture system in the present study, a Mn-efficient UK wheat genotype Maris Butler and a Mn-inefficient UK wheat genotype Paragon have been compared with a Mn-efficient Australian wheat genotype C8MM in the responses to Mn deficiency In order to characterize the Mn efficiency in these wheat genotypes.Results showed that in solution culture, Marls Butler grown under Mn deficiency had 77% relative dry matter yield of control plants that were grown under Mn sufficiency, whereas C8MM and Paragon had 60% and 58% relative dry matter yield of their respective controls. Results from the soil culture demonstrated that relative dry matter yield remained high for Marie Butler and C8MM (53% and 56%, respectively), whereas the value for Paragon dropped to 33%. In terms of dry matter yield and photosynthetic efficiency, Mads Butler demonstrated Mn efficiency in both solution culture and soil culture, whereas C8MM showed Mn efficiency only In soil culture. Results also demonstrated that under Mn-depleted supply in soil, plants of C8MM had a significantly higher ability in Mn uptake, whereas plants of Marls Butler showed a higher internal Mn usa efficiency in comparison with plants of Paragon. Results from the present study indicate that the ability of C8MM to accumulate higher amounts of Mn is the basis of the improved Mn efficiency of this genotype in comparison with Paragon, and in Marls Butler there is a higher internal use of Mn expressed as an improved photosynthetic efficiency in conferring its Mn efficiency. It is suggested that more than one mechanism has arisen in wheat to

  16. Fractal Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  17. Isolation and characterisation of antifungal compounds from lactic acid bacteria and their application in wheat and gluten-free bread

    OpenAIRE

    Axel, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As part of the “free-from” trend, biopreservation for bread products has increasingly become important to prevent spoilage since artificial preservatives are more and more rejected by consumers. A literature review conducted as part of this thesis revealed that the evaluation of more suitable antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is important. Moreover, increasing the knowledge about the origin of the antifungal effect is fundamental for further enhancement of biopreservation. This...

  18. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  19. VIRULENCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT COMPARED TO US BREAD WHEAT RACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, has recently become more prevalent on durum wheat in Europe, North and South America. We determined the virulence specificities of P. triticina isolates from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain and the USA, and 10 representative ...

  20. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Dirk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  1. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana Paramjit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

  2. Nitrate leaching and spring wheat bread making quality following cultivation of grasslands of different composition, age and management

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, J.; Pedersen, L.; Jørgensen, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of sward botanical composition and ley age on grassland residual effects, quality of spring wheat and subsequent nitrate leaching was investigated. Grazed grasslands of different age (1, 2 and 8 production years) and composition (unfertilised grass-clover and fertilised perennial ryegrass) were ploughed and followed by spring wheat and spring barley. For reference, an adjacent field without grassland history but with the same crop sequence in 2002-2003 was treated with increasin...

  3. MOLECULAR SCREENING OF LEAF RUST AND STRIP RUST RESISTANCE GENES IN F5 BREAD WHEAT IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Reham M. Abd El-Azeem; S. H. M. Abd-El-Haleem

    2014-01-01

    Highly wheat production in Egypt is constrained due to many diseases. Rust and stripe (yellow) rust diseases consider from the most important wheat diseases in Egypt. Thus, molecular screening of genetically resistant cultivars, varieties, accessions and hybrids offspring through many generations, is one of the most sustainable solutions to overcome these diseases. The objective of this study is screening strip (yellow) rust and leaf rust resistance genes in the three parents ...

  4. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flou...

  5. Elucidation of defense-related signaling responses to spot blotch infection in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ranabir; Sharaff, Murali; Pradhan, Maitree; Sethi, Avinash; Bandyopadhyay, Tirthankar; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Apurba K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2016-04-01

    Spot blotch disease, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an important threat to wheat, causing an annual loss of ~17%. Under epidemic conditions, these losses may be 100%, yet the molecular responses of wheat to spot blotch remain almost uncharacterized. Moreover, defense-related phytohormone signaling genes have been poorly characterized in wheat. Here, we have identified 18 central components of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) signaling pathways as well as the genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wheat. In time-course experiments, we characterized the reprogramming of expression of these pathways in two contrasting genotypes: Yangmai #6 (resistant to spot blotch) and Sonalika (susceptible to spot blotch). We further evaluated the performance of a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) by crossing Yangmai#6 and Sonalika (parents) and subsequent selfing to F10 under field conditions in trials at multiple locations. We characterized the reprogramming of defense-related signaling in these RILs as a consequence of spot blotch attack. During resistance to spot blotch attack, wheat strongly elicits SA signaling (SA biogenesis as well as the NPR1-dependent signaling pathway), along with WRKY33 transcription factor, followed by an enhanced expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. These may lead to accumulation of phenolics-based defense metabolites that may render resistance against spot blotch. JA signaling may synergistically contribute to the resistance. Failure to elicit SA (and possibly JA) signaling may lead to susceptibility against spot blotch infection in wheat. PMID:26932764

  6. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Maccaferri, M; Ricci, A.; Salvi, S.; Milner, SG; Noli, E; Martelli, PL; Casadio, R.; Akhunov, E.; Scalabrin, S.; Vendramin, V; AMMAR, K.; Blanco, A.; Desiderio, F.; Distelfeld, A; Dubcovsky, J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30...

  7. Mechanism of Resistance in two Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Lines to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis Noxia: Homoptra: Aphididae) in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is a recent pest of small cereals that is causing severe yield losses in farmers' fields and farmers have demanded a resistant wheat line. In wheat the pest causes both direct and indirect damage resulting in losses of up to 90%. Control of the aphid is a major constraint in the production of wheat in Kenya requiring the use of more than one systematic insecticide application.This cost is prohibitive.Breeding wheat for resistance to Russian wheat is the cheapest alternative and is the international trend. The use of Russian wheat aphid resistant cultivars may reduce the impact of these pest on cereal production. A study was therefore conducted in Kenya to understand and determine the genetics of inheritance pattern of D. noxia present in two new sources of resistance (RWA 8 and RWA 16). These two new sources would be potential donors of D. noxia resistance in breeding programmes. The two resistant donors with unknown resistance genes for Diuraphis noxia were crossed with susceptible Kenyan commercial wheat cultivar, Heroe. Resistant reaction of F1,BC1 and F2 indicated that resistance in the two lines differed. Resistant in RWA 8 may be controlled by a single dominant genes while RWA 16 by two incomplete dominant genes. It is unknown wether these genes are identical to any known, designated resistance genes. However, their resistance has been shown to be effective on the RWA population in Kenya. As studies continue on these genes at molecular level, it is recommended that resistant populations are carried on through the breeding programme to possibly identify and release a resistant variety for commercial production

  8. The spectrum of low molecular weight alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes expressed in the US bread wheat cultivar Butte 86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vensel William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat grains accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that are inhibitors of alpha-amylases and proteases and play an important protective role in the grain. These proteins have more balanced amino acid compositions than the major wheat gluten proteins and contribute important reserves for both seedling growth and human nutrition. The alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors also are of interest because they cause IgE-mediated occupational and food allergies and thereby impact human health. Results The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86 was characterized by analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Coding sequences for 19 distinct proteins were identified. These included two monomeric (WMAI, four dimeric (WDAI, and six tetrameric (WTAI inhibitors of exogenous alpha-amylases, two inhibitors of endogenous alpha-amylases (WASI, four putative trypsin inhibitors (CMx and WTI, and one putative chymotrypsin inhibitor (WCI. A number of the encoded proteins were identical or very similar to proteins in the NCBI database. Sequences not reported previously included variants of WTAI-CM3, three CMx inhibitors and WTI. Within the WDAI group, two different genes encoded the same mature protein. Based on numbers of ESTs, transcripts for WTAI-CM3 Bu-1, WMAI Bu-1 and WTAI-CM16 Bu-1 were most abundant in Butte 86 developing grain. Coding sequences for 16 of the inhibitors were unequivocally associated with specific proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS in a previous proteomic analysis of milled white flour from Butte 86. Proteins corresponding to WDAI Bu-1/Bu-2, WMAI Bu-1 and the WTAI subunits CM2 Bu-1, CM3 Bu-1 and CM16 Bu-1 were accumulated to the highest levels in flour. Conclusions Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is central to understanding the importance of

  9. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrogen and water use efficiencies of winder wheat (durum and bread) varieties under central Anatolia condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the influence of different N rates on %N ddf at different growth stages and yields and % NUE values of two winter wheat varieties (durum and bread), field experiments on fallow were carried out four different locations in Central Anatolia, in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993 growing seasons, using 4x4 Latin square experimental design with varieties in split-plot arrangement. At each site the rates of N, viz. O, 40, 80 and 120 kgN/ha were applied as ammonium sulphate (NH4S2O4). The total amounts of N fertilizer rates were applied once after obtaining the seedling emergence at all experimental sites. Each plot (except 0 N treatment plots) was divided into yield sub-plots and N15 isotope sub-plots. The labelled (15NH4S2O4) fertilizer applied to isotope sub-plots had 4, 3 and 2% N15 a.e. at 40, 80 and 120 kgN/ha rates, respectively. Yield sub-plots received ordinary unlabelled ammonium sulphate. The isotope sub-plots were sample data tillering, booting, grain filling and harvest stages. Percent Ndff values were determined. Total dry matter (seed and straw) and N yields of the wheat varieties at different N rates were determined and also % NUE values were calculated with N15 and 'difference' methods at the harvest stage. Soil moisture was measured to a depth of 90 cm at each experimental site each year and stored soil moisture at 0-90 cm depth, ET and Wue values were calculated. The results obtained showed that: a) Gerek-79 variety used both the applied N fertilizer and the available soil moisture more efficiently, b)Percent NUE values obtained were quite low (generally less than 20) both varieties, c)With the N15-method less variable %NUE values were obtained in comparison to the 'difference-method'

  10. Molecular Mapping of Adult-Plant Race-Specific Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr12 in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene Lr12 provides adult-plant race-specific resistance to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. It is completely linked or identical to Lr31, which confers seedling resistance only when the complementary gene Lr27 is also present. F2 and F2-derived F3 families were devel...

  11. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akpinar, B. A.; Lucas, S. J.; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2015), s. 740-752. ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : D genome donor of wheat * chromosome 5D * comparative genomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.752, year: 2014

  12. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat

  13. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  14. Impact of Apple Pomace on the Property of French Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed properties of wheat dough and French bread added with different kinds of apple pomace. In the analysis of wheat dough, both farinograph indexes and extenograph indexes were used as evaluation criteria. Specific volume, whiteness and bread core pores were employed to evaluate the property of French bread. Analysis on the nutrient profile of apple pomace indicated that the content of dietary fiber could reach 15.8%. The result of farinograph indexes and extenograph indexes s...

  15. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  16. The effects of walnut and pine leaves on bread wheat growth and frequence of common weed species in the East-Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Aydin; Dokuyucu, Tevrican; Kara, Rukiye; Dumlupinar, Ziya

    2006-07-01

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of walnut (Juglans regia L.) and pine (Pinus sp.) leaves on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and weed control, during 2001-02 and 2002-03 growing seasons in East Mediterranean region of Turkey. In this research, the treatments were: applications of ground walnut leaves (GWL) and ground pine leaves (GPL) at 19 g/m2 dose at Zadoks-11, applications of 200, 400 and 800 cc/m2 of walnut leaves extract (WLE2, WLE4 and WLE8 respectively), pine leaves extract (PLE2, PLE4 and PLE8 respectively), mixture extract of 200 cc walnut and 200 cc pine (ME), herbicide application (HA) at 8 g/m2 dose at Zadoks-21, and control (C) without any treatment. The results have indicated that the effects of treatments were significant for grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), flag leaf length (FLL), weed number per square meter (WN), but non significant for grain number per head (GN), grain weight per head (GW), 1000 grain weight (1000 GW), flag leaf width (FLW), head number per square meter (HN), vegetative period (VP), grain filling period (GFP) and days to maturity (DM). PMID:17402244

  17. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers' practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  18. GGE biplot analysis of genotype-by-environment interaction and grain yield stability of bread wheat genotypes in South Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muez Mehari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studying genotype-by-environment interaction and determining representative testing environments are important for releasing new varieties. Nineteen bread wheat varieties were thus evaluated to study their adaptability and stability in seven environments of south Tigray. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2011 and two locations in 2012 and 2013. Genotype, environment and genotype-by-environment interaction had significant effects on grain yield. The environment accounted for 78.3%, while the genotype-by-environment interaction for 14.7% of the variation in grain yield. Based on the polygon view of the GGE biplot, three mega-environments were detected with different winning genotypes (paven-76, Mada-Walabu and ET-13A2, which are therefore to be regarded as specifically adapted. Considering simultaneously mean yield and stability, the best genotypes were Dinkinesh, Gasay, Alidoro, Kakaba and Dand’a, which therefore can be regarded as adapted to a wide range of environments

  19. Polymerization of wheat gluten and the changes of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) during the production of Chinese steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2016-06-15

    Polymerization of gluten and the changes of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) during the production of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) were investigated, providing a theoretical basis to improve and regulate the quality of CSB. Protein extractability and free sulfhydryl (SH) contents increased to some degree during the dough preparation stage, but significantly (PSDS-PAGE) patterns. The microstructure study of the gas cell and the protein network by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) further revealed the formation of a continuous and three-dimensional gluten network. The loss and recovery of GMP wet weight during dough processing were significant (P<0.05). Glutenin depolymerization negatively correlated with GMP wet weight and the contents of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). Gluten polymerization led to a decrease in G' and G″ of GMP while gluten depolymerization induced a slight recovery in G' and G″ of GMP. PMID:26868577

  20. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  1. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  2. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll. PMID:27570278

  3. Bread's oven and baking bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This thesis researches the connection between baker's oven and baking bread. Furthermore, it presents the history and development of the above issue in the Slovenian territory, its significance and preservation over time. The thesis deals with the building of bread’s over, its function and usability. Moreover, it focuses on baking bread in bread’s oven, presenting the entire baking process from ingredients to the baked loaf of bread and various tools and techniques, which can be used during t...

  4. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R.; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P.; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C.; Kala, Yugal K.; Singh, Gyanendra P.; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat—a novel step toward the development of

  5. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  6. Flow cytometric chromosome sorting from diploid progenitors of bread wheat, T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, I.; Kubaláková, Marie; Šimková, Hana; Farkas, A.; Cseh, A.; Megyeri, M.; Vrána, Jan; Molnár-Láng, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 5 (2014), s. 1091-1104. ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TRITICUM GROUP * GENETIC-LINKAGE MAP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.790, year: 2014

  7. Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments. (author)

  8. Assessment of Drought Tolerance Indices and their Relation with ISSR Markers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam FIROOZI; Sofalian, Omid; Majid SHOKRPOUR; Ali RASOULZADEH; Fatemeh AHMADPOOR

    2012-01-01

    Water stress is one of the most important environmental abiotic stress that reduced crop yield especially in arid and semi arid regions of the world. In order to identifying drought tolerance, 39 cultivars of spring, facultative and winter type wheat varieties were planted as subplots within the irrigation plots (main plots) in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a research filed of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran. In 2/3 continuous irr...

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Wheat Cultivars with Differing Drought Stress Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Kristina L.; Cassin, Andrew; Bacic, Antony

    2011-01-01

    Using a series of multiplexed experiments we studied the quantitative changes in protein abundance of three Australian bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) in response to a drought stress. Three cultivars differing in their ability to maintain grain yield during drought, Kukri (intolerant), Excalibur (tolerant), and RAC875 (tolerant), were grown in the glasshouse with cyclic drought treatment that mimicked conditions in the field. Proteins were isolated from leaves of mature plants an...

  10. Estudio de Propiedades Físicas y Viscoelásticas de Panes Elaborados con Mezclas de Harinas de Trigo y de Arroz Integral Study of Viscoelastic and Physical Properties of Breads Made with mixed Wheat and Brown Rice Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alvis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrollaron fórmulas de panes, empleando proporciones de harina de trigo comercial marca "Tres Castillos" (50 a 90% y harina de arroz integral comercial marca "Diana" (10 a 40% y grasa entre 0 y 6 %. Se estudian las propiedades físicas y viscoelásticas a través de técnicas de medición simples para parámetros físicos, un análisis de perfil de textura y la prueba de relajación de esfuerzos. De los resultados se apreció que e l volumen específico es el parámetro físico más representativo para los panes. Las propiedades de textura resultaron significativas para pNew formulas for breads, using different proportions of commercial wheat flour of the brand "Tres Castillos" (50 a 90% and brown rice flour trade mark of the brand "Diana" (10 a 40%, and fat from 0 to 6 %, have been formulated. Physical and viscoelastic properties are determined using simple techniques for measuring physical parameters and texture profile analysis and stress relaxation test for viscoelastic properties. From the results it was found that the specific volume is the most representative physical parameter for breads. The texture properties were highly significant at p <0.05 and for hardness ranged from 4.0 to 10.7 N and elasticity from 9 to 12 mm . The fitting to the Peleg model corroborated the viscoelastic nature of the breads. It was concluded that formulas for combining bread wheat flour with rice flour having acceptable physical and viscoelastic properties and of good quality can be obtained.

  11. 小麦粉中添加植酸对馒头品质的影响%Effects of Added Phytic Acid in Wheat Flour on Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴澎; 陈建省; 段纯明; 田纪春

    2011-01-01

    As a new natural food additive, phytic acid is used as antioxidant, antiseptic, ferment accelerant and chelant in food industry. In the experiment, three kinds of wheat flour with three different gluten gradients were used and added with the phytic acid with the proportion of 0.005% ,0.025% ,0.05% ,0.1% ,0. 15% and 0.2% (phytic acid:wheat flour), and then were used to make Chinese steamed bread, so as to measure its structural features and evaluate the steamed bread. The result indicated that with the increase in the proportion of phytic acid, the textural properties of steamed breads had a little changes, while the volume and the total score of steamed breads reduced slightly, but the color of steamed breads improved slightly. Significant negative correlations were detected between hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, chewiness, volume with the increase proportion of phytic acid, while no significant correlations were identified between other properties with the increase in the proportion of phytic acid. In conclusion,there was no significant influence of the addition of phytic acid on the quality of steamed bread.%植酸是一种新型的天然食品添加剂,作为抗氧化剂、防腐剂、发酵促进剂或螯合剂广泛用于食品工业.试验利用3个不同筋力梯度的小麦粉,按0.005%、0.025%、0.05%、0.1%、0.15%、0.20%(植酸与制造馒头小麦粉质量比)的比例添加植酸后制作馒头,测定其质构特性并做馒头感官评价试验.结果表明,随着植酸添加比例的增加,馒头的体积和评分值均有小幅度下降,但是无论馒头瓤和皮的色差都有小幅度的增白现象.硬度、黏着性、胶着性、咀嚼性和体积与植酸添加量呈显著线性负相关,其余性状与植酸添加量的相关性不显著.但总的来说,添加植酸对馒头的品质特性没有起到显著性的影响.

  12. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  13. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p gluten network and probably weakens the interaction between gluten and starch, which protects starch from digestive enzymes action. Scanning electronic microscopy microstructure of bread crumbs corroborated this statement. PMID:22621760

  14. Production of functional pita bread using date seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platat, Carine; Habib, Hosam M; Hashim, Isameldin Bashir; Kamal, Hina; AlMaqbali, Fatima; Souka, Usama; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2015-10-01

    Functional foods represent a novel approach to prevent diet-related diseases. Due to its excellent nutritional and antioxidant properties, date seed was used to develop functional pita bread. Flour was replaced by 5, 10, 15 and 20 % date seed powder. Regular and whole wheat pita breads were the references. Results clearly showed that date seed powder containing bread contained comparable dietary fibers levels as in whole wheat bread and higher levels of flavonoids and phenolics. Date seed powder containing breads were particularly rich in flavan-3-ols whereas reference breads did not contain any of them and only a limited amount of other phenolic compounds. They also exhibited a much higher antioxidant capacity. Additionally, compared to regular bread, acrylamide level was significantly lower in 5 % date seed powder containing bread, and lower in all date seed powder containing breads compared to whole wheat bread. Date seed powder supplemented bread appears as a promising functional ingredient to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:26396382

  15. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Taulemesse

    Full Text Available The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC and grain yield (GY in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81 with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering-flowering + 250 degree-days independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80 to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY.

  16. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC) and grain yield (GY) in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD) has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU) by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81) with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering-flowering + 250 degree-days) independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80) to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY. PMID:26886933

  17. Selection of parents for crossing based on genotyping and phenotyping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) resistance and agronomic traits in bread wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Irfaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Khan, Abdul Jabbar; Khattak, Gul Sanat Shah; Mohammad, Tila; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm consisting of 45 genotypes were clustered phenotypically using ten morphological traits and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) as measure of stripe rust resistance. The clustering was ratified by using twenty three molecular markers (SSR, EST and STS) linked to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistant QTLs. The aim was to asses the extent of genetic variability among the genotypes in order to select the parents for crossing between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with respect to stripe rust. The Euclidian dissimilarity values resulted from phenotypic data regarding morphological traits and AUDPC were used to construct a dendrogram for clustering the accessions. Using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic means, another dendrogram resulted from the similarity coefficient values was used to distinguish the genotypes with respect to stripe rust. Clustering based on phenotypic data produced two major groups and five clusters (with Euclidian dissimilarity ranging from 244 to 16.16) whereas genotypic data yielded two major groups and four clusters (with percent similarity coefficient values ranging from 0.1 to 46.0) to separate the gene pool into highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible genotypes. With few exceptions, the outcome of both type of clustering was almost similar and resistant as well as susceptible genotypes came in the same clusters of molecular genotyping as yielded by phenotypic clustering. As a result seven genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Frontana, Saleem 2000, Tatara, Inqilab-91, Fakhre Sarhad and Karwan) of diverse genetic background were selected for pyramiding stripe rust resistant genes as well as some other agronomic traits after hybridization. PMID:22329159

  18. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Paolo; Limonta, Margherita; Gerna, Davide; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant'Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria (CREA) maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum. Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, however, makes very difficult its management as a whole. A reduced subset, representing the process of wheat breeding in Italy during the last hundred years, was hence identified for an in-depth characterization. The lines were cropped in two locations over two growing seasons, and analyzed using 16 morpho-agronomic and qualitative descriptors. Most of the analysed characters showed a broad variation throughout the collection, allowing to follow the plant ideotype changes across the breeding progress in Italy during the 20th century. PMID:26379457

  19. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Laino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant’Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria (CREA maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum. Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, however, makes very difficult its management as a whole. A reduced subset, representing the process of wheat breeding in Italy during the last hundred years, was hence identified for an in-depth characterization. The lines were cropped in two locations over two growing seasons, and analyzed using 16 morpho-agronomic and qualitative descriptors. Most of the analysed characters showed a broad variation throughout the collection, allowing to follow the plant ideotype changes across the breeding progress in Italy during the 20th century.

  20. Chromosomal location of genomic SSR markers associated with yellow rust resistance in Turkish bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F. Senturk Akfirat; F. Ertugrul; S. Hasancebi; Y. Aydin; K. Akan; Z. Mert; M. Cakir; A. Altinkut Uncuoglu

    2013-08-01

    We have previously reported Xgwm382 as a diagnostic marker for disease resistance against yellow rust in Izgi2001 × ES14 F2 population. Among the same earlier tested 230 primers, one SSR marker (Xgwm311) also amplified a fragment which is present in the resistant parent and in the resistant bulks, but absent in the susceptible parent and in the susceptible bulks. To understand the chromosome group location of these diagnostic markers, Xgwm382 and Xgwm311, in the same population, we selected 16 SSR markers mapped only in one genome of chromosome group 2 around 1–21 cM distance to these diagnostic markers based on the SSR consensus map of wheat. Out of 16 SSRs, Xwmc658 identified resistant F2 individuals as a diagnostic marker for yellow rust disease and provided the location of Xgwm382 and Xgwm311 on chromosome 2AL in our plant material.

  1. Effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components on mutant-cum-hybrid lines of bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one stable wheat mutant lines along with four check varieties viz., Sarsabz, Kiran-95, T.J.83 and Khirman were evaluated under normal and late sowing dates. The observations were recorded on phenological, morphological and meteorological parameters. Higher yield and improvement in various yield components were recorded at normal sowing as compared to late sowing. Six mutant lines showed superiority in yield than check varieties at normal sowings while three mutants produced more yield than check varieties except Sarsabz at late sowings. At normal sowing eleven mutant lines matured earlier than all check varieties including short duration variety T.J-83 whereas two mutant lines were earlier than Sarsabz and Kiran-95 and thirteen than T.J-83 and Khirman. (author)

  2. Identification of ISSR and RAPD markers linked to yield traits in bread wheat under normal and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.A. Khaled

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability and identification of some molecular markers were studied in twenty promising lines of wheat using agronomic traits, ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Significant variation was evidenced in all agronomic traits. The lines proved to be superior to the check cultivar Sahel1 in yield and its component traits. Lines L2, L7 and L8 were the best in most yield component traits in both seasons. Moreover, Lines L2, L4, L5, L7 and L8 showed drought tolerance by which they displayed high performance in agronomic traits as well as a low drought susceptibility index. The percentage of polymorphism was 39.3% and 53.2% for ISSRs and RAPDs, respectively. UBC-881 belonged to penta-nucleotide repeat sequences (GGGTG that produced the highest level of polymorphism, while UBC-846 belonged to di-nucleotide repeat sequences (CA that produced the lowest level of polymorphism. Genetic similarities among wheat lines based on ISSR and RAPD markers ranged from 0.81 to 1.00 and from 0.86 to 0.98, respectively. There was a low average of PIC (polymorphism information content values which were 0.10 (ISSR and 0.15 (RAPD. The RAPD technique exhibited a higher marker index (MI = 0.69 compared to ISSR (MI = 0.43. There was insignificant correlation between ISSR and RAPD data (0.168, p > 0.05. There were two markers (UBC-881450bp and OPF-10540bp, on each of which two traits regressed significantly. The associated markers each explained a maximum regression of 18.92–34.95% of the total available variation for individual associated traits.

  3. Influence of a fertilizer solution on yield and quality of bread wheat in Guadalquivir Valley (Córdoba, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Benítez, M.; González, José Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The use of by-products of food industries in agricultural practices has become a routine over the last few decades. The addition of beet vinasse, by-products of the two sep olive mill process and by-products of defatted sunflower flour, etc., to soils is a common agricultural practice, since sensible use has been reported to improve the physical, chemical and biological aspects of the soil and to increase harvest yield, and in many cases harvest quality Previous research carried out by the authors (Ordóñez et al., 2001) examined a process whereby a protein concentrate is obtained from defatted sunflower flour. In this process, floating liquid phosphorus, potassium contents and smaller amounts of humic substances and nitrogen are obtained. The potential application of this solution as a fertiliser has been evaluated on rye grass, confirming that its effects are comparable to those produced by a nutritional solution in terms of phosphorus and potassium foliar levels. The experiment was performed on soil classified as Typic Haploxererts located in the Middle Valley of the river Guadalquivir Cajeme wheat (Triticum aestivum var) variety was used at a dose of 180 kg seeds / ha. For both crop, four fertiliser treatments were applied in triplicate to randomly distributed 7 x 8 m plots. The greatest positive effect of applying the experimental phospho-potassic solution was found for the leaf levels of K, in maturity; this influence was most significant when the highest dosage of said solution. With reference to the levels of N, P and K in wheat grain, the levels of potassium were significantly different for all the fertilising treatments, and the plot fertilised with the highest dosage of the experimental phospho-potassic solution presented the highest values. As for the data obtained for harvest yield and quality, the addition of the experimental solution was observed to have a significantly positive influence (but only in the highest dosages) on the production levels.

  4. Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Mullan, Daniel; Izanloo, Ali; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Through careful management of irrigation and sowing date over three consecutive seasons, repeatable heat, drought and high yield potential conditions were imposed on the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population to identify genetic loci for grain yield, yield components and key morpho-physiological traits under these conditions. Two of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located on chromosome 3B and had a large effect on canopy temperature and grain yield, accounting for up to 22 % of the variance for these traits. The locus on chromosome arm 3BL was detected under all three treatments but had its largest effect under the heat stress conditions, with the RAC875 allele increasing grain yield by 131 kg ha(-1) (or phenotypically, 7 % of treatment average). Only two of the eight yield QTL detected in the current study (including linkage groups 3A, 3D, 4D 5B and 7A) were previously detected in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population; and there were also different yield components driving grain yield. A number of discussion points are raised to understand differences between the Mexican and southern Australian production environments and explain the lack of correlation between the datasets. The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. PMID:22772727

  5. Impacts of IOD, ENSO and ENSO Modoki on the Australian Winter Wheat Yields in Recent Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), two different types of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): canonical ENSO and ENSO Modoki, on the year-to-year winter wheat yield variations in Australia have been investigated. It is found that IOD plays a dominant role in the recent three decades; the wheat yield is reduced (increased) by -28.4% (12.8%) in the positive (negative) IOD years. Although the canonical ENSO appears to be responsible for the wheat yield variations, its influences are largely counted by IOD owing to their frequent co-occurrence. In contrast, the ENSO Modoki may have its distinct impacts on the wheat yield variations, but they are much smaller compared to those of IOD. Both the observed April-May and the predicted September-November IOD indices by the SINTEX-F ocean-atmosphere coupled model initialized on April 1st just before the sowing season explain ~15% of the observed year-to-year wheat yield variances. The present study may lead to a possible scheme for predicting wheat yield variations in Australia in advance by use of simple climate mode indices.

  6. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  7. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from 'Zenkouji-komugi' (high PHS resistance) × 'Chinese Spring' (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance. PMID:27162497

  8. Ancient Wheat Species Can Extend Biodiversity of Cultivated Crops

    OpenAIRE

    KONVALINA, Petr; Stehno, Zdenek; Capouchova, Ivana; Moudry, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Wheat genetic resources may be grown in organic farming systems or in less favourable areas for bread wheat species. Characteristics of hulled wheat species (23 varieties of einkorn, emmer wheat, spelt wheat) were studied and evaluated within a two-year trial period (which was executed on certified organic fields) and they were compared to characteristics of landraces and modern bread wheat varieties. The main aim of our study was to evaluate the potential uses of genetic resources of wheat i...

  9. Effect of supplementation on physicochemical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of wheat flour with soy flour (full fat and defatted) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels was carried out to test the effect on physico-chemical, sensory, nutritional evaluation and shelf life of breads. Adding 10% of soy flour (full fat and defatted) produced breads with good baking and organoleptic characteristics. However, at 15 and 20% levels they were less acceptable. The better breads were further investigated for various nutritional parameters and shelf life. Full fat and defatted soy flour (10%) supplemented bread exhibited 13.66 and 13.81% protein, and 3.02 and 3.05 g/100 g protein total lysine contents as compared to control (wheat) bread (11.47% protein and 2.36 g/100 g protein total lysine). Other nutrients are also increased in supplemented breads as compared to wheat bread. However, for storage, defatted soy supplemented bread exhibited better shelf life than the full fat version. PMID:12617282

  10. Long-term frozen storage of wheat bread and dough - Effect of time, temperature and fibre on sensory quality, microstructure and state of water

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, J.; Öhgren, Camilla; Alp, A.; Ekman, Susanne; Åström, Annika; Chen, G.; Swenson, Jan; Johansson, Daniel; Langton, Maud

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effect of storage time, storage temperature and addition of fibre on sensory quality, state of water, microstructure and texture of bread and dough. Samples with and without fibre, were stored frozen for 2, 3.5 and 6 months at temperatures of 19, 16 and 8 C as dough and bread. Sensory quality was evaluated by a trained analytical panel. Microstructure was analysed by light microscopy. Texture measurements were performed on bread, and the state of w...

  11. Evaluation Of Some Induced Gamma Ray Mutations In Bread Wheat For Drought Tolerance In The Newly Cultivated Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiments were out during two successive growing seasons (2001/2002 and 2002/2003) in the experimental farm of Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Abu Zaabal, to study the effect of two irrigation intervals on yield and its attributes of four induced mutations (Mutant 7, Mutant 8, Mutant 12 and Mutant 19) and two commercial varieties (Giza 164 and Sahel 1). The obtained results showed that : 1- Leaf temperature and protein content were significantly increased by increasing irrigation interval in the two seasons. 2- Longer irrigation interval significantly decreased plant height, spike length, No. of spikelets/spike, No. of spikes/m2, grain yield ton/hectare, straw yield ton/hectare and biological yield ton/hectare. While the mean values of all characters were increased in the two seasons when irrigation interval was shorter. 3- he mean value of grain yield ton/hectare for Mutant 7 and Mutant 19 was higher the other genotypes under long irrigation interval in the two seasons. 4- The interaction between irrigation intervals and wheat genotypes showed significant effect on spike length, No. of spikes/m2, 1000 grain weight, grain yield ton/hectare, straw yield ton/hectare, biological yield ton/hectare and harvest index. 5- Stress susceptibility index the different genotypes showed differences in their tolerance to drought. Mut. 7, Mut. 8 and Mut. 19 were more tolerant to drought than the other genotypes. 6- The highest water use efficiency (WUE) were obtained for Mut. 19 and Mut. 7 with long irrigation interval (20 days). 7- The Mutant 19 and Mutant 7 were more tolerant to drought than the other genotypes, due to higher yield and higher water use efficiency under drought and to their lowest values for stress susceptibility indices. (Authors)

  12. Computational Analysis Of Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Protein (Lea In Different Cultivar Of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis abundant protein has a crucial role as the cold-acclimation process in the wheat. These proteins encoded by TaWdhn13 gene. This gene is transcriptionally activated and produces the accumulated proteins and metabolites and protection cell structure from freezing damage. The objectives of this study were to isolate the genomic DNA (g-DNA sequence of TaWdhn13, to analyze structure, conserved domains of the gene, and to found a basis for association analysis of the functional sites associated with computational analysis. We here report on the functional assignment to TaWdhn13 gene by computational analysis. The Three-Dimensional (3D model of LEA protein drawing by using the phyre 2 server. For identify the conserved domain and motif of these gene sequence we used the Conserved Domain Database and DNA Motif Searching Database, however, the conserved domains and motif has been recognized. The results showed TaWdhn13 conserved domain incudes: Dehydrin superfamily. Also, motifs structure for this gene includes: 2FE2S_FER_1 Motif, INTEGRIN_BETA Motif, VWFC_1 Motif, EGF_1 Motif and DEFENSIN Motif. Our results reveal that group 2 LEA proteins are most likely to function within the cell nucleus. The analysis of protein property showed that the protein had no trans-membrane domains. The isoelectric point of the protein was 3.41, which was charged with 5.34 negative electrons when pH value of the buffer was 7.0.

  13. Influence of management and environment on Australian wheat: information for sustainable intensification and closing yield gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the future, agriculture will need to produce more, from less land, more sustainably. But currently, in many places, actual crop yields are below those attainable. We quantified the ability for agricultural management to increase wheat yields across 179 Mha of potentially arable land in Australia. Using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), we simulated the impact on wheat yield of 225 fertilization and residue management scenarios at a high spatial, temporal, and agronomic resolution from 1900 to 2010. The influence of management and environmental variables on wheat yield was then assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test with bootstrapping. While residue management showed little correlation, fertilization strongly increased wheat yield up to around 100 kg N ha−1 yr−1. However, this effect was highly dependent on the key environment variables of rainfall, temperature, and soil water holding capacity. The influence of fertilization on yield was stronger in cooler, wetter climates, and in soils with greater water holding capacity. We conclude that the effectiveness of management intensification to increase wheat yield is highly dependent upon local climate and soil conditions. We provide context-specific information on the yield benefits of fertilization to support adaptive agronomic decision-making and contribute to the closure of yield gaps. We also suggest that future assessments consider the economic and environmental sustainability of management intensification for closing yield gaps. (paper)

  14. Comparative genomics of Australian isolates of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici reveals extensive polymorphism in candidate effector genes

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Garnica, Diana P.; Karaoglu, Haydar; Sperschneider, Jana; Nemri, Adnane; XU, BO; Mago, Rohit; Cuomo, Christina A.; Rathjen, John P.; Park, Robert F.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    The wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is one of the most destructive pathogens of wheat. In this study, a draft genome was built for a founder Australian Pgt isolate of pathotype (pt.) 21-0 (collected in 1954) by next generation DNA sequencing. A combination of reference-based assembly using the genome of the previously sequenced American Pgt isolate CDL 75-36-700-3 (p7a) and de novo assembly were performed resulting in a 92 Mbp reference genome for Pgt isolate 21-...

  15. Assessment of Drought Tolerance Indices and their Relation with ISSR Markers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam FIROOZI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is one of the most important environmental abiotic stress that reduced crop yield especially in arid and semi arid regions of the world. In order to identifying drought tolerance, 39 cultivars of spring, facultative and winter type wheat varieties were planted as subplots within the irrigation plots (main plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a research filed of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran. In 2/3 continuous irrigation stress level, based on stress susceptibility, geometric mean productivity and harmonic indices, �Sepahan�, �Karaj 3�, �Bahar� and �Yavaroos� were known as the best varieties; and in 1/3 continuous irrigation stress level, based on the mentioned indices, �Hirmand�, �Bahar�, �Yavaroos� and �Marvdasht� were the best one. According to biplot resulted from principle coordinate analysis, in 2/3 continuous irrigation �Moghan 1�, �Golestan�, �Kavir�, �Maroon�, �Karkheh�, �Chanaab�, �10�, �6�, �Bahar� and �Sepahan�; and in 1/3 continuous irrigation �Golestan�, �10�, �Niknejad�, �Maroon�, �Darab�, �Falat�, �Arta�, �Marvdasht�, �Bahar� and �Hirmand� were identified as the most tolerant cultivars. According to multiple regression analysis in subject of agronomic traits, 43, 33 and 25 informative ISSR markers identified in control, 2/3 and 1/3 continuous irrigation conditions, respectively. Also among these markers, there were significant relationship between P12L3 and P21L3 markers with plant height and spike length; P4L1 and P22L1 markers with flag leaf length; P19L4 markers and number of node; P30L4 markers and awn length; P10L1 and P22L1 with peduncle to plant height ratio in all of stress and non-stress conditions.

  16. Calidad física de grano de trigos harineros (Triticum aestivum L.mexicanos de temporal Physical quality from rainfall Mexican bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela de la O Olán

    2012-04-01

    characteristics for marketing bread wheat. It is well known that environment affects some of its physical parameters; therefore the aim of this study was to determine environment influence in some physical quality parameters of three bread wheat populations developed by progenies from one single F2 to F6 seed, the first group was comprised by 69 lines of Rebeca F2000 x Salamanca S75 breed, the second was formed by 98 genotypes of Rebeca F2000 x Baviácora M92 breed, and the third was formed by 98 genotypes of Gálvez M87 x Rebeca F2000 breed, plus parents. The genotypes from the first group were sown at Roque, Guanajuato (autumn-winter 2006-2007 with normal (five irrigations and restricted (three irrigations irrigation. The genotypes of second and third breeds were sown at Santa Lucía de Prías and Chapingo, State of Mexico (2006 spring-summer. The following variables were assessed: hectolitre weight (kg hL-¹, grain hardness (%, and protein content in grain (%. An analysis of variance and frequencies histogram were made and means with least significant difference were compared. The genotypes showed highly significant differences for all physical quality variables assessed, and this also occurred for hectolitre weight and protein content in grain for humidity levels and localities. In the hectolitre weight frequency histograms the three population groups show trend towards normal distribution which sugge sts that such variable involves high amount of genes and it is strongly affected by environment. Genotypes with better hectolitre weight than parents were identified; therefore materials are available to make selection.

  17. Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

  18. Addition of enzymes to improve sensory quality of composite wheat–cassava bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serventi, Luca; Jensen, Sidsel; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt;

    2016-01-01

    cassava flour (Polvilho Azedo) at 30 % level resulted in bread of lower volume with chewier texture and smaller crumb pores. Fungamyl, Novamyl and Panzea enhanced loaf volume of wheat bread; however, they decreased volume and conferred stickiness when added to the WC bread. Lipopan increased loaf volume...

  19. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita Dall’Asta; Letizia Bresciani; Luca Calani; Marta Cossu; Daniela Martini; Camilla Melegari; Daniele Del Rio; Nicoletta Pellegrini; Furio Brighenti; Francesca Scazzina

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performe...

  20. Millán-INIA, New Variety of High Quality Early Spring Bread Wheat for Irrigated Soils in Central-Southern Chile Millán-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Harinero Precoz de Primavera de Alta Calidad para Suelos de Riego de la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Matus; Ricardo Madariaga; Claudio Jobet; Javier Zúñiga; Christian Alfaro

    2011-01-01

    Millán-INIA is a variety of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) originating from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu in 1995. This is a spring wheat variety with an early to medium-early head emergence and upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 75 and 90 cm, with a mean of 85 cm. The spike is white...

  1. RICE BREAD QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY YEAST AND BRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole rice bread (WRB) has been developed in our laboratory for people suffering from Celiac disease and other food allergies. The WRB has texture and related qualities comparable with white or whole wheat breads. This paper reports the results of three levels of yeast, defatted rice bran on the t...

  2. Composition and Palatability of Breads Made with Ground Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barbara P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Ground soy products made from whole soybeans were used in bread as substitutes for 12 percent of the wheat flour to demonstrate that home-prepared soy products can be used to bake palatable breads and supplement their protein content. (Author/SK)

  3. Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably beta-glucan

  4. Physico-chemical aspects of leavened gluten-free breads

    Science.gov (United States)

    For wheat breads, there is wide consensus that gluten is the relevant component in determining breadmaking quality. For gluten-free bread, intact and damaged starch, hemicelluloses, added hydrocolloids, proteins and lipids all have been shown to have some impact. However, their individual contributi...

  5. Enhancing arabic bread quality and shelf life stability using bread improvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleid, S M; Al-Hulaibi, A A; Ghoush, M Abu; Al-Shathri, A A

    2015-08-01

    Arabic breads is produced mainly from hard red winter wheat (HRWW) and have relatively little crumb, dense texture, form pocket and are often round with golden brown crust color. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of different bread improvers combinations addition in enhancing the quality parameters of Arabic bread. Therefore, the ability of Arabic bread for rolling, folding and overall quality were evaluated during the Arabic bread storage period for 2 days. It was found that there was significant effect of bread improvers combinations (Arabic gum "AG" * Mongglycerides "MG" *alpha-amylase) addition on the ability of Arabic bread for rolling and folding on the second day (P ≤ 0.1). The highest white Arabic bread quality was obtained significantly from addition of low AG, high of MG and high alpha-amylase combination and high AG, low of MG and high alpha-amylase combination. While, low of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination and high of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination significantly exhibited the highest overall quality for the Arabic bread made from whole flour. PMID:26243897

  6. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  7. Combination effect of gamma rays, EMS and the storage before irradiation on some characteristics of M1 and M2 plants of bread wheat triticum aestivum L.(Cv. ajeeba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of bread-wheat CV.Ajeeba stored under baghdad prevailing room conditions since 1988,1978 and 1983 wereirradiation with gamma rays (15 Krad).They were then treated with the chemical mutagen(EMS).Seeds were sown in the field during the cultivation seasons of 1983-1985.The effects of gamma radiation,EMS,the storage periods and their interaction on some developmental stages of M1 plants were statistically significant.However,no differences were observed among M2 plants.The greatest number of variants were found among M2 plants that had originated from seeds stored since 1968,irradiated and treated with EMS.(3 tabs., 18 refs.)

  8. Developing of technology and studing the quality of functional bread enriched with dry chickpea flour

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva Antoaneta Vassileva

    2015-01-01

    Recipes and technologies for the preparation of high quality bread based on wheat flour type 500 by the use of different amounts of chickpeas flour (10%, 20% and 30%) as a proportion of the flour mass have been developed. Based on this, test laboratory bakings of bread have been performed. Finished products were qualified by their organoleptic properties (appearance, colour of the bread bark, colour of the bread crumb, porosity, stickiness, elasticity, flavor and smell, aftertaste) and physic...

  9. Designing polymorphic ISSR primers in order to study gene sequences x and y types glutenin subunits in 1D locus controlling favourable baking quality in elite mutant lines of bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baking quality is one of important traits in qualitative improvement of bread wheat. Gluten prolamins determine wheat flour quality for different technological process such as bread making. Between gluten proteins, High Molecular Glutenin (HMW) group and specially, d allele in 1D locus with x-type and y-type subunits are very valuable in baking quality. In this study, amino acid sequences of x-type subunits (2.1, 2.2, 2.2*, 5) and y-type subunits (10, 12) related to 1D locus were searched, found and compared together using Genedoc software. After amino acid sequences alignment of y-type subunits and x-type subunits, it was characterized that deletion, insertion (duplication) and point mutations in these subunits involved in biological function of proteins. most important insertion and deletion mutations were 185 amino acids sequence insertion of 2.2* subunit and 102 amino acids sequence insertion of x2.2 subunit in position 486 of amino acid sequence and six amino acid sequence deletion IGQGQQ in position 203 of y10 subunit. From important point mutations can be pointed to conversion of serine to cysteine in position 118 of x 5 subunit and substitution of glutamine to histidine in position 626 of x5 subunit. Finally, polymorph ISSR primers in repetitive domains were designed on similarities and differences in subunits of x and y-types. These primers show good banding polymorphisms in elite mutant lines, standard commercial cultivars and F2 populations from crosses. (author)

  10. UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling unveils urinary changes in humans after a whole grain rye versus refined wheat bread intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Barri, Thaer; Hanhineva, Kati;

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake in a...

  11. Quality Evaluation Of Bread Incorporated With Different Levels Cinnamon Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon G K; Amarjeet K

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamon powder was substituted (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4%) in wheat flour for bread making. Baking, sensory and storage quality of bread were analyzed and compared with white bread. Cinnamon powder was found to have high total phenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. The highest TPC (0.94 mg GAE/DW) and antioxidant activity (27.67%) were observed in the bread containing highest level of cinnamon powder (4%). But loaf volume and sensory scores were less at this level of incorpora...

  12. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoguang Li; Dongyun Ma; Dexiang Sun ; Chenyang Wang ; Jian Zhang ; Yingxin Xie ; Tiancai Guo 

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content (659.8 μg gallic acid equivalents g− 1), total flavonoid content (319.3 μg rutin equivalents g− 1), and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content (236.2 μg rutin equivalents g− 1) and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat f...

  13. Variabilidade genética em trigos brasileiros a partir de caracteres componentes da qualidade industrial e produção de grãos Genetic variability for bread making quality and grain yield among Brazilian wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas André Mallmann Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético para a qualidade industrial do trigo pode representar uma oportunidade de agregar valor de mercado aos produtos agrícolas, sendo o trigo um dos cereais com maior associação entre a qualidade intrínseca e a remuneração ao agricultor. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de determinar a variabilidade genética a partir de caracteres indicativos da qualidade industrial e o rendimento de grãos, e estimar o grau de associação entre estes caracteres em 22 genótipos de trigo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área experimental pertencente à Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão (RS. Os resultados indicaram a provável existência de variabilidade genética para os caracteres em estudo, a qual pode auxiliar pesquisadores na escolha de genitores. Cruzamentos artificiais envolvendo os genótipos BRS 208, Rubi e Safira podem ser os mais promissores no intuito de incrementar o ganho genético, tanto para a qualidade industrial quanto para a produtividade de grãos. O rendimento de grãos manifestou correlação negativa com o conteúdo de proteína da farinha revelando que a superioridade genotípica para o rendimento de grãos pode afetar negativamente a proporção protéica. Entretanto, o conteúdo de proteína não evidenciou associação significativa com a força de glúten (indicador da qualidade industrial, revelando que a concentração de proteína da farinha não foi eficiente para predizer a qualidade industrial. Este resultado sugere a possibilidade de obtenção de genótipos superiores para o rendimento de grãos sem comprometer a qualidade industrial.The breeding for wheat bread making quality represents a great opportunity to incorporate commercial value to agricultural products. Wheat has one of the best relationship between end product quality and farmer earnings. Genetic variability among 22 different genotypes based on bread making quality traits and grain yield and the degree of their association

  14. RICE BREAD FOR PEOPLE WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical bulletin was written to describe new process to make whole rice bread (WRB) for Celiacs, a disease caused by proteins found in wheat, barley and rye. The rice is free of these proteins and hence an ideal grain to develop foods for Celiacs. Absence of these proteins, however make it ...

  15. From image processing to classification: IV. Classification of electrophoretic patterns by neural networks and statistical methods enable quality assessment of wheat varieties for bread making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.; Kesmir, Can; Søndergaard, Ib

    1996-01-01

    The end-use quality of products made from doughs consisting of wheat flour and water is often dependent upon the storage (gluten) proteins of the grain endosperm. Today the electrophoretic patterns of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits are used for quality selections in wheat breed...

  16. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins in bread, cake and biscuits produced from UK-grown wheat under commercial and pilot scale conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Scudamore, Keith; Hazel, Clare M; Patel, Sue; Scriven, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bread, cakes and biscuits were manufactured from flour containing deoxynivalenol (DON) and low concentrations of zearalenone (ZON) and nivalenol (NIV). The results show that these mycotoxins remain mostly unaffected during manufacture. Although the results indicate that the mycotoxins are largely stable and survive processing, when concentrations were determined on an `as is? basis as stipulated in legislation, levels in finished products were usually lower than in the sta...

  17. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue;

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The...... the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake......, and the current fortification level of salt ( 13 ppm) seems reasonable....

  18. Bread in a Bag. Teacher's Packet. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This unit is designed to familiarize students in grades 3-6 with wheat production; teach them the nutritional value of wheat products and their role in a well-balanced diet; and give then an easy, hands-on experience in bread making with a nominal amount of cleanup for teachers. The kit suggests that in the first week, teachers discuss wheat…

  19. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galinha, C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Fikrle, Marek; Kučera, Jan; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A. S.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, AUG (2014), s. 3499. ISSN 1588-2780 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : agronomy * biofortification * Selenium * supplementation * wheat * NAA Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  20. Application of next-generation sequencing technology to study genetic diversity and identify unique SNP markers in bread wheat from Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Eliby, Serik; Abugalieva, Aigul; Kenebayev, Serik; Langridge, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background New SNP marker platforms offer the opportunity to investigate the relationships between wheat cultivars from different regions and assess the mechanism and processes that have led to adaptation to particular production environments. Wheat breeding has a long history in Kazakhstan and the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between key varieties from Kazakhstan and germplasm from breeding programs for other regions. Results The study revealed 5,898 polymorphic markers ...

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF BREAD MADE WITH FLOUR OF TRITICALE BY USING WHEAT GLUTEN Улучшение технологических показателей хлеба из муки тритикале с помощью пшеничной клейковины

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryuchkova T. E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experiments of adding of dry wheat gluten to the flour of triticale when baking bread are reviewed in this article. The influence of wheat gluten on the gluten complex of grain and flour of triticale has been investigated

  2. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:21437597

  3. Efeito da data de sementeira na produtividade de trigo mole (Triticum Aestivum L. em condições mediterrânicas Effect of the sowing date on bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. productivity under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A data de sementeira do trigo mole exerce uma influência relevante no crescimento e desenvolvimento da cultura, condicionando a sua produtividade. O seu efeito é, especial-mente, importante sob condições mediterrânicas. Por isso, neste trabalho procurou-se verificar a influência da data de sementeira no rendimento do trigo mole, a partir de um ensaio de quinze genótipos semeados em datas diferentes durante cinco anos (1994/95 a 1999/00 na região Alentejo. Com base na análise dos resultados conclui-se que a variação da época de sementeira em aproximadamente um mês, desde o fim de Outubro até ao fim de Novembro, pode permitir rendimentos viáveis do trigo mole nas zonas cerealíferas mediterrânicas, particularmente na região Alentejo. Todavia, as produções mais altas tendem a ser obtidas quando a sementeira é efectuada na primeira quinzena de Novembro. Ao avançar a sementeira para o mês de Dezembro decresce a produtividade e, em consequência, diminui a viabilidade da cultura.The sowing date of bread wheat has a great influence on the growth and development of the crop and its productivity, especially under Mediterranean conditions. This paper presents the results of trials conducted in the Alentejo region that studied the performance of fifteen wheat genotypes sown at different dates, repeated over 5 years (1994/95 to 1999/00. Despite a great variability between years, the results indicate that a satisfactory wheat productivity in the Alentejo can be obtained with sowing dates ranging from end of October until the end of November. Nonetheless, sowing dates in the first half of November tend to provide higher grain yields. Moving the sowing date into December results in reduced grain yields, thus compromising the economic viability of wheat growing.

  4. Changes in abundance of an abscisic acid-responsive, early cysteine-labeled metallothionein transcript during pollen embryogenesis in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T L; Crawford, R L

    1996-12-01

    A clone for an embryoid-abundant, early cysteine-labeled metallothionein (EcMt) gene has been isolated from a wheat pollen embryoid cDNA library. The transcript of this gene was only expressed in embryogenic microspores, pollen embryoids, and developing zygotic embryos of wheat. Accumulation of the EcMt mRNA showed a direct and positive correlation with an increase of the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA) in developing pollen embryoids. Treating cultures with an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridone, suppressed not only ABA accumulation but also the appearance of the EcMt gene transcript and the ability of microspores to form embryoids. These results suggest that the EcMt gene may act as a molecular marker for pollen embryogenesis because ABA biosynthesis is accompanied by the increased expression of the EcMt transcript that coincides with the differentiation of pollen embryoids in wheat anther cultures. PMID:8980534

  5. Kipa-INIA, new high yield spring bread wheat variety for Chile Kipa-INIA, nueva variedad de trigo harinero de primavera de alto rendimiento para Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Matus; Ricardo Madariaga; Claudio Jobet; Javier Zúñiga; Christian Alfaro

    2011-01-01

    Kipa-INIA is a spring wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.) originated from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W) in 1993. It has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 90 and 95 cm. The spike is white with long awns along its full length. The grain is ovate, white, and vitreous. It ...

  6. The adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 are important determinants of partial resistance to powdery mildew in bread wheat line Saar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemo, M; Asalf, B; Singh, R P; Huerta-Espino, J; Chen, X M; He, Z H; Bjørnstad, A

    2008-05-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that can be controlled by resistance breeding. The CIMMYT bread wheat line Saar is known for its good level of partial and race non-specific resistance, and the aim of this study was to map QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew in a population of 113 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between Saar and the susceptible line Avocet. The population was tested over 2 years in field trials at two locations in southeastern Norway and once in Beijing, China. SSR markers were screened for association with powdery mildew resistance in a bulked segregant analysis, and linkage maps were created based on selected SSR markers and supplemented with DArT genotyping. The most important QTLs for powdery mildew resistance derived from Saar were located on chromosomes 7DS and 1BL and corresponded to the adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29. A major QTL was also located on 4BL with resistance contributed by Avocet. Additional QTLs were detected at 3AS and 5AL in the Norwegian testing environments and at 5BS in Beijing. The population was also tested for leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistance and leaf tip necrosis in Mexico. QTLs for these traits were detected on 7DS and 1BL at the same positions as the QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, and confirmed the presence of Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 in Saar. The powdery mildew resistance gene at the Lr34/Yr18 locus has recently been named Pm38. The powdery mildew resistance gene at the Lr46/Yr29 locus is designated as Pm39. PMID:18347772

  7. Grain dormancy loss is associated with changes in ABA and GA sensitivity and hormone accumulation in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge about the hormonal control of seed dormancy and dormancy loss is essential in wheat, because low seed dormancy at maturity is associated with the problem of preharvest sprouting (PHS) when rain occurs before harvest. Low GA (gibberellin) hormone sensitivity and high ABA (abscisic acid) sen...

  8. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galinha, C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, C.; Fikrle, Marek; Kučera, Jan; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A. S.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, APR (2015), s. 139-143. ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283883 - NMI3-II Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : agronomy * biofortification * Selenium * supplementation * wheat * NAA Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2014

  9. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and is associated...

  10. The impact of vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity, and earliness per se on grain protein content of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

  11. 小麦蛋白淀粉品质指标与面包品质关系的研究%The Relationship between Protein Quality and Starch Pasting Parameters and Bread Baking Quality in Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美芳; 赵石磊; 雷振生; 吴政卿; 晁岳恩; 徐福新; 杨攀; 杨会民; 刘加平

    2013-01-01

    parameters and bread baking quality.The parameters of GMP,SDS sedimentation value,wet gluten index and degree of softening were significantly and positively correlated with most protein quality parameters at the 0.01 or 0.05 levels.The parameters of GMP quantity,SDS sedimentation value,wet gluten index,dry gluten quantity,flour protein quantity,glutenin quantity,development time,stability were significantly and positively correlated with bread baking quality parameters at the 0.01 level.The quantity of wet gluten was significantly and positively correlated with loaf volume and loaf score at the 0.01 and 0.05 levels respectively.Both quantity of glidian and degree of softening were significantly and negatively correlated with loaf volume and loaf score at the 0.01,0.05 levels respectively.Water absorption of dough was significantly and negatively correlated with pasting temperature,final viscosity and setback at the 0.01 level.The development time was significantly and positively correlated with peak viscosity and breakdown at the 0.05 level.GMP was significantly and negatively correlated with pasting temperature at the 0.05 level.The contribution of individual parameter could be ranked for loaf volume as wet gluten index > degree of softening > development time > wet gluten quantity > pasting temperature et al and for loaf score as glutenin quantity > stability > glidian quantity > flour protein quantity > water absorption of dough et al,respectively.There existed significant correlation among quality parameters of common wheat.Wet gluten index,degree of softening and glutenin quantity,stability were important indexes to evaluate bread baking quality.The parameters of GMP or SDS sedimentation value could be determined in the early generation and the parameters of Glutomatic and Farinograph could be determined in the medium and high generations.Great attention should be paid to the importance of wet gluten index and degree of softening at the quality detection

  12. Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably beta-glucans) contribute to the reduction of blood cholesterol levels and of blood glucose rise after the meal. Oats also have a high content of (poly-) unsaturated fatty acids that contribute to maintaining ...

  13. Tolerância de genótipos de trigo comum, trigo duro e triticale à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Tolerance of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale genotypes to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento diferencial de 12 genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L., um genótipo de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., e um de triticale (Triticosecale sp em soluções nutritivas de tratamento contendo duas concentrações salinas (1/5 e 1/10 da completa e seis concentrações de alumínio ( 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg L-1, à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC e pH 4,0. Foram utilizadas dez plântulas por parcela e quatro repetições. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanecer 48 horas em solução nutritiva completa, contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio combinada com cada uma das concentrações salinas. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-289, IAC-350 e IAC-370 e a cultivar controle Anahuac, e os genótipos de trigo duro IAC-1003 e de triticale IAC-5 foram os mais sensíveis a níveis crescentes de Al3+nas soluções nutritivas de tratamento e, portanto, somente seriam indicados para cultivo em solos corrigidos. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-24 e IAC-378 e a cultivar controle BH-1146 destacaram-se pela tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, com potencial para uso em solos ácidos e como fontes genéticas de tolerância nos futuros cruzamentos. Os sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio foram maiores com a elevação da concentração de alumínio e da diminuição das concentrações de sais da solução nutritiva para todos os genótipos estudados.Twelve bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one durum wheat (Triticum durum L. and one triticale (Triticosecale sp genotypes were studied in nutrient solutions with a high salt concentration in experiment 1 and a weak salt concentration in experiment 2, for aluminum tolerance at six levels: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1, under temperature 25 ± 1ºC and pH 4,0. Four replications were used per experiment. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring root growth in an aluminum-free complete

  14. Exploiting resource use efficiency and resilience in ancient wheat species

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Anisha

    2014-01-01

    Modern bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) initially derived from wild progenitors which underwent hybridisation and domestication events. It is hypothesised that modern plant breeding has reduced the genetic variation among modern cultivars (Sparkes, 2010). Ancient wheat species form a conduit between wild ancient wheat and cultivated Triticum species, and may harbour the genetic variation required to supplement the modern bread wheat gene pool. The current work investigated a range of morpholog...

  15. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition. PMID:26299814

  16. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers. PMID:26771635

  17. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Dall’Asta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  18. Lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) response but similar glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glycaemic, and insulinaemic response to ancient wheat compared to modern wheat depends on processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhøj, S; Flint, A; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2003-01-01

    to the responses to bread of modern wheat (Triticum aestivum). DESIGN: The 3-h postprandial insulinaemic, glycaemic, GIP, and GLP-1 responses to bread made from Einkorn were compared to responses to a traditional Danish wheat loaf. The bread from Einkorn was prepared by 3 different processing methods...

  19. Exploring the tertiary gene pool of bread wheat: sequence assembly and analysis of chromosome 5M(g) of Aegilops geniculata

    OpenAIRE

    V K Tiwari; Wang, S. C.; Danilova, T.; Koo, D.H.; Vrána, J; Kubaláková, M; Hřibová, E. (Eva); Rawat, N.; Kalia, B.; Singh, N; Friebe, B; Doležel, J. (Jaroslav); Akhunov, E.; Poland, J.; Sabir, J.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a powerful tool for the discovery of important genes and alleles in crop plants and their wild relatives. Despite great advances in NGS technologies, whole-genome shotgun sequencing is cost-prohibitive for species with complex genomes. An attractive option is to reduce genome complexity to a single chromosome prior to sequencing. This work describes a strategy for studying the genomes of distant wild relatives of wheat by isolating single chromosomes ...

  20. Intraspecific sequence comparisons reveal similar rates of non-collinear gene insertion in the B and D genomes of bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Choulet, F.; Džunková, Mária; Cviková, Kateřina; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Pačes, Jan; Strnad, Hynek; Sourdille, P.; Berges, H.; Cattonaro, F.; Feuillet, C.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 155 (2012), s. 1-10. ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1778 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Wheat * BAC sequencing * Homoeologous genomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.354, year: 2012

  1. Cross-genome map based dissection of a nitrogen use efficiency ortho-metaQTL in bread wheat unravels concerted cereal genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Abrouk, Michael; Murat, Florent; Pont, Caroline; Foucrier, Séverine; Desmaizieres, Gregory; Confolent, Carole; Rivière, Nathalie; Charmet, Gilles; Paux, Etienne; Murigneux, Alain; Guerreiro, Laurent; Lafarge, Stéphane; Le Gouis, Jacques; Feuillet, Catherine; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in plants is becoming essential to maintain yield while reducing fertilizer usage. Optimized NUE application in major crops is essential for long-term sustainability of agriculture production. Here, we report the precise identification of 11 major chromosomal regions controlling NUE in wheat that co-localise with key developmental genes such as Ppd (photoperiod sensitivity), Vrn (vernalization requirement), Rht (reduced height) and can be considered as robust markers from a molecular breeding perspective. Physical mapping, sequencing, annotation and candidate gene validation of an NUE metaQTL on wheat chromosome 3B allowed us to propose that a glutamate synthase (GoGAT) gene that is conserved structurally and functionally at orthologous positions in rice, sorghum and maize genomes may contribute to NUE in wheat and other cereals. We propose an evolutionary model for the NUE locus in cereals from a common ancestral region, involving species specific shuffling events such as gene deletion, inversion, transposition and the invasion of repetitive elements. PMID:21251102

  2. Comparative genomics of Australian isolates of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici reveals extensive polymorphism in candidate effector genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Garnica, Diana P; Karaoglu, Haydar; Sperschneider, Jana; Nemri, Adnane; Xu, Bo; Mago, Rohit; Cuomo, Christina A; Rathjen, John P; Park, Robert F; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    The wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is one of the most destructive pathogens of wheat. In this study, a draft genome was built for a founder Australian Pgt isolate of pathotype (pt.) 21-0 (collected in 1954) by next generation DNA sequencing. A combination of reference-based assembly using the genome of the previously sequenced American Pgt isolate CDL 75-36-700-3 (p7a) and de novo assembly were performed resulting in a 92 Mbp reference genome for Pgt isolate 21-0. Approximately 13 Mbp of de novo assembled sequence in this genome is not present in the p7a reference assembly. This novel sequence is not specific to 21-0 as it is also present in three other Pgt rust isolates of independent origin. The new reference genome was subsequently used to build a pan-genome based on five Australian Pgt isolates. Transcriptomes from germinated urediniospores and haustoria were separately assembled for pt. 21-0 and comparison of gene expression profiles showed differential expression in ∼10% of the genes each in germinated spores and haustoria. A total of 1,924 secreted proteins were predicted from the 21-0 transcriptome, of which 520 were classified as haustorial secreted proteins (HSPs). Comparison of 21-0 with two presumed clonal field derivatives of this lineage (collected in 1982 and 1984) that had evolved virulence on four additional resistance genes (Sr5, Sr11, Sr27, SrSatu) identified mutations in 25 HSP effector candidates. Some of these mutations could explain their novel virulence phenotypes. PMID:25620970

  3. Propriedades de pasta de mesclas de farinha integral com farinha refinada usadas na produção de pães Pasting properties of whole and refined wheat flour blends used for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Na produção de pães integrais de trigo no Brasil, são utilizadas mesclas de farinha integral (FI com farinha refinada (FR, as quais diferem em sua composição. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as propriedades de pasta de mesclas de FI com FR. Foram analisadas amostras com 100% de FI, 100% de FR (controles e mesclas de FI com FR nas proporções de 20, 40, 60 e 80%, em equipamento RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer. A temperatura de pasta das amostras foi semelhante. A viscosidade máxima diminuiu proporcionalmente com o aumento de FI na mescla. Maiores valores de quebra e de viscosidade mínima à temperatura constante foram encontrados em farinhas com pico de viscosidade elevado. Os valores de viscosidade final e de tendência à retrogradação diminuíram à medida que aumentou o teor de FI na mescla. As propriedades de pasta das mesclas de FI com FR devem ser vistas de forma conjunta, pois afetam a produção de pão e o armazenamento. Os resultados mostraram também que o RVA pode ser usado para ajudar a formular mesclas de FI/FR com certas propriedades de pasta.In whole wheat bread production in Brazil blends of whole flour (WF with refined flour (RF are used, which differ in their composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the pasting properties of WF with RF blends. Samples with 100% of WF, 100% of RF (controls and blends of WF with RF in the proportions of 20, 40, 60 and 80% were analyzed, in a RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer equipment. The samples pasting temperatures were similar. The peak viscosity decreased proportionally with the increase of WF in blends. Higher values of breakdown and holding strength were found in flour with high viscosity peak. Final viscosity and setback values decreased as the content of WF in blends increased. The pasting properties of WF with RF blends must be seen in a combined way, because they affect bread production and storage. The results also showed that RVA can be used to

  4. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Baked Bread Concerning Recrystallization of Starch Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fuckerer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bread is one of the most important foods in industrial countries and it is at its best when consumed fresh. One of the major problems during storage of baked products is staling. Bread staling incorporates a combination of physical and chemical changes resulting in a decrease of bread quality. The predominant mechanism of staling is the time-dependent recrystallization of starch molecules. Avoiding this recrystallization is one of the most desired topics in science of bread technology but still not solved. Therefore, this study investigates a new possibility by trying to influence the recrystallization of starch with microwave heating. For this, the differences between microwave and conventional baked rye-wheat bread were examined concerning the difference of water activity and firmness of the bread during time. As result, a faster water loss during storage period could be observed in microwave heated bread, which probably implies an even more rapid recrystallization instead the desired avoiding of recrystallization of starch.

  5. The Effect of Okara on the Qualities of Noodle and Steamed Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Okara is a byproduct of tofu or soymilk production process, which contains rich dietary fibre and protein. To estimate the feasibility of okara’s application in noodle and steamed bread, the effect of okara addition on the qualities of these foods were investigated. The results showed that the optimal ingredient for okara noodle was: wheat flour 75%, okara powder 25%, gluten 3%, carboxymethyl cellulose sodium 0.4%, konjac flour 0.2%, NaCl 1%; the optimal ingredient for okara steamed bread was: wheat flour 85%, okara powder 15%, gluten 1%. The noodle and steamed bread made from above ingredients had almost similar qualities to those made from 100% wheat flour. Okara addition produces some negative influences on dough mixing and food making, which can be remedied by various additives. This study suggests that replacing part wheat flour with okara powder to make noodle and steamed bread is a potential method for okara application.

  6. Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Michael St.J. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: michael.warne@csiro.au; Heemsbergen, Diane [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: diane.heemsbergen@csiro.au; McLaughlin, Mike [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA (Australia)], E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@csiro.au; Bell, Mike [Department of Primary Industries, Kingaroy, Qld 4610 (Australia)], E-mail: mike.bell@dpi.qld.gov.au; Broos, Kris [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: kris.broos@csiro.au; Whatmuff, Mark [Centre for Environmental Contaminants, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 4, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia)], E-mail: mark.whatmuff@csiro.au; Barry, Glenn [Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068 (Australia)], E-mail: glenn.barry@nrw.qld.gov.au; Nash, David [Department of Primary Industries, Ellinbank, Vic 3821 (Australia)], E-mail: david.nash@dpi.vic.gov.au; Pritchard, Deb [Curtin University of Technology, Muresk Institute, Northam WA 6401 (Australia)], E-mail: d.pritchard@curtin.edu.au; Penney, Nancy [Water Corporation of Western Australia, Leederville, WA 6001 (Australia)], E-mail: nancy.penney@watercorporation.com.au

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. - Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field.

  7. Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. - Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field

  8. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  9. Molecular implications from ssr markers for stripe rust (puccinia striiformis F.Sp. tritici) resistance gene in bread wheat line N95175

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat in China as well as in Pakistan. In the present studies F2 population was established by crossing N95175 resistant to stripe rust race CYR32 with two susceptible lines Huixianhong and Abbondanza to molecularly tag resistance gene existing in wheat line N95175. The segregation of phenotype was accorded with an expected 3:1 ratio in both combinations studied and fit the model of a single dominant gene controlling stripe rust resistance in N95175. Thirty five SSR primer pairs were screened on the parents and bulks and also on individuals since resistance gene to be located in chromosome 1B. The result indicated that most of resistant plants amplified same band as resistant parent while susceptible plants amplified same as susceptible parents studied and considered that markers co-segregated with resistant loci in N95175. This yellow rust resistance gene was considered to be Yr26 originally thought to be also located in chromosome arm 1BS linked to marker loci Xgwm273 and Xgwm11 with genetic distances ranging from 1.075cM to 2.74cM in both combinations studied. However, the closest loci were observed 2.67cM for Xgwm273 and 1.075cM for Xgwm11 in Huixianhong XN95175 and Abbondanza XN95175 crosses respectively. Hence, it has been concluded that the PCR-based micro satellite markers Xgwm273 and Xgwm11 located in chromosome 1B were shown to be very effective for the detection of Yr26 gene in segregating population and can be applied in future wheat breeding strategies. (author)

  10. Targeting of prolamins by RNAi in bread wheat: effectiveness of seven silencing-fragment combinations for obtaining lines devoid of coeliac disease epitopes from highly immunogenic gliadins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Francisco; Iehisa, Julio C M; Giménez, María J; García-Molina, María D; Ozuna, Carmen V; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Gil-Humanes, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Gluten proteins are responsible for the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour but also for triggering pathologies in susceptible individuals, of which coeliac disease (CD) and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity may affect up to 8% of the population. The only effective treatment for affected persons is a strict gluten-free diet. Here, we report the effectiveness of seven plasmid combinations, encompassing RNAi fragments from α-, γ-, ω-gliadins, and LMW glutenin subunits, for silencing the expression of different prolamin fractions. Silencing patterns of transgenic lines were analysed by gel electrophoresis, RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), whereas gluten immunogenicity was assayed by an anti-gliadin 33-mer monoclonal antibody (moAb). Plasmid combinations 1 and 2 downregulated only γ- and α-gliadins, respectively. Four plasmid combinations were highly effective in the silencing of ω-gliadins and γ-gliadins, and three of these also silenced α-gliadins. HMW glutenins were upregulated in all but one plasmid combination, while LMW glutenins were downregulated in three plasmid combinations. Total protein and starch contents were unaffected regardless of the plasmid combination used. Six plasmid combinations provided strong reduction in the gluten content as measured by moAb and for two combinations, this reduction was higher than 90% in comparison with the wild type. CD epitope analysis in peptides identified in LC-MS/MS showed that lines from three plasmid combinations were totally devoid of CD epitopes from the highly immunogenic α- and ω-gliadins. Our findings raise the prospect of breeding wheat species with low levels of harmful gluten, and of achieving the important goal of developing nontoxic wheat cultivars. PMID:26300126

  11. Detection of NAM-A1 Natural Variants in Bread Wheat Reveals Differences in Haplotype Distribution between a Worldwide Core Collection and European Elite Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cormier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, remobilization of nitrogen absorbed before anthesis and regulation of monocarpic senescence is a major issue in breeding for nutrient use efficiency. We identified natural variants of NAM-A1, a gene having the same role as its well-characterized homoeolog NAM-B1, a NAC transcription factor associated with senescence kinetics and nutrient remobilization to the grain. Differences in haplotype frequencies between a worldwide core collection and a panel of European elite varieties were assessed and discussed. Moreover, hypotheses for the loss of function of the most common haplotype in elite European germplasm are discussed.

  12. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour de...

  13. An integrated approach project for the revaluation of a traditional sourdough bread production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza, C.; Giudici, P.; Corbellini, M.; A. Gianinetti; C. Morcia; Terzi, V

    2008-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming systems on the performance of a panel of old and modern Italian bread wheat varieties has been evaluated, with the aim to individuate an agronomic protocol suitable for the production of a sourdough bread traditionally prepared in a hill zone of Emilia-Romagna. The agronomic and technological characterisation of the wheat samples obtained in organic and conventional farming conditions has been done and the sensorial qualities of the sourdough ...

  14. Comparative phosphoproteome analysis of the developing grains in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under well-watered and water-deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Cao-Ying; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhen, Shou-Min; Li, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most important cereal crops, is often threatened by drought. In this study, water deficit significantly reduced the height of plants and yield of grains. To explore further the effect of drought stress on the development and yield of grains, we first performed a large scale phosphoproteome analysis of developing grains in wheat. A total of 590 unique phosphopeptides, representing 471 phosphoproteins, were identified under well-watered conditions. Motif-X analysis showed that four motifs were enriched, including [sP], [Rxxs], [sDxE], and [sxD]. Through comparative phosphoproteome analysis between well-watered and water-deficit conditions, we found that 63 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 61 phosphoproteins, showed significant changes in phosphorylation level (≥2-fold intensities). Functional analysis suggested that some of these proteins may be involved in signal transduction, embryo and endosperm development of grains, and drought response and defense under water-deficit conditions. Moreover, we also found that some chaperones may play important roles in protein refolding or degradation when the plant is subjected to water stress. These results provide a detailed insight into the stress response and defense mechanisms of developmental grains at the phosphoproteome level. They also suggested some potential candidates for further study of transgenosis and drought stress as well as incorporation into molecular breeding for drought resistance. PMID:25145454

  15. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2013-01-01

    A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...... from refined wheat flour made iso-DF by adding Vitacel. The pigs were fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and the portal vein, which allow studying the enrichment of nutrient in plasma after passing the gastrointestinal tract. LC–MS measurements showed the presence of oxygenated fatty acids...

  16. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level. PMID:26403988

  17. The application of residual oats flour in bread production in order to improve its quality and biological value of protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. High nutritional value of residual oat flour, which is a by-product in the production β-D-glucan concentration BETAVEN, was the reason to make a trial to apply it in the production of wheat and wheat-rye bread. The aim of the study was to establish a formulation for wheat and wheat-rye bread, in which part of wheat flour would be replaced by residual oat flour (at the level 20% of wheat flour, and to check the influence of this additive on sensory and nutritional properties of the products, with special consideration to content and biological value of the proteins. Material and methods. The material consisted of wheat flour, rye flour and residual oat flour, as well as loaves, baked with these flours. The quality of the obtained loaves was analysed taking into account: organoleptic assessment, loaf mass and volume, moisture content crumb and texture profile of the crumb. In the studied raw materials and bread, the following components were determined according to AOAC methods: protein content, fat, fiber and ash. In addition, composition of amino acids was assessed. Basing on the amino acid composition, Chemical Score (CS and Exogenic Amino Acid Index (EAAI were calculated, applying WHO/FAO protein standard (1991. Results. Bread with the share of residual oats flour received high consumer acceptance (37 points, comparable to control bread (38 points despite of lower volume. The applied amounts of oats flour did not influence moisture content and texture profile during storage. Wheat and wheat-rye loaves with the share of residual oats flour were characterised by a significantly higher level of dietary fiber, fat and protein, in comparison to control bread. It was found that biological activity of protein in wheat-rye bread was significantly higher (CS = 53.5, EAAI = 91.5 in comparison to wheat bread (CS = 47.9, EAAI = 89.9. The share of oats flour caused an increase in biological value of all bread types – wheat-oats (CS = 52

  18. Kipa-INIA, new high yield spring bread wheat variety for Chile Kipa-INIA, nueva variedad de trigo harinero de primavera de alto rendimiento para Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kipa-INIA is a spring wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L. originated from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W in 1993. It has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 90 and 95 cm. The spike is white with long awns along its full length. The grain is ovate, white, and vitreous. It was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Field, Chillán, head emergence occurred 90 to 95 d after sowing, i.e. is 4 to 6 d before ‘Domo-INIA’. On the mean, ‘Kipa-INIA’ sown under irrigation conditions reached a yield of 11.7% higher than the control var. Domo-INIA, and 18.1% higher in dryland soils.Kipa-INIA es un trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L. de primavera que proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado el año 1993 en el Proyecto de Fitomejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Es un trigo con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula. La altura de la planta adulta se considera mediana, y varía entre 90 y 95 cm. La espiga es de color blanco, de barbas largas presentes en toda su extensión. El grano es de color blanco, aspecto vítreo, y forma ovada. Sembrado a mediados de agosto en el Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31’ S; 71°54’ O, Chillán, la emisión de espigas ocurre 90 a 95 días después de la siembra, entre 4 a 6 días antes que ‘Domo-INIA’. En promedio sembrado bajo condiciones de riego, ‘Kipa-INIA’ alcanzó un rendimiento medio 11,7% mayor que la variedad testigo Domo-INIA y en suelos de secano tuvo un rendimiento superior de un 18,1% respecto de ‘Domo-INIA’.

  19. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. PMID:25766816

  20. Bread in archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Delwen

    2005-01-01

    This introductory article gives a history of the research on archaeological bread from the nineteenth century until recently. The different aspects that are relevant to adequate analyses and the correct interpretation of bread remains are discussed with a particular stress on future prospectives.